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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246803, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339417

RESUMO

Abstract Traditional medicine is cheaper and easily available to local people, to care for most frequent diseases in the Northern parts of Pakistan. Our study aimed at inventorying medicine from local plants, documenting their uses, and assessing their market value in 2015-2018 during spring, summer, and winter seasons. A total of 15 trips were made, 5 in each season. Semi-structured interviews with 165 inhabitant's age range between 20-80 years were conducted, analyzed the data is analyzed using Relative frequency of citation(RFC), Use Value(UV), Fidelity Level(FL), Informants consensus factor(ICF), and Jaccard index(JI) to find the most frequent and well-known used species in the area. A total of 86 species belonging to 39 vascular plant families, 33 genera were documented as medicinally important. Family Asteraceae was observed as the dominant family among all the families with 10 species, the leaf was the most used parts and decoction 36% was the most preferred preparation type. Herb was the predominant life form (67%). The maximum UV (0.92) was demonstrated by J. adhatoda L. species, while A. sativum L. shows maximum RFC (0.58), the highest ICF value represented by diarrhea and dermatitis 0.92, and high FL value is recorded 100%. According to our collections, wild species were 45%, invasive species were 38% and cultivated 17% recorded, dicots species were recorded more 81%. Seven 7 medicinal species is being economically important and export to the local and international market of the world, whereas P. integrima L. species were the most exported species according to the local dealers. The investigated area is rural and the local people depend on the area's plants for their health needs, and other uses like a vegetable, fuelwood, fodder, etc. The current result of RFC, UV, ICF, FL, and JI shows that medicinal flora needs to be pharmacologically and phytochemically investigated to prove their efficacy. The documentation of medicinal knowledge is important to preserve this precious old knowledge before it is lost forever, due to technological and environmental changes in the world.


Resumo A medicina tradicional é mais barata e facilmente disponível à população local para cuidar das doenças mais frequentes nas áreas do norte do Paquistão. Nosso estudo teve como objetivo inventariar medicamentos de plantas locais, documentar seus usos e avaliar seu valor de mercado em 2015-2018 durante as temporadas de primavera, verão e inverno. Foram feitas 15 viagens, 5 em cada temporada. Foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas com 165 moradores na faixa etária de 20 a 80 anos, com dados analisados ​​por meio de frequência relativa de citação (RFC), valor de uso (UV), nível de fidelidade (FL), fator de consenso de informantes (CIF), e o índice de Jaccard (JI) para encontrar as espécies utilizadas mais frequentes e conhecidas na área. Um total de 86 espécies pertencentes a 39 famílias de plantas vasculares, 33 gêneros foram documentados como medicamente importantes. A família Asteraceae foi observada como a família dominante entre todas as famílias com 10 espécies, a folha foi a parte mais utilizada e a decocção 36% foi o tipo de preparação mais preferido. A erva foi a forma de vida predominante (67%). O UV máximo (0,92) foi demonstrado pelas espécies de J. adhatoda L., enquanto A. sativum L. mostra RFC máximo (0,58), o maior valor de ICF representado por diarreia e dermatite 0,92, e alto valor de FL é registrado 100%. De acordo com nossas coleções, as espécies selvagens foram 45%, as espécies invasoras 38% e as cultivadas 17% registradas, as espécies dicotiledôneas foram registradas mais 81%. Sete espécies medicinais estão sendo economicamente importantes e exportadas para o mercado local e internacional do mundo, enquanto as espécies de P. integrima L. foram as espécies mais exportadas de acordo com os comerciantes locais. A área investigada é rural e a população local depende das plantas da área para suas necessidades de saúde e outros usos como vegetal, lenha, forragem etc. O resultado atual de RFC, UV, ICF, FL e JI mostra que a flora medicinal precisa ser investigada farmacológica e fitoquimicamente para comprovar sua eficácia. A documentação do conhecimento medicinal é importante para preservar esse precioso conhecimento antigo antes que se perca para sempre, devido às mudanças tecnológicas e ambientais do mundo.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Adulto Jovem , Plantas Medicinais , Paquistão , Inquéritos e Questionários , Folhas de Planta , Etnobotânica , Fitoterapia , Medicina Tradicional
2.
Ars pharm ; 63(2)abr.-jun. 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-202810

RESUMO

Introducción: La alfabetización en salud es una medida de la capacidad de los pacientes de leer, comprender y tomar decisiones en base a instrucciones médicas. La inadecuada alfabetización se asocia a un peor estado de salud en pacientes con enfermedades crónicas. El momento de la dispensación podría ser una oportunidad para evaluar esta condición por el farmacéutico de atención primariaEl objeto de este estudio fue evaluar la relación de alfabetización en salud y los valores de colesterol total y comorbilidades en personas con prescripción de hipolipemiantes atendidos en un centro de jubilados.Método:Se diseñó un estudio prospectivo donde se evaluó la relación de la alfabetización utilizando Short Assessment of Health Literacy for Spanish-speaking Adults y el valor de colesterol , medicamentos , factores de riesgo y comorbilidades. Todas estas variables se analizaron en forma integrada en un análisis multivariado. Resultados: Participaron 178 pacientes, 63% mujeres. El puntaje promedio de SAHLSA fue 43,4 ± 5,5. Se encontró una inadecuada alfabetización en 24%. pacientes El valor promedio de colesterol en estre grupo de pacientes fue 235,17mg/dl vs 193,53mg/dl quienes tenian adecuada alfabetización en salud.Se realizó un análisis multivariado que mostró asociación entre inadecuada alfabetización en salud, bajo nivel de educación y conocimiento del paciente . El número de internaciones y la aparición de eventos coronarios fueron significativamente mayor en los pacientes con alfabetización en salud insuficiente. Conclusiones: Se encontró relación directa entre el grado de alfabetización en salud y los valores de colesterol total en pacientes en tratamiento por hipercolesterolemia (AU)


Introduction: Health literacy is a measure of the ability of patients to read, understand and make decisions based on medical instructions. Inadequate health literacy is associated with poorer health in patients with chronic diseases. Time of dispensing could be an opportunity for the primary care pharmacist to evaluate this condition by the. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship of Health literacy and the values of total cholesterol and comorbidities in people with a prescription of lipid-lowering drugs treated in a retirement center. Method: A prospective study was designed where the relationship of Health literacy was evaluated using Short Assessment of Health Literacy for Spanish-speaking Adults and the value of cholesterol, medications, risk factors and comorbidities. All these variables were analyzed in an integrated manner in a multivariate analysis.Results:178 patients participated, 63% women. The mean SAHLSA score was 43.4 ± 5.5. Inadequate HL was found in 24%. patients.The mean cholesterol value in patients with inadequate Health literacy was 235.17mg / dl vs 193.53mg / dl among those with adequate Health literacy.A multivariate analysis was performed that showed an association between inadequate Health literacy, the level of education and the patient’s knowledge of normal values of total cholesterol. The number of hospitalizations and the occurrence of coronary events were significantly higher in patients with insufficient Health literacy. Conclusions: A direct relationship was found between the degree of Health literacy and total cholesterol values in patients undergoing treatment for hypercholesterolemia (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Letramento em Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Hipolipemiantes/uso terapêutico , Colesterol/sangue , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Assistência Farmacêutica , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Análise Multivariada , Comorbidade , Escolaridade , Estudos Transversais
3.
Ars pharm ; 63(2)abr.-jun. 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-202815

RESUMO

Introduction: The aim of this study was to characterize the use of tocilizumab in a hospital. Method: Retrospective cohort study including adult SARS-CoV-2 infected inpatients with moderately severe infection (PaO2/FiO2 < 300). ORs for mortality and treatment success were calculated. Results: The tocilizumab group (n=18), presented 5 days of symptoms vs 7 days in the untreated group (n=71). Minimum PaO2/FiO2 was 147.5 (95%CI: 116.7 to 194.0) vs 255.6 (95%CI: 320.7 to 452.4) (p=0.01).No significant differences were found between the two groups concerning survival (OR=1.22; 95%CI: 0.38 to 3.92), nor treatment success (OR=0.46; 95%CI: 0.16 to 1.33). After adjusting for age, sex and total corticosteroid dose, OR for success was 0.18 (95%CI: 0.03 to 0.96), while mortality was not significant. Conclusions: The use of tocilizumab in moderately severe hospitalized patients could decrease the hyperinflammatory state preventing disease progression (AU)


Introducción: El objetivo del estudio fue estudiar la utilización de tocilizumab en un centro hospitalarioMétodo:Estudio de cohortes retrospectivo que incluyó pacientes ingresados adultos infectados por SARS-CoV-2, con una infección de gravedad moderada (PaO2/FiO2 < 300). Se calcularon las OR de mortalidad y éxito del tratamiento. Resultados: El grupo tocilizumab (n=18), tuvo 5 vs 7 días con síntomas en el grupo no tratado (n=71). El PaO2/FiO2 mínimo fue de 147,5 (IC95%: 116,7 a 194,0) versus 255,6 (IC95%: 320,7 a 452,4) (p=0,01).No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre ambos grupos en supervivencia (OR=1,22; IC95%: 0,38 a 3,92); ni en el éxito del tratamiento (OR=0,46; IC95%: 0,16 a 1,33). Tras ajustar por edad, sexo y dosis total de corticoide, OR de éxitos fue 0,18 (IC95%: 0,03 a 0,96), mientras que mortalidad no fue significativa. Conclusiones: El uso de tocilizumab en pacientes hospitalizados moderadamente graves podría disminuir su estado hiperinflamatorio (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pandemias , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos de Coortes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682451

RESUMO

The restriction measures adopted to control the COVID-19 pandemic had significant consequences on individuals' lifestyles. This study is aimed at assessing the amount and type of habitual physical activity (PA) in older adults during the advanced phase of the pandemic and their possible relationships with sociodemographic aspects. A questionnaire that included sociodemographic characteristics and the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) was administered online to elderly subjects living in the Apulia region, South Italy. A sample of 939 participants (57.1% F; mean age 75.9 ± 6.3) was obtained. In total, 68.8% of female respondents reported a decrease in PA during the pandemic, while 55.1% of men maintained their previous levels (<0.001). The total PASE score did not differ between gender groups (median value 91.7 in males vs. 90.0 in females; p = 0.067). However, differences were registered in leisure activities, particularly regarding walking (23.8 ± 14.8 in males vs. 20.2 ± 14.6 in females; p = 0.001). Higher PA levels were related with lower age (OR 0.253; 95% CI 0.192-0.333; p = 0.001). Since inactivity can affect elderly health and wellbeing, and considering the impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on this habit, health promotion strategies to counteract the negative effects of the pandemic should include interventions aimed at increasing PA in this sub-group of the population, especially among women and elderly subjects.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Int J Surg ; 103: 106693, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35690361

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although radical cystectomy is considered as the first choice for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC), there are also concerns regarding the cost of long-term morbidity, loss of body image, and compromised quality of life. Transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) is a candidate for bladder sparing treatments, but its viability as a substitute for radical cystectomy is questionable. Therefore, we conducted this population-based study to investigate the prevalence of TURBT in the treatments of T2-stage MIBC in the United States, and to compare its therapeutic efficiency with that of radical cystectomy. METHODS: Information on patients with T2-stage bladder cancer (BC) between 2000 and 2017 was extracted from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program. The overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) of patients with different interventions were fitted. RESULTS: A total of 22,074 patients with T2-stage MIBC were enrolled, of whom 14,021 reached the main endpoint. Only 28% of the patients with T2-stage MIBC chose radical cystectomy as the initial surgical treatment, while TURBT was applied as the primary surgical treatment in 66.6% of the patients. The TURBT rate increased significantly with age at cancer diagnosis (40-44 years, 45.5% to > 85 years, 90.9%). The survival rate of patients undergoing TURBT was significantly lower than for those undergoing radical cystectomy (median OS: 1.5 versus 9.7 years; median DSS: 2.7 years versus not reached). Upon multivariable Cox analyses, the OS (HR: 2.34; p < 0.001) and DSS (HR: 2.68; p < 0.001) of TURBT were found to be significantly worse than those of radical cystectomy. CONCLUSION: Two-thirds of the patients with T2-stage MIBC were treated by TURBT in the United States. However, the long-term follow-up data indicate that the therapeutic efficiency of current TURBT techniques is far less effective than that of radical cystectomy. Further studies are urgently needed to devise the best management strategy for T2 stage bladder cancer.


Assuntos
Cistectomia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Cistectomia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculos/patologia , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Bexiga Urinária , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia
6.
Acta Neuropathol ; 144(1): 27-44, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35697880

RESUMO

Limbic-predominant age-related TDP-43 encephalopathy neuropathologic change (LATE-NC) and Alzheimer's disease neuropathologic change (ADNC) are each associated with substantial cognitive impairment in aging populations. However, the prevalence of LATE-NC across the full range of ADNC remains uncertain. To address this knowledge gap, neuropathologic, genetic, and clinical data were compiled from 13 high-quality community- and population-based longitudinal studies. Participants were recruited from United States (8 cohorts, including one focusing on Japanese-American men), United Kingdom (2 cohorts), Brazil, Austria, and Finland. The total number of participants included was 6196, and the average age of death was 88.1 years. Not all data were available on each individual and there were differences between the cohorts in study designs and the amount of missing data. Among those with known cognitive status before death (n = 5665), 43.0% were cognitively normal, 14.9% had MCI, and 42.4% had dementia-broadly consistent with epidemiologic data in this age group. Approximately 99% of participants (n = 6125) had available CERAD neuritic amyloid plaque score data. In this subsample, 39.4% had autopsy-confirmed LATE-NC of any stage. Among brains with "frequent" neuritic amyloid plaques, 54.9% had comorbid LATE-NC, whereas in brains with no detected neuritic amyloid plaques, 27.0% had LATE-NC. Data on LATE-NC stages were available for 3803 participants, of which 25% had LATE-NC stage > 1 (associated with cognitive impairment). In the subset of individuals with Thal Aß phase = 0 (lacking detectable Aß plaques), the brains with LATE-NC had relatively more severe primary age-related tauopathy (PART). A total of 3267 participants had available clinical data relevant to frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and none were given the clinical diagnosis of definite FTD nor the pathological diagnosis of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 inclusions (FTLD-TDP). In the 10 cohorts with detailed neurocognitive assessments proximal to death, cognition tended to be worse with LATE-NC across the full spectrum of ADNC severity. This study provided a credible estimate of the current prevalence of LATE-NC in advanced age. LATE-NC was seen in almost 40% of participants and often, but not always, coexisted with Alzheimer's disease neuropathology.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Demência Frontotemporal , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Amiloide , Autopsia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA , Humanos , Masculino , Placa Amiloide/patologia
7.
Tomography ; 8(3): 1228-1240, 2022 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35645387

RESUMO

(1) Background: Spontaneous retroperitoneal hematomas are a relatively common occurrence in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 related pneumonia, and endovascular treatment of trans-arterial embolization (TAE) may be a life-saving procedure after failure of medical and supportive therapy. The aim of our study was to evaluate spontaneous retroperitoneal hematomas in the COVID-19 era, focusing on their imaging features at CTA and DSA and on the safety, as well as technical and clinical success, of TAE, comparing patients affected by COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients. (2) Materials and Methods: We retrospectively enrolled 24 patients with spontaneous retroperitoneal hematoma who underwent TAE; of these, 10 were hospitalized for COVID-19-related pneumonia, while the other 14 were without COVID-19 infection. We evaluated the demographic data, hemoglobin values before and after the procedure, preprocedural aPTT, preprocedural INR, diagnostic and interventional imaging findings, procedural outcome (technical success) and survival periprocedural (clinical success), and major and minor complications. (3) Results: The mean age of the study population was 72.7 ± 11.2 years. CTA revealed signs of active bleeding in 20 patients (83%). DSA showed signs of active bleeding in 20 patients (83%). In four patients (17%), blind embolization was performed. The overall technical success rate was 100%. Clinical success was achieved in 17 patients (71%), while seven patients (29%) rebled within 96 h, and all of them were retreated. No major periprocedural complication was reported. The comparison between the two groups did not show statistically significant differences for gender, mean age, mean pre- and postprocedural hemoglobin, aPTT and INR, mean hematoma volume (cm3), or mean delay between CT and DSA. Active bleeding at CTA was detected in 90% of COVID-19 patients and 79% of non-COVID-19 patients (p = 0.61). At DSA, active bleeding was assessed in eight out of 10 (80%) patients in the COVID-19 group and 12 out of 14 (86%) patients in the non-COVID-19 group (p = 1). Technical success was obtained in 100% of patients in both groups. Clinical success rates were 70% for COVID-19 group and 71% for the non-COVID-19 group. We found no statistical significance between the clinical success rates of retroperitoneal spontaneous hematoma embolization in patients with or without SARS-CoV-2 infection. (4) Conclusions: We suggest that, similar to what has been reported in other studies in non-COVID-19 patients, TAE should be considered an important safe, effective, and potentially life-saving option for the management and the treatment of patients affected by COVID-19 who present with spontaneous retroperitoneal hematoma and who could not benefit from conservative treatment.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/terapia , Hematoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Hematoma/etiologia , Hematoma/terapia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Tomography ; 8(3): 1260-1269, 2022 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35645390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To compare a model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) versus a hybrid iterative reconstruction (HIR) for initial and final Alberta Stroke Program Early Ct Score (ASPECT) scoring in acute ischemic stroke (AIS). We hypothesized that MBIR designed for brain computed tomography (CT) could perform better than HIR for ASPECT scoring. METHODS: Among patients who had undergone CT perfusion for AIS between April 2018 and October 2019 with a follow-up imaging within 7 days, we designed a cohort of representative ASPECTS. Two readers assessed regional-cerebral-blood-volume-ASPECT (rCBV-ASPECTS) on the initial exam and final-ASPECTS on the follow-up non-contrast-CT (NCCT) in consensus. Four readers performed independently MBIR and HIR ASPECT scoring on baseline NCCT. RESULTS: In total, 294 hemispheres from 147 participants (average age of 69.59 ± 15.63 SD) were analyzed. Overall raters' agreement between rCBV-map and MBIR and HIR ranged from moderate to moderate (κ = 0.54 to κ = 0.57) with HIR and moderate to substantial (κ = 0.52 to κ = 0.74) with MBIR. Overall raters' agreement between follow-up imaging and HIR/MBIR ranged from moderate to moderate (κ = 0.55 to κ = 0.59) with HIR and moderate to almost perfect (κ = 0.48 to κ = 0.82) with MBIR. CONCLUSIONS: ASPECT scoring with MBIR more closely matched with initial and final infarct extent than classical HIR NCCT reconstruction.


Assuntos
AVC Isquêmico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Seguimentos , Humanos , AVC Isquêmico/diagnóstico por imagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
9.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 13: 21501319221103416, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35678247

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION/OBJECTIVES: Due to the risks associated with sedative hypnotic medications in older adults, our study evaluated the impact of a multidisciplinary approach to deprescribing in geriatric primary care clinics. METHODS: The study was a retrospective review of older adults at 2 academic, geriatric primary care clinics who were prescribed sedative-hypnotic medications. Patients were mailed an education packet of information that included working with the clinical pharmacy team, behavioral health team, or both in order to deprescribe their sedative-hypnotic medication. The study assessed the rate of discontinuation of sedative-hypnotic medications between the different intervention groups. RESULTS: The study included 93 older adults with a mean age of 81.3 years and 39.8% discontinuation rate of their medication. The number of falls decreased in patients who discontinued use compared to when previously using a sedative hypnotic medication. CONCLUSION: Patients are more likely to discontinue their sedative hypnotic medication with a multidisciplinary approach, specifically with primary care provider support.


Assuntos
Desprescrições , Hipnóticos e Sedativos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Atenção Primária à Saúde
10.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 475, 2022 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35650535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the incidence of gastric cancer increases in elderly patients worldwide, laparoscopic gastrectomy (LG) for elderly patients with gastric cancer is also increasing. However, whether LG is an optimal surgical modality for elderly patients with gastric cancer remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the technical and oncological safety of LG for elderly patients ≥ 80 years old with gastric cancer. METHODS: Patients who received curative gastrectomy for gastric cancer from 2003 to 2015 were enrolled in the study. They were divided into the LG in elderly patients aged over 80 years (LG-E) group, open gastrectomy (OG) in elderly patients (OG-E) group, and LG in non-elderly patients < 80 years (LG-NE) group. Patients' demographics and short- and long-term outcomes, such as postoperative complications and 5-year survival rate, were compared between the three groups, retrospectively. RESULTS: The LG-E, OG-E, and LG-NE groups comprised 45, 43, and 329 patients, respectively. In the comparison between the LG-E and OG-E groups, the incidence of distal gastrectomy (DG) and the proportions of patients with pathological tumor stage T1, pathological N0, and final stage I were significantly higher in the LG-E versus OG-E group (89 vs. 56%, 76% vs. 16%, 82% vs. 37%, and 84% vs. 35%, p < 0.01, respectively). Blood loss and the incidence of overall postoperative complications in the LG-E group were significantly lower than those in the OG-E group (40 vs. 240 g, p < 0.01, and 29% vs. 53%, p < 0.05, respectively). Although the 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was not significantly different between the two groups, the 5-year disease-specific survival (DSS) rate was significantly higher in the LG-E group versus OG-E group (93% vs. 78%, p < 0.05). Overall comorbidities were significantly higher in the LG-E group versus LG-NE group, but there were no significant differences in short-term outcomes between the two groups. Further, although the 5-year OS rate was significantly lower in the LG-E group versus LG-NE group (67% vs. 87%, p < 0.01), there was no significant difference between the two groups in 5-year DSS rate. CONCLUSION: LG is technically and oncologically safe for the treatment of gastric cancer in both elderly patients aged ≥ 80 years and the non-elderly and can be an optimal surgical modality for elderly patients with gastric cancer.


Assuntos
Laparoscopia , Neoplasias Gástricas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Gastrectomia/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Laparoscopia/efeitos adversos , Tempo de Internação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia
11.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 491, 2022 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35676622

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has adversely affected social contact and physical activity. This study investigated the correlation between physical activity, social contact, and sedentary time among adults aged 65 years and above during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This study was conducted in N City, H Prefecture, Japan. The authors randomly selected 4,996 adults, aged 65 years and above (mean age 74.1 ± 6.1 years), living in N City, and survey forms were distributed by mail in mid-August 2020. Altogether, 1,925 participants were included in this study. The survey comprised questions concerning the participants' sex, height, weight, age, smoking and drinking habits, living arrangements, social contact assessments, physical activity levels, and sedentary time. Moreover, linear regression analysis was utilized to investigate the associations between the variables. RESULTS: The reported median physical activity was 1272 metabolic equivalent of task-min/week (interquartile range 528-2628), and the reported median sedentary time was 360 min/week (interquartile range 240-600). COVID-19 "somewhat," "quite a lot," or "completely" hindered the frequency of in-person contact with friends among 75.5% of the respondents and hampered the frequency of virtual contact with friends among 38.8% of the respondents. Physical activity was associated significantly with in-person contact indicators: "interaction with friends" (B = -0.111; 95%CI: -0.187, -0.035; p = 0.004) and "social participation" (B = -0.163; 95%CI: -0.248, -0.079; p < 0.001). These associations remained significant for both multivariate analysis Models 1 (sex and age) and 2 (addition of body mass index [BMI], alcohol use, smoking, living alone, and the number of illnesses to Model 1). Additionally, sedentary time was significantly associated with the social contact variable of "interaction with friends" (B = 0.04; 95%CI: 0.016, 0.064; p = 0.001). This association remained significant in both multivariate analysis models. CONCLUSIONS: Significant associations were confirmed between reduced social contact, decreased physical activity, and more sedentary behavior among older adults due to COVID-19. Hence, continuous monitoring and support for social activities among susceptible older adults in extraordinary circumstances are essential.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Comportamento Sedentário , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Pandemias
12.
J Int Med Res ; 50(6): 3000605221103543, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35676774

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess and characterize the correlation between shoulder pathologies and sleep disturbances. METHODS: Participants enrolled into this case-control study were divided into two groups: patients with an established clinical diagnosis of active shoulder pathology (study group), and patients without any shoulder pathology (control group). All patients completed the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) questionnaire, in addition to questions related to participant demographics, health status, medication, and other known insomnia risk factors. RESULTS: A total of 98 patients were included (46 in the study group and 52 controls). Mean ISI score was significantly higher (indicating more severe insomnia) in the study group versus control group (t[96] = -9.67), even after correcting for confounders (t[53.1] = -8.61). Additionally, in patients with shoulder pathology, those with comorbidities experienced more sleep disturbances than those without comorbidities (ß = 0.36). Lastly, the shoulder pathology group was at a higher risk of having sleep disturbances compared with controls (relative risk 4.86, 95% confidence interval 2.24, 10.55). CONCLUSIONS: Sleep disturbances are more common among patients with shoulder pathologies. Comorbidities and a shorter duration of pathology may predict more severe sleep disturbances.


Assuntos
Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Manguito Rotador/patologia , Ombro , Sono , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/complicações , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/complicações , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia
13.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 495, 2022 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35681115

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Insight into the variability of older adults' sedentary time is needed to inform future interventions. The aim of this study was to examine the intra- and interpersonal variability in sedentary time, and the moderating role of socio-demographics, physical functioning and geographical location in this variability. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 818 community-dwelling older adults (mean age: 74.8 years; 61.1%women) of the Active Lifestyle and the Environment in Chinese Seniors and Belgian Environmental Physical Activity Study in Seniors were used. An interview questionnaire was administered to collect socio-demographic information. The Short Physical Performance Battery was performed to evaluate physical functioning, and Actigraph GT3X( +) accelerometers were used to estimate sedentary time. Linear mixed models with random intercepts at the neighborhood, person and day levels examined the variability in sedentary time, and the moderating role of socio-demographics, physical functioning and geographical location within this variability. RESULTS: Most of the variance in accelerometry-assessed sedentary time was due to intrapersonal variability across periods of the day (72.4%) followed by interpersonal variability within neighborhoods (25.6%). Those who were older, men, lived in Hong Kong, and experienced a lower level of physical functioning were more sedentary than their counterparts. Sedentary time increased throughout the day, with highest levels of sedentary time observed between 6:00 and 9:00 pm. The patterns of sedentary time across times of the day differed by gender, educational attainment, age, physical functioning and/or geographical location. No significant differences were detected between week and weekend day sedentary time. CONCLUSIONS: The oldest old, men, and those with functional limitations are important target groups for sedentary behavior interventions. As sedentary time was the highest in the evening future sedentary behavior intervention should pay particular attention to the evening hours. The variations in diurnal patterns of sedentary time between population subgroups suggest that personalized just-in-time adaptive interventions might be a promising strategy to reduce older adults' sedentary time.


Assuntos
Acelerometria , Comportamento Sedentário , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Características de Residência
14.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269127, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35657813

RESUMO

Longitudinal clinical studies traditionally require in-person study visits which are well documented to pose barriers to participation and contribute challenges to enrolling representative samples. Remote trial models may reduce barriers to research engagement, improve retention, and reach a more representative cohort. As remote trials become more common following the COVID-19 pandemic, a critical evaluation of this approach is imperative to optimize this paradigm shift in research. The TestBoston study was launched to understand prevalence and risk factors for COVID-19 infection in the greater Boston area through a fully remote home-testing model. Participants (adults, within 45 miles of Boston, MA) were recruited remotely from patient registries at Brigham and Women's Hospital and the general public. Participants were provided with monthly and "on-demand" at-home SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR and antibody testing using nasal swab and dried blood spot self-collection kits and electronic surveys to assess symptoms and risk factors for COVID-19 via an online dashboard. Between October 2020 and January 2021, we enrolled 10,289 participants reflective of Massachusetts census data. Mean age was 47 years (range 18-93), 5855 (56.9%) were assigned female sex at birth, 7181(69.8%) reported being White non-Hispanic, 952 (9.3%) Hispanic/Latinx, 925 (9.0%) Black, 889 (8.6%) Asian, and 342 (3.3%) other and/or more than one race. Lower initial enrollment among Black and Hispanic/Latinx individuals required an adaptive approach to recruitment, leveraging connections to the medical system, coupled with community partnerships to ensure a representative cohort. Longitudinal retention was higher among participants who were White non-Hispanic, older, working remotely, and with lower socioeconomic vulnerability. Implementation highlighted key differences in remote trial models as participants independently navigate study milestones, requiring a dedicated participant support team and robust technology platforms, to reduce barriers to enrollment, promote retention, and ensure scientific rigor and data quality. Remote clinical trial models offer tremendous potential to engage representative cohorts, scale biomedical research, and promote accessibility by reducing barriers common in traditional trial design. Barriers and burdens within remote trials may be experienced disproportionately across demographic groups. To maximize engagement and retention, researchers should prioritize intensive participant support, investment in technologic infrastructure and an adaptive approach to maximize engagement and retention.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0265423, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35661153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Older adults aged 65 years and above have a disproportionately higher utilization of emergency healthcare, of which Emergency Department (ED) visits are a key component. They experience higher degree of multimorbidity and mobility issues compared to younger patients, and are consequently more likely to experience a health event which requires an ED visit. During their visit, older adults tend to require more extensive workup, therefore spending a greater amount of time in the ED. Compared to the younger population, older adults are more susceptible to adverse events following discharge. Considering these factors, investigating the determinants of ED utilisation would be valuable. In this paper, we present a protocol for a systematic review of the determinants of ED utilisation among communitydwelling older adults aged 65 years and above, applying Andersen and Newman's model of healthcare utilisation. Furthermore, we aim to present other conceptual frameworks for healthcare utilisation and propose a holistic approach for understanding the determinants of ED utilisation by older persons. METHODS: The protocol is developed in accordance with the standards of Campbell Collaboration guidelines for systematic reviews, with reference to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Review of Interventions. Medline, Embase and Scopus will be searched for studies published from 2000 to 2020. Studies evaluating more than one determinant for ED utilisation among older adults aged 65 years and above will be included. Search process and selection of studies will be presented in a PRISMA flow chart. Statistically significant (p < 0.05) determinants of ED utilisation will be grouped according to individual and societal determinants. Quality of the studies will be assessed using Newcastle Ottawa Scale (NOS). DISCUSSION: In Andersen and Newman's model, individual determinants include predisposing factors, enabling and illness factors, and societal determinants include technology and social norms. Additional conceptual frameworks for healthcare utilisation include Health Belief Model, Social Determinants of Health and Big Five personality traits. By incorporating the concepts of these models, we hope to develop a holistic approach of conceptualizing the factors that influence ED utilisation among older people. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: This protocol is registered on 8 May 2021 with PROSPERO's International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (CRD42021253770).


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Alta do Paciente , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
16.
Nutrients ; 14(11)2022 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35684154

RESUMO

(1) Sarcopenia is a progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength. The aim of this study was to determine the association of sarcopenia, defined according to the Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP2) diagnostic criteria, with mortality at 24 months in very elderly hemodialysis patients. (2) A prospective study was conducted in 60 patients on chronic hemodialysis who were older than 75 years. Sarcopenia was diagnosed according to EWGSOP2 criteria. Additionally, clinical, anthropometric and analytical variables and body composition by bioimpedance were assessed. The date and cause of death were recorded during 2 years of follow-up. (3) Among study participants, 41 (68%) were men, the mean age 81.85 ± 5.58 years and the dialysis vintage was 49.88 ± 40.29 months. The prevalence of probable sarcopenia was 75% to 97%, depending on the criteria employed: confirmed sarcopenia ranged from 37 to 40%, and severe sarcopenia ranged from 18 to 37%. A total of 30 (50%) patients died over 24 months. Sarcopenia probability variables were not related to mortality. In contrast, sarcopenia confirmation (appendicular skeletal muscle mass, ASM) and severity (gait speed, GS) variables were associated with mortality. In multivariate analysis, the hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for all-cause death was 3.03 (1.14-8.08, p = 0.028) for patients fulfilling ASM sarcopenia criteria and 3.29 (1.04-10.39, p = 0.042) for patients fulfilling GS sarcopenia criteria. (4) The diagnosis of sarcopenia by EWGSOP2 criteria is associated with an increased risk of all-cause death in elderly dialysis patients. Specifically, ASM and GS criteria could be used as mortality risk markers in elderly hemodialysis patients. Future studies should address whether the early diagnosis and treatment of sarcopenia improve outcomes.


Assuntos
Sarcopenia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Sarcopenia/diagnóstico , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia , Sarcopenia/etiologia
17.
Nutrients ; 14(11)2022 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35684092

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frailty is associated with adverse health outcomes, and vitamin D (VD) deficiency may be a risk factor. We aimed to identify frailty trajectories and examine the mediating effect of physical activity (PA) on the association between VD deficiency and frailty trajectories. METHODS: We included 2997 participants aged 60 to 85 years from ELSA. VD was measured using serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] (sufficient: >50; insufficient: 30-50; deficient: <30 nmol/L). Frailty was assessed by a 60-item frailty index, and PA was measured on the basis of total energy expenditure. Frailty trajectories were identified using group-based trajectory modeling, and the mediation effect of PA was tested using causal mediation analysis. RESULTS: Three distinct frailty trajectories emerged: "Non-frail" (66.48%), "Pre-frail to frail" (25.67%) and "Frail to severely frail" (7.85%). VD deficiency was associated with the "Pre-frail to frail" (OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.14, 1.98) and "Frail to severely frail" trajectories (OR = 2.29, 95% CI: 1.45, 3.62). PA only mediated 48.4% (95% CI: 17.1%-270.8%) of the association between VD deficiency and the "Pre-frail to frail" trajectory. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with the onset and worsening of frailty in older adults, and reduced PA may mediate its impact on the transition from pre-frailty to frailty.


Assuntos
Fragilidade , Deficiência de Vitamina D , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento , Calcifediol , Exercício Físico , Idoso Fragilizado , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia
18.
J Hypertens ; 40(6): 1107-1114, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35703878

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Orthostatic hypotension is a common condition associated with an increased mortality risk. This study investigates this association specifically in geriatric outpatients and additionally focuses on the duration and magnitude of orthostatic hypotension. METHODS: In this observational prospective cohort study with geriatric outpatients from the Amsterdam Ageing cohort, we differentiated orthostatic hypotension in early orthostatic hypotension (EOH) and delayed/prolonged orthostatic hypotension (DPOH). The magnitude of drop in both SBP and DBP after either 1 or 3 min was quantified. Mortality data was obtained from the Dutch municipal register. Cox proportional hazard models were used to determine the association between orthostatic hypotension and mortality, adjusted for sex and age (model 1), additionally adjusted for orthostatic hypotension-inducing drugs + SBP (model 2) and the presence of cardiovascular disease and diabetes (model 3). Stratified analyses in patients with geriatric deficits were performed. RESULTS: We included 1240 patients (mean age 79.4 ±â€Š6.9 years, 52.6% women). Prevalence of orthostatic hypotension was 443 (34.9%); 148 (11.9%) patients had EOH and 285 (23%) DPOH. DPOH was associated with a higher mortality risk [hazard ratio, 95% CI 1.69 (1.28-2.22)] whereas EOH was not associated with mortality risk. This association did not differ in patients with geriatric deficits. Furthermore, the magnitude of drop in both SBP and DBP was associated with a higher mortality risk. CONCLUSION: The presence of DPOH and the magnitude of both systolic and diastolic orthostatic hypotension are related to an increased mortality risk in geriatric outpatients. Whether the duration of orthostatic hypotension and magnitude of the drop in blood pressure is causally related to mortality risk or whether it is a sign of decreased resilience remains to be elucidated.


Assuntos
Hipotensão Ortostática , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pressão Sanguínea , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotensão Ortostática/complicações , Masculino , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Estudos Prospectivos , Sístole
19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(6): e2217240, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35704314

RESUMO

Importance: Major incidents of ageism have been shown to be associated with poorer health and well-being among older adults. Less is known about routine types of age-based discrimination, prejudice, and stereotyping that older adults encounter in their day-to-day lives, known as everyday ageism. Objective: To examine the prevalence of everyday ageism, group differences and disparities, and associations of everyday ageism with indicators of poor physical and mental health. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study was conducted using survey data from the December 2019 National Poll on Healthy Aging among a nationally representative household sample of US adults ages 50 to 80 years. Data were analyzed from November 2021 through April 2022. Exposures: Experiences of everyday ageism were measured using the newly developed multidimensional Everyday Ageism Scale. Main Outcomes and Measures: Fair or poor physical health, number of chronic health conditions, fair or poor mental health, and depressive symptoms. Results: Among 2035 adults ages 50 to 80 years (1047 [54.2%] women; 192 Black [10.9%], 178 Hispanic [11.4%], and 1546 White [71.1%]; mean [SD] age, 62.6 [8.0] years [weighted statistics]), most participants (1915 adults [93.4%]) reported regularly experiencing 1 or more forms of everyday ageism. Internalized ageism was reported by 1664 adults (81.2%), ageist messages by 1394 adults (65.2%), and interpersonal ageism by 941 adults (44.9%). Mean Everyday Ageism Scale scores were higher for several sociodemographic groups, including adults ages 65 to 80 years vs those ages 50 to 64 years (11.23 [95% CI, 10.80-11.66] vs 9.55 [95% CI, 9.26-9.84]) and White (10.43 [95% CI, 10.20-10.67]; P < .001) and Hispanic (10.09 [95% CI, 9.31-10.86]; P = .04) adults vs Black adults (9.23 [95% CI, 8.42-10.03]). Higher levels of everyday ageism were associated with increased risk of all 4 negative physical and mental health outcomes examined in regression analyses (with odds ratios [ORs] per additional scale point as high as 1.20 [95% CI, 1.17-1.23] for depressive symptoms and b = 0.039 [95% CI, 0.029-0.048] for chronic health conditions; P values < .001). Internalized ageism was the category associated with the greatest increase in risk of poor outcomes for all health measures (with ORs per additional scale point as high as 1.62 [95% CI, 1.49-1.76] for depressive symptoms and b = 0.063 [95% CI, 0.034-0.092] for chronic health conditions; P values < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: This study found everyday ageism to be prevalent among US adults ages 50 to 80 years. These findings suggest that commonplace ageist messages, interactions, and beliefs may be harmful to health and that multilevel and multisector efforts may be required to reduce everyday ageism and promote positive beliefs, practices, and policies related to aging and older adults.


Assuntos
Ageismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ageismo/psicologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estereotipagem
20.
P R Health Sci J ; 41(2): 104-106, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35704530

RESUMO

Syncope is a common cause of emergency department visits. Physicians must scrutinize for life-threatening causes to avoid patient morbidity and mortality. Clinical decision rules are used to stratify risks and guide the course of action, including the need for further testing. This is the case of a 83-year-old man was brought to the emergency department after a 5-minute episode of sudden loss of consciousness. Vital signs showed hypotension and physical examination was unremarkable. Despite Wells score of 0, clinical suspicion for pulmonary embolism persisted, for which further testing was pursued. D-dimer was elevated at 13.77 mcg/mL and a chest computed tomography with angiography showed an extensive bilateral pulmonary embolism involving the distal right and left main pulmonary arteries. He was started on full-dose anticoagulation. This case exemplifies the need of high clinical suspicion along with the importance of applying predictive scores for diagnosing unusual causes of syncope.


Assuntos
Embolia Pulmonar , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Angiografia/efeitos adversos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Masculino , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Embolia Pulmonar/etiologia , Síncope/etiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/efeitos adversos
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