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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 670, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009644

RESUMO

Antarctica is considered as one of the most pristine areas on Earth. However, increasing intensity of human presence on the sixth continent (scientific operations, functioning of the numerous scientific stations, tourism activities) makes it crucial to investigate the level of environmental pollution within the vulnerable ecosystem of Antarctica. Soils play a significant role in processes of accumulation, mobilization, redistribution of chemical elements within landscapes, and ecosystems. The aim of this work was to analyze the levels of 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eight trace elements in soils of King George and Ardley islands, Western Antarctica. Moreover, our work was aimed to determine the trends and reasons of anthropogenic pollution of Antarctic soils and characterization of accumulation levels of trace elements and PAHs. Results showed the predominance of light PAHs in all studied sites. The content of benzo(a)pyrene does not exceed the threshold concentration (adopted by different national environmental legislation systems). At the same time, the content of benzo(a)pyrene, which is a marker of anthropogenic contamination, is relatively low or equal to 0 in soils of reference landscapes. Cu and Zn were found as most abundant elements in all studied soils. The highest lead concentration content has been described in soil from Bellingshausen station. In general term, obtained Igeo values for trace elements in all samples were under or slightly above the 0 level, indicating low to moderate pollution of the studied soils. This study also contributes new data on trace element accumulation in soils strongly influenced by ornithogenic factor. Principal component analysis allowed to estimate the probable sources of specific trace metals and their relationship with soil variables. Ornithogenic factor has been also revealed as a driver for some trace element accumulation especially in breeding penguin colonies. High contents of organic matter in ornithogenic habitats could increase trace metal mobility, environmental risks for surrounding terrestrial environments should be considered.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Regiões Antárticas , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Ilhas , Solo
2.
Am J Bot ; 107(8): 1189-1197, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32864742

RESUMO

PREMISE: The mating system has profound consequences, not only for ecology and evolution, but also for the conservation of threatened or endangered species. Unfortunately, small populations are difficult to study owing to limits on sample size and genetic marker diversity. Here, we estimated mating system parameters in three small populations of an island plant using genomic genotyping. Although self-incompatible (SI) species are known to often set some self-seed, little is known about how "leaky SI" affects selfing rates in nature or the role that multiple paternity plays in small populations. METHODS: We generalized the BORICE mating system program to determine the siring pattern within maternal families. We applied this algorithm to maternal families from three populations of Tolpis succulenta from Madeira Island and genotyped the progeny using RADseq. We applied BORICE to estimate each individual offspring as outcrossed or selfed, the paternity of each outcrossed offspring, and the level of inbreeding of each maternal plant. RESULTS: Despite a functional self-incompatibility system, these data establish T. succulenta as a pseudo-self-compatible (PSC) species. Two of 75 offspring were strongly indicated as products of self-fertilization. Despite selfing, all adult maternal plants were fully outbred. There was high differentiation among and low variation within populations, consistent with a history of genetic isolation of these small populations. There were generally multiple sires per maternal family. Twenty-two percent of sib contrasts (between outcrossed offspring within maternal families) shared the same sire. CONCLUSIONS: Genome-wide genotyping, combined with appropriate analytical methods, enables estimation of mating system and multiple paternity in small populations. These data address questions about the evolution of reproductive traits and the conservation of threatened populations.


Assuntos
Paternidade , Autofertilização , Genótipo , Ilhas , Portugal , Reprodução
3.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 159: 111471, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892914

RESUMO

Plastic ingestion by seabirds is an efficient way to monitor marine plastics. We report temporal variation in the characteristics of marine litter regurgitated by albatrosses and giant petrels on sub-Antarctic Marion Island between 1996 and 2018. Both fishery and other litter peaked during the height of the Patagonian toothfish fishery around the island (1997-1999). Comparing the two subsequent decades of reduced fishing effort (1999-2008 and 2009-2018), fishing litter decreased while other litter increased across all species. Litter increased most in grey-headed albatrosses, followed by giant petrels and wandering albatrosses. Similar ranked responses were found in the same species at South Georgia, but non-fishery-related litter has increased faster in the Indian Ocean than the southwest Atlantic, indicating regional changes in litter growth rates. These seabirds' regurgitations provide an easy, non-invasive way to track changes in oceanic litter in a remote area that is otherwise difficult to monitor.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Plásticos , Animais , Regiões Antárticas , Aves , Oceano Índico , Ilhas , Resíduos
4.
Chemosphere ; 254: 126822, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957270

RESUMO

Atmosphere contamination management is one of the most important features in pollution risk management. The worldwide rise in tourism increases apprehension about its probable destructive conservation influence on various aspects of global conservation. One of the principal dangers increased by tourism-based modes of travel are nanoparticles (NPs) containing potentially hazardous elements (PHEs) contamination. One example of this is island destination of Lanzarote, in Spain's Canary Islands in which we examined contamination of the local atmosphere, water and soil. Important NPs containing PHEs, (e.g. arsenic, chromium, lead, and mercury), were found in this locale. It is reasonable to assume that this pollution poses an increased environmental danger to the local biome(s). Modes of transport (i.e. by car, airplane, bus) were shown to be an important contributor to this localized contamination as demonstrated by particulate matter (PM) readings collected near the island's airport. If no measures are taken to reduce vehicle and aircraft traffic, the tendency is to increase environmental degradation will continue unabated. As this particular area of Lanzarote is also one of wine production, increased pollution has the potential for negative impacts on the region's economy.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Nanopartículas/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Aeronaves , Aeroportos , Atmosfera , Ecossistema , Poluição Ambiental , Geologia , Ilhas , Solo , Espanha
5.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 97: 180-185, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933733

RESUMO

Novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) were investigated in Arctic air and soil samples collected from Ny-Ålesund and London Island, Svalbard, during Chinese scientific research expeditions to the Arctic during 2014-2015. The concentrations of Σ9NBFRs in the Arctic air and soil were 4.9-8.7 pg/m3 (average 6.8 pg/m3) and 101-201 pg/g dw (average 150 pg/g dw), respectively. The atmospheric concentration of hexabromobenzene (HBB) was significantly correlated with that of pentabromotoluene (PBT) and pentabromobenzene (PBBz), suggesting similar source and environmental fate in the Arctic air. No significant spatial difference was observed among the different sampling sites, both for air and soil samples, indicating that the effects of the scientific research stations on the occurrence of NBFRs in the Arctic were minor. The fugacities from soil to air of pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB), 2,3-dibromopropyl 2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (DPTE), and decabromodiphenylethane 1,2-bis (pentabromophenyl) ethane (DBDPE) were lower than the equilibrium value, indicating a nonequilibrium state of these compounds between air and soil, the dominant impact of deposition and the net transport from air to soil. The correlation analysis between the measured and predicted soil-atmosphere coefficients based on the absorption model showed that the impact of the soil organic matter on the distribution of NBFRs in the Arctic region was minor. To the best of our knowledge, this work is one of the limited reports on atmospheric NBFRs in the Arctic and the first study to investigate the occurrence and fate of NBFRs in the Arctic soil.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama/análise , Regiões Árticas , Atmosfera , Monitoramento Ambiental , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Ilhas , Londres , Solo , Svalbard
6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(8): 554, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737593

RESUMO

Vegetation mapping requires extensive field data for training and validation. Volunteered geographic information in the form of geotagged photos of identified plants has the potential to serve as a supplemental data source for vegetation mapping projects. In this study, we compare the locations of specific taxa from the iNaturalist platform to locations identified on both a fine-scale vegetation map and high-resolution ortho-imagery in open-canopy shrubland in San Clemente Island, CA. Due to positional uncertainty associated with the iNaturalist observations, as well as the presence-only nature of the data, it was not possible to perform a traditional accuracy assessment. We instead measured the distance between the location recorded by an iNaturalist observer for a given taxon and the closest mapped individual of that taxon. This distance was within 10 m for a majority of the observations (64%). When comparing the iNaturalist location to the closest individual detected through image interpretation, 87% of the observations were within 10 m. The discrepancy in agreement between the vegetation map and imagery is likely due to mapping errors. While iNaturalist data come with important limitations, the platform is an excellent resource for supporting vegetation mapping and other ecological applications.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Plantas , Mapeamento Geográfico , Humanos , Ilhas , Voluntários
7.
Nature ; 584(7820): 234-237, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788738

RESUMO

Tropical soils contain one-third of the carbon stored in soils globally1, so destabilization of soil organic matter caused by the warming predicted for tropical regions this century2 could accelerate climate change by releasing additional carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere3-6. Theory predicts that warming should cause only modest carbon loss from tropical soils relative to those at higher latitudes5,7, but there have been no warming experiments in tropical forests to test this8. Here we show that in situ experimental warming of a lowland tropical forest soil on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, caused an unexpectedly large increase in soil CO2 emissions. Two years of warming of the whole soil profile by four degrees Celsius increased CO2 emissions by 55 per cent compared to soils at ambient temperature. The additional CO2 originated from heterotrophic rather than autotrophic sources, and equated to a loss of 8.2 ± 4.2 (one standard error) tonnes of carbon per hectare per year from the breakdown of soil organic matter. During this time, we detected no acclimation of respiration rates, no thermal compensation or change in the temperature sensitivity of enzyme activities, and no change in microbial carbon-use efficiency. These results demonstrate that soil carbon in tropical forests is highly sensitive to warming, creating a potentially substantial positive feedback to climate change.


Assuntos
Ciclo do Carbono , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Florestas , Aquecimento Global , Solo/química , Clima Tropical , Retroalimentação , Ilhas , Panamá , Fatores de Tempo , Água/análise
8.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236875, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813748

RESUMO

The Upper Palaeolithic is characterised by the appearance of iconographic expressions most often depicting animals, including anthropomorphic forms, and geometric signs. The Late Upper Palaeolithic Magdalenian saw a flourishing of such depictions, encompassing cave art, engraving of stone, bone and antler blanks and decoration of tools and weapons. Though Magdalenian settlement exists as far northwest as Britain, there is a limited range of art known from this region, possibly associated with only fleeting occupation of Britain during this period. Stone plaquettes, flat fragments of stone engraved on at least one surface, have been found in large quantities at numerous sites spanning the temporal and geographical spread of the Magdalenian, but they have been absent so far from the archaeological record of the British Isles. Between 2015 and 2018, ten fragments of stone plaquettes extensively engraved with abstract designs were uncovered at the Magdalenian site of Les Varines, Jersey, Channel Islands. In this paper, we report detailed analyses of these finds, which provide new evidence for technologies of abstract mark-making, and their significance within the lives of people on the edge of the Magdalenian world. These engraved stone fragments represent important, rare evidence of artistic expression in what is the far northern and western range of the Magdalenian and add new insight to the wider significance of dynamic practices of artistic expression during the Upper Palaeolithic.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Arte , Gravuras e Gravação , Ilhas
9.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236719, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813705

RESUMO

The first excavations on Obi Island, north-east Wallacea, reveal three phases of occupation beginning in the terminal Pleistocene. Ground shell artefacts appear at the end of the terminal Pleistocene, the earliest examples in Wallacea. In the subsequent early Holocene occupation phase, ground stone axe flakes appear, which are again the earliest examples in Wallacea. Ground axes were likely instrumental to subsistence in Obi's dense tropical forest. From ~8000 BP there was a hiatus lasting several millennia, perhaps because increased precipitation and forest density made the sites inhospitable. The site was reoccupied in the Metal Age, with this third phase including quadrangular ground stone artefacts, as well as pottery and pigs; reflecting Austronesian influences. Greater connectivity at this time is also indicated by an Oliva shell bead tradition that occurs in southern Wallacea and an exotic obsidian artefact. The emergence of ground axes on Obi is an independent example of a broader pattern of intensification at the Pleistocene-Holocene transition in Wallacea and New Guinea, evincing human innovation in response to rapid environmental change.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Ilhas , Comportamento de Utilização de Ferramentas , Animais , Fósseis
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32751824

RESUMO

Rapid urbanization has posed numerous negative impacts on the environment, including fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution. However, quantitative investigations of the PM2.5 concentration trends over an urban-rural gradient at the local level are still lacking. The urban particulate matter island (UPI) effect, representing the phenomenon that high particle concentrations in urban areas are gradually attenuated to surrounding areas, was adopted and modified in this paper to study the Hangzhou Bay area from 2000 to 2015. We found the following: (1) every urban area in the Hangzhou Bay area experienced rapid expansion, especially during 2000-2005; (2) more than half of the urban areas suffered UPI problems, and these urban areas had relatively high and stable UPI intensity (UPII) values, although the UPI footprint (UPIFP) values decreased with urban expansion; and (3) urban areas could be divided into three categories: plain areas, hilly areas and the junction of plains and hills, and the probability of the UPI effect varied significantly for different categories. This paper can compensate for the lack of research on the UPI effect at the local level and provide scientific evidence for air pollution control during urban agglomeration planning.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Urbanização , Humanos , Ilhas
11.
Extremophiles ; 24(5): 797-807, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32789694

RESUMO

We recovered 85 fungal isolates from the acid sulphate soils in chronosequence under para-periglacial conditions in King George Island, Antarctica. Thirty-two taxa belonging to the phylum Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Mortierellomycota were identified. Mortierella amoeboidea, Mortierella sp. 2, Mortierella sp. 3, Penicillium sp. 2 and Penicillium sp. 3 dominated the sulphite soils. Despite the multi-extreme physic-chemical conditions of the sulphate soils (low pH, variable content of macro and micronutrients and organic matter), the fungal assemblages exhibited moderate diversity indices, which ranged according to the degree of soil development. Soils with more weathered and, consequently, with highest values of organic carbon shelter the most diverse fungal assemblages, which can be associated with the occurrence of sulphurisation and sulphide oxidation. Different taxa of Mortierella and Penicillium displayed broad pH (3-9) and temperature (5-35 °C) plasticity. The multi-extreme sulphite soils of Antarctica revealed the presence of moderate fungal diversity comprising cold cosmopolitan and psychrophilic endemic taxa. Among these, Mortierella and Penicillium, known to survive in extreme conditions such as low temperature and available organic matter, low pH and high concentrations of metals, might represent interesting techniques to be used in biotechnological processes such as bioleaching in metallurgy and phosphate solubilisation in agriculture.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Fungos , Solo , Regiões Antárticas , Ilhas , Microbiologia do Solo , Sulfatos
12.
Nature ; 584(7822): 531-533, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760035

Assuntos
Plantas , Ilhas , Nova Guiné
13.
J Environ Manage ; 274: 111167, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791325

RESUMO

ALAN (artificial light at night) can give, if done adequately, a lot of benefits for human society, but it affects reproduction, navigation, foraging, habitat selection, communication, trophic and social interactions of the biota in the same time. Taking into account dramatic increase in light pollution of the night sky and night environment during the past decades, the creation of refugia where natural habitats are not influenced by ALAN is very important. We selected promising territories without, or with a low impact of, ALAN for the development of a VIDA (Very Important Dark Area) Network in Europe and the Caucasus region. 54 VIDAs within the borders of 30 countries were chosen, located in different biogeographic regions, at different altitudes, and in juxtaposition with protected areas. Special attention has been paid to sea and ocean islands, non-polluted by ALAN, as well as to large parts of European Russia and Kazakhstan where there is still a low level of light pollution. These places might be a basis for the protection of biodiversity from the consequences of ALAN, and they can also serve as key education centers for increasing the awareness of the problem of light pollution of the sky at night. Due to the fact that light propagates far away in the atmosphere, the protection of VIDAs can be obtained only if a strong anti-light pollution action is enforced also in the surrounding areas, at least 100 km from the borders of the VIDAs.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Ilhas , Federação Russa
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 739: 139799, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846504

RESUMO

The Leyes' Delta lies at the Middle Paraná River, the second-largest fluvial system in South America, and it is being quickly formed into the Setúbal fluvial lake, Argentina. In the context of the Fluvial Biogeomorphic Succession theory, our aim was to better understand interactions between physical and biotic processes contributing to the formation of the Leyes' Delta. We studied the genesis, morphologic development, and vegetation in three groups of its deltaic islands with contrasting formation ages. Different methodologies were applied. Genesis and morphologic development were interpreted from time-series of satellite images and aerial photography obtained from 1974 to 2014. Then landforms and vegetation communities were mapped on the most current images, and they were corroborated and characterized during fieldwork. Our results evidence that the three island groups (Channel crevasse splay islands, Delta bar-plain islands, and Delta front islands) were formed via two different geomorphic processes, determining differences in the initial vegetation colonization. Eight fluvial-lacustrine landforms and eight vegetation communities, both differently represented among the island groups, currently characterize these islands. The species richness accumulation curves and beta diversity showed that the morphodynamic activity can be as important in the floristic composition of the deltaic islands as formation ages. The floristic composition differed statistically among island groups. After identifying three of the four phases of the FBS, we concluded that even though the morphodynamic activity under which islands were formed determined differences in the initial vegetation colonization, under similar subsequent levels of morphodynamics the resulting vegetation heterogeneity tends to be similar even under contrasting genesis. Among the vegetation types, Lotic prairies would play a key role in the morphologic evolution of the deltaic islands, therefore, their distribution and interactions with flow and sediments should be considered during the studies of social ecological systems as the Leyes' Delta, in Santa Fe, Argentina.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Rios , Argentina , Ilhas , América do Sul
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(32): 39865-39878, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748362

RESUMO

Urban Heat Island (UHI) is related to the theory of higher atmosphere and surface temperature taking place in the city area as compared to the nearby rural areas. The study results explain the advantages of green spaces in urban areas. Landsat TM/OLI concept of 1998 and 2017 years was attained from USGS for this work. To find out the land-use and land cover pattern supervised classification, the maximum prospect process is adopted. A total of four classes were mapped for the study area which includes built-up, barren land, vegetation, and water bodies. Effective sensor brightness temperature has been acquired from spectral radiance by using Plank's reverse function. On the basis of surface emissivity, Normalize Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) classes are used to find out the ultimate temperature of the land surface (LST). The maximum temperature was recorded in the built-up area and barren land of the city and minimum temperatures were noted in areas with a greater cover of vegetation. The presence of UHI temperature is obvious from the land surface temperature views. An increase of 2 °C in surface temperature is recorded in district Lahore during the last two decades. Rise of 2.2 °C and 2.4 °C surface temperature has taken place in Faisalabad and Multan Districts in the last 19 years, respectively. In the establishment of a correlation among the LST, built-up, and vegetation, there is a positive sign present in their relation. With the increase in the built-up area, LST does increase as well. Moreover, with the reduction in vegetation cover, the LST is also raised. The study has revealed that there is a need for proper planning for the durable management of urbanization.


Assuntos
Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Reforma Urbana , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Temperatura Alta , Ilhas , Temperatura , Urbanização
16.
Nature ; 584(7822): 579-583, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760001

RESUMO

New Guinea is the world's largest tropical island and has fascinated naturalists for centuries1,2. Home to some of the best-preserved ecosystems on the planet3 and to intact ecological gradients-from mangroves to tropical alpine grasslands-that are unmatched in the Asia-Pacific region4,5, it is a globally recognized centre of biological and cultural diversity6,7. So far, however, there has been no attempt to critically catalogue the entire vascular plant diversity of New Guinea. Here we present the first, to our knowledge, expert-verified checklist of the vascular plants of mainland New Guinea and surrounding islands. Our publicly available checklist includes 13,634 species (68% endemic), 1,742 genera and 264 families-suggesting that New Guinea is the most floristically diverse island in the world. Expert knowledge is essential for building checklists in the digital era: reliance on online taxonomic resources alone would have inflated species counts by 22%. Species discovery shows no sign of levelling off, and we discuss steps to accelerate botanical research in the 'Last Unknown'8.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Classificação/métodos , Ilhas , Plantas/classificação , Mapeamento Geográfico , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Internet , Nova Guiné , Especificidade da Espécie , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Water Sci Technol ; 81(11): 2281-2290, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784273

RESUMO

The history of water supply and wastewater engineering in Crete Island (Greece) dates back more than ca 4,500 years, since the early Bronze Ages. In the Minoan era, it was recognized that the removal of wastewater and storm-water were necessary for communal living. The early Minoan developments in wastewater and storm-water collection and removal are the cornerstones on which modern cities are built. The evolution of wastewater and storm-water management from prehistoric to modern times in Crete is examined briefly in this paper. Information on the current status and future strategies for wastewater and storm-water management is also presented.


Assuntos
Águas Residuárias , Água , Cidades , Grécia , Ilhas , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Abastecimento de Água
18.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 158: 111390, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753176

RESUMO

Radionuclides from 1950s weapons testing at the Montebello Islands, Western Australia, may impact sea turtle embryos incubating within eggs laid in contaminated sands or be taken up into adult body tissues where they can contribute to radiation dose over a turtles' 60+ year lifespan. We measured plutonium in all local samples including turtle skin, bones, hatchlings, eggshells, sea sediments, diet items and beach sands. The amount of Pu in developing embryos/hatchling samples was orders of magnitude lower than that in the surrounding sands. These contaminated sands caused most dose to eggs (external dose from 137Cs, 152Eu), while most of the dose to adults was from internalised radionuclides (98%). While current dose rates are relatively low, local dose rates were high for about ten years following the 1950s detonations and may have resulted in lethality or health impacts to a generation of turtles that likely carry biomarkers today.


Assuntos
Plutônio/análise , Tartarugas , Poluentes Radioativos da Água/análise , Animais , Sedimentos Geológicos , Ilhas , Austrália Ocidental
19.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 158: 111393, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753179

RESUMO

The sources of marine debris (MD) on a small island are largely dependent on the activities on and around the island, one of which is tourism. In this study, the magnitude and tourists' perceptions of MD on a small tourism island (Tidung Islands, Jakarta, Indonesia) were assessed. The results indicated that the tourism is one of the largest waste-generating sources. Plastic waste formed the major proportion of the solid waste, accounting for 83.86% of the total. The unmanaged tourism waste led to a clean-coastal index corresponding to the category "extremely dirty" and decreasing visitors' acceptance index. The resulting conditions will make the tourism unsustainable. In tourism, waste management should be focused on, including prevention and collaborative actions with residents and tourism actors. In addition, the tourist awareness campaigns must be conducted prior to tourist-visitation on the island.


Assuntos
Plásticos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Indonésia , Ilhas , Resíduos Sólidos
20.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 158: 111409, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753193

RESUMO

Geochemical fractionation of seven trace elements (Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) was investigated in the surficial coral reef sediments of three inhabited islands (Kavaratti, Kadmat, and Agatti) belonging to the Lakshadweep Archipelago. The observations indicated that the metals showed their highest contents in the residual fraction of geological origin. The extent of risk, bioavailability, and contamination of trace elements was assessed by risk assessment codes and contamination factors. Based on the results, medium potential adverse effects were observed in the sediments of Kavaratti and Agatti. The concentration of Cd in the exchangeable and carbonate-bound fractions was above its global average shale value in the sediments of Kavaratti and Agatti, suggesting its high mobility and bioavailability and thus an environmental threat to the coral reef ecosystem.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/análise , Oligoelementos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Recifes de Corais , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Oceano Índico , Ilhas , Medição de Risco
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