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1.
Immunization Newsletter (EPI Newsletter) ; v46, 2024PAHO/CIM/24-0009.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-59795

RESUMO

The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) publishes the Immunization Newsletter four times a year in English, French, Portuguese, and Spanish. Its purpose is to facilitate the exchange of ideas and information on immunization programs in the Region of the Americas and beyond. It has been published since 1979 in English and Spanish, with French and Portuguese versions beginning in 2001 and 2019, respectively. The March 2024 issue of the quarterly Immunization Newsletter covers the following topics: Third annual meeting of the Regional Monitoring and Re-verification Commission for Measles, Rubella, and Congenital Rubella Syndrome Elimination; PAHO’s Technical Advisory Group (TAG) on Vaccine-preventable Diseases provides regional recommendations on dengue and respiratory syncytial virus vaccines and issues a statement on the ongoing COVID-19 vaccination efforts; Charting the path forward: reflections on PAHO's Communicable Diseases Elimination Initiative and future directions; Towards the Elimination of Diseases Associated with Human Papillomavirus Infection in the French Caribbean: Implementation of a Mass Vaccination Campaign in Schools Since October 2023; Expanded Immunization Program methodology and performance monitoring tool for the Region of the Americas; Sentinel surveillance of rotavirus in children under 5 years of age in the Region of the Americas; Sentinel surveillance of bacterial pneumonia and meningitis in children under 5 years of age in the Americas; Workshop on the preparation of scientific texts and articles on health in Bogotá, Colombia; Final Classification of Cases in the Region of the Americas, 2023; Immunization information systems and data quality; Virtual self-learning course: Tools for monitoring integrated public health interventions. Vaccination and deworming for soil-transmitted helminth infections; and Strengthening immunization data management.


Assuntos
Imunização , Vacinação , Imunidade , Dengue , COVID-19
2.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2024-05-20. (OPS/CIM/24-0004).
em Francês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-59792

RESUMO

Cette publication est une annexe au document technique "Building better immunity : Une approche du parcours de vie pour une longévité en bonne santé", avec les contributions de plusieurs experts en la matière au sein et en dehors de l'Organisation panaméricaine de la santé (OPS). Cette annexe fournit des exemples d'activités au sein du programme national de vaccination qui peuvent améliorer les taux de couverture et réduire les occasions manquées pour quatre groupes de population : les femmes enceintes, les adolescents, les travailleurs de la santé et les personnes âgées. Ces exemples traduisent les principes et les concepts de l'approche fondée sur le parcours de vie en activités concrètes, qui peuvent être utilisées par les responsables des programmes nationaux de vaccination et par les vaccinateurs, respectivement, pour améliorer les taux de couverture vaccinale. Ces quatre groupes représentent des étapes de la vie pour lesquelles il existe des vaccins très efficaces et qui peuvent grandement influencer leurs capacités sanitaires. L'application des séries primaires, des rappels et des doses de vaccin de rattrapage dans ces groupes est essentielle pour combler les déficits d'immunité émergents. Les activités sont regroupées en huit composantes : (i) gestion et plaidoyer, (ii) équité, (iii) ressources humaines et financement, (iv) organisation et prestation de services, (v) génération de la demande et engagement communautaire, (vi) systèmes d'information, (vii) formation et (viii) évaluation et recherche. Les exemples doivent être évalués, adaptés, mis en œuvre et éventuellement élargis par les États membres pour s'aligner sur les contextes nationaux et locaux. Ce document s'inscrit dans le cadre des efforts déployés par l'OPS pour promouvoir l'application d'une approche de la vaccination fondée sur le parcours de vie dans les pays et territoires des Amériques et pour aider les ministères de la santé à mettre en place des stratégies de santé publique aux niveaux infranational et local afin de préserver la santé et le bien-être des personnes de tous âges.


Assuntos
Imunidade , Imunoterapia , Doenças Transmissíveis , Doenças Transmissíveis , Imunização , Programas de Imunização , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida
3.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2024-05-20. (OPS/CIM/24-0004).
em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-59790

RESUMO

Esta publicación es un apéndice del documento técnico "Lograr una mejor inmunidad: el enfoque de curso de vida para una longevidad saludable", con las contribuciones de varios expertos en la materia dentro y fuera de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS). Este apéndice proporciona ejemplos de actividades dentro del programa nacional de inmunización que pueden mejorar las tasas de cobertura y reducir las oportunidades perdidas para cuatro grupos de población: mujeres embarazadas, adolescentes, trabajadores sanitarios y adultos mayores. Estos ejemplos traducen los principios y conceptos del Enfoque del Ciclo Vital en actividades concretas, que pueden ser utilizadas por los gestores de los programas nacionales de inmunización y por los vacunadores, respectivamente, para reforzar las tasas de cobertura de vacunación. Estos cuatro grupos representan etapas de la vida para las que existen vacunas muy eficaces y que pueden influir enormemente en sus capacidades sanitarias. La aplicación de dosis de vacunas de la serie primaria, de refuerzo y de recuperación en estos grupos es fundamental para cerrar las brechas de inmunidad emergentes. Las actividades se agrupan en ocho componentes (i) administración y promoción, (ii) equidad, (iii) recursos humanos y financiación, (iv) organización y prestación de servicios, (v) generación de demanda y participación de la comunidad, (vi) sistemas de información, (vii) formación y (viii) evaluación e investigación. Los ejemplos deben ser evaluados, adaptados, implementados y posiblemente ampliados por los Estados Miembros para alinearlos con los contextos nacionales y locales. Este documento forma parte de los esfuerzos de la OPS para promover la aplicación de un enfoque de inmunización a lo largo de la vida por parte de los países y territorios de las Américas y para apoyar a los Ministerios de Salud a establecer estrategias de salud pública a nivel subnacional y local para salvaguardar la salud y el bienestar de las personas de todas las edades.


Assuntos
Imunidade , Imunoterapia , Doenças Transmissíveis , Doenças Transmissíveis , Imunização , Programas de Imunização , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida
4.
J Transl Med ; 22(1): 423, 2024 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38704606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are known to play a crucial role in the growth, migration, recurrence, and drug resistance of tumor cells, particularly in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). This study aims to investigate stemness-related lncRNAs (SRlncRNAs) as potential prognostic indicators for TNBC patients. METHODS: Utilizing RNA sequencing data and corresponding clinical information from the TCGA database, and employing Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA) on TNBC mRNAsi sourced from an online database, stemness-related genes (SRGs) and SRlncRNAs were identified. A prognostic model was developed using univariate Cox and LASSO-Cox analysis based on SRlncRNAs. The performance of the model was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis, ROC curves, and ROC-AUC. Additionally, the study delved into the underlying signaling pathways and immune status associated with the divergent prognoses of TNBC patients. RESULTS: The research identified a signature of six SRlncRNAs (AC245100.6, LINC02511, AC092431.1, FRGCA, EMSLR, and MIR193BHG) for TNBC. Risk scores derived from this signature were found to correlate with the abundance of plasma cells. Furthermore, the nominated chemotherapy drugs for TNBC exhibited considerable variability between different risk score groups. RT-qPCR validation confirmed abnormal expression patterns of these SRlncRNAs in TNBC stem cells, affirming the potential of the SRlncRNAs signature as a prognostic biomarker. CONCLUSION: The identified signature not only demonstrates predictive power in terms of patient outcomes but also provides insights into the underlying biology, signaling pathways, and immune status associated with TNBC prognosis. The findings suggest the possibility of guiding personalized treatments, including immune checkpoint gene therapy and chemotherapy strategies, based on the risk scores derived from the SRlncRNA signature. Overall, this research contributes valuable knowledge towards advancing precision medicine in the context of TNBC.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas , RNA Longo não Codificante , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/imunologia , Prognóstico , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Feminino , Resultado do Tratamento , Animais , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Curva ROC , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Imunidade/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo
5.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 36(1): 117, 2024 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38780713

RESUMO

Diet is one of the lifestyle factors that is most amenable to intervention, and has a substantial effect on the potential for successful aging and mitigation of the risk of disease. Good nutrition is a pillar of healthy aging, and a large body of evidence attests to the benefits of the Mediterranean diet on the quality of the aging process. The Mediterranean diet comprises a wide range of nutrients which, both individually and collectively, exert positive effects on immunity, in large part mediated by the gut microbiota. In this article, we review the effect of the Mediterranean diet on immunity, and how its beneficial effects are mediated by the gut microbiota. We review the effects of certain key components of the Mediterranean dietary pattern, including vitamins, zinc, selenium, and polyphenols. Overall, the existing body of evidence convincingly demonstrates that the Mediterreanean diet affects immune health by maintaining a healthy body weight and reducing the risk of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases; by reducing inflammation and by promoting a healthy gut microbiota profile.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Idoso , Envelhecimento/imunologia , Imunidade/fisiologia
6.
Nat Methods ; 21(5): 737-738, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745074

Assuntos
Imunidade , Humanos , Animais
7.
Immunity ; 57(5): 941-956, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38749397

RESUMO

Ferroptosis is a type of regulated cell death that drives the pathophysiology of many diseases. Oxidative stress is detectable in many types of regulated cell death, but only ferroptosis involves lipid peroxidation and iron dependency. Ferroptosis originates and propagates from several organelles, including the mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi, and lysosomes. Recent data have revealed that immune cells can both induce and undergo ferroptosis. A mechanistic understanding of how ferroptosis regulates immunity is critical to understanding how ferroptosis controls immune responses and how this is dysregulated in disease. Translationally, more work is needed to produce ferroptosis-modulating immunotherapeutics. This review focuses on the role of ferroptosis in immune-related diseases, including infection, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. We discuss how ferroptosis is regulated in immunity, how this regulation contributes to disease pathogenesis, and how targeting ferroptosis may lead to novel therapies.


Assuntos
Ferroptose , Ferro , Ferroptose/imunologia , Humanos , Animais , Ferro/metabolismo , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Imunidade , Estresse Oxidativo/imunologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/imunologia
9.
Trends Immunol ; 45(5): 381-396, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38697871

RESUMO

Recent studies have uncovered a new role for sensory neurons in influencing mammalian host immunity, challenging conventional notions of the nervous and immune systems as separate entities. In this review we delve into this groundbreaking paradigm of neuroimmunology and discuss recent scientific evidence for the impact of sensory neurons on host responses against a wide range of pathogens and diseases, encompassing microbial infections and cancers. These valuable insights enhance our understanding of the interactions between the nervous and immune systems, and also pave the way for developing candidate innovative therapeutic interventions in immune-mediated diseases highlighting the importance of this interdisciplinary research field.


Assuntos
Células Receptoras Sensoriais , Humanos , Animais , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/imunologia , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/fisiologia , Neuroimunomodulação , Imunidade , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/terapia
10.
Cells ; 13(10)2024 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38786105

RESUMO

HIV infection is an ongoing global health issue, despite increased access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). People living with HIV (PLWH) who are virally suppressed through ART still experience negative health outcomes, including neurocognitive impairment. It is increasingly evident that ART may act independently or in combination with HIV infection to alter the immune state, though this is difficult to disentangle in the clinical population. Thus, these experiments used multiplexed chemokine/cytokine arrays to assess peripheral (plasma) and brain (nucleus accumbens; NAc) expression of immune targets in the presence and absence of ART treatment in the EcoHIV mouse model. The findings identify the effects of EcoHIV infection and of treatment with bictegravir (B), emtricitabine (F), and tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) on the expression of numerous immune targets. In the NAc, this included EcoHIV-induced increases in IL-1α and IL-13 expression and B/F/TAF-induced reductions in KC/CXCL1. In the periphery, EcoHIV suppressed IL-6 and LIF expression, while B/F/TAF reduced IL-12p40 expression. In the absence of ART, IBA-1 expression was negatively correlated with CX3CL1 expression in the NAc of EcoHIV-infected mice. These findings identify distinct effects of ART and EcoHIV infection on peripheral and central immune factors and emphasize the need to consider ART effects on neural and immune outcomes.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Animais , Camundongos , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Emtricitabina/uso terapêutico , Emtricitabina/farmacologia , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Antirretrovirais/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Tenofovir/uso terapêutico , Tenofovir/farmacologia , Tenofovir/análogos & derivados , Citocinas/metabolismo , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/farmacologia , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/uso terapêutico , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Alanina/farmacologia , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Amidas , Piridonas
11.
J Clin Immunol ; 44(6): 128, 2024 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38773004

RESUMO

AIOLOS, encoded by the IKZF3 gene, belongs to the Ikaros zinc finger transcription factor family and plays a pivotal role in regulating lymphocyte development. Recently, heterozygous missense loss-of-function variants within the DNA-binding domain of the IKZF3 gene (G159R, N160S, and G191R) have been identified in patients with inborn errors of immunity (IEI). Additionally, a missense and a truncating variant (E82K and Q402X) leading to the AIOLOS haploinsufficiency have been documented. The majority of individuals with AIOLOS-associated IEI manifest recurrent sinopulmonary infections, as well as various bacterial and viral infections. The patients carrying the AIOLOSN160S variant exhibit severe immunodeficient phenotypes. In contrast, patients harboring AIOLOS haploinsufficient variants predominantly present with clinical phenotypes associated with immune dysregulation. A varying degree of B-lymphopenia and hypoimmunoglobulinemia was noted in approximately half of the patients. Mouse models of AIOLOSG159R and AIOLOSN160S variants (AiolosG158R and AiolosN159S in mice, respectively) recapitulated most of the immune abnormalities observed in the patients. Among these models, AiolosG158R mice prominently exhibited defects in early B cell differentiation resulting from mutant Aiolos interfering with Ikaros function through heterodimer formation. In contrast, AiolosN159S mice did not manifest early B cell differentiation defects. However, they displayed a distinct immune abnormality characterized by impaired induction of CD62L expression in lymphocytes, which is likely attributable to dysfunction of Ikaros, leading to defective lymphocyte homing to lymph nodes. Considering the diverse clinical phenotypes observed in the reported cases and the distinct molecular pathogenesis associated with each variant, further studies with more patients with AIOLOS-associated IEI would contribute to a better understanding of the clinical spectrum and underlying molecular mechanisms associated with this disorder.


Assuntos
Fator de Transcrição Ikaros , Fator de Transcrição Ikaros/genética , Humanos , Animais , Haploinsuficiência , Fenótipo , Camundongos , Mutação/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Imunidade/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença
12.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1362501, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38694501

RESUMO

Introduction: Trisomy 21 (T21), which causes Down syndrome (DS), is the most common chromosomal aneuploidy in humankind and includes different clinical comorbidities, among which the alteration of the immune system has a heavy impact on patient's lives. A molecule with an important role in immune response is zinc and it is known that its concentration is significantly lower in children with T21. Different hypotheses were made about this metabolic alteration and one of the reasons might be the overexpression of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene, as zinc is part of the SOD1 active enzymatic center. Methods: The aim of our work is to explore if there is a linear correlation between zinc level and immune cell levels measured in a total of 217 blood samples from subjects with T21. Furthermore, transcriptome map analyses were performed using Transcriptome Mapper (TRAM) software to investigate whether a difference in gene expression is detectable between subjects with T21 and euploid control group in tissues and cells involved in the immune response such as lymphoblastoid cells, thymus and white blood cells. Results: Our results have confirmed the literature data stating that the blood zinc level in subjects with T21 is lower compared to the general population; in addition, we report that the T21/control zinc concentration ratio is 2:3, consistent with a chromosomal dosage effect due to the presence of three copies of chromosome 21. The transcriptome map analyses showed an alteration of some gene's expression which might explain low levels of zinc in the blood. Discussion: Our data suggest that zinc level is not associated with the levels of immunity cells or proteins analyzed themselves and rather the main role of this ion might be played in altering immune cell function.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Down , Zinco , Humanos , Síndrome de Down/imunologia , Síndrome de Down/genética , Zinco/sangue , Feminino , Masculino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Superóxido Dismutase-1/genética , Adulto , Adolescente , Transcriptoma , Adulto Jovem , Lactente , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Imunidade/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Cell Stem Cell ; 31(5): 597-616, 2024 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593798

RESUMO

Advances in modern medicine have enabled a rapid increase in lifespan and, consequently, have highlighted the immune system as a key driver of age-related disease. Immune regeneration therapies present exciting strategies to address age-related diseases by rebooting the host's primary lymphoid tissues or rebuilding the immune system directly via biomaterials or artificial tissue. Here, we identify important, unanswered questions regarding the safety and feasibility of these therapies. Further, we identify key design parameters that should be primary considerations guiding technology design, including timing of application, interaction with the host immune system, and functional characterization of the target patient population.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco , Humanos , Células-Tronco/imunologia , Células-Tronco/citologia , Animais , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Imunidade , Sistema Imunitário
14.
Cell Commun Signal ; 22(1): 203, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566182

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The metabolically demanding nature of immune response requires nutrients to be preferentially directed towards the immune system at the expense of peripheral tissues. We study the mechanisms by which this metabolic reprograming occurs using the parasitoid infection of Drosophila larvae. To overcome such an immune challenge hemocytes differentiate into lamellocytes, which encapsulate and melanize the parasitoid egg. Hemocytes acquire the energy for this process by expressing JAK/STAT ligands upd2 and upd3, which activates JAK/STAT signaling in muscles and redirects carbohydrates away from muscles in favor of immune cells. METHODS: Immune response of Drosophila larvae was induced by parasitoid wasp infestation. Carbohydrate levels, larval locomotion and gene expression of key proteins were compared between control and infected animals. Efficacy of lamellocyte production and resistance to wasp infection was observed for RNAi and mutant animals. RESULTS: Absence of upd/JAK/STAT signaling leads to an impaired immune response and increased mortality. We demonstrate how JAK/STAT signaling in muscles leads to suppression of insulin signaling through activation of ImpL2, the inhibitor of Drosophila insulin like peptides. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reveal cross-talk between immune cells and muscles mediates a metabolic shift, redirecting carbohydrates towards immune cells. We emphasize the crucial function of muscles during immune response and show the benefits of insulin resistance as an adaptive mechanism that is necessary for survival.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila , Resistência à Insulina , Vespas , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Janus Quinases/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição STAT/metabolismo , Drosophila/genética , Músculos , Vespas/metabolismo , Larva/metabolismo , Imunidade , Carboidratos , Proteínas de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante a Insulina/metabolismo
15.
J Med Virol ; 96(4): e29577, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38572977

RESUMO

Uncovering the immune response to an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (In-Vac) and natural infection is crucial for comprehending COVID-19 immunology. Here we conducted an integrated analysis of single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) data from serial peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples derived from 12 individuals receiving In-Vac compared with those from COVID-19 patients. Our study reveals that In-Vac induces subtle immunological changes in PBMC, including cell proportions and transcriptomes, compared with profound changes for natural infection. In-Vac modestly upregulates IFN-α but downregulates NF-κB pathways, while natural infection triggers hyperactive IFN-α and NF-κB pathways. Both In-Vac and natural infection alter T/B cell receptor repertoires, but COVID-19 has more significant change in preferential VJ gene, indicating a vigorous immune response. Our study reveals distinct patterns of cellular communications, including a selective activation of IL-15RA/IL-15 receptor pathway after In-Vac boost, suggesting its potential role in enhancing In-Vac-induced immunity. Collectively, our study illuminates multifaceted immune responses to In-Vac and natural infection, providing insights for optimizing SARS-CoV-2 vaccine efficacy.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Leucócitos Mononucleares , NF-kappa B , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados , Imunidade , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Anticorpos Antivirais
16.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7994, 2024 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580687

RESUMO

Cordyceps militaris (L.) Link (C. militaris) contains various beneficial substances, including polysaccharides (galactomannan), nucleotides (adenosine and cordycepin), cordycepic acid, amino acids, and sterols (ergosterol and beta-sitosterol). It also contains other essential nutrients, such as protein, vitamins (E, K, B1, B2, and B12), and minerals (potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, and selenium). Due to the numerous health benefits of supplements and products containing C. militaris extract, their popularity has increased. However, the immunostimulant effect of C. militaris remains unclear. Therefore, this study developed a functional beverage from the submerged fermentation of C. militaris (FCM) and aimed to investigate the potential of FCM in healthy male and female volunteers in Phayao Province, Thailand. This study provides essential information for the development of healthy drink products. Healthy men and women were provided either FCM containing 2.85 mg of cordycepin or placebo for 8 weeks (n = 10 for each gender). The immune cell markers, immunoglobulins, and safety parameters were assessed initially at baseline and at 4 and 8 weeks. The NK cell activity markedly increased in the male FCM group from baseline (p = 0.049) to 4 weeks after receiving FCM. Compared with those in the placebo group, the NK activity in women who received FCM for 8 weeks significantly increased (p = 0.023) from baseline. Within-group analysis revealed that the IL-1ß levels were markedly reduced in the male FCM group (p = 0.049). Furthermore, the IL-6 levels decreased from baseline in the female FCM group (p = 0.047). The blood sugar, lipid, and safety indices were not different between the experimental groups. FCM can potentially be developed as an immune-boosting supplement without liver, kidney, or blood component toxicity.


Assuntos
Cordyceps , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Cordyceps/química , Desoxiadenosinas/farmacologia , Adenosina/metabolismo , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Fígado , Imunidade
17.
Mol Cancer ; 23(1): 72, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581001

RESUMO

For decades, great strides have been made in the field of immunometabolism. A plethora of evidence ranging from basic mechanisms to clinical transformation has gradually embarked on immunometabolism to the center stage of innate and adaptive immunomodulation. Given this, we focus on changes in immunometabolism, a converging series of biochemical events that alters immune cell function, propose the immune roles played by diversified metabolic derivatives and enzymes, emphasize the key metabolism-related checkpoints in distinct immune cell types, and discuss the ongoing and upcoming realities of clinical treatment. It is expected that future research will reduce the current limitations of immunotherapy and provide a positive hand in immune responses to exert a broader therapeutic role.


Assuntos
Imunidade , Neoplasias , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Imunomodulação , Neoplasias/terapia
18.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1350197, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38576605

RESUMO

Introduction: Carp edema virus (CEV) is a fish poxvirus that primarily infects the gills of common carp. CEV causes koi sleepy disease (KSD), which is highly contagious and can result in mortality of up to 100%. Methods: In the present study, we analyzed the stress and immune responses during KSD in two strains of common carp with different resistance to CEV: susceptible koi and resistant Amur sazan. Experiments were performed at two temperatures: 12°C and 18°C. In the case of koi carp, we also analyzed the effect of supplementation of 0.6% NaCl into tank water, which prevents mortality of the CEV-infected fish (salt rescue model). Results: We found that CEV-infected koi kept at 18°C had the highest viral load, which correlated with the most severe histopathological changes in the gills. CEV infection resulted in the activation of stress response reflected by the upregulated expression of genes involved in stress response in the stress axis organs and increased levels of cortisol and glucose in the blood plasma. These changes were the most pronounced in CEV-infected koi kept at 18°C. At both temperatures, the activation of antiviral immune response was observed in koi kept under freshwater and NaCl conditions upon CEV infection. Interestingly, a clear downregulation of the expression of adaptive immune genes was observed in CEV-infected koi kept under freshwater at 18°C. Conclusion: CEV induces a stress response and modulates adaptive immune response in koi, and this is correlated with the level of viral load and disease development.


Assuntos
Carpas , Doenças dos Peixes , Infecções por Poxviridae , Animais , Cloreto de Sódio , Edema , Imunidade
19.
20.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e072159, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580363

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Surgical stress results in immune dysfunction, predisposing patients to infections in the postoperative period and potentially increasing the risk of cancer recurrence. Perioperative immunonutrition with arginine-enhanced diets has been found to potentially improve short-term and cancer outcomes. This study seeks to measure the impact of perioperative immunomodulation on biomarkers of the immune response and perioperative outcomes following hepatopancreaticobiliary surgery. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a 1:1:1 randomised, controlled and blinded superiority trial of 45 patients. Baseline and perioperative variables were collected to evaluate immune function, clinical outcomes and feasibility outcomes. The primary outcome is a reduction in natural killer cell killing as measured on postoperative day 1 compared with baseline between the control and experimental cohorts. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This trial has been approved by the research ethics boards at participating sites and Health Canada (parent control number: 223646). Results will be distributed widely through local and international meetings, presentation, publication and ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: NCT04549662). Any modifications to the protocol will be communicated via publications and ClinicalTrials.gov. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT04549662.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Imunomodulação , Imunidade , Canadá , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto
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