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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246803, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339417

RESUMO

Abstract Traditional medicine is cheaper and easily available to local people, to care for most frequent diseases in the Northern parts of Pakistan. Our study aimed at inventorying medicine from local plants, documenting their uses, and assessing their market value in 2015-2018 during spring, summer, and winter seasons. A total of 15 trips were made, 5 in each season. Semi-structured interviews with 165 inhabitant's age range between 20-80 years were conducted, analyzed the data is analyzed using Relative frequency of citation(RFC), Use Value(UV), Fidelity Level(FL), Informants consensus factor(ICF), and Jaccard index(JI) to find the most frequent and well-known used species in the area. A total of 86 species belonging to 39 vascular plant families, 33 genera were documented as medicinally important. Family Asteraceae was observed as the dominant family among all the families with 10 species, the leaf was the most used parts and decoction 36% was the most preferred preparation type. Herb was the predominant life form (67%). The maximum UV (0.92) was demonstrated by J. adhatoda L. species, while A. sativum L. shows maximum RFC (0.58), the highest ICF value represented by diarrhea and dermatitis 0.92, and high FL value is recorded 100%. According to our collections, wild species were 45%, invasive species were 38% and cultivated 17% recorded, dicots species were recorded more 81%. Seven 7 medicinal species is being economically important and export to the local and international market of the world, whereas P. integrima L. species were the most exported species according to the local dealers. The investigated area is rural and the local people depend on the area's plants for their health needs, and other uses like a vegetable, fuelwood, fodder, etc. The current result of RFC, UV, ICF, FL, and JI shows that medicinal flora needs to be pharmacologically and phytochemically investigated to prove their efficacy. The documentation of medicinal knowledge is important to preserve this precious old knowledge before it is lost forever, due to technological and environmental changes in the world.


Resumo A medicina tradicional é mais barata e facilmente disponível à população local para cuidar das doenças mais frequentes nas áreas do norte do Paquistão. Nosso estudo teve como objetivo inventariar medicamentos de plantas locais, documentar seus usos e avaliar seu valor de mercado em 2015-2018 durante as temporadas de primavera, verão e inverno. Foram feitas 15 viagens, 5 em cada temporada. Foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas com 165 moradores na faixa etária de 20 a 80 anos, com dados analisados ​​por meio de frequência relativa de citação (RFC), valor de uso (UV), nível de fidelidade (FL), fator de consenso de informantes (CIF), e o índice de Jaccard (JI) para encontrar as espécies utilizadas mais frequentes e conhecidas na área. Um total de 86 espécies pertencentes a 39 famílias de plantas vasculares, 33 gêneros foram documentados como medicamente importantes. A família Asteraceae foi observada como a família dominante entre todas as famílias com 10 espécies, a folha foi a parte mais utilizada e a decocção 36% foi o tipo de preparação mais preferido. A erva foi a forma de vida predominante (67%). O UV máximo (0,92) foi demonstrado pelas espécies de J. adhatoda L., enquanto A. sativum L. mostra RFC máximo (0,58), o maior valor de ICF representado por diarreia e dermatite 0,92, e alto valor de FL é registrado 100%. De acordo com nossas coleções, as espécies selvagens foram 45%, as espécies invasoras 38% e as cultivadas 17% registradas, as espécies dicotiledôneas foram registradas mais 81%. Sete espécies medicinais estão sendo economicamente importantes e exportadas para o mercado local e internacional do mundo, enquanto as espécies de P. integrima L. foram as espécies mais exportadas de acordo com os comerciantes locais. A área investigada é rural e a população local depende das plantas da área para suas necessidades de saúde e outros usos como vegetal, lenha, forragem etc. O resultado atual de RFC, UV, ICF, FL e JI mostra que a flora medicinal precisa ser investigada farmacológica e fitoquimicamente para comprovar sua eficácia. A documentação do conhecimento medicinal é importante para preservar esse precioso conhecimento antigo antes que se perca para sempre, devido às mudanças tecnológicas e ambientais do mundo.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Adulto Jovem , Plantas Medicinais , Paquistão , Inquéritos e Questionários , Folhas de Planta , Etnobotânica , Fitoterapia , Medicina Tradicional
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246385, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339384

RESUMO

Abstract Coronary heart disease (CHD) has been associated with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although remain controversial, several studies have demonstrated the association of M. pneumoniae infections with atherosclerosis. We evaluated the possible association of mycoplasma infections in patients diagnosed with atherosclerosis by ELISA and PCR methods. Atherosclerotic tissue samples and blood samples were collected for the detection of mycoplasma antibodies (IgA) by ELISA from the 97 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). M. pneumoniae specific IgA, IgG and IgM were measured by using the Anti-M. pneumoniae IgA/IgG/IgM ELISA. Detection of M. pneumoniae targeting the P1 adhesion gene was performed by PCR Acute infection of M. pneumoniae was diagnosed in 43.3% (42) of patients by PCR. The M. pneumoniae specific antibodies were detected in 36.1% (35) of patients. Twenty-five (25.8%) cases had IgG antibodies, 15 (15.5%) cases had IgM antibodies, 3 (3.1%) cases had IgA antibodies, 10 (10.3%) cases had both IgM + IgG antibodies and 1 (1%) case of each had IgM + IgA and IgG + IgA antibodies. None of the cases was positive for all three antibodies. A Pearson correlation coefficient analysis revealed an excellent correlation between the PCR and the serological results (r=0.921, p<0.001). A majority (17, 40.5%) of the M. pneumoniae positive patients are within the 41-50 years of age group, followed by 10 (23.8%) patients in the age group of 61-70 years and 2 (4.8%) patients were >70 years of age. Our study reported an unusually higher prevalence of M. pneumoniae by serological tests (36.1%) and PCR (43.3%). Although the hypothesis of the association of M. pneumoniae and CAD is yet to be proven, the unusually high prevalence of M. pneumoniae in CAD patients indicates an association, if not, in the development of atherosclerosis.


Resumo A doença coronariana (DCC) tem sido associada a significativa morbidade e mortalidade em todo o mundo. Embora ainda sejam controversos, vários estudos têm demonstrado a associação de infecções por M. pneumoniae com aterosclerose. Avaliamos a possível associação de infecções por micoplasma em pacientes com diagnóstico de aterosclerose pelos métodos ELISA e PCR. Amostras de tecido aterosclerótico e amostras de sangue foram coletadas para a detecção de anticorpos contra micoplasma (IgA) por ELISA de 97 pacientes com doença arterial coronariana (DAC). IgA, IgG e IgM específicos para M. pneumoniae foram medidos usando o Anti-M. pneumoniae IgA / IgG / IgM ELISA. A detecção de M. pneumoniae visando o gene de adesão P1 foi realizada por PCR. A infecção aguda por M. pneumoniae foi diagnosticada em 43,3% (42) dos pacientes pela PCR. Os anticorpos específicos para M. pneumoniae foram detectados em 36,1% (35) dos pacientes. Vinte e cinco (25,8%) casos tinham anticorpos IgG, 15 (15,5%) casos tinham anticorpos IgM, 3 (3,1%) casos tinham anticorpos IgA, 10 (10,3%) casos tinham anticorpos IgM + IgG e 1 (1%) caso de cada um tinha anticorpos IgM + IgA e IgG + IgA. Nenhum dos casos foi positivo para os três anticorpos. A análise do coeficiente de correlação de Pearson revelou uma excelente correlação entre o PCR e os resultados sorológicos (r = 0,921, p < 0,001). A maioria (17, 40,5%) dos pacientes positivos para M. pneumoniae está na faixa etária de 41-50 anos, seguida por 10 (23,8%) pacientes na faixa etária de 61-70 anos e 2 (4,8%) pacientes tinham > 70 anos de idade. Nosso estudo relatou uma prevalência incomumente maior de M. pneumoniae por testes sorológicos (36,1%) e PCR (43,3%). Embora a hipótese da associação de M. pneumoniae e DAC ainda não tenha sido comprovada, a prevalência incomumente alta de M. pneumoniae em pacientes com DAC indica uma associação, se não, no desenvolvimento de aterosclerose.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Imunoglobulina M , Prevalência , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Mycoplasma pneumoniae
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244435, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285619

RESUMO

Abstract Increasing trend in antimicrobial resistance and failure of chemically synthesized antibiotics lead to discover alternative methods for the treatment of bacterial infections. Various medicinal plants are in use traditionally and their active compounds can be further applied for treatment of bacterial diseases. This study was designed to determine the antibacterial activity of Punica granatum (P. granatum L.) (pomegranate) peel extract against Enterobacteriaceae [Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) and Shigella Dysenteriae (S. Dysenteriae)] and gram-positive bacterium [Staphylococcus aureus (Staph aureus)]. Methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel was prepared by Soxhlet apparatus method. Total flavonoid and phenolic contents from the extract were determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The antibacterial activity of P. granatum L. peel extract was evaluated through agar well diffusion method. HPLC showed the range of phenolics (gallic acid, caffeic acid, benzoic acid, cinnamic acid) and flavonoid compounds. The chemical structures of flavonoid and phenolics found in the methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel have been reported for the first time. The methanolic peel extract (50 ul) of yellow P. granatum L. showed 26, 10, 10 and 9mm zones of inhibition (ZOI) against S. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. The methanolic extract of red P. granatum L. (100 ul) showed 27, 8, 12 and 15 mm ZOI against Staph. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. Highest ZOI was observed against Staph. aureus. Many of the bacteria studied in the present work may cause serious gastrointestinal infections, which can lead to hemorrhagic diarrhea in children. These infections can be life-threatening to young children and the elderly. There is an incentive to find alternative control measures, such as plant and herbal extracts, especially in lesser-developed countries where traditional antibiotics may not be readily available.


Resumo A tendência crescente na resistência antimicrobiana e na falha dos antibióticos sintetizados quimicamente leva à descoberta de métodos alternativos para o tratamento de infecções bacterianas. Várias plantas medicinais estão em uso tradicionalmente e seus compostos ativos podem ser posteriormente aplicados para o tratamento de doenças bacterianas. Este estudo foi desenhado para determinar a atividade antibacteriana do extrato de casca de Punica granatum (P. granatum L.) (romã) contra Enterobacteriaceae [Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) e Shigella Dysenteriae (S. Dysenteriae) ] e bactéria gram-positiva [Staphylococcus aureus (Staph aureus)]. O extrato metanólico da casca de P. granatum L. foi preparado pelo método do aparelho de Soxhlet. O conteúdo total de flavonoides e fenólicos do extrato foi determinado por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC). A atividade antibacteriana do extrato da casca de P. granatum L. foi avaliada através do método de difusão em ágar. HPLC mostrou a gama de compostos fenólicos (ácido gálico, ácido cafeico, ácido benzoico, ácido cinâmico) e flavonoides. As estruturas químicas de flavonoides e fenólicos encontradas no extrato metanólico da casca de P. granatum L. foram relatadas pela primeira vez. O extrato metanólico da casca (50 ul) de P. granatum L. amarelo apresentou zonas de inibição (ZOI) de 26, 10, 10 e 9mm contra S. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae e E. coli, respectivamente. O extrato metanólico de P. granatum L. vermelho (100 ul) apresentou 27, 8, 12 e 15 mm IOI contra Staph. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae e E. coli, respectivamente. O ZOI mais alto foi observado contra Staph. aureus. Muitas das bactérias estudadas no presente trabalho podem causar infecções gastrointestinais graves, que podem levar à diarreia hemorrágica em crianças. Essas infecções podem ser fatais para crianças pequenas e idosos. Há um incentivo para encontrar medidas de controle alternativas, como extratos de plantas e ervas, especialmente em países menos desenvolvidos, onde os antibióticos tradicionais podem não estar prontamente disponíveis.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Idoso , Romã (Fruta) , Staphylococcus aureus , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Escherichia coli , Anti-Infecciosos
4.
Anticancer Res ; 42(4): 2095-2104, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35347033

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The standard of treatment for esophageal cancer with adjacent organ invasion (T4) has not been established. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical outcomes of radiotherapy (RT) in elderly and younger patients with T4 esophageal cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixty-nine patients with T4 esophageal cancer who underwent RT at the Kanagawa Cancer Center between January 2014 and November 2020 were included in this study. Patients aged ≥70 years were defined as the elderly group and those aged <70 years were defined as the younger group. The total dose of RT was set at 60 Gy in 30 fractions. Chemotherapy combined with 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin was administered concurrently with RT in general. The overall survival (OS) rate was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Adverse events were assessed using CTCAE v4.0. RESULTS: The median survival time (MST) of the elderly group (n=35) was 21.5 months, and the OS rates at 1, 3, and 5 years were 63.7%, 31.3%, and 15.6%, respectively. The MST of the younger group (n=34) was 12.5 months, and the OS rates at 1, 3, and 5 years were 52.2%, 29.4%, and 29.4%, respectively. No significant difference in OS was observed between the two groups (p=0.767). Toxicities were not significantly different between the two groups except for thrombocytopenia and esophageal fistula (p=0.012 and p=0.022, respectively). CONCLUSION: The clinical outcomes of RT for T4 esophageal cancer in elderly patients were generally similar to those in the younger group.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias Esofágicas , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/radioterapia , Quimiorradioterapia/efeitos adversos , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Cisplatino/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Esofágicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Esofágicas/radioterapia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 424, 2022 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35361211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The "4 + 7" volume-based procurement is a "large group purchase" led by the Chinese government, with the aim of reducing the price of medicines by trading volume for price. Although the "4 + 7" drugs had passed the national consistency evaluation, the adverse drug reactions need to be further evaluated to ensure the safety of the "4 + 7" drugs with low prices. We aimed to analyze the occurrence characteristics and related influencing factors of adverse reactions of psychiatric drugs under the chinese drug volume-based procurement policy(4 + 7 policy), and provide references for clinical medication. METHODS: 137 cases of adverse drug reactions of four psychotropic drugs reported under the "4 + 7" policy in Wuxi Mental Health Center in 2020 were collected. The gender and age of patients, related "4 + 7" drugs, involving organs / systems, clinical manifestations, distribution of new / serious adverse reactions, clinic outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: Among the 137 cases of adverse drug reactions, the incidence of adverse drug reactions was the highest in patients aged 61-70 (25.38%). Mainly involved 4 "4 + 7" psychiatric drugs, of which olanzapine tablets caused the most adverse reactions (54, 39.24%). The adverse reactions mainly involved the digestive system, nervous system, cardiovascular system, blood and lymphatic system, among which the digestive system was the most common (61, 44.53%). A total of 8 cases (6.16%) of new and 26 cases of serious adverse reactions were reported, all of which led to the prolongation of disease course. Except for the transient side effects, most of that were improved or cured with no death, disability or teratogenicity after stopping or reducing the dose with symptomatic treatment. CONCLUSION: Since more and more drugs will be included in "4 + 7" for clinic, clinical pharmacists should strengthen the publicity and training of the knowledge of "4 + 7" drugs, strengthen the monitoring of adverse drug reactions, and provide timely feedback to the clinic, in order to achieve early prevention, early identification, timely diagnosis and reasonable intervention of the adverse drug reactions under the context of "4 + 7" policy.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicotrópicos/efeitos adversos , Política Pública
6.
Mol Hum Reprod ; 28(1)2022 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34954800

RESUMO

Sperm DNA damage is considered a predictive factor for the clinical outcomes of patients undergoing ART. Laboratory evidence suggests that zygotes and developing embryos have adopted specific response and repair mechanisms to repair DNA damage of paternal origin. We have conducted a systematic review in accordance with guidelines from Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) to identify and review the maternal mechanisms used to respond and repair sperm DNA damage during early embryonic development, how these mechanisms operate and their potential clinical implications. The literature search was conducted in Ovid MEDLINE and Embase databases until May 2021. Out of 6297 articles initially identified, 36 studies were found to be relevant through cross referencing and were fully extracted. The collective evidence in human and animal models indicate that the early embryo has the capacity to repair DNA damage within sperm by activating maternally driven mechanisms throughout embryonic development. However, this capacity is limited and likely declines with age. The link between age and decreased DNA repair capacity could explain decreased oocyte quality in older women, poor reproductive outcomes in idiopathic cases and patients who present high sperm DNA damage. Ultimately, further understanding mechanisms underlying the maternal repair of sperm DNA damage could lead to the development of targeted therapies to decrease sperm DNA damage, improved oocyte quality to combat incoming DNA insults or lead to development of methodologies to identify individual spermatozoa without DNA damage.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA , Reparo do DNA , Idoso , Animais , Dano ao DNA/genética , Reparo do DNA/genética , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Oócitos/fisiologia , Gravidez , Espermatozoides/fisiologia
7.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(2): 219-227, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130073

RESUMO

Theoretical research suggests that racialized felony disenfranchisement-a form of structural racism-is likely to undermine the health of Black people, yet empirical studies on the topic are scant. We used administrative data on disproportionate felony disenfranchisement of Black residents across US states, linked to geocoded individual-level health data from the 2016 Health and Retirement Study, to estimate race-specific regression models describing the relationship between racialized disenfranchisement and health among middle-aged and older adults, adjusting for other individual- and state-level factors. Results show that living in states with higher levels of racialized disenfranchisement is associated with more depressive symptoms, more functional limitations, more difficulty performing instrumental activities of daily living, and more difficulty performing activities of daily living among Black people. However, there are no statistically significant relationships between racialized disenfranchisement and health among White people. These findings suggest that policies aiming to mitigate disproportionate Black felony disenfranchisement not only are essential for political inclusion but also may be valuable tools for improving population health equity.


Assuntos
Equidade em Saúde , Saúde da População , Racismo , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos
8.
J Visc Surg ; 159(1): 21-30, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33349570

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: To determine the statistical indicators aimed at identifying patients for whom ambulatory colectomy could be proposed without additional risk. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The medical charts of patients who benefited from scheduled colonic or rectal resection during conventional hospitalization stays between 2018 and 2019 were reviewed. Eligibility for ambulatory colectomy was defined by hospital stay≤4 days and absence of any postoperative complication. Patient characteristics were compared, and the results were modeled in the form of a decision-making tree. The effect of an enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocol for each sub-group was calculated. RESULTS: One hundred and ten (110) patients were selected (41 "eligible" and 69 "non-eligible"). Median age was 73 years (27-95). Nearly 80% of the patients were operated for cancer. In multivariate analysis, age (≥65 years, OR=3.15, CI95%=1.22-8.12), diabetes (OR=3.91, CI95%=1.03-14.8) and indication (sigmoidectomy for diverticulosis, OR=0.21, CI=95%=0.05-0.9) were the only identified independent variables. Likelihood for ambulatory eligibility was 83.3% (<65 years, sigmoidectomy pour diverticulosis, +ERAS=92%-96.9%), 58.3% (<65 years, other indication, +ERAS=63.4%-89.9%), 35.7% (≥65 years without diabetes, +ERAS=40.0%-55.9%) and 8.3% (≥65 years with diabetes, +ERAS=10.0%-20.1%). CONCLUSION: Sigmoidectomy for diverticulosis in a patient under 65 years age represents the best indication for ambulatory colectomy, a procedure that must not be proposed to diabetic patients over 65 years of age. In the other cases (<65 years operated in another indication and non-diabetic≥65 years), ambulatory surgery is possible, pending satisfactory application of the ERAS protocol.


Assuntos
Recuperação Pós-Cirúrgica Melhorada , Laparoscopia , Protectomia , Idoso , Colectomia/métodos , Colo/cirurgia , Humanos , Laparoscopia/métodos , Tempo de Internação , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia
9.
Clin Exp Nephrol ; 26(1): 22-28, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a herpes virus that causes latent infections, and its reactivation due to immunosuppression can cause fatal complications. CMV reactivation is a complication frequently occurring in patients with kidney disease who require immunosuppressive therapy, and, therefore, this study retrospectively examined its risk factors. METHODS: Patients who received immunosuppressive therapy and underwent the CMV antigenemia test (CMV antigenemia: C7-HRP) for the treatment of primary nephritis (minimal change disease, membranous nephropathy, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, focal glomerulosclerosis, and IgA nephropathy) and anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-associated nephritis diagnosed at Saiseikai Kurihashi Hospital from January 2014 to December 2019 were recruited as study participants. Risk factors of CMV reactivation were examined using univariable and multivariable analyses. RESULTS: Among the 64 patients (36 men and 28 women; median age, 72 years) included, 34 had primary nephritis (20 minimal disease changes, 10 membranous nephropathy, 1 membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, 1 focal glomerulosclerosis, and 2 IgA nephropathy) and 30 had ANCA-associated nephritis. Regarding glucocorticoid (GC), 43 patients received oral GC therapy, whereas 21 received GC pulse therapy. CMV reactivation participants showed significant differences in age, ANCA-associated nephritis, hemoglobin level, lymphocyte count, maximum GC dosage, and hemodialysis in univariable analysis. Multivariate analysis showed significantly lower lymphocyte counts in CMV-reactivated patients, but no significant difference in other factors. CONCLUSION: In patients with kidney disease, who require immunosuppressive therapy, CMV reactivation risk is high in patients with low lymphocyte count, and monitoring CMV during the treatment course could lead to early diagnosis and treatment of CMV disease.


Assuntos
Citomegalovirus , Nefropatias , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Nefropatias/diagnóstico , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Ativação Viral
10.
BMC Pulm Med ; 22(1): 120, 2022 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35361191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anti-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (anti-ARS) antibodies are myositis-specific autoantibodies that have been identified in a subset of patients with interstitial pneumonia who do not present with dermatomyositis or polymyositis. Anti-ARS antibody-positive interstitial pneumonia is commonly treated with steroids or immunosuppressive agents and is usually responsive to these therapies. Here, we present in detail a case in which respiratory failure of a patient diagnosed with anti-ARS antibody-positive interstitial pneumonia was exacerbated by treatment with steroids and immunosuppressive agents. Further examination revealed misdiagnosis of this patient and a subsequent diagnosis of autoimmune pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 66-year-old man presented to the hospital with dyspnea on exertion, which resulted in the detection of interstitial pneumonia. Serum anti-ARS antibodies were detected; however, there were no other findings suggestive of myositis. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) was suspected based on the marked increase in serum KL-6 and chest computed tomography findings. The bronchoalveolar lavage revealed no milky changes in the lavage fluid. After treatment with steroids and initiation of immunosuppressive agents for anti-ARS antibody-positive interstitial pneumonia, respiratory failure and chest imaging findings showed worsening of the condition. Bronchoscopy was repeated, and milk-like alveolar lavage fluid was collected; serum anti-granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor antibody was identified. Steroids and immunosuppressive agents were gradually tapered and discontinued, and the patient's condition stabilized after repeated alveolar lavage under general anesthesia. CONCLUSION: Due to similar presentation, PAP can be misdiagnosed as interstitial pneumonia. If pulmonary lesions due to interstitial pneumonia are exacerbated by immunosuppressive treatment, physicians should reconsider the diagnosis and include PAP in the differential diagnosis.


Assuntos
Aminoacil-tRNA Sintetases , Doenças Autoimunes , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais , Proteinose Alveolar Pulmonar , Idoso , Doenças Autoimunes/diagnóstico , Doenças Autoimunes/tratamento farmacológico , Erros de Diagnóstico , Humanos , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Proteinose Alveolar Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Proteinose Alveolar Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico
11.
J Mol Neurosci ; 72(2): 187-200, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415549

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder of the elderly described by progressive cognitive debility. Recent studies have displayed the significance of linear and circular long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the pathobiology of Alzheimer's disease. These studies have reported the downregulation of MALAT1, while the upregulation of NEAT1, RP11-543N12.1, SOX21-AS1, BDNF-AS, BACE1-AS, ANRIL, XIST, and some other linear lncRNAs in clinical samples are obtained from these patients or animal models of Alzheimer's disease. A number of circRNAs such as ciRS-7, ciRS-7, circNF1-419, circHDAC9, circ_0000950,and circAß-a have been shown to partake in the pathogenesis of this disorder. In the present manuscript, we provide a review of the impact of linear and circular lncRNAs in the pathobiology of Alzheimer's disease and their potential application as markers for this neurodegenerative condition.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , RNA Longo não Codificante , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide , Animais , Ácido Aspártico Endopeptidases , Humanos , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo
12.
Ars pharm ; 63(2)abr.-jun. 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-202810

RESUMO

Introducción: La alfabetización en salud es una medida de la capacidad de los pacientes de leer, comprender y tomar decisiones en base a instrucciones médicas. La inadecuada alfabetización se asocia a un peor estado de salud en pacientes con enfermedades crónicas. El momento de la dispensación podría ser una oportunidad para evaluar esta condición por el farmacéutico de atención primariaEl objeto de este estudio fue evaluar la relación de alfabetización en salud y los valores de colesterol total y comorbilidades en personas con prescripción de hipolipemiantes atendidos en un centro de jubilados.Método:Se diseñó un estudio prospectivo donde se evaluó la relación de la alfabetización utilizando Short Assessment of Health Literacy for Spanish-speaking Adults y el valor de colesterol , medicamentos , factores de riesgo y comorbilidades. Todas estas variables se analizaron en forma integrada en un análisis multivariado. Resultados: Participaron 178 pacientes, 63% mujeres. El puntaje promedio de SAHLSA fue 43,4 ± 5,5. Se encontró una inadecuada alfabetización en 24%. pacientes El valor promedio de colesterol en estre grupo de pacientes fue 235,17mg/dl vs 193,53mg/dl quienes tenian adecuada alfabetización en salud.Se realizó un análisis multivariado que mostró asociación entre inadecuada alfabetización en salud, bajo nivel de educación y conocimiento del paciente . El número de internaciones y la aparición de eventos coronarios fueron significativamente mayor en los pacientes con alfabetización en salud insuficiente. Conclusiones: Se encontró relación directa entre el grado de alfabetización en salud y los valores de colesterol total en pacientes en tratamiento por hipercolesterolemia (AU)


Introduction: Health literacy is a measure of the ability of patients to read, understand and make decisions based on medical instructions. Inadequate health literacy is associated with poorer health in patients with chronic diseases. Time of dispensing could be an opportunity for the primary care pharmacist to evaluate this condition by the. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship of Health literacy and the values of total cholesterol and comorbidities in people with a prescription of lipid-lowering drugs treated in a retirement center. Method: A prospective study was designed where the relationship of Health literacy was evaluated using Short Assessment of Health Literacy for Spanish-speaking Adults and the value of cholesterol, medications, risk factors and comorbidities. All these variables were analyzed in an integrated manner in a multivariate analysis.Results:178 patients participated, 63% women. The mean SAHLSA score was 43.4 ± 5.5. Inadequate HL was found in 24%. patients.The mean cholesterol value in patients with inadequate Health literacy was 235.17mg / dl vs 193.53mg / dl among those with adequate Health literacy.A multivariate analysis was performed that showed an association between inadequate Health literacy, the level of education and the patient’s knowledge of normal values of total cholesterol. The number of hospitalizations and the occurrence of coronary events were significantly higher in patients with insufficient Health literacy. Conclusions: A direct relationship was found between the degree of Health literacy and total cholesterol values in patients undergoing treatment for hypercholesterolemia (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Letramento em Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Hipolipemiantes/uso terapêutico , Colesterol/sangue , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Assistência Farmacêutica , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Análise Multivariada , Comorbidade , Escolaridade , Estudos Transversais
13.
Ars pharm ; 63(2)abr.-jun. 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-202815

RESUMO

Introduction: The aim of this study was to characterize the use of tocilizumab in a hospital. Method: Retrospective cohort study including adult SARS-CoV-2 infected inpatients with moderately severe infection (PaO2/FiO2 < 300). ORs for mortality and treatment success were calculated. Results: The tocilizumab group (n=18), presented 5 days of symptoms vs 7 days in the untreated group (n=71). Minimum PaO2/FiO2 was 147.5 (95%CI: 116.7 to 194.0) vs 255.6 (95%CI: 320.7 to 452.4) (p=0.01).No significant differences were found between the two groups concerning survival (OR=1.22; 95%CI: 0.38 to 3.92), nor treatment success (OR=0.46; 95%CI: 0.16 to 1.33). After adjusting for age, sex and total corticosteroid dose, OR for success was 0.18 (95%CI: 0.03 to 0.96), while mortality was not significant. Conclusions: The use of tocilizumab in moderately severe hospitalized patients could decrease the hyperinflammatory state preventing disease progression (AU)


Introducción: El objetivo del estudio fue estudiar la utilización de tocilizumab en un centro hospitalarioMétodo:Estudio de cohortes retrospectivo que incluyó pacientes ingresados adultos infectados por SARS-CoV-2, con una infección de gravedad moderada (PaO2/FiO2 < 300). Se calcularon las OR de mortalidad y éxito del tratamiento. Resultados: El grupo tocilizumab (n=18), tuvo 5 vs 7 días con síntomas en el grupo no tratado (n=71). El PaO2/FiO2 mínimo fue de 147,5 (IC95%: 116,7 a 194,0) versus 255,6 (IC95%: 320,7 a 452,4) (p=0,01).No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre ambos grupos en supervivencia (OR=1,22; IC95%: 0,38 a 3,92); ni en el éxito del tratamiento (OR=0,46; IC95%: 0,16 a 1,33). Tras ajustar por edad, sexo y dosis total de corticoide, OR de éxitos fue 0,18 (IC95%: 0,03 a 0,96), mientras que mortalidad no fue significativa. Conclusiones: El uso de tocilizumab en pacientes hospitalizados moderadamente graves podría disminuir su estado hiperinflamatorio (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pandemias , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos de Coortes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682440

RESUMO

Pap smear screening can detect cervical cancer early, but is underutilized. Motivational factors play a role in ensuring that women undergo Pap smear screening. This study was conducted to validate the adapted instrument, which was based on the protection motivation theory (PMT), into the Malay language to evaluate the motivational factors for Pap smear screening among women. The original 26-item PMT scale was developed based on seven constructs of the PMT framework. The adaptation involved translation by bilingual experts (n = 4), followed by synthesis (n = 6). Subsequently, we performed content validation (content validation index, CVI) among the health experts (n = 5) and face validation (face validation index, FVI) among women (n = 11). Reliability testing for internal consistency was determined via the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of women aged between 21 and 65 years (n = 150). One item was deleted based on the expert consensus, leaving a total of 25 items after the adaptation. The validation yielded a good CVI and FVI. Prior to CFA reliability testing, one item was deleted due to very low factor loading. The CFA indicated a good fit for 24 items. The factor loading (range: 0.45-0.98), average variance extracted (range: 0.44-0.90), and composite reliability (range: 0.69-0.97) indicated that the convergent validity for each construct was acceptable, except for the perceived vulnerability. However, the perceived vulnerability construct was accepted based on expert verification. We confirmed that the translation, cross-cultural, adaptation, and validation of the Malay-version PMT scale were valid and reliable. The scale contains 24 items that represent the seven constructs of the PMT framework.


Assuntos
Idioma , Motivação , Adulto , Idoso , Comparação Transcultural , Feminino , Humanos , Malásia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Teste de Papanicolaou , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682442

RESUMO

Sport and exercise can be boring. In the general population, thinking of sports as boring has been linked to exercising less. However, less is known about the role of boredom in people who participate in ultra-endurance competitions: Do these athletes also associate their sports with boredom, and does boredom pose a self-regulatory challenge that predicts if they encounter a crisis during an ultra-endurance competition? Here, we investigate these questions with a sample of N = 113 (n = 34 female) competitors of a 24 h hour running competition, aged M = 37.6 ± 13.8 years. In this study, n = 23 very extreme athletes competed as single starters or in a relay team of 2, and n = 84 less extreme athletes competed in relay teams of 4 or 6. Before the run, athletes completed self-report measures on sport-specific trait boredom, as well as the degree to which they expected boredom, pain, effort, and willpower to constitute self-regulatory challenges they would have to cope with. After the run, athletes reported the degree to which they actually had to deal with these self-regulatory challenges and if they had faced an action crisis during the competition. Analyses revealed that very extreme athletes displayed a significantly lower sport-specific trait boredom than less extreme athletes (p = 0.024, d=-0.48). With respect to self-regulatory challenges, willpower, pain, and effort were expected and reported at a much higher rate than boredom. However, only boredom was as a significant predictor of experiencing a crisis during the competition (odds ratio = 12.5, p = 0.02). Our results show that boredom also matters for highly active athletes. The fact that the experience of boredom-and not more prototypical competition-induced challenges, such as pain or effort-were linked to having an action crisis highlights the relevance of incorporating boredom into the preparation for a race and to the performance management during competition.


Assuntos
Resistência Física , Corrida , Idoso , Atletas , Tédio , Feminino , Humanos , Dor
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682451

RESUMO

The restriction measures adopted to control the COVID-19 pandemic had significant consequences on individuals' lifestyles. This study is aimed at assessing the amount and type of habitual physical activity (PA) in older adults during the advanced phase of the pandemic and their possible relationships with sociodemographic aspects. A questionnaire that included sociodemographic characteristics and the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) was administered online to elderly subjects living in the Apulia region, South Italy. A sample of 939 participants (57.1% F; mean age 75.9 ± 6.3) was obtained. In total, 68.8% of female respondents reported a decrease in PA during the pandemic, while 55.1% of men maintained their previous levels (<0.001). The total PASE score did not differ between gender groups (median value 91.7 in males vs. 90.0 in females; p = 0.067). However, differences were registered in leisure activities, particularly regarding walking (23.8 ± 14.8 in males vs. 20.2 ± 14.6 in females; p = 0.001). Higher PA levels were related with lower age (OR 0.253; 95% CI 0.192-0.333; p = 0.001). Since inactivity can affect elderly health and wellbeing, and considering the impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on this habit, health promotion strategies to counteract the negative effects of the pandemic should include interventions aimed at increasing PA in this sub-group of the population, especially among women and elderly subjects.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682479

RESUMO

Inappropriate prescribing, which encompasses the prescription of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) and potential prescribing omissions (PPOs), is a common problem for older people. The STOPP/START tool enables general practitioners, who are the main prescribers, to identify and reduce the incidence of PIMs and PPOs and appraise an older patient's prescribed drugs during the diagnosis process to improve the clinical care quality. This study aimed to translate and validate the STOPP/START screening tool to enable its use by Portuguese physicians. A translation-back translation method including the validation of the obtained Portuguese version was used. Intra- and inter-rater reliability and agreement analyses were used in the validation process. A dataset containing the information of 334 patients was analyzed by one GP twice within a 2-week interval, while a dataset containing the information of 205 patients was independently analyzed by three GPs. Intra-rater reliability assessment led to a Kappa coefficient (κ) of 0.70 (0.65-0.74) for the STOPP criteria and 0.60 (0.52-0.68) for the START criteria, considered to be substantial and moderate values, respectively. The results of the inter-rater reliability rating were almost perfect for all combinations of raters (κ > 0.93). The version of the STOPP/START criteria translated into Portuguese represents an improvement in managing the medications prescribed to the elderly. It provides clinicians with a screening tool for detecting potentially inappropriate prescribing in patients older than 65 years old that is reliable and easy to use.


Assuntos
Prescrição Inadequada , Lista de Medicamentos Potencialmente Inapropriados , Idoso , Humanos , Prescrição Inadequada/prevenção & controle , Portugal , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Traduções
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682487

RESUMO

Exposure to indoor air pollution from cooking with solid fuel has been linked with the health of elderly people, although the pathway to their association is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the mediating effects between solid fuel use and self-rated health by using structural equation modeling (SEM) with the baseline data from Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS). We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 7831 elderly people aged >65 years from the CLHLS. SEM was used to analyze the pathways underlying solid fuel use and self-rated health. We estimated indirect effects of sleep quality (ß = -0.027, SE = 0.006), cognitive abilities (ß = -0.006, SE = 0.002), depressive symptoms (ß = -0.066, SE = 0.007), systolic blood pressure (ß = 0.000, SE = 0.000), and BMI (ß = -0.000, SE = 0.000) on the association between solid fuel and the self-rated health using path analysis. Depressive symptoms emerged as the strongest mediator in the relationship between solid fuel use and self-rated health in the elderly. Interventions targeting sleep quality, cognitive abilities, depressive symptoms, systolic blood pressure, and BMI could greatly reduce the negative effects of solid fuel use on the health of the elderly population.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Análise de Mediação , Adulto , Idoso , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , China/epidemiologia , Culinária , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682505

RESUMO

Depression and related syndromes are well identified in older adults. Depression has been reported to increase the incidence of a multitude of somatic disorders. In older adults, the severity of depression is associated with higher mortality rates. The aim of the study is to examine whether the effect of depression screening on mortality is different between individuals with different physical health status. In order to meet this aim, we will first reprove the relationship between depression and mortality rate, and then we will set a subgroup analysis by using self-reported health (SRH) status. Our data source, Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging (TLSA), is a population-based prospective cohort study that was initiated by the Health Promotion Administration, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Taiwan. The depression risk was evaluated by 10-items Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D-10), we set 3 CES-D-10 cutting points (5, 10, and 12) and cut our subjects into four groups. Taking mortality as an end point, we use the Taiwan National Death Registry (TNDR) record from 1999 to 2012. Self-rated health (SRH) was taken as an effect modifier between depression and mortality in the elderly group, and stratification took place into three groups (good, fair, poor). The case numbers of 4 CES-D-10 groups were 2253, 939, 285 and 522, respectively. After dividing into 4 CES-D-10 groups, the mortality prevalence rose as the CES-D-10 level grew (40.7%, 47.82%, 54.39% and 67.62%, respectively). In the subgroup analysis, although the p-value of log-rank test showed <0.05 in three groups, as the SRH got worse the Hazard Ratio became more significant (p = 0.122, 0.033, <0.001, respectively). Kaplan-Meier (K-M) survival estimates for different CES-D groups in SRH were poor, and we can see the curves representing second and third CES-D group going almost together, which may suggest the cutting point of CES-D-10 in predicting depression risk should be adjusted in the relatively unhealthy elderly. The importance of the relationship between depression and mortality is re-emphasized in our study. Moreover, through joining SRH in our analysis, we can conclude that in self-rated poor health any sign of depression may lead to a rise in mortality. Therefore, we should pay attention to the old age group's psychological status, and remember that depressive mood should be scrutinized more carefully in the elderly who feel themselves to be unhealthy.


Assuntos
Depressão , Nível de Saúde , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Estudos Prospectivos , Taiwan/epidemiologia
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682512

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic decreased the in-person outpatient visits and accelerated the use of telehealth services among mental health patients. Our study investigated the sociodemographic and clinical correlates of the intensity of telehealth use among mental health patients residing in rural Louisiana, United States. The study sample included 7069 telehealth visits by 1115 unique patients encountered from 1 April 2020 to 31 March 2021 at six mental health outpatient clinics managed by the Northeast Delta Human Services Authority (NEDHSA). We performed a negative binomial regression analysis with the intensity of service use as the outcome variable. Being younger, female, and more educated were associated with a higher number of telehealth visits. The prevalence of other chronic conditions increased telehealth visits by 10%. The telehealth service intensity varied across the nature of mental health diagnoses, with patients diagnosed with the schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders utilizing 15% fewer telehealth visits than patients diagnosed with depressive disorders. The promotion of telehealth services among mental health patients in the rural setting might require the elimination of the digital divide with a particular focus on the elderly, less educated, and those with serious mental health illnesses such as schizophrenia and psychotic disorders.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Telemedicina , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , População Rural , Estados Unidos
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