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2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10594, 2024 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38719953

RESUMO

Colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) are the predominant factor limiting survival in patients with colorectal cancer and liver resection with complete tumor removal is the best treatment option for these patients. This study examines the predictive ability of three-dimensional lung volumetry (3DLV) based on preoperative computerized tomography (CT), to predict postoperative pulmonary complications in patients undergoing major liver resection for CRLM. Patients undergoing major curative liver resection for CRLM between 2010 and 2021 with a preoperative CT scan of the thorax within 6 weeks of surgery, were included. Total lung volume (TLV) was calculated using volumetry software 3D-Slicer version 4.11.20210226 including Chest Imaging Platform extension ( http://www.slicer.org ). The area under the curve (AUC) of a receiver-operating characteristic analysis was used to define a cut-off value of TLV, for predicting the occurrence of postoperative respiratory complications. Differences between patients with TLV below and above the cut-off were examined with Chi-square or Fisher's exact test and Mann-Whitney U tests and logistic regression was used to determine independent risk factors for the development of respiratory complications. A total of 123 patients were included, of which 35 (29%) developed respiratory complications. A predictive ability of TLV regarding respiratory complications was shown (AUC 0.62, p = 0.036) and a cut-off value of 4500 cm3 was defined. Patients with TLV < 4500 cm3 were shown to suffer from significantly higher rates of respiratory complications (44% vs. 21%, p = 0.007) compared to the rest. Logistic regression analysis identified TLV < 4500 cm3 as an independent predictor for the occurrence of respiratory complications (odds ratio 3.777, 95% confidence intervals 1.488-9.588, p = 0.005). Preoperative 3DLV is a viable technique for prediction of postoperative pulmonary complications in patients undergoing major liver resection for CRLM. More studies in larger cohorts are necessary to further evaluate this technique.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Hepatectomia , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Idoso , Hepatectomia/efeitos adversos , Hepatectomia/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Medidas de Volume Pulmonar , Fatores de Risco , Período Pré-Operatório
3.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0296696, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology, the practical role of lung MRI is expanding despite the inherent challenges of the thorax. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the current status of the concurrent dephasing and excitation (CODE) ultrashort echo-time sequence and the T1-weighted volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) sequence in the evaluation of thoracic disease by comparing it with the gold standard computed tomography (CT). METHODS: Twenty-four patients with lung cancer and mediastinal masses underwent both CT and MRI including T1-weighted VIBE and CODE. For CODE images, data were acquired in free breathing and end-expiratory images were reconstructed using retrospective respiratory gating. All images were evaluated through qualitative and quantitative approaches regarding various anatomical structures and lesions (nodule, mediastinal mass, emphysema, reticulation, honeycombing, bronchiectasis, pleural plaque and lymphadenopathy) inside the thorax in terms of diagnostic performance in making specific decisions. RESULTS: Depiction of the lung parenchyma, mediastinal and pleural lesion was not significant different among the three modalities (p > 0.05). Intra-tumoral and peritumoral features of lung nodules were not significant different in the CT, VIBE or CODE images (p > 0.05). However, VIBE and CODE had significantly lower image quality and poorer depiction of airway, great vessels, and emphysema compared to CT (p < 0.05). Image quality of central airways and depiction of bronchi were significantly better in CODE than in VIBE (p < 0.001 and p = 0.005). In contrast, the depiction of the vasculature was better for VIBE than CODE images (p = 0.003). The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were significant greater in VIBE than CODE except for SNRlung and SNRnodule (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed the potential of CODE and VIBE sequences in the evaluation of localized thoracic abnormalities including solid pulmonary nodules.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Idoso , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Adulto , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Suspensão da Respiração
4.
BMC Pediatr ; 24(1): 321, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Radiologic volumetric evaluation of Wilms' tumor (WT) is an important indicator to guide treatment decisions. However, due to the heterogeneity of the tumors, radiologists have main-guard differences in diagnosis that can lead to misdiagnosis and poor treatment. The aim of this study was to explore whether CT-based outlining of WT foci can be automated using deep learning. METHODS: We included CT intravenous phase images of 105 patients with WT and double-blind outlining of lesions by two radiologists. Then, we trained an automatic segmentation model using nnUnet. The Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and 95th percentile Hausdorff distance (HD95) were used to assess the performance. Next, we optimized the automatic segmentation results based on the ratio of the three-dimensional diameter of the lesion to improve the performance of volumetric assessment. RESULTS: The DSC and HD95 was 0.83 ± 0.22 and 10.50 ± 8.98 mm. The absolute difference and percentage difference in tumor size was 72.27 ± 134.84 cm3 and 21.08% ± 30.46%. After optimization according to our method, it decreased to 40.22 ± 96.06 cm3 and 10.16% ± 9.70%. CONCLUSION: We introduce a novel method that enhances the accuracy of predicting WT volume by integrating AI automated outlining and 3D tumor diameters. This approach surpasses the accuracy of using AI outcomes alone and has the potential to enhance the clinical evaluation of pediatric patients with WT. By intertwining AI outcomes with clinical data, this method becomes more interpretive and offers promising applications beyond Wilms tumor, extending to other pediatric diseases.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Renais , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Tumor de Wilms , Humanos , Tumor de Wilms/diagnóstico por imagem , Tumor de Wilms/patologia , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Lactente , Criança , Carga Tumoral , Aprendizado Profundo , Método Duplo-Cego , Imageamento Tridimensional , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Otol Neurotol ; 45(5): 521-528, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728554

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate a system for otomicrosurgery based on 4K three-dimensional (3D) exoscope technology and apply it to cochlear implantation. METHODS: An open stereoscopic vision-based surgical system, which differs from traditional surgical microscopes, was created by utilizing 4K stereo imaging technology and combining it with low-latency 4K ultra-high-definition 3D display. The system underwent evaluation based on 57 cochlear implantation operations, three designed microscopic manipulations, and a questionnaire survey. RESULTS: The surgical images displayed by the 4K-3D exoscope system (4K-3D-ES) are stereoscopic, clear, and smooth. The use of 4K-3D-ES in cochlear implantation is not inferior to traditional microscopes in terms of intraoperative bleeding and surgical complications, and the surgical duration is not slower or may even be faster than when using traditional microscopes. The results of micromanipulation experiments conducted on 16 students also confirmed this and demonstrated that 4K-3D-ES can be easily adapted. Furthermore, additional advantages of 4K-3D-ES were gathered. Significantly enlarged and high-definition stereoscopic images contribute to the visualization of finer anatomical microstructures such as chordae tympani, ensuring safer surgery. Users feel more comfortable in their necks, shoulders, waists, and backs. Real-time shared stereoscopic view for multiple people, convenient for collaboration and teaching. The ear endoscope and 4K-3D-ES enable seamless switching on the same screen. High-definition 3D images and videos can be saved with just one click, making future publication and communication convenient. CONCLUSION: The feasibility and safety of 4K-3D-ES for cochlear implantation surgery have been demonstrated. The 4K-3D-ES also offers numerous unique advantages and holds clinical application and promotional value.


Assuntos
Implante Coclear , Humanos , Implante Coclear/métodos , Implante Coclear/instrumentação , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Microcirurgia/métodos , Microcirurgia/instrumentação , Pré-Escolar , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Idoso , Lactente
6.
Kyobu Geka ; 77(5): 345-350, 2024 May.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38720602

RESUMO

Aortic coarctation is diagnosed in approximately 5% of adult patients with congenital heart disease and is commonly diagnosed through the close examination of hypertension. Various surgical strategies for adult coarctation have been recently reported. Generally, aortic replacement may require blood transfusion in case of injury of the well-developed collateral vessels. Therefore, in order to secure an operative safety, we preoperatively used a medical image viewer to identify the abnormal vessels by three-dimensional computer graphics (3DCG) reconstruction. A 34-year-old male patient was referred to our hospital with hypertension and low ankle-brachial pressure index( ABI). Chest computed tomography( CT) scan showed aortic coarctation and development of abnormal collateral vessels. Descending aorta was replaced via a left third-fourth intercostal thoracotomy under partial extracorporeal circulation. As the image viewer depicted, anatomical abnormality of the collateral vessels was identified precisely, and surgically treated without any injury. The patient was discharged 10 days postoperatively without transfusion and with a normalized ABI.


Assuntos
Aorta Torácica , Coartação Aórtica , Imageamento Tridimensional , Humanos , Coartação Aórtica/cirurgia , Coartação Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Adulto , Aorta Torácica/cirurgia , Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
7.
Eur Radiol Exp ; 8(1): 57, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We compared computed tomography (CT) images and holograms (HG) to assess the number of arteries of the lung lobes undergoing lobectomy and assessed easiness in interpretation by radiologists and thoracic surgeons with both techniques. METHODS: Patients scheduled for lobectomy for lung cancer were prospectively included and underwent CT for staging. A patient-specific three-dimensional model was generated and visualized in an augmented reality setting. One radiologist and one thoracic surgeon evaluated CT images and holograms to count lobar arteries, having as reference standard the number of arteries recorded at surgery. The easiness of vessel identification was graded according to a Likert scale. Wilcoxon signed-rank test and κ statistics were used. RESULTS: Fifty-two patients were prospectively included. The two doctors detected the same number of arteries in 44/52 images (85%) and in 51/52 holograms (98%). The mean difference between the number of artery branches detected by surgery and CT images was 0.31 ± 0.98, whereas it was 0.09 ± 0.37 between surgery and HGs (p = 0.433). In particular, the mean difference in the number of arteries detected in the upper lobes was 0.67 ± 1.08 between surgery and CT images and 0.17 ± 0.46 between surgery and holograms (p = 0.029). Both radiologist and surgeon showed a higher agreement for holograms (κ = 0.99) than for CT (κ = 0.81) and found holograms easier to evaluate than CTs (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Augmented reality by holograms is an effective tool for preoperative vascular anatomy assessment of lungs, especially when evaluating the upper lobes, more prone to anatomical variations. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04227444 RELEVANCE STATEMENT: Preoperative evaluation of the lung lobe arteries through augmented reality may help the thoracic surgeons to carefully plan a lobectomy, thus contributing to optimize patients' outcomes. KEY POINTS: • Preoperative assessment of the lung arteries may help surgical planning. • Lung artery detection by augmented reality was more accurate than that by CT images, particularly for the upper lobes. • The assessment of the lung arterial vessels was easier by using holograms than CT images.


Assuntos
Realidade Aumentada , Holografia , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Artéria Pulmonar , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Idoso , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Holografia/métodos , Artéria Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Pulmonar/anatomia & histologia , Imageamento Tridimensional , Padrões de Referência , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/irrigação sanguínea , Pulmão/cirurgia
8.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10760, 2024 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38729983

RESUMO

Measurement of auricle parameters for planning and post-operative evaluation presents substantial challenges due to the complex 3D structure of the human auricle. Traditional measurement methods rely on manual techniques, resulting in limited precision. This study introduces a novel automated surface-based three-dimensional measurement method for quantifying human auricle parameters. The method was applied to virtual auricles reconstructed from Computed Tomography (CT) scans of a cadaver head and subsequent measurement of important clinically relevant aesthetical auricular parameters (length, width, protrusion, position, auriculocephalic angle, and inclination angle). Reference measurements were done manually (using a caliper and using a 3D landmarking method) and measurement precision was compared to the automated method. The CT scans were performed using both a contemporary high-end and a low-end CT scanner. Scans were conducted at a standard scanning dose, and at half the dose. The automatic method demonstrated significantly higher precision in measuring auricle parameters compared to manual methods. Compared to traditional manual measurements, precision improved for auricle length (9×), width (5×), protrusion (5×), Auriculocephalic Angle (5-54×) and posteroanterior position (23×). Concerning parameters without comparison with a manual method, the precision level of supero-inferior position was 0.489 mm; and the precisions of the inclination angle measurements were 1.365 mm and 0.237 mm for the two automated methods investigated. Improved precision of measuring auricle parameters was associated with using the high-end scanner. A higher dose was only associated with a higher precision for the left auricle length. The findings of this study emphasize the advantage of automated surface-based auricle measurements, showcasing improved precision compared to traditional methods. This novel algorithm has the potential to enhance auricle reconstruction and other applications in plastic surgery, offering a promising avenue for future research and clinical application.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Pavilhão Auricular , Imageamento Tridimensional , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Humanos , Pavilhão Auricular/diagnóstico por imagem , Pavilhão Auricular/anatomia & histologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Cadáver , Masculino
9.
BMC Oral Health ; 24(1): 549, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38730377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the development and utilization of three-dimensional (3D) intraoral scanning (IOS) technology, the morphological characteristics of teeth were quantitatively assessed. In this research, we aimed to explore the prevalence of dental caries in relation to each measurable morphological indicator of the tooth body via 3D intraoral scanning techniques. METHODS: A hospital-based single-centre study was conducted at our hospital from Dec. 2021 to Apr. 2023. A total of 53 patients were involved in the study, providing complete morphological data for 79 teeth. Each patient completed an oral hygiene routine questionnaire and underwent examination by an experienced dentist to evaluate caries conditions before undergoing 3D intraoral scanning to obtain a digital dental model. Geomagic Studio 2014 was used to extract oral morphological data from the models. The acquired data were entered, cleaned and edited using Excel 2016 and subsequently exported to SPSS version 25.0 for analysis. Chi-square analysis and logistic regression analyses were employed to test the associations. RESULTS: Among the participants, 33 (61.1%) were female, with a mean age of 26.52 ± 10.83 years. Significant associations were found between dental caries and the vertical distance between the distal tip and the gum (OR 14.02; 95% CI 1.80-109.07; P = 0.012), the distal lateral horizontal distance of occlusion (OR 0.40; 95% CI 0.18-0.90; P = 0.026), and the mesial horizontal distance of occlusion (OR 2.20; 95% CI 1.12-4.31; P = 0.021). The Hosmer-Lemeshow test indicated a P value of 0.33. CONCLUSIONS: The vertical distance between the distal tip and the gum, the distal lateral horizontal distance of the occlusion and the mesial horizontal distance of the occlusion were the influencing factors for dental caries (identified as independent risk factors). We hypothesize that these factors may be associated with the physiological curvature of teeth and the role of chewing grooves in plaque formation over time. However, further studies involving larger population samples and more detailed age stratification are still needed.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Imageamento Tridimensional , Coroa do Dente , Humanos , Cárie Dentária/diagnóstico por imagem , Cárie Dentária/patologia , Feminino , Masculino , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Adulto , Coroa do Dente/patologia , Coroa do Dente/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(9)2024 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38732037

RESUMO

Mitochondria are the energy factories of a cell, and depending on the metabolic requirements, the mitochondrial morphology, quantity, and membrane potential in a cell change. These changes are frequently assessed using commercially available probes. In this study, we tested the suitability of three commercially available probes-namely 5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolo-carbocyanine iodide (JC-1), MitoTracker Red CMX Rox (CMXRos), and tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester (TMRM)-for assessing the mitochondrial quantity, morphology, and membrane potential in living human mesoangioblasts in 3D with confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and scanning disk confocal microscope (SDCM). Using CLSM, JC-1, and CMXRos-but not TMRM-uncovered considerable background and variation. Using SDCM, the background signal only remained apparent for the JC-1 monomer. Repetitive imaging of CMXRos and JC-1-but not TMRM-demonstrated a 1.5-2-fold variation in signal intensity between cells using CLSM. The use of SDCM drastically reduced this variation. The slope of the relative signal intensity upon repetitive imaging using CLSM was lowest for TMRM (-0.03) and highest for CMXRos (0.16). Upon repetitive imaging using SDCM, the slope varied from 0 (CMXRos) to a maximum of -0.27 (JC-1 C1). Conclusively, our data show that TMRM staining outperformed JC-1 and CMXRos dyes in a (repetitive) 3D analysis of the entire mitochondrial quantity, morphology, and membrane potential in living cells.


Assuntos
Imageamento Tridimensional , Microscopia Confocal , Mitocôndrias , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Microscopia Confocal/métodos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial , Carbocianinas/química , Rodaminas/química
11.
Forensic Sci Int ; 359: 111993, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38704925

RESUMO

There are numerous anatomical and anthropometrical standards that can be utilised for craniofacial analysis and identification. These standards originate from a wide variety of sources, such as orthodontic, maxillofacial, surgical, anatomical, anthropological and forensic literature, and numerous media have been employed to collect data from living and deceased subjects. With the development of clinical imaging and the enhanced technology associated with this field, multiple methods of data collection have become accessible, including Computed Tomography, Cone-Beam Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Radiographs, Three-dimensional Scanning, Photogrammetry and Ultrasound, alongside the more traditional in vivo methods, such as palpation and direct measurement, and cadaveric human dissection. Practitioners often struggle to identify the most appropriate standards and research results are frequently inconsistent adding to the confusion. This paper aims to clarify how practitioners can choose optimal standards, which standards are the most reliable and when to apply these standards for craniofacial identification. This paper describes the advantages and disadvantages of each mode of data collection and collates published research to review standards across different populations for each facial feature. This paper does not aim to be a practical instruction paper; since this field encompasses a wide range of 2D and 3D approaches (e.g., clay sculpture, sketch, automated, computer-modelling), the implementation of these standards is left to the individual practitioner.


Assuntos
Antropologia Forense , Humanos , Antropologia Forense/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Face/diagnóstico por imagem , Face/anatomia & histologia , Imageamento Tridimensional , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Cefalometria/normas , Identificação Biométrica/métodos
12.
BMC Oral Health ; 24(1): 561, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prefabricated myofunctional appliance can guide tooth eruption, improve dentition alignment, correct myofunctional disorders and harmful oral habits. However, its application to skeletal discrepancy may result in unsatisfactory tooth inclination. This study aimed to construct a novel appliance with overjet design to avoid this side effect and investigated its shape and mechanical changes under occlusion using three-dimensional finite element method. METHODS: We established three samples of prefabricated myofunctional appliances. The first one was edge to edge without overjet, and the outer shield of both jaws were flattened. The second one was 3 mm overjet with stepped the outer shield. The last one was 3 mm overjet, and the outer shield of both jaws were flatted, which meant the front wall of lower jaw was strengthened with bumper, termed as lower bumper. A complete dentition model was applied to the study. 150 N occlusal force was applied to each type of appliance and the deformation displacement and the changes in stress was recorded. RESULTS: The deformation was significant in the incisors regions, especially in the vertical and lateral dimensions. The maximum displacements of 3 mm overjet with step shield group were 7.08 mm (vertical), 3.99 mm (lateral), and 2.90 mm (sagittal), while it decreased to 3.92 mm(vertical), 1.94 mm (lateral), and 1.55 mm (sagittal) in overjet with bumper group. Moreover, the upper molar regions exhibited higher vertical and sagittal displacement in 3 mm overjet with step shield group, which were 3.03 mm (vertical) and 1.99 mm (sagittal), and the bumper design could decrease the maximum displacement to 1.72 mm (vertical) and 0.72 mm (sagittal). In addition, the Von Mises stress of appliances was analyzed, and results indicated that 3 mm overjet with step shield generated higher stress than other groups, with the maximum Von Mises stress was 0.9387 MP, which were 0.5858 and 0.5657 MP in edge to edge group and 3 mm overjet with lower bumper group, respectively. CONCLUSION: The prefabricated myofunctional appliances may cause deformation during occlusion. Compared to step shield group, the application of lower bumper exhibited better resistance to occlusal force.


Assuntos
Análise de Elementos Finitos , Desenho de Aparelho Ortodôntico , Humanos , Terapia Miofuncional/instrumentação , Terapia Miofuncional/métodos , Força de Mordida , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Sobremordida/terapia , Estresse Mecânico , Mandíbula , Incisivo , Fenômenos Biomecânicos
13.
Cell ; 187(10): 2502-2520.e17, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38729110

RESUMO

Human tissue, which is inherently three-dimensional (3D), is traditionally examined through standard-of-care histopathology as limited two-dimensional (2D) cross-sections that can insufficiently represent the tissue due to sampling bias. To holistically characterize histomorphology, 3D imaging modalities have been developed, but clinical translation is hampered by complex manual evaluation and lack of computational platforms to distill clinical insights from large, high-resolution datasets. We present TriPath, a deep-learning platform for processing tissue volumes and efficiently predicting clinical outcomes based on 3D morphological features. Recurrence risk-stratification models were trained on prostate cancer specimens imaged with open-top light-sheet microscopy or microcomputed tomography. By comprehensively capturing 3D morphologies, 3D volume-based prognostication achieves superior performance to traditional 2D slice-based approaches, including clinical/histopathological baselines from six certified genitourinary pathologists. Incorporating greater tissue volume improves prognostic performance and mitigates risk prediction variability from sampling bias, further emphasizing the value of capturing larger extents of heterogeneous morphology.


Assuntos
Imageamento Tridimensional , Neoplasias da Próstata , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Prognóstico , Aprendizado Profundo , Microtomografia por Raio-X/métodos , Aprendizado de Máquina Supervisionado
14.
Geobiology ; 22(3): e12601, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38725142

RESUMO

While stromatolites, and to a lesser extent thrombolites, have been extensively studied in order to unravel Precambrian (>539 Ma) biological evolution, studies of clastic-dominated microbially induced sedimentary structures (MISS) are relatively scarce. The lack of a consolidated record of clastic microbialites creates questions about how much (and what) information on depositional and taphonomic settings can be gleaned from these fossils. We used µCT scanning, a non-destructive X-ray-based 3D imaging method, to reconstruct morphologies of ancient MISS and mat textures in two previously described coastal Archaean samples from the ~3.48 Ga Dresser Formation, Pilbara, Western Australia. The aim of this study was to test the ability of µCT scanning to visualize and make 3D measurements that can be used to interpret the biotic-environmental interactions. Fossil MISS including mat laminae with carpet-like textures in one sample and mat rip-up chips in the second sample were investigated. Compiled δ13C and δ34S analyses of specimens from the Dresser Fm. are consistent with a taxonomically diverse community that could be capable of forming such MISS. 3D measurements of fossil microbial mat chips indicate significant biostabilization and suggest formation in flow velocities >25 cm s-1. Given the stratigraphic location of these chips in a low-flow lagoonal layer, we conclude that these chips formed due to tidal influence, as these assumed velocities are consistent with recent modeling of Archaean tides. The success of µCT scanning in documenting these microbialite features validates this technique both as a first step analysis for rare samples prior to the use of more destructive techniques and as a valuable tool for gaining insight into microbialite taphonomy.


Assuntos
Fósseis , Sedimentos Geológicos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Microtomografia por Raio-X , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Austrália Ocidental , Archaea
16.
Codas ; 36(3): e20230203, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38695438

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate three-dimensional facial soft tissue dimensions, maximum bite force (MBF), and occlusal contact area in patients with DFD. In addition, we analyzed the relationship between MBF and the three-dimensional facial measurements. METHODS: Thirty-two patients with skeletal Class III DFD and 20 patients with Class II DFD underwent a soft tissue evaluation using surface laser scanning, as well as MBF and occlusal contact area assessments. The DFD groups were compared with each other and with 25 healthy subjects. RESULTS: Significant morphological differences were found in the transversal, vertical, and anteroposterior dimensions between Class II DFD and Class III DFD. Both DFD groups presented an increased linear distance of chin height, which was strongly related with decreased MBF magnitude. The DFD groups exhibited lower MBF and occlusal contact area, with no significant differences between Class II and Class III DFD. CONCLUSION: The presence of DFD affected 3D measurements of facial soft tissue, causing variations beyond normal limits, lower MBF, and occlusal contact area in both Class II and Class III DFD patients. The vertical dimension might have influenced the lower MBF magnitude in the studied skeletal deformities.


Assuntos
Força de Mordida , Cefalometria , Face , Imageamento Tridimensional , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Face/fisiopatologia , Face/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Adolescente , Má Oclusão Classe III de Angle/fisiopatologia , Má Oclusão Classe III de Angle/diagnóstico por imagem , Má Oclusão Classe II de Angle/fisiopatologia , Má Oclusão Classe II de Angle/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Transversais
17.
J Biomed Opt ; 29(6): 066002, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745984

RESUMO

Significance: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has emerged as the standard of care for diagnosing and monitoring the treatment of various ocular disorders due to its noninvasive nature and in vivo volumetric acquisition capability. Despite its widespread applications in ophthalmology, motion artifacts remain a challenge in OCT imaging, adversely impacting image quality. While several multivolume registration algorithms have been developed to address this issue, they are often designed to cater to one specific OCT system or acquisition protocol. Aim: We aim to generate an OCT volume free of motion artifacts using a system-agnostic registration algorithm that is independent of system specifications or protocol. Approach: We developed a B-scan registration algorithm that removes motion and corrects for both translational eye movements and rotational angle differences between volumes. Tests were carried out on various datasets obtained from two different types of custom-built OCT systems and one commercially available system to determine the reliability of the proposed algorithm. Additionally, different system specifications were used, with variations in axial resolution, lateral resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and real-time motion tracking. The accuracy of this method has further been evaluated through mean squared error (MSE) and multiscale structural similarity index measure (MS-SSIM). Results: The results demonstrate improvements in the overall contrast of the images, facilitating detailed visualization of retinal vasculatures in both superficial and deep vasculature plexus. Finer features of the inner and outer retina, such as photoreceptors and other pathology-specific features, are discernible after multivolume registration and averaging. Quantitative analyses affirm that increasing the number of averaged registered volumes will decrease MSE and increase MS-SSIM as compared to the reference volume. Conclusions: The multivolume registered data obtained from this algorithm offers significantly improved visualization of the retinal microvascular network as well as retinal morphological features. Furthermore, we have validated that the versatility of our methodology extends beyond specific OCT modalities, thereby enhancing the clinical utility of OCT for the diagnosis and monitoring of ocular pathologies.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Retina , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Retina/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Artefatos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Razão Sinal-Ruído
18.
J Plast Surg Hand Surg ; 59: 46-52, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38747532

RESUMO

Standard volar plates often do not fit the surface of the malunited distal radius after osteotomy, necessitating an offset angle for accurate volar tilt correction. The correction can be achieved if the plate is held at the correct angle when the distal screws are locked. With the advantage of 3D surgical planning and patient-specific instruments, we developed a shim instrument to assist the surgeon in securing the plate at the intended angle when locking the distal screws, and evaluated radiological results. Five female patients aged 63-74 with dorsally angulated extra-articular malunions underwent surgery using 3D-printed guides and the shim instrument. The plate position, drilling guide alignment, screw placements, and distal radius correction on postoperative CTs were compared with the surgical plans. Errors were measured using an anatomical coordinate system, and standard 2D radiographic measures were extracted. Preoperative dorsal tilt ranged from 16° to 35°, and postoperative volar tilt from 1° to 11°. 3D analysis revealed mean absolute correction errors of 6.1° in volar tilt, 1.6° in radial inclination, and 0.6 mm in ulnar variance. The volar tilt error due to the shim instrument, indicated by the mean angle error of the distal screws to the plate, was 2.1° but varied across the five patients. Settling of the distal radius, due to tension during and after reduction, further contributed to a mean loss of 3.5° in volar tilt. The shim instrument helped with securing plates at the intended angle; however, further correction improvements should consider the tension between the fragments of osteoporotic bone.


Assuntos
Placas Ósseas , Fixação Interna de Fraturas , Fraturas Mal-Unidas , Osteotomia , Fraturas do Rádio , Humanos , Feminino , Osteotomia/métodos , Osteotomia/instrumentação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fraturas do Rádio/cirurgia , Fraturas do Rádio/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Fraturas Mal-Unidas/cirurgia , Fraturas Mal-Unidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/instrumentação , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/métodos , Impressão Tridimensional , Cirurgia Assistida por Computador , Imageamento Tridimensional , Parafusos Ósseos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
19.
Clin Oral Investig ; 28(6): 311, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743171

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study used image-based finite element analysis (FEA) to assess the biomechanical changes in mandibular first molars resulting from alterations in the position of the root canal isthmus. METHODS: A healthy mandibular first molar, characterized by two intact root canals and a cavity-free surface, was selected as the subject. A three-dimensional model for the molar was established using scanned images of the patient's mandibular teeth. Subsequently, four distinct finite element models were created, each representing varied root canal morphologies: non-isthmus (Group A), isthmus located at the upper 1/3 of the root (Group B), middle 1/3 of the root (Group C), and lower 1/3 of the root (Group D). A static load of 200 N was applied along the tooth's longitudinal axis on the occlusal surface to simulate regular chewing forces. The biomechanical assessment was conducted regarding the mechanical stress profile within the root dentin. The equivalent stress (Von Mises stress) was used to assess the biomechanical features of mandibular teeth under mechanical loading. RESULTS: In Group A (without an isthmus), the maximum stress was 22.2 MPa, while experimental groups with an isthmus exhibited higher stresses, reaching up to 29.4 MPa. All maximum stresses were concentrated near the apical foramen. The presence of the isthmus modified the stress distribution in the dentin wall of the tooth canal. Notably, dentin stresses at specific locations demonstrated differences: at 8 mm from the root tip, Group B: 13.6 MPa vs. Group A: 11.4 MPa; at 3 mm from the root tip, Group C: 14.2 MPa vs. Group A: 4.5 MPa; at 1 mm from the root tip, Group D: 25.1 MPa vs. Group A: 10.3 MPa. The maximum stress in the root canal dentin within the isthmus region was located either at the top or bottom of the isthmus. CONCLUSION: A root canal isthmus modifies the stress profile within the dentin. The maximum stress occurs near the apical foramen and significantly increases when the isthmus is located closer to the apical foramina.


Assuntos
Cavidade Pulpar , Análise do Estresse Dentário , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Mandíbula , Dente Molar , Humanos , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Cavidade Pulpar/anatomia & histologia , Análise do Estresse Dentário/métodos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Estresse Mecânico
20.
Europace ; 26(5)2024 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38696675

RESUMO

AIMS: Contact force (CF)-sensing radiofrequency (RF) catheters with an ablation index have shown reproducible outcomes for the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF) in large multicentre studies. A dual-energy (DE) focal CF catheter to deliver RF and unipolar/biphasic pulsed field ablation (PFA), integrated with a three-dimensional (3D) mapping system, can provide operators with additional flexibility. The SmartfIRE study assessed the safety and efficacy of this novel technology for the treatment of drug-refractory, symptomatic paroxysmal AF. Results at 3 months post-ablation are presented here. METHODS AND RESULTS: Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) was performed using a DE focal, irrigated CF-sensing catheter with the recommendation of PFA at posterior/inferior and RF ablation at the anterior/ridge/carina segments. Irrespective of energy, a tag size of 3 mm; an inter-tag distance ≤6 mm; a target index of 550 for anterior, roof, ridge, and carina; and a target index of 400 for posterior and inferior were recommended. Cavotricuspid isthmus ablation was permitted in patients with documented typical atrial flutter. The primary effectiveness endpoint was acute procedural success. The primary safety endpoint was the rate of primary adverse events (PAEs) within 7 days of the procedure. A prespecified patient subset underwent oesophageal endoscopy (EE; 72 h post-procedure), neurological assessment (NA; pre-procedure and discharge), and cardiac computed tomography (CT)/magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA) imaging (pre-procedure and 3 months post-procedure) for additional safety evaluation, and a mandatory remapping procedure (Day 75 ± 15) for PVI durability assessment. Of 149 patients enrolled between February and June 2023, 140 had the study catheter inserted (safety analysis set) and 137 had ablation energy delivered (per-protocol analysis set). The median (Q1/Q3) total procedure and fluoroscopy times were 108.0 (91.0/126.0) and 4.2 (2.3/7.7) min (n = 137). The acute procedural success rate was 100%. First-pass isolation was achieved in 89.1% of patients and 96.8% of veins. Cavotricuspid isthmus ablations were successfully performed in 12 patients [pulsed field (PF) only: 6, RF only: 5, and RF/PF: 1]. The PAE rate was 4.4% [6/137 patients; 2 pulmonary vein (PV) stenoses, 2 cardiac tamponades/perforations, 1 stroke, and 1 pericarditis]. No coronary artery spasm was reported. No oesophageal lesion was seen in the EE subset (0/31, 0%). In the NA subset (n = 30), microemboli lesions were identified in 2 patients (2/30, 6.7%), both of which were resolved at follow-up; only 1 was symptomatic (silent cerebral lesion, 3.3%). In the CT/MRA subset (n = 30), severe PV narrowing (of >70%) was detected in 2 patients (2/30, 6.7%; vein level 2/128, 1.6%), of whom 1 underwent dilatation and stenting and 1 was asymptomatic; both were associated with high index values and a small inter-tag distance. In the PV durability subset (n = 30), 100/115 treated PVs (87%) were durably isolated and 18/30 patients (60.0%) had all PVs durably isolated. CONCLUSION: A DE focal CF catheter with 3D mapping integration showed a 100% acute success rate with an acceptable safety profile in the treatment of paroxysmal AF. Prespecified 3-month remapping showed notable PVI durability. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT05752487.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Ablação por Cateter , Veias Pulmonares , Humanos , Veias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Fibrilação Atrial/cirurgia , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Feminino , Ablação por Cateter/métodos , Ablação por Cateter/instrumentação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Idoso , Imageamento Tridimensional , Cateteres Cardíacos , Fatores de Tempo , Desenho de Equipamento , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva
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