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1.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 35(3): 431-451, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590896

RESUMO

This article discusses key concepts important for mucosal immunity. The mucosa is the largest immune organ of the body. The mucosal barrier (the tight junctions and the "kill zone") along with the mucosa epithelial cells maintaining an anti-inflammatory state are essential for the mucosal firewall. The microbiome (the microorganisms that are in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tract) is essential for immune development, homeostasis, immune response, and maximizing animal productivity. Mucosal vaccination provides an opportunity to protect animals from most infectious diseases because oral, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive mucosa are the main portals of entry for infectious disease.


Assuntos
Bovinos/imunologia , Imunidade nas Mucosas/imunologia , Animais , Feminino , Imunidade Celular , Imunidade Humoral
2.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 35(3): 471-483, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590898

RESUMO

Host responses are often ineffective at clearing Mycoplasma bovis infection and may contribute to the pathogenesis of disease. M bovis possesses a surprisingly large repertoire of strategies to evade and modulate host responses. Unopsonized M bovis impairs phagocytosis and killing by neutrophils and macrophages. Apoptosis of neutrophils and lymphocytes is enhanced, whereas it is delayed in macrophages. Both proinflammatory and antiinflammatory cytokines are stimulated during M bovis infection depending on the cell type and location, and overall systemic responses tend to have a T-helper 2 bias. M bovis reduces proliferation of T cells and, in chronic infection, causes T-cell exhaustion.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma bovis/imunologia , Animais , Bovinos , Imunidade Celular , Imunidade Humoral , Infecções por Mycoplasma/imunologia
3.
Wiad Lek ; 72(9 cz 2): 1791-1794, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622268

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Introduction: At present biocomposite materials are used in the surgical treatment of frontal bone fracture. They improve osteogenesis, reduce the number of complications. Immunologic aspects of application of these materials are studied insufficiently, therefore this report presents the results of immunoassay of patients with frontal bone fracture in the proximate posttraumatic period before implanting preparation "Syntekost". The aim: To define the role of immune mechanisms in the realization of the biocomposite material's positive influence on the development of effective posstraumatic rehabilitation schemes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: 16 patients with frontal bone fracture (FBF) were examined on admission to the Otolaryngology Clinics of Vinnitsa Region Hospital. Additionally, 10 patients of the similar age were examined as a control group. The content of cells with markers of surface antigens-CD3,14,16,20,25, concentration of immunoglobulins of classes M,G,A,E, С4 complement component and lactoferrin was determined in blood. Immunoenzyme methods were applied. Nonparametric Wilcoxon - Mann - Whitney test, computer programme WIN Pepi were used for statistical measurements. RESULTS: Results: A decrease in the level of IgM in comparison with practically healthy donors and an increase in the concentration of lactoferrin were identified as humoral immunity factors of patients with frontal basilar trauma. The most significant deviation in the peripheral blood cellular makeup in CD-markers was an increase in cells with markers CD14 and CD16. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The level of cells and prodefensin-lactoferrin that maintain inborn immunity increases and the concentration of coarse defensive protein decreases in the initial period after frontal bone fracture, which must be taken into consideration during post-surgical treatment.


Assuntos
Osso Frontal/lesões , Imunidade Celular , Imunidade Humoral , Antígenos CD/análise , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Lactoferrina/sangue
4.
Acta Vet Scand ; 61(1): 41, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455410

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Villegas-Glisson/University of Georgia (VG/GA) strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is recommended for the initial vaccination of commercially reared turkey poults. However, the vaccine-induced antibody responses have not been studied in this species. The level of systemic humoral immune responses against the NDV was investigated in commercial turkey poults vaccinated with the VG/GA vaccine. One hundred eighty-two hybrid strain of turkey poults (Meleagris gallopavo) were divided randomly into vaccinated and unvaccinated groups. The vaccinated group was given the VG/GA vaccine at 10 and 20 days of age. To investigate the vaccine immunity, the level of specific IgY and IgA in serum samples were determined using ELISA and haemagglutination inhibition assays (HI). The biological half-life of maternal antibodies was also determined before the immunization. RESULTS: VG/GA-specific antibodies were detected in the vaccinated turkey poults and were significantly higher in the vaccinated group compared to the unvaccinated group. IgY and IgA antibodies showed a significant increase in titers 14 days after the second vaccination and reached a peak on day 35 of age. The correlation coefficient and intra-rater reliability showed a significant correlation between the HI titers and IgY/IgA ELISA values. Maternal IgY and IgA levels were found to decline in the serum with half-lifes of 7.68 ± 2.35 and 2.18 ± 0.82 days, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Enterotropic lentogenic VG/GA vaccine induced a marked humoral immune response against the NDV in turkey poults. The positive correlation between IgY and IgA highlights the role of these two antibody classes in controlling the Newcastle disease in turkey poults.


Assuntos
Imunidade Humoral/imunologia , Doença de Newcastle/imunologia , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Perus , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Doença de Newcastle/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle
5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3020, 2019 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31289263

RESUMO

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) can persistently infect humans, but how HCMV avoids humoral immunity is not clear. The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) controls IgG transport from the mother to the fetus and prolongs IgG half-life. Here we show that US11 inhibits the assembly of FcRn with ß2m and retains FcRn in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), consequently blocking FcRn trafficking to the endosome. Furthermore, US11 recruits the ubiquitin enzymes Derlin-1, TMEM129 and UbE2J2 to engage FcRn, consequently initiating the dislocation of FcRn from the ER to the cytosol and facilitating its degradation. Importantly, US11 inhibits IgG-FcRn binding, resulting in a reduction of IgG transcytosis across intestinal or placental epithelial cells and IgG degradation in endothelial cells. Hence, these results identify the mechanism by which HCMV infection exploits an ER-associated degradation pathway through US11 to disable FcRn functions. These results have implications for vaccine development and immune surveillance.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/metabolismo , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Imunidade Humoral , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Receptores Fc/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Citomegalovirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/virologia , Degradação Associada com o Retículo Endoplasmático/imunologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/imunologia , Receptores Fc/imunologia , Enzimas de Conjugação de Ubiquitina/genética , Enzimas de Conjugação de Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/imunologia
6.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 32(7): 531-540, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331437

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of intranasal immunization with CTA1-DD as mucosal adjuvant combined with H3N2 split vaccine. METHODS: Mice were immunized intranasally with PBS (negative control), or H3N2 split vaccine (3 µg/mouse) alone, or CTA1-DD (5 µg/mouse) alone, or H3N2 split vaccine (3 µg/mouse) plus CTA1-DD (5 µg/mouse). Positive control mice were immunized intramuscularly with H3N2 split vaccine (3 µg/mouse) and alum adjuvant. All the mice were immunized twice, two weeks apart. Then sera and mucosal lavages were collected. The specific HI titers, IgM, IgG, IgA, and IgG subtypes were examined by ELISA. IFN-γ and IL-4 were test by ELISpot. In addition, two weeks after the last immunization, surivival after H3N2 virus lethal challenge was measured. RESULTS: H3N2 split vaccine formulated with CTA1-DD could elicit higher IgM, IgG and hemagglutination inhibition titers in sera. Furthermore, using CTA1-DD as adjuvant significantly improved mucosal secretory IgA titers in bronchoalveolar lavages and vaginal lavages. Meanwhile this mucosal adjuvant could enhance Th-1-type responses and induce protective hemagglutination inhibition titers. Notably, the addition of CTA1-DD to split vaccine provided 100% protection against lethal infection by the H3N2 virus. CONCLUSION: CTA1-DD could promote mucosal, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, which supports the further development of CTA1-DD as a mucosal adjuvant for mucosal vaccines.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Toxina da Cólera , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão , Administração Intranasal , Animais , Feminino , Imunidade Humoral , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mucosa Nasal/imunologia , Distribuição Aleatória
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 656, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The immune response to seasonal influenza vaccines decreases with advancing age. Therefore, an adjuvanted inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine (Fluad®) exists for elderly individuals. Fluad® is more immunogenic and efficacious than conventional influenza vaccines. However, the immune response varies and may still result in high frequencies of poor responders. Therefore, we aimed to a) examine the prevalence of a weak response to Fluad® and b) identify potential risk factors. METHODS: A prospective population-based study among individuals 65-80 years old was conducted in 2015/2016 in Hannover, Germany (n = 200). Hemagglutination-inhibition titers 21 days after vaccination with Fluad® served as indicator of vaccine responsiveness. RESULTS: The percentage of vaccinees with an inadequate vaccine response varied depending on the influenza strain: it was lowest for H3N2 (13.5%; 95% CI, 9.4-18.9%), intermediate for B strain (37.0%; 30.6-43.9%), and highest for H1N1 (49.0%; 42.2-55.9%). The risk of a weak response to the influenza A H1N1 strain was independently associated with self-reported diabetes (AOR, 4.64; 95% CI, 1.16-18.54), a history of herpes zoster (2.27; 1.01-5.10) and, to a much lesser extent, increasing age (change per year, 1.08; 0.99-1.16). In addition, herpes zoster was the only risk factor for a weak response to the H3N2 antigen (AOR, 3.12; 1.18-8.23). We found no significant association between sex, Body Mass Index, cancer, hypertension, heart attack and CMV seropositivity and a weak response to these two influenza A antigens. Despite its occurence in over one third of vaccinees, none of the variables examined proved to be risk factors for a weak response to the B antigen. CONCLUSIONS: A considerable proportion of elderly individuals displayed a weak vaccine response to this adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccine and further efforts are thus needed to improve immune responses to influenza vaccination among the elderly. Diabetes and herpes zoster were identified as potentially modifiable risk factors for a poor vaccine response against influenza A antigens, but the results also reveal the need for broader investigations to identify risk factors for inadequate responses to influenza B antigens. TRIAL REGISTRATION: No. NCT02362919 (ClinicalTrials.gov, date of registration: 09.02.2015).


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/imunologia , Herpes Zoster/imunologia , Imunidade Humoral , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/efeitos adversos , Vacinas contra Influenza/farmacologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Estações do Ano , Autorrelato
8.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(8): 1331-1340, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317218

RESUMO

Expression of inhibitors of apoptosis protein (IAP) family members is associated with poor prognosis in cancer patients. Immunity to ML-IAP (livin) and survivin has been well studied in patients with a variety of tumors. XIAP, the most potent inhibitor of apoptosis, is widely expressed in melanoma. To better define its potential role as an immunogenic target, cellular and humoral responses to XIAP were investigated in patients with advanced melanoma. An overlapping peptide library covering the full length of the XIAP protein was used to screen T cell responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from stage-IV melanoma patients treated with or without anti-CTLA4 (ipilimumab). The screen identified an array of peptides that predominantly induced CD4+ T cell responses. XIAP epitope-specific CD4+ T cells revealed proliferative responses to melanoma cells that express XIAP. Humoral responses to XIAP were also explored. Cellular and humoral responses to XIAP were associated with beneficial clinical outcomes after ipilimumab-based treatment, supporting XIAP as a potential therapeutic target.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Ipilimumab/uso terapêutico , Melanoma/imunologia , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/imunologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/imunologia , Proteínas Inibidoras de Apoptose Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/imunologia , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , ELISPOT , Humanos , Imunidade Humoral , Ativação Linfocitária , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Vet Microbiol ; 235: 86-92, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282383

RESUMO

Although PCV2 infections generally cause mild disease in pigs, concurrent co-infections with other pathogens can damage the immune system and cause more severe diseases, collectively termed porcine circovirus associated diseases (PCVAD). Involvement of porcine parvovirus (PPV, a common cause of reproductive failure in naïve dams) in PCVAD caused by PCV2, has been reported. As this co-infection can be difficult to eliminate, there is a critical need to develop an effective vaccine to protect against PPV or synergistic effects of PCV2 and PPV under field conditions. In this study, we designed chimeric PCV2 virus-like particles (cVLPs) displaying a B-cell epitope derived from PPV1 structural protein around the surface of the 2-fold axes of PCV2 VLPs, based on 3D-structure analysis of the PCV2 capsid. The cVLPs were successfully prepared, verified by transmission electron microscopy and chromatography, with robust antibody titers against PCV2 and PPV1 produced in mice and guinea pigs. In addition, in guinea pigs challenged with 106 TCID50 PCV2, cVLPs conferred more effective immune protection (based on viral load) than a commercial PCV2 vaccine. Finally, antibody responses and immune protection against PPV were also evaluated. In guinea pigs vaccinated with cVLPs, although PPV antibodies detected by a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay appeared later after vaccination in the PCV2 cVLPs group than in the commercial PPV vaccine group, there were fewer PPV genomic DNA copies in the PCV2 cVLPs group than in a PBS group. In conclusion, guinea pigs vaccinated with cVLPs developed effective protective immunity against PCV2 challenge, with some protective immunity against PPV. This study provided valuable research data to pursue molecular design of chimeric epitopes PCV2 VLPs.


Assuntos
Infecções por Circoviridae/veterinária , Coinfecção/veterinária , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Imunidade Humoral , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/prevenção & controle , Circovirus/imunologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Feminino , Cobaias , Camundongos , Infecções por Parvoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/prevenção & controle , Parvovirus Suíno/imunologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus/imunologia
10.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2935, 2019 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270335

RESUMO

Trace elements play important roles in human health, but little is known about their functions in humoral immunity. Here, we show an important role for iron in inducing cyclin E and B cell proliferation. We find that iron-deficient individuals exhibit a significantly reduced antibody response to the measles vaccine when compared to iron-normal controls. Mice with iron deficiency also exhibit attenuated T-dependent or T-independent antigen-specific antibody responses. We show that iron is essential for B cell proliferation; both iron deficiency and α-ketoglutarate inhibition could suppress cyclin E1 induction and S phase entry of B cells upon activation. Finally, we demonstrate that three demethylases, KDM2B, KDM3B and KDM4C, are responsible for histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9) demethylation at the cyclin E1 promoter, cyclin E1 induction and B cell proliferation. Thus, our data reveal a crucial role of H3K9 demethylation in B cell proliferation, and the importance of iron in humoral immunity.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/imunologia , Proliferação de Células , Histonas/química , Histonas/imunologia , Imunidade Humoral , Lisina/imunologia , Animais , Linfócitos B/química , Linfócitos B/citologia , Ciclo Celular , Células Cultivadas , Ciclina E/genética , Ciclina E/imunologia , Desmetilação , Proteínas F-Box/genética , Proteínas F-Box/imunologia , Histonas/genética , Ferro/metabolismo , Histona Desmetilases com o Domínio Jumonji/genética , Histona Desmetilases com o Domínio Jumonji/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Lisina/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas Oncogênicas/genética , Proteínas Oncogênicas/imunologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia
11.
Scand J Immunol ; 90(4): e12801, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269273

RESUMO

Influenza virus is a major respiratory pathogen, and vaccination is the main method of prophylaxis. In 2012, the trivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) was licensed in Europe for use in children. Vaccine-induced antibodies directed against the main viral surface glycoproteins, haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) play important roles in limiting virus infection. The objective of this study was to dissect the influenza-specific antibody responses in children and adults, and T cell responses in children induced after LAIV immunization to the A/H1N1 virus. Blood samples were collected pre- and at 28 and 56 days post-vaccination from 20 children and 20 adults. No increase in micro-neutralization (MN) antibodies against A/H1N1 was observed after vaccination. A/H1N1 stalk-specific neutralizing and NA-inhibiting (NI) antibodies were boosted in children after LAIV. Interferon γ-producing T cells increased significantly in children, and antibody-dependent cellular-mediated cytotoxic (ADCC) cell activity increased slightly in children after vaccination, although this change was not significant. The results indicate that the NI assay is more sensitive to qualitative changes in serum antibodies after LAIV. There was a considerable difference in the immune response in children and adults after vaccination, which may be related to priming and previous influenza history. Our findings warrant further studies for evaluating LAIV vaccination immunogenicity.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/fisiologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Criança , Feminino , Testes de Inibição da Hemaglutinação , Humanos , Imunidade Humoral , Masculino , Vacinação
12.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 213: 109886, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307667

RESUMO

The diagnosis of the early stages of paratuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), is a cumbersome task. In this study, an experimental Map-infection model of calves was used to improve the knowledge of early antibody response and to evaluate different in-house ELISAs in the detection of subclinical paratuberculosis. Calves were challenged with Map strain IS900-RFLPA (n = 3) or Map strain IS900-RFLPC (n = 2) (Argentinean isolated strains) or mock infected (n = 3), and their specific humoral response was evaluated. The diagnostic ELISA (IgG against Map protoplasmic antigen; PPA) could not detect the infection throughout the experimental period (180 days post-infection; dpi), whereas the IgG2/PPA-ELISA was able to identify infected calves at least once during the experiment. In addition, the use of crude Map extract detected most of the infections from 60 dpi onwards. Antibodies were also characterized by immunoblot: IgG2-reactivity to antigens of molecular weight lower than 50 kDa was detected in all infected calves. The experimental Map-infection model of calves used allows the study of the early humoral immune response in paratuberculosis. The evaluation of IgG2 specific to antigens lighter than 50 kDa emerges as an interesting alternative in calves naturally infected with paratuberculosis.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Imunidade Humoral , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis , Paratuberculose/imunologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Fezes/microbiologia , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 213: 109887, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307668

RESUMO

Chlamydia abortus produces ovine enzootic abortion (OEA). Symptoms are not observed until the organism colonises the placenta, eventually causing abortion. Infected animals become carriers and will shed the organism in the following oestruses. This process suggests that sex hormones might play an important role in the physiopathology of OEA, affecting the success of chlamydial clearance and also jeopardising the effectiveness of vaccination. However, the mechanisms through which sex hormones are involved in chlamydial pathogenicity remain unclear. The aim of this study, therefore, was to determine the effect of progesterone on the immune response against C. abortus and on the protection conferred by an experimental inactivated vaccine in sheep. Eighteen sheep were ovariectomised and divided into four groups: vaccinated and progesterone-treated (V-PG), vaccinated and non-treated (V-NT), non-vaccinated and non-treated (NV-NT) and non-vaccinated and progesterone-treated sheep (NV-PG). Animals from both PG groups were treated with commercial medroxyprogesterone acetate impregnated intravaginal sponges before and during the vaccination (V-PG) or just before challenge (NV-PG). The animals from both V groups were subcutaneously immunised with an experimental inactivated vaccine, which was seen to confer high protection in previous studies. All sheep were challenged intratracheally with C. abortus strain AB7 and were sacrificed on day 8 post-infection. Morbidity was measured as the variation in rectal temperature and samples of sera were collected for antibody and cytokine (IFN-γ and IL-10) analysis by commercial ELISA. In addition, lung and lymph node samples were collected for chlamydial detection by qPCR and for histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses. Sheep from the V-PG group showed less severe or no lesions and lower morbidity than the other groups. They also had the highest abundance of regulatory T-cells. The sheep from V-NT also manifested high antibody levels against C. abortus and less severe lesions than those observed in non-vaccinated sheep, which showed high morbidity, low antibody levels and severe lesions, especially in NV-NT. These results confirm the effectiveness of the experimental vaccine employed and suggest that progesterone could enhance the effect.


Assuntos
Vacinas Bacterianas/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Chlamydia/veterinária , Imunidade Humoral , Progesterona/administração & dosagem , Doenças dos Ovinos/imunologia , Aborto Animal/imunologia , Aborto Animal/prevenção & controle , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Chlamydia/imunologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/uso terapêutico
14.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 32(6): 427-437, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262388

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to characterize the diagnostic and vaccine potential of a novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen Rv0674. METHODS: To evaluate the diagnostic potential and antigenicity of Rv0674, IgG was evaluated using ELISA and interferon (IFN)-γ was done by using ELISpot assay among TB patients and healthy donors. For immunogenicity evaluation, BALB/c mice were immunized with Rv0674. Cytokine production was determined by cytokine release assay using an ELISA kit, and the antibodies were tested using ELISA. RESULTS: The results of serum Elisa tests showed that Rv0674 specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) response was higher in TB patients than negative controls. And Rv0674 had good performance in serological test with sensitivity and specificity of 77.1% and 81.1%, respectively. While it shows poor sensitivity and specificity of 26.23% and 79.69% for IFN-γ tests. In BALB/c mice, Rv0674 adjuvant by DDA/Poly I:C could also induce a high level of IFN-γ, interleukin-2 and interleukin-6 as well as a high IgG titer in both high- and low-dose groups indicating that Rv0674 is essential in humoral and cellular immunity. Moreover, the cytokine profile and IgG isotype characterized Rv0674 as a Th1/Th2-mixed-type protective immunity with the predominance of Th1 cytokines. CONCLUSION: Rv0674 may be a good potential candidate for the development of TB serological diagnosis and a new TB vaccine.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Tuberculose/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , Imunidade Humoral , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Anim Sci ; 97(8): 3253-3261, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150538

RESUMO

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an economically important pathogen that continues to threaten swine industry sustainability. The complexity and high genetic diversity of PRRSV has prevented vaccines from conferring adequate protection against disease outbreaks. Genome-wide association analyses of PRRSV experimentally infected pigs representing two genetic lines (n = 174 to 176) revealed two major genomic regions accounting for ~1.2% of the genetic variation in PRRSV-specific antibody level in serum or lung. The major region for serum antibody was mapped to SSC7 near the SLAII complex, which has also been implicated in susceptibility to other swine viral pathogens. Haplotype substitution analysis uncovered potential DQB1 haplotypes associated with divergent effects. A novel major region for lung antibody was mapped to the proximal end of SSC17 with the top SNP overlapping two genes, PRAG1 and LONRF1. Sequencing LONRF1 uncovered polymorphisms within the coding region that may play a role in regulating PRRSV-specific antibody production in lung tissue following PRRSV infection. These data implicate novel host genomic regions (SSC17) that influence PRRSV-specific immune response as well as a common region (SSC7) potentially involved in susceptibility to multiple viral pathogens.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/genética , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/veterinária , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/veterinária , Genoma/genética , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/imunologia , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Haplótipos , Imunidade Humoral , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/virologia , Masculino , Fenótipo , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/virologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Suínos
16.
Dokl Biochem Biophys ; 485(1): 145-149, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201637

RESUMO

Variation of natural antibody (nAb) levels to the pain bioregulators (ß-endorphin, orphanin, serotonin, dopamine, histamine, and angiotensin) in blood serum at chronic low back pain (LBP) was studied for 21 days. We revealed gender features of immuno-profiles: more elevated nAb levels in women at 1st day and equal levels in gender groups at 21st day. In addition, nAb levels remained above normal up to day 21 in most of patients despite a threefold decrease in pain intensity, measured using a differential visual analogue scale. A significant decrease in nAb levels was found in 4-20% of patients depending on the bioregulator. These observations support the hypothesis that antibodies can be a factor in the prolongation of pain. Therefore, the analysis of the dynamics of nAbs can be recommended for patients with LBP, from which it is possible to predict the further course of the disease.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Dor Crônica/imunologia , Imunidade Humoral , Dor Lombar/imunologia , Adulto , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Dor Crônica/sangue , Humanos , Dor Lombar/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 683: 681-689, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150888

RESUMO

The antidepressant fluoxetine (FLX), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, is widely prescribed for the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. Nowadays, measurable quantities of FLX have been frequently detected in the aquatic ecosystems worldwide, which may pose a potential threat to aquatic organisms. Although the impacts of FLX exposure on immune responses are increasingly well documented in mammals, they remain poorly understood in aquatic invertebrates. Therefore, to gain a better understanding of the ecotoxicological effects of FLX, the impacts of waterborne FLX exposure on the immune responses of blood clam, Tegillarca granosa, were investigated in this study. Results obtained showed that both cellular and humoural immune responses in T. granosa were suppressed by exposure to waterborne FLX, as indicated by total counts of haemocytes (THC), phagocytic rate, and activities of superoxide dismutases (SOD) and catalase (CAT), suggesting that waterborne FLX renders blood clams more vulnerable to pathogen challenges. To ascertain the mechanisms explaining how waterborne FLX affects immune responses, haemocyte viabilities, intracellular Ca2+ levels, in vivo concentrations of neurotransmitters, physiological stress conditions (as indicated by in vivo concentrations of cortisol), and expressions of key regulatory genes from Ca2+ and neurotransmitter signal transduction, as well as immune-related signalling pathways, were examined after 10 days of FLX exposure by blood clams via 1, 10 and 100 µg/L waterborne FLX. The results obtained indicated that immune response suppression caused by waterborne FLX could be due to (i) inhibited haemocyte viabilities, which subsequently reduce the THC; (ii) altered intracellular Ca2+ and neurotransmitter concentrations, which lead to constrained phagocytosis; and (iii) aggravated physiological stress, which thereafter hampers immune-related NFκB signalling pathways.


Assuntos
Fluoxetina/toxicidade , Imunidade Humoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Arcidae , Hemócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemócitos/fisiologia , Testes de Toxicidade
18.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(6): 91, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161259

RESUMO

The limited efficacy of available influenza vaccines against rapidly emerging new viral strains stresses the need for the development of new antigen-independent prophylactic treatment for enhancing immunity against influenza infection. Recent studies suggest that probiotics possess immunomodulatory properties and can reduce the severity of respiratory infections. Here, we investigated the potential of prophylactic Bifidobacterium bifidum in improving anti-influenza immune responses in an experimental lethal mouse-adapted influenza A (H1N1) infection in a BALB/c mouse model. One week after viral challenge, splenocyte proliferation assay (MTT), IFN-gamma, IL-12, and IL-4 in spleen and IL-6 in the lung homogenates were conducted using ELISA assays. Sera samples were collected to measure IgG1 and IgG2a levels. Furthermore, the mice challenged with lethal influenza virus were assessed for survival rate. The findings demonstrated a strong induction of both humoral and cellular immunities, as well as decreased level of IL-6 production in the lung and an increase in survival rate in the mice receiving Bifidobacterium than those of the control group were observed. Taken together, the results indicate a robust potential for Bifidobacterium to modulate humoral and cellular immune responses and induce balanced Th1/Th2 immune responses against influenza infection.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium bifidum/fisiologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , Imunidade Humoral , Imunização , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunomodulação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/patogenicidade , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-12/metabolismo , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Pulmão/imunologia , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Baço/imunologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th2/imunologia
19.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(6): 94, 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187291

RESUMO

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the major infectious agent of concern for cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Therefore, it is necessary to develop appropriate strategies for preventing colonization by this bacterium and/or neutralizing virulence factors. In this study, we formulated the encapsulation of exotoxin A into PLGA nanoparticles. The biological activities of the nanovaccine candidate were also characterized. Based on the results, ETA-PLGA can act as a suitable immunogen to stimulate the humoral and cellular immune response. The antibodies raised against ETA-PLGA significantly decreased bacterial titer in the spleens of the immunized mice after challenge with PAO1 strain, compared to the control groups. The encapsulation of PLGA into ETA led to a significantly higher production of INF-γ, TNF-α, IL-4, and IL-17A cytokine responses compared to the ETA group. ETA-PLGA enhanced IgG responses in immunized mice compared to ETA antigen. We concluded that encapsulation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ETA to PLGA nanoparticles can increase its functional activity by decreasing the bacterial dissemination.


Assuntos
ADP Ribose Transferases/imunologia , Toxinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Exotoxinas/imunologia , Imunização , Nanoconjugados , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico e Ácido Poliglicólico/imunologia , Infecções por Pseudomonas/prevenção & controle , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/patogenicidade , Vacinas Conjugadas , Fatores de Virulência/imunologia , ADP Ribose Transferases/uso terapêutico , Animais , Toxinas Bacterianas/uso terapêutico , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Exotoxinas/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Imunidade Celular , Imunidade Humoral , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Nanopartículas , Tamanho da Partícula , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico e Ácido Poliglicólico/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Pseudomonas/imunologia , Baço/imunologia , Baço/microbiologia , Fatores de Virulência/uso terapêutico
20.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 212: 1-8, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213246

RESUMO

Bovine mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus is a serious problem in dairy production and effective immunoprophylaxis is an unmet goal so far. The objective of this work was to assess the humoral immune response of heifer calves against two recombinant S. aureus antigens: Clumping factor A (ClfA) and Fibronectin Binding Protein A (FnBPA), formulated with a novel adjuvant based on cationic liposomes (Lip) and CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN). Six groups of 6-8 months old heifer calves received three doses biweekly of antigens, formulated with Al(OH)3, liposomes, CpG-ODN or Lip + CpG-ODN. Animals also received a fourth dose after a year (day 410) and a booster before calving. The administration of Al(OH)3+FnBPA/ClfA and Lip + FnBPA/ClfA + CpG-ODN induced the highest specific IgG levels, after the first 3 doses and induced a fast increase of antibodies after the fourth dose. All the formulations stimulated the production of specific IgG1, after the third and fourth dose. Specific IgG2 for both proteins was only stimulated after the fourth dose by Lip + FnBPA/ClfA + CpG-ODN. Pre-calving immunisation with Lip + FnBPA/ClfA + CpG-ODN led to the highest IgG levels during the calving period and to the production of the IgG2 subclass. The formulation was also able to stimulate the highest antibody levels in milk, 30 and 45 days after pre-calving booster. The combination of liposomes and CpG-ODN as adjuvant for a subunit vaccine, together with the immunisation schedule described, induced a strong humoral immune response with production of specific IgG2. The formulation demonstrated to induce immune memory allowing the application of a single pre-calving booster to maintain high antibody levels throughout the period of increased susceptibility to intramammary infections.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Imunidade Humoral , Mastite Bovina/prevenção & controle , Oligodesoxirribonucleotídeos/farmacologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Fatores Etários , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Bovinos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Memória Imunológica , Lipossomos/farmacologia , Mastite Bovina/imunologia , Mastite Bovina/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus , Vacinação , Soro do Leite/imunologia
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