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1.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 3248-3251, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018697

RESUMO

The Rubber Hand Illusion can be used to induce the illusion that a fake hand is part of one's own body. Thus, it can be used to alter the body representation. It was also reported that the Rubber Hand Illusion induces a proprioceptive drift of one's real hand toward the fake hand. The Rubber Hand Illusion can be induced when the fake hand is placed farther in the sagittal plane (distally) compared to the real hand. In this case, the induced update of the body representation is an elongation of the arm. Virtual Reality and haptic technologies can be used to manipulate the perceived scenario in a virtual version of the Rubber Hand Illusion, the Virtual Hand Illusion. We developed a novel platform consisting in a virtual reality application integrating an optical motion capture device and haptic stimulators to study the manipulation of the body representation. We developed two experimental protocols to induce embodiment of an elongated arm: one validated in previous studies, that employs congruent visuo-motor-tactile stimulation, and one reproducing the typical Virtual Hand Illusion where only congruent visuo-tactile stimulation was employed. We tested both protocols with healthy participants.


Assuntos
Ilusões , Percepção do Tato , Imagem Corporal , Mãos , Humanos , Propriocepção
2.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1562, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As a consequence of 'Western' acculturation, eating disorders and body image disturbances, such as fatness phobia and body dysmorphic disorders towards musculature and body shape, are emerging in Africa, with young people the most affected. It is therefore important to accurately assess perceptions of body shape. However, the existing body image assessment scales lack sufficient accuracy and validity testing to compare body shape perception across different African populations. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the Body Shape Scale (BOSHAS) to evaluate body shape perceptions related body image disorders in African populations. METHODS: To develop the BOSHAS, anthropometric measures of 80 Cameroonians and 81 Senegalese (both sexes included; 40.1% females overall) were taken for three body shape criteria: somatotype components, body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio. Subjects were selected to cover a wide variability in body shape and were photographed in full face and profile positions. To validate the BOSHAS, the scale was administered twice (2 weeks apart) to 106 participants (aged 31.2 ± 12.6 years) to assess its reliability. In addition, a questionnaire measuring different aspects of body shape (e.g. musculature) was also administered (n = 597; aged 36.7 ± 15.6 years) to assess its convergent validity. RESULTS: The BOSHAS includes two sex-specific subscales of 10 photographs each. Most participants were able to repeat their BOSHAS preference order. Test-retest reliability was also consistent in estimating Current Body Shape (CBS), Desired Body Shape and Ideal Body Shape for participants and their partners. CBS was correlated with BMI, and different BOSHAS indices were consistent with declarations obtained by questionnaire. CONCLUSIONS: The BOSHAS is the first sex-specific scale of real African models photographed in face and profile, including large body shape variability. The validation protocol showed good validity and reliability for evaluating body shape perceptions and dissatisfaction of Africans.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , África , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Somatotipos/psicologia , Relação Cintura-Quadril/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 1): 83-87, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890369

RESUMO

The morphological transformations that occur during adolescence with rapid rhythm have an unprecedented psychological resonance and it is of fundamental importance to understand the way in which they are lived, perceived and elaborated.These fast body changes and the related social pressures make young people paying more attention to their physical appearance. Among the changes that the adolescent must face are: accepting their own body, acquiring a social role, establishing new relationships with peers,achieving emotional independence from parents. All of this is not always easy and many times they face a so difficult path that can produce the onset of some mental pathologies. Typical disorders that adolescents can face are the ones related to food. In these pathologies there is an isolation of the soul which corresponds to an alienation from the body: what remains in this loneliness is the gap between the idealized body and the objectified body. In this process of identity determination the idealized body is not able to relate to the real body (Cuzzolaro 2017). The dimension of their own body and the ability to meet the other bodies in the world are compromised; the only possible knowledge is represented by the impoverishment of their own subjectivity and by the attempt to recover it at an abstract level. Adolescents live in a condition of temporal suspension: the future is compromised and the past is demonized; what remains is a present moment made eternal by an indefinitely suspended instant (Juli 2018). Too fat for the anorexic, repulsive for binge eating; Merleau-Ponty already in 1945 expressed the concept of corporeality by using the following simple and very effective statement: "I am my body". This statement highlights the centrality of the body, of the person and his/her identity; this aspects are highly conflicting and, at the same time, pathologically united, in eating disorders.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Adolescente , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
4.
Z Psychosom Med Psychother ; 66(3): 287-301, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876551

RESUMO

Objectives: The study examines body image of male cancer patients and their female partners as well as factors influencing body image. Methods: N = 73 heterosexual couples in which the male partner was diagnosed with prostate (PC; n = 52) or laryngeal cancer (LC; n = 21) completed questionnaires on body image acceptance (Self Image Scale), relationship satisfaction (Quality of Marriage Questionnaire), and cancer-related distress (Questionnaire on Stress in Cancer Patients). The body image was assessed from two perspectives: self-acceptance (which measures a person's satisfaction or acceptance of the body) and partner-acceptance (which assesses a person's perception of the partners' appraisals of the body). Results: No differences occurred in body image acceptance between men with PC or LC. Patients with PC rated the perceived partner-acceptance lower than did their female partners. In couples with LC, women rated the self-acceptance of their partners higher than did the patients themselves. Multiple regression analysis revealed that for survivors of PC, cancer-related distress, relationship satisfaction and partner-acceptance emerged as significant predictors of self-acceptance. The only significant predictor of partner-acceptance was men's self-acceptance. Conclusions: The dissatisfaction with physical appearance is found in PK and LK patients and seems to persist for a long time. Impairment of patients' body image should be identified and addressed to prevent the negative effects on psychosocial stress for patients and relationship satisfaction.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal , Neoplasias Laríngeas/psicologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Satisfação Pessoal
5.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(9): 1289-1294, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913170

RESUMO

Backround: Internalized stigma, adoption of negative attitudes, and societal stereotypes regarding acne vulgaris (AV) have not been previously studied. Objective: To investigate the internalized stigma state in AV and determine its association with quality of life, perceived health, body image, and depression. Methods: A total of 77 AV patients (43 female, 34 male; aged 19.7 ± 2.3 years) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. The scales used in the study were Acne Internalized Stigma Scale (AISS), Acne Quality of Life scale (AQOL), FDA Global score, Perceived Health Status (PHS), Body Image Scale (BIS), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Results: Mean AISS scores (53.68 ± 13.6) were significantly higher in males than in females (57.41 ± 14.37, 50.39 ± 12.25, P = 0.042). There was a significant positive correlation between mean values of AISS and AQOL (r = 0.816, P < 0.001), FDA Global grade (r = 0.391, P = 0.002) and BDI (r = 0.440, P < 0.001). Lower PHS (P = 0.027) was another determinant of high AISS scores. The mean AISS score of patients with a family history was significantly lower than those without a family history (P = 0.007). VAS was also found to be correlated with mean values of AISS and AQOL. Linear regression analysis revealed that the most important determinant of internalized stigma was AQOL (ß = 0,632; P < 0.001), followed by gender (ß = -0,229; P = 0.001), FDA Global score (ß = 0,193; P = 0.007), and BDI (ß = 0,177; P = 0.024). Discussion: Significant and independent predictive factors for high internalized stigma state were the negative quality of life, male gender, the severity of the illness, and depression. Therefore, internalized stigma may be one of the major factors responsible for the psychosocial burden of AV.


Assuntos
Acne Vulgar/psicologia , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Estigma Social , Estereotipagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239322, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946504

RESUMO

Measuring body image is crucial at both personal and social levels. Previous studies have attempted to quantitatively measure body image but methods for measuring body change recognition over time have not yet been established. The present study proposes a novel human-computer interaction technique using dynamic morphing and body ownership illusion, and we conducted a user study to investigate how body ownership illusion and gender would affect to body change recognition. The results showed that a participant's body change recognition was weak when the body ownership illusion was strong. In addition, female participants were less sensitive than male participants. With our proposed technique, we demonstrated that we were able to quantitatively measure body change recognition and our empirical data indicated that body change recognition varied depending on body ownership illusion and gender, suggesting that our methodology could not only be used in future body image studies but also in eating disorder treatments.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Computadores , Ilusões/psicologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237735, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804937

RESUMO

Obsession with the physique and appearance is a by-product of consumer societies. As such, fitness and slimming have now become major concerns of Iranian females. This study endeavors to elaborate on information-seeking behaviors among female students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences concerning fitness. This study conducted in 2018, employs a qualitative approach using conventional content analysis. The research population includes female students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, 16 of whom were selected with use of purposive sampling. Data were collected through face-to-face semi-structured interviews and their trustworthiness was confirmed by the criteria of 'credibility', 'confirmability', 'dependability', and 'transferability' proposed by Guba and Lincoln. Results reveal four sub-categories and nineteen codes on information-seeking behavior. Sub-categories and codes including information-seeking motivations (achieving physical health, physical appearance, social acceptability, self-confidence, family and friends' pressure) information resources (electronic information resources, social media, printed information resources, doctors and nutritionists, family and friends, traditional & Islamic medicine, radio and TV), information validation (asking the doctors and specialists, matching the information with scientific references, consulting with friends and relatives) and obstacles to seeking information (lack of time, high costs, distrust, access limitation). by increasing the students' informational and media literacy, providing authentic and low-cost online resources of information and specialized TV programs, the damages rooted in using invalid information resources concerning fitness can be substantially diminished.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Comportamento de Busca de Informação , Motivação , Aptidão Física/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237399, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777810

RESUMO

To assess the level of agreement between body size self-perception and actual body size determined by body mass index (BMI) z-score and body fatness measured by the deuterium dilution method (DDM) in South African children aged 6-8 years. A cross-sectional sample of 202 children (83 boys and 119 girls) aged 6-8 years from the Body Composition-Isotope Technique study (BC-IT) was taken. Subjective measures of body image (silhouettes) were compared with the objective measures of BMI z-score and body fatness measured by the DDM. The World Health Organization BMI z-scores were used to classify the children as underweight, normal, overweight, or obese. DDM-measured fatness was classified based on the McCarthy centile curves set at 2nd, 85th and 95th in conjunction with fatness cut-off points of 25% in boys and 30% in girls. Data were analyzed using SPSS v26. Of 202 children, 32.2%, 55.1%, 8.8%, and 2.4% perceived their body size as underweight, normal, overweight, and obese, respectively. Based on BMI z-score, 18.8%, 72.8%, 6.9%, and 1.5% were classified as underweight, normal, overweight, and obese, respectively. Body fatness measurement showed that 2.5%, 48.0%, 21.8%, and 29.7% were underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese, respectively. The application of silhouettes and BMI z-scores resulted in either overestimation or underestimation of own body size. Overall, the levels of agreements (kappa, κ) between body size perception, body fatness, and BMI for age respectively, were small (κ = 0.083, p = 0.053 and κ = 0.154, p<0.001). Level of agreement between body size perception, body fatness, and BMI z-score was poor. The use of silhouettes made children either overestimate their own body size while being underweight or underestimate their own body size while being overweight or obese. Given the potential health implications associated with misclassification of body size during childhood, correct self-assessment of body size is important, and may be key to the adoption of weight control strategies directed at curbing the escalating obesity epidemic in the country. Scalable measures to allow for more accurate self-assessment are urgently needed-one approach is behavior change communication at all levels.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Percepção , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Isótopos , Masculino , África do Sul
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32751821

RESUMO

The tendency of misperceiving one's body image was found to be higher among those at normal body mass index (BMI). Thus, the present study aims to provide basic data to seek solutions for ideal physical activities and right body image perception by comparing health-related behaviors of women at normal BMI. Among the 39,225 respondents from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHNES) conducted from 2013 to 2017, 10,798 adult women with World Health Organization (WHO) BMI Classifications of 18.5 ≤ BMI < 25 (Asia-Pacific) were considered, from which pregnant and breast-feeding women and women whose body image perception was not identified were excluded, leading to a total of 9288 women. Data were analyzed utilizing SAS ver. 9.4 for frequency analysis, cross tabulation, GLM (generalized linear model), and logistic regression analysis with complex samples design, in conformity with the guidelines of the KNHNES. The results showed that approximately most (87.6%) of adult Korean women misperceived their body image. Misperception of body image was related to inappropriate health-related behaviors such as smoking, insufficient sleeping, and excessive body weight management; those who had underestimated their body image (≤64 odds ratio (OR) (0.718 (confidence interval (C.I.) 0.594-0.866))) carried out fewer health-related behaviors, while women aged 65 or above engaged in more health-related behaviors when they perceived themselves as obese (OR 1.683 (C.I. 1.260-2.248; overestimation)). To sum up, it was found that lack of health management, inappropriate body weight control, and health-related behaviors are related to body image misperception compared with real BMI. As such, it is necessary to have educational programs to encourage building proper perception of one's body image and body weight, and to carry out health-related behaviors.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Peso Corporal/etnologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Adulto , Idoso , Ásia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , República da Coreia
10.
J Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 78(11): 2054-2060, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810443

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although body image disturbance (BID), anxiety, depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are the most common comorbid psychological conditions among patients presenting for orthognathic surgery (OS), little is known about whether psychological symptoms relate to facial deformity or how symptoms change after OS. To fill these knowledge gaps, this study investigated preoperative and postoperative psychological symptoms and preoperative baseline facial deformity in patients who underwent OS. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study included 49 patients who underwent OS by a single surgeon between 2011 and 2018. The patients completed validated psychological tests to assess symptoms of anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory), depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), BID (BID Questionnaire, BIDQ), and OCD (Florida Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory). In addition, we measured severity of preoperative facial deformity with the Facial Aesthetic Index (FAI). We compared preoperative and postoperative symptoms using univariate nonparametric Wilcoxon signed rank tests. We tested associations between the 4 types of preoperative psychological symptoms and baseline Facial Aesthetic Index category using Spearman's rank correlations. RESULTS: Postoperatively, both BIDQ scores (median 2 to 1.2, P < .001) and Florida Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory scores (median number of OCD symptoms 1 to 0, P < .001) decreased, whereas anxiety and depression symptoms showed no change (P > .45). Preoperative BIDQ was significantly associated with the severity of the facial deformity (ρ = 0.32, P = .025; median BIDQ: mild FAI = 1.0, severe FAI = 2.1). CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that patients with more severe facial deformity have a higher BID preoperatively and that both BID and OCD improve after OS. Interestingly, anxiety and depression symptoms did not change after OS.


Assuntos
Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo , Cirurgia Ortognática , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ortognáticos , Ansiedade , Imagem Corporal , Humanos
12.
Br J Sports Med ; 54(21): 1247-1258, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661127

RESUMO

Identification, evaluation and management of disordered eating (DE) is complex. DE exists along the spectrum from optimised nutrition through to clinical eating disorders (EDs). Individual athletes can move back and forth along the spectrum of eating behaviour at any point in time over their career and within different stages of a training cycle. Athletes are more likely to present with DE than a clinical ED. Overall, there is a higher prevalence of DE and EDs in athletes compared with non-athletes. Additionally, athletes participating in aesthetic, gravitational and weight-class sports are at higher risk of DE and EDs than those in sports without these characteristics. The evaluation and management of DE requires a cohesive team of professional practitioners consisting of, at minimum, a doctor, a sports dietitian and a psychologist, termed within this statement as the core multidisciplinary team. The Australian Institute of Sport and the National Eating Disorders Collaboration have collaborated to provide this position statement, containing guidelines for athletes, coaches, support staff, clinicians and sporting organisations. The guidelines support the prevention and early identification of DE, and promote timely intervention to optimise nutrition for performance in a safe, supported, purposeful and individualised manner. This position statement is a call to action to all involved in sport to be aware of poor self-image and poor body image among athletes. The practical recommendations should guide the clinical management of DE in high performance sport.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/terapia , Composição Corporal , Imagem Corporal , Peso Corporal , Densidade Óssea , Família , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação Nutricional , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Prevalência , Apoio Social
13.
J Youth Adolesc ; 49(10): 2060-2074, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32728942

RESUMO

Eating pathology and depressive symptoms increase during adolescence, yet predictive pathways remain predominantly unexplored, despite their implications for prevention. The present study aimed to identify shared risk factors for eating pathology and depressive symptoms by evaluating an adapted Dual-Pathway Model of disordered eating, which postulated that higher BMI would predict disordered eating and depressive symptoms via pathways between body dissatisfaction, later BMI, depressive symptoms, and visible indicators of puberty (breast development for girls, height for boys). The participants were 8915 children (49% girls) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a population-based cohort study of British children, who were assessed at different intervals between the age of 7 to 14 years. Path analyses revealed that, for girls, childhood BMI exerted indirect effects on disordered eating via body dissatisfaction, depressive symptoms, and more advanced breast development, with indirect pathways identified to depressive symptoms via earlier depressive symptoms and more advanced breast development. For boys, childhood BMI had indirect effects on disordered eating via later BMI and body dissatisfaction, while only earlier depressive symptoms were found to have an independent and direct effect on adolescent depressive symptoms. This study reveals shared and independent risk factors for eating pathology and depressive symptoms in adolescence and suggests targets for preventative interventions, including higher BMI, body dissatisfaction, and depressive symptoms, in addition to advanced breast development, for girls.


Assuntos
Depressão , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Adolescente , Imagem Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Depressão/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
14.
Arch Womens Ment Health ; 23(5): 625-633, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32613296

RESUMO

The postpartum period may be a particular window of vulnerability for eating disorder symptoms given changes to body shape and weight that women experience. However, no quantitative studies have identified risk factors for postpartum eating disorder symptoms, and current psychosocial frameworks of risk may be missing key elements unique to this period. This manuscript reviews existing quantitative and qualitative literature regarding the developmental trajectory of eating disorder symptoms during the perinatal period and proposes an application of three psychosocial models of eating disorder risk (objectification theory, the tripartite influence model of body image and eating disturbances, and social comparison theory) to the postpartum period. Drawing on quantitative and qualitative literature, this paper identifies novel postpartum-specific factors that should be included for consideration in psychosocial models (e.g., self-oriented body comparison and pressure to achieve a prepregnancy weight and shape). This review is the first to theorize potential postpartum-specific risk factors for postpartum eating disorder symptoms. Prior models of eating disorder risk omit key psychosocial factors that are unique to the postpartum period. Other limitations of prior research relate to measurement and methodology. This critical window of vulnerability has been largely ignored in the quantitative literature and necessitates further research.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Período Periparto/psicologia , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32708241

RESUMO

For many years, body dissatisfaction was considered a western phenomenon, and was studied mostly in Caucasian women. Recent studies, however, suggest that these issues are also present in men and in other ethnic groups. This research investigated the differential effects of various sociocultural pressures transmitted from the media, one's parents, and one's peers on the drives for thinness and muscularity, and body dissatisfaction among 1125 Korean college students (56% male) using structural equation modeling. The results indicate that, after controlling for body mass index and exercise, media pressures exerted the largest effects on participants' body ideals and, in turn, body dissatisfaction across both genders (ß = 0.44, and 0.30, p < 0.05, for females and males, respectively). This study's results also indicate that there are considerable gender differences in this relationship. Specifically, the results show that parental and media pressure had significant indirect relationships with body dissatisfaction via the drive for thinness among females, while peer and media pressures had significant indirect relationships with body dissatisfaction via the drive for muscularity among males. As body dissatisfaction is known to significantly affect an individual's mental and physical health, future research needs to identify relevant influential factors in this area, as well as the paths they have leading to increased body dissatisfaction.


Assuntos
Insatisfação Corporal/psicologia , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Magreza/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Satisfação Pessoal , República da Coreia , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233876, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479544

RESUMO

Many women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) report high depression rates. The relationship between PCOS and these high depression rates is unclear. Two-component lifestyle interventions have revealed short-term effects on depression scores in this group of women. In general, 3-component interventions including diet, exercise, and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) are more effective in the long-term to improve emotional well-being. This has not yet been studied in women with PCOS. This study examined the effect of 20 CBT lifestyle (LS) sessions combined with a healthy diet and physical therapy with or without 9 months additional feedback through Short Message Service (SMS) via mobile phone, compared to care as usual (CAU, involving advice to lose weight). In this secondary analysis, 155 women with PCOS and a BMI above 25 kg/m2 were eligible. Depression scores decreased significantly in the LS programme compared to CAU (P = 0.045). In both the LS programme without SMS (P = 0.036) and the LS programme with SMS (P = 0.011) depression scores decreased while no change was observed in CAU (P = 0.875). Self-esteem scores improved significantly in the LS programme compared to CAU (P = 0.027). No differences in body image scores were observed in LS participants compared to CAU (P = 0.087), although body image improved significantly in both the LS without SMS (P = 0.001) and with SMS (P = 0.008) study arms. We found no significant mediating role by androgens in the relationship between LS participants and emotional well-being. Only weight-loss mediated the relationship between LS and self-esteem. To conclude, a three-component lifestyle intervention programme with or without additional SMS resulted in significant improvements in depression and self-esteem compared to CAU, in women with PCOS, obesity, and a wish to achieve a pregnancy. Testosterone, androstenedione, DHEA, insulin, HOMA-IR, and cortisol did not mediate this effect. Weight loss mediated the effects on self-esteem but not on depression and body-image. This suggests that lifestyle treatment independent of weight loss can reduce depression and body-image, but both lifestyle treatment and weight loss can improve self-esteem. Thus, a three-component lifestyle intervention based on CBT could prove successful in improving mood in women with PCOS who are overweight or obese and attempting to become pregnant.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Depressão/reabilitação , Dieta Saudável , Sobrepeso/reabilitação , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/reabilitação , Adulto , Imagem Corporal , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/complicações , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/psicologia , Autoimagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Perda de Peso , Saúde da Mulher
18.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 18(1): 163, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487117

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although body image (BI) disturbance is a common problem that often contributes to poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among women with breast cancer following surgery, the mediating role of BI (as a self-perceptive factor) in the relationship between needs and HRQoL after controlling for socio-demographic factors remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to identify the mediating role of BI between post-surgery needs and HRQoL after controlling for socio-demographic factors among women with breast cancer. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, the primary outcome was HRQoL (as measured with the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey version 2 [SF-36v2] and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast version 4.0 [FACT-Bv4.0]). The secondary outcomes included needs (measured in terms of needs importance [NI] and needs satisfaction [NS]) and BI. Structural equation modeling was used to identify the mediating role of BI between needs and HRQoL while considering socio-demographics. RESULTS: The 406 eligible patients reported poor HRQoL, and approximately half reported important unmet needs and poor BI. NI, NS, and socio-demographics had differing direct effects on BI and HRQoL, and contrasting indirect effects on HRQoL via BI. NI, NS, surgery type, presence of chronic disease, and BI explained 4% of the variance in the SF-36v2 physical component summary score; NI, NS, surgery type, residence, and BI explained 20% of the variance in the mental component summary score; and NI, NS, marital status, employment status, radiotherapy, and BI explained 33% of the variance in the FACT-Bv4.0 total score. CONCLUSIONS: After surgery, women with breast cancer have poor HRQoL and BI, and important unmet needs. BI mediates the relationship between needs and HRQoL after controlling for socio-demographics. The present findings provide information for developing comprehensive BI-based needs interventions and preparing targeted health-management programs for patients with breast cancer.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Operatório , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233153, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492037

RESUMO

Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), together with its subtype muscle dysmorphia (MD), has been relocated from the Somatoform Disorders category in the DSM-IV to the newly created Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders category in the DSM-5. Both categorizations have been criticized, and an empirically derived classification of BDD is lacking. A community sample of N = 736 participants completed an online survey assessing different psychopathologies. Using a structural equation modeling approach, six theoretically derived models, which differed in their allocation of BDD symptoms to various factors (i.e. general psychopathology, somatoform, obsessive-compulsive and related disorders, affective, body image, and BDD model) were tested in the full sample and in a restricted sample (n = 465) which indicated primary concerns other than shape and weight. Furthermore, measurement invariance across gender was examined. Of the six models, only the body image model showed a good fit (CFI = 0.972, RMSEA = 0.049, SRMR = 0.027, TLI = 0.959), and yielded better AIC and BIC indices than the competing models. Analyses in the restricted sample replicated these findings. Analyses of measurement invariance of the body image model showed partial metric invariance across gender. The findings suggest that a body image model provides the best fit for the classification of BDD and MD. This is in line with previous studies showing strong similarities between eating disorders and BDD, including MD. Measurement invariance across gender indicates a comparable presentation and comorbid structure of BDD in males and females, which also corresponds to the equal prevalence rates of BDD across gender.


Assuntos
Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/classificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/psicologia , Imagem Corporal , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos , Transtornos do Humor/psicologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Prevalência , Psicopatologia , Transtornos Somatoformes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200040, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491046

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the agreement between body self-image (based on the Stunkard figure rating scale) and nutritional status and to evaluate body satisfaction among the Khisêdjê indigenous people of Parque Indígena do Xingu (Xingu Indigenous Park). METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving 131 natives aged 20 and older. Data on body image, body mass index and waist circumference were collected. Kappa statistics, χ2 (p < 0.05), crude and adjusted prevalence ratios and Student's t-test were used for data analysis. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was respectively 42 and 5.3%. The percentage of satisfaction with body profile was 61.8% with no difference between the sexes. There was good agreement between actual and ideal self-image (p < 0.001), but poor agreement between actual and ideal self-image with nutritional status for both sexes. A higher prevalence of body dissatisfaction due to overweight was detected in individuals with central obesity and overweight. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that body self-image evaluated by the Stunkard silhouette scale has little applicability as an indicator of nutritional status among the indigenous Khisêdjê of Xingu Indigenous Park.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Índios Sul-Americanos/psicologia , Estado Nutricional , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Prevalência , Distribuição por Sexo , Circunferência da Cintura , Adulto Jovem
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