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1.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239647, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970745

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the most significant global health crisis of the 21st century. The aim of this study was to develop a model to simulate the effect of undocumented infections, seasonal infectivity, immunity, and non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) on the transmission, morbidity, and mortality of SARS-CoV-2 in New York State (NYS) based on data collected between March 4 and April 28, 2020. Simulations predict that undocumented infections significantly contribute to infectivity, NPIs are effective in reducing morbidity and mortality, and relaxation >50% of NPIs from initial lock-down levels may result in tens-of-thousands more deaths. Endemic infection is likely to occur in the absence of sustained immunity. As a result, until an effective vaccine or other effective pharmaceutical intervention is developed, the risks of significantly reducing NPIs should be carefully considered. This study employs modelling to simulate fundamental characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, which can help policymakers navigate combating this virus in the coming years.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Doenças não Diagnosticadas/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Simulação por Computador , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Previsões , Humanos , Imunidade , Modelos Teóricos , New York/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Estações do Ano , Doenças não Diagnosticadas/virologia
2.
J Med Ethics ; 46(10): 660-661, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907831

RESUMO

In their recent article, Brown et al analyse several ethical aspects around immunity passports and put forward some recommendations for implementing them. Although they offer a comprehensive perspective, they overlook two essential aspects. First, while the authors consider the possibility that immunological passports may appear to discriminate against those who do not possess them, the opposite viewpoint of immune people is underdeveloped. We argue that if a person has been tested positive for and recovered from COVID-19, becoming immune to it, she cannot be considered a hazard to public health and, therefore, the curtailment of her fundamental rights (eg, the right to freedom of movement) is not legitimate. Second, they omit that vaccine distribution will create similar problems related to immunity-based licenses. Vaccine certificates will de facto generate a sort of immunity passport. In the next phases of the pandemic, different immunity statuses will be at stake, because the need to identify who can spread COVID-19 is unavoidable. If a person does not pose a threat to public health because she cannot spread the infection, then her right to freedom of movement should be respected, regardless of how she acquired that immunity.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Imunidade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Saúde Pública , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Humanos
3.
BMJ Open ; 10(8): e040448, 2020 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868370

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of describing an antibody-positive test result using the terms Immunity and Passport or Certificate, alone or in combination, on perceived risk of becoming infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and protective behaviours. DESIGN: 2×3 experimental design. SETTING: Online. PARTICIPANTS: 1204 adults from a UK research panel. INTERVENTION: Participants were randomised to receive one of six descriptions of an antibody test and results showing SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, differing in the terms describing the type of test (Immunity vs Antibody) and the test result (Passport vs Certificate vs Test). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome: proportion of participants perceiving no risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2 given an antibody-positive test result. Other outcomes include: intended changes to frequency of hand washing and physical distancing. RESULTS: When using the term Immunity (vs Antibody), 19.1% of participants (95% CI 16.1% to 22.5%) (vs 9.8% (95% CI 7.5% to 12.4%)) perceived no risk of catching coronavirus given an antibody-positive test result (adjusted OR (AOR): 2.91 (95% CI 1.52 to 5.55)). Using the terms Passport or Certificate-as opposed to Test-had no significant effect (AOR: 1.24 (95% CI 0.62 to 2.48) and AOR: 0.96 (95% CI 0.47 to 1.99) respectively). There was no significant interaction between the effects of the test and result terminology. Across groups, perceiving no risk of infection was associated with an intention to wash hands less frequently (AOR: 2.32 (95% CI 1.25 to 4.28)); there was no significant association with intended avoidance of physical contact (AOR: 1.37 (95% CI 0.93 to 2.03)). CONCLUSIONS: Using the term Immunity (vs Antibody) to describe antibody tests for SARS-CoV-2 increases the proportion of people believing that an antibody-positive result means they have no risk of catching coronavirus in the future, a perception that may be associated with less frequent hand washing. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Open Science Framework: https://osf.io/tjwz8/files/.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais , Comunicação , Infecções por Coronavirus , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Imunidade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Betacoronavirus , Certificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Revelação , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Medição de Risco , Reino Unido
4.
J Exp Med ; 217(10)2020 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910820

RESUMO

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an unprecedented global health crisis. Tissue and peripheral blood analysis indicate profound, aberrant myeloid cell activation, cytokine storm, and lymphopenia, with unknown immunopathological mechanisms. Spatiotemporal control of the quality and quantity of the antiviral immune responses involves synchronized cellular and molecular cascades and cross-talk between innate and adaptive immunity. Dysregulated responses in immunity, such as at the stages of immune sensing, alarming, polarization, and resolution, may contribute to disease pathology. Herein, we approach SARS-CoV-2 through an immunomodulatory lens, discussing possible mechanisms of the asynchronized antiviral immune response and proposing potential therapeutic strategies to correct the dysregulation.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Imunoterapia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Humanos , Imunidade , Modelos Imunológicos , Pandemias , Internalização do Vírus
5.
Biol Sex Differ ; 11(1): 53, 2020 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948238

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has shown high infection and mortality rates all over the world, and despite the global efforts, there is so far no specific therapy available for COVID-19. Interestingly, while the severity and mortality of COVID-19 are higher in males than in females, the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. In this review, we explore sex-related differences that may be contributing factors to the observed male-biased mortality from COVID-19. Males are considered the weaker sex in aspects related to endurance and infection control. Studies show that viral RNA clearance is delayed in males with COVID-19. A recent study has indicated that the testis can harbor coronavirus, and consequently, males show delayed viral clearance. However, the role of testis involvement in COVID-19 severity and mortality needs further research. Males and females show a distinct difference in immune system responses with females eliciting stronger immune responses to pathogens. This difference in immune system responses may be a major contributing factor to viral load, disease severity, and mortality. In addition, differences in sex hormone milieus could also be a determinant of viral infections as estrogen has immunoenhancing effects while testosterone has immunosuppressive effects. The sex-specific severity of COVID-19 infections indicates that further research on understanding the sex differences is needed. Inclusion of both males and females in basic research and clinical trials is required to provide critical information on sex-related differences that may help to better understand disease outcome and therapy.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Testículo/imunologia
6.
PLoS Biol ; 18(9): e3000849, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898168

RESUMO

Despite limited genomic diversity, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has shown a wide range of clinical manifestations in different patient populations. The mechanisms behind these host differences are still unclear. Here, we examined host response gene expression across infection status, viral load, age, and sex among shotgun RNA sequencing profiles of nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs from 430 individuals with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 and 54 negative controls. SARS-CoV-2 induced a strong antiviral response with up-regulation of antiviral factors such as OAS1-3 and IFIT1-3 and T helper type 1 (Th1) chemokines CXCL9/10/11, as well as a reduction in transcription of ribosomal proteins. SARS-CoV-2 culture in human airway epithelial (HAE) cultures replicated the in vivo antiviral host response 7 days post infection, with no induction of interferon-stimulated genes after 3 days. Patient-matched longitudinal specimens (mean elapsed time = 6.3 days) demonstrated reduction in interferon-induced transcription, recovery of transcription of ribosomal proteins, and initiation of wound healing and humoral immune responses. Expression of interferon-responsive genes, including ACE2, increased as a function of viral load, while transcripts for B cell-specific proteins and neutrophil chemokines were elevated in patients with lower viral load. Older individuals had reduced expression of the Th1 chemokines CXCL9/10/11 and their cognate receptor CXCR3, as well as CD8A and granzyme B, suggesting deficiencies in trafficking and/or function of cytotoxic T cells and natural killer (NK) cells. Relative to females, males had reduced B cell-specific and NK cell-specific transcripts and an increase in inhibitors of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) signaling, possibly inappropriately throttling antiviral responses. Collectively, our data demonstrate that host responses to SARS-CoV-2 are dependent on viral load and infection time course, with observed differences due to age and sex that may contribute to disease severity.


Assuntos
Antivirais/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imunidade/genética , Cinética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nasofaringe/imunologia , Nasofaringe/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética , Fatores Sexuais , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Carga Viral , Cicatrização/genética , Adulto Jovem
7.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239799, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976513

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and its effect on adverse clinical outcomes, and parameters of immune function and mortality due to a SARS-CoV-2 infection. STUDY DESIGN: The hospital data of 235 patients infected with COVID-19 were analyzed. RESULTS: Based on CDC criteria, among our study patients, 74% had severe COVID-19 infection and 32.8% were vitamin D sufficient. After adjusting for confounding factors, there was a significant association between vitamin D sufficiency and reduction in clinical severity, inpatient mortality serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and an increase in lymphocyte percentage. Only 9.7% of patients older than 40 years who were vitamin D sufficient succumbed to the infection compared to 20% who had a circulating level of 25(OH)D< 30 ng/ml. The significant reduction in serum CRP, an inflammatory marker, along with increased lymphocytes percentage suggest that vitamin D sufficiency also may help modulate the immune response possibly by reducing risk for cytokine storm in response to this viral infection. CONCLUSION: Therefore, it is recommended that improving vitamin D status in the general population and in particular hospitalized patients has a potential benefit in reducing the severity of morbidities and mortality associated with acquiring COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Rotas de Resultados Adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Irã (Geográfico) , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Prognóstico , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitamina D/sangue , Vitamina D/farmacologia , Vitamina D/normas
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3989, 2020 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778653

RESUMO

Upon stimulation, B cells assume heterogeneous cell fates, with only a fraction differentiating into antibody-secreting cells (ASC). Here we investigate B cell fate programming and heterogeneity during ASC differentiation using T cell-independent models. We find that maximal ASC induction requires at least eight cell divisions in vivo, with BLIMP-1 being required for differentiation at division eight. Single cell RNA-sequencing of activated B cells and construction of differentiation trajectories reveal an early cell fate bifurcation. The ASC-destined branch requires induction of IRF4, MYC-target genes, and oxidative phosphorylation, with the loss of CD62L expression serving as a potential early marker of ASC fate commitment. Meanwhile, the non-ASC branch expresses an inflammatory signature, and maintains B cell fate programming. Finally, ASC can be further subseted based on their differential responses to ER-stress, indicating multiple development branch points. Our data thus define the cell division kinetics of B cell differentiation in vivo, and identify the molecular trajectories of B cell fate and ASC formation.


Assuntos
Células Produtoras de Anticorpos/metabolismo , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária/fisiologia , Animais , Antígenos CD19/genética , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Imunidade , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/metabolismo , Selectina L , Ativação Linfocitária/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Fator 1 de Ligação ao Domínio I Regulador Positivo/genética , Fator 1 de Ligação ao Domínio I Regulador Positivo/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(33): 19694-19704, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737164

RESUMO

Control can alter the eco-evolutionary dynamics of a target pathogen in two ways, by changing its population size and by directed evolution of new functions. Here, we develop a payoff model of eco-evolutionary control based on strategies of evolution, regulation, and computational forecasting. We apply this model to pathogen control by molecular antibody-antigen binding with a tunable dosage of antibodies. By analytical solution, we obtain optimal dosage protocols and establish a phase diagram with an error threshold delineating parameter regimes of successful and compromised control. The solution identifies few independently measurable fitness parameters that predict the outcome of control. Our analysis shows how optimal control strategies depend on mutation rate and population size of the pathogen, and how monitoring and computational forecasting affect protocols and efficiency of control. We argue that these results carry over to more general systems and are elements of an emerging eco-evolutionary control theory.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Anticorpos/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade , Modelos Biológicos
10.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(15): 15784-15796, 2020 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805728

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an epidemic disease characterized by rapid infection and a high death toll. The clinical diagnosis of patients with COVID-19 has risen sharply, especially in Western countries. Globally, an effective treatment for COVID-19 is still limited. Vitamin A (VA) exhibits pharmacological activity in the management of pneumonia. Thus, we reason that VA may potentially serve as an anti-SARS-CoV-2 regimen. In this study, bioinformatics analysis and computation assays using a network pharmacology method were conducted to explore and uncover the therapeutic targets and mechanisms of VA for treating COVID-19. We identified candidate targets, pharmacological functions, and therapeutic pathways of VA against SARS-CoV-2. Bioinformatics findings indicate that the mechanisms of action of VA against SARS-CoV-2 include enrichment of immunoreaction, inhibition of inflammatory reaction, and biological processes related to reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, seven core targets of VA against COVID-19, including MAPK1, IL10, EGFR, ICAM1, MAPK14, CAT, and PRKCB were identified. With this bioinformatics-based report, we reveal, for the first time, the anti-SARS-CoV-2 functions and mechanisms of VA and suggest that VA may act as a potent treatment option for COVID-19, a deadly global epidemic.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Vitamina A , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Disponibilidade Biológica , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Ontologia Genética , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitamina A/farmacocinética , Vitamina A/uso terapêutico , Vitaminas/farmacocinética , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico
11.
S D Med ; 73(7): 292-293, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805777
13.
Science ; 369(6508): 1210-1220, 2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788292

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) represents a global crisis, yet major knowledge gaps remain about human immunity to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We analyzed immune responses in 76 COVID-19 patients and 69 healthy individuals from Hong Kong and Atlanta, Georgia, United States. In the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of COVID-19 patients, we observed reduced expression of human leukocyte antigen class DR (HLA-DR) and proinflammatory cytokines by myeloid cells as well as impaired mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and interferon-α (IFN-α) production by plasmacytoid dendritic cells. By contrast, we detected enhanced plasma levels of inflammatory mediators-including EN-RAGE, TNFSF14, and oncostatin M-which correlated with disease severity and increased bacterial products in plasma. Single-cell transcriptomics revealed a lack of type I IFNs, reduced HLA-DR in the myeloid cells of patients with severe COVID-19, and transient expression of IFN-stimulated genes. This was consistent with bulk PBMC transcriptomics and transient, low IFN-α levels in plasma during infection. These results reveal mechanisms and potential therapeutic targets for COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Citocinas/sangue , DNA Bacteriano/sangue , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Antígenos HLA-DR/análise , Humanos , Imunidade , Imunidade Inata , Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/sangue , Masculino , Células Mieloides/imunologia , Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Pandemias , Transdução de Sinais , Análise de Célula Única , Biologia de Sistemas , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética , Transcriptoma
14.
Rev. argent. salud publica ; 12: 1-5, 1 de Julio 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS, ARGMSAL | ID: biblio-1102395

RESUMO

La diversidad genética le confiere a Plasmodium falciparum la capacidad de evadir la respuesta inmune del hospedero y producir variantes resistentes a medicamentos y a vacunas. Diferentes autores han documentado la existencia de cepas o clones de P. falciparum, cuya diversidad genética se ha confirmado a través de distintos ensayos de PCR (reacción en cadena de la polimerasa). El objetivo fue describir la diversidad genética de P. falciparum. MÉTODOS: Para la revisión narrativa se hizo una búsqueda de literatura publicada, que incluyó libros y artículos científicos originales, verificando el tema, así como reportes técnicos. Los documentos se consultaron entre agosto y diciembre de 2019 a través del acceso en Internet y bibliotecas del Academic Search Complete del gestor de búsquedas Medline, Science Direct, Scopus, Redalyc y Psicodoc. RESULTADOS: Se identificaron secuencias polimórficas útiles como marcadores genéticos de las poblaciones de P. falciparum, con los genes de las proteínas de superficie del merozoíto 1 y 2 (MSP-1, MSP-2) y el gen de la proteína rica en glutamato (GLURP), que producen variantes resistentes a medicamentos y a vacunas. DISCUSIÓN: Los hallazgos en las diferentes regiones estudiadas permiten concluir que la diversidad genética, la multiplicidad de infección y la dinámica en el tiempo de las infecciones por P. falciparum se ven afectadas por el grado de endemicidad de la malaria en cada país.


Assuntos
Plasmodium falciparum , Variação Genética , Epidemiologia , Imunidade , Malária
15.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1930): 20201017, 2020 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605431

RESUMO

Seasonal disease and parasitic infection are common across organisms, including humans, and there is increasing evidence for intrinsic seasonal variation in immune systems. Changes are orchestrated through organisms' physiological clocks using cues such as day length. Ample research in diverse taxa has demonstrated multiple immune responses are modulated by photoperiod, but to date, there have been few experimental demonstrations that photoperiod cues alter susceptibility to infection. We investigated the interactions among photoperiod history, immunity and susceptibility in laboratory-bred three-spined stickleback (a long-day breeding fish) and its external, directly reproducing monogenean parasite Gyrodactylus gasterostei. We demonstrate that previous exposure to long-day photoperiods (PLD) increases susceptibility to infection relative to previous exposure to short days (PSD), and modifies the response to infection for the mucin gene muc2 and Treg cytokine foxp3a in skin tissues in an intermediate 12 L : 12 D photoperiod experimental trial. Expression of skin muc2 is reduced in PLD fish, and negatively associated with parasite abundance. We also observe inflammatory gene expression variation associated with natural inter-population variation in resistance, but find that photoperiod modulation of susceptibility is consistent across host populations. Thus, photoperiod modulation of the response to infection is important for host susceptibility, highlighting new mechanisms affecting seasonality of host-parasite interactions.


Assuntos
Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Doenças Parasitárias , Fotoperíodo , Smegmamorpha/imunologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Peixes , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Humanos , Imunidade , Masculino , Reprodução , Estações do Ano , Smegmamorpha/parasitologia , Trematódeos
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(28): e20911, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664086

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a common allergic disorder worldwide. Western medicine is not optimistic about the therapeutic effect of this disease. However, moxibustion can enhance vital energy or immunity through a great number of clinical trials. Thus, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to systematically evaluate the effectiveness and safety of indirect moxibustion for treating AR. METHODS: We will conduct a comprehensive literature search in Medline, PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, the Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database, WanFang Database, Chinese Scientific Journal Database, and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database from inception to August 2020 without any language restriction. In addition, we will retrieve the unpublished studies and the references of initially included literature manually. Reviewers will identify studies, extract data, and assess the quality independently. The outcomes of interest include: total effective rate, total nasal symptom score, total non-nasal symptom score, rhinitis quality of life questionnaire, visual analog scale, laboratory indicators (i.e., serum levels of IgE, IgA, or IgG), and adverse events. Randomized clinical trials will be collected, methodological quality will be evaluated using the Cochrane risk-of-bias assessment tool, and the level of evidence will be rated using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. Meta-analysis will be performed using RevMan 5.3.0 software. The heterogeneity test will be conducted between the studies, and P < .1 and I > 50% are the thresholds for the tests. We will utilize the fixed effects model or the random effects model according to the size of heterogeneity. RESULTS: Because the review is ongoing, no results can be reported. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this review will provide reliable evidence for effectiveness and safety of indirect moxibustion for treating AR. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not required for this study. This systematic review and meta-analysis will be disseminated online and on paper to help guide clinicians. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019140944.


Assuntos
Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Moxibustão/métodos , Rinite Alérgica/terapia , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Moxibustão/efeitos adversos , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa , Rinite Alérgica/epidemiologia , Rinite Alérgica/psicologia , Segurança , Resultado do Tratamento , Escala Visual Analógica
17.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 38: 65-66, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32690179

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The COVID-19 infection can lead to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), mainly affecting patients aged 60 and older. Preliminary data suggest that the nutritional status can change the course of the infection, and on the matter, zinc is crucial for growth, development, and the maintenance of immune function. In the absence of treatment for this virus, there is an urgent need to find alternative methods that can contribute to control of disease. The aim of this paper is to establish the relation between zinc and COVID-19. METHODS AND RESULTS: From the prior scientific knowledge, we have performed a review of the literature and examine the role of zinc in immune function in the infection by COVID-19. Our findings are that the zinc as an anti-inflammatory agent may help to optimize immune function and reduce the risk of infection. CONCLUSIONS: Zinc supplementation can be a useful strategy to reduce the global burden of infection in the elderly, there is a need the increased reporting to improve our understanding of COVID-19 and the care of affected patients.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Oligoelementos/administração & dosagem , Zinco/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Oligoelementos/imunologia , Zinco/imunologia
18.
Immunol Lett ; 226: 38-45, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659267

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative pathogen of deadly Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic, which emerged as a major threat to public health across the world. Although there is no clear gender or socioeconomic discrimination in the incidence of COVID-19, individuals who are older adults and/or with comorbidities and compromised immunity have a relatively higher risk of contracting this disease. Since no specific drug has yet been discovered, strengthening immunity along with maintaining a healthy living is the best way to survive this disease. As a healthy practice, calorie restriction in the form of intermittent fasting (IF) in several clinical settings has been reported to promote several health benefits, including priming of the immune response. This dietary restriction also activates autophagy, a cell surveillance system that boosts up immunity. With these prevailing significance in priming host defense, IF could be a potential strategy amid this outbreak to fighting off SARS-CoV-2 infection. Currently, no review so far available proposing IF as an encouraging strategy in the prevention of COVID-19. A comprehensive review has therefore been planned to highlight the beneficial role of fasting in immunity and autophagy, that underlie the possible defense against SARS-CoV-2 infection. The COVID-19 pathogenesis and its impact on host immune response have also been briefly outlined. This review aimed at revisiting the immunomodulatory potential of IF that may constitute a promising preventive approach against COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Jejum , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Autofagia , Restrição Calórica , Resistência à Doença/imunologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/imunologia , Jejum/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Imunidade , Pandemias
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(28): 16465-16474, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601220

RESUMO

Under steady-state conditions, the immune system is poised to sense and respond to the microbiota. As such, immunity to the microbiota, including T cell responses, is expected to precede any inflammatory trigger. How this pool of preformed microbiota-specific T cells contributes to tissue pathologies remains unclear. Here, using an experimental model of psoriasis, we show that recall responses to commensal skin fungi can significantly aggravate tissue inflammation. Enhanced pathology caused by fungi preexposure depends on Th17 responses and neutrophil extracellular traps and recapitulates features of the transcriptional landscape of human lesional psoriatic skin. Together, our results propose that recall responses directed to skin fungi can directly promote skin inflammation and that exploration of tissue inflammation should be assessed in the context of recall responses to the microbiota.


Assuntos
Arthrodermataceae/fisiologia , Microbiota , Psoríase/imunologia , Pele/microbiologia , Animais , Arthrodermataceae/classificação , Arthrodermataceae/genética , Arthrodermataceae/isolamento & purificação , Armadilhas Extracelulares/imunologia , Armadilhas Extracelulares/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Psoríase/microbiologia , Psoríase/patologia , Pele/imunologia , Pele/patologia , Simbiose , Células Th17/imunologia
20.
Chiropr Man Therap ; 28(1): 34, 2020 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-591582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social media has become an increasingly important tool in monitoring the onset and spread of infectious diseases globally as well monitoring the spread of information about those diseases. This includes the spread of misinformation, which has been documented within the context of the emerging COVID-19 crisis. Understanding the creation, spread and uptake of social media misinformation is of critical importance to public safety. In this descriptive study, we detail Twitter activity regarding spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) and claims it increases, or "boosts", immunity. Spinal manipulation is a common intervention used by many health professions, most commonly by chiropractors. There is no clinical evidence that SMT improves human immunity. METHODS: Social media searching software (Talkwalker Quick Search) was used to describe Twitter activity regarding SMT and improving or boosting immunity. Searches were performed for the 3 months and 12 months before March 31, 2020 using terms related to 1) SMT, 2) the professions that most often provide SMT and 3) immunity. From these searches, we determined the magnitude and time course of Twitter activity then coded this activity into content that promoted or refuted a SMT/immunity link. Content themes, high-influence users and user demographics were then stratified as either promoting or refuting this linkage. RESULTS: Twitter misinformation regarding a SMT/immunity link increased dramatically during the onset of the COVID crisis. Activity levels (number of tweets) and engagement scores (likes + retweets) were roughly equal between content promoting or refuting a SMT/immunity link, however, the potential reach (audience) of tweets refuting a SMT/immunity link was 3 times higher than those promoting a link. Users with the greatest influence on Twitter, as either promoters or refuters, were individuals, not institutions or organizations. The majority of tweets promoting a SMT/immunity link were generated in the USA while the majority of refuting tweets originated from Canada. CONCLUSION: Twitter activity about SMT and immunity increased during the COVID-19 crisis. Results from this work have the potential to help policy makers and others understand the impact of SMT misinformation and devise strategies to mitigate its impact.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Comunicação , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Imunidade/fisiologia , Manipulação da Coluna , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pandemias , Mídias Sociais/normas , Fatores de Tempo
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