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1.
JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc ; 59(239): 727-729, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508515

RESUMO

While there is absolutely no evidence to ensure recovered patients are either likely or unlikely to get reinfected. But studies in non-human primates indicate that reinfection of recovered patients is highly unlikely. It is also clear that primary immune responses or induced immunity to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 remain in circulation for several months and at least temporarily confer immunity to protect from reinfection. In addition, negative virus culture analysis of re-positive suggests that positive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reactions in recovered patients are more likely to be false-positive, or detection of genetic remnants of virus discharged from lesions of lungs or better sampling at the time of repeat analysis. However, emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 variants are likely to be causing the infections observed in some of the recovered patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animais , Humanos , Imunidade , Reinfecção
2.
Microb Pathog ; 159: 105113, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333073

RESUMO

Improving the health and immunity of pets is a concern of the guardians, while maintaining the health of the animals directly impacts the owners' health and public health. The objective of this study was to produce a dog feed containing a microencapsulated phytogenic blend, as well as determine the impact of the additive on animal health and its intestinal microbiota. The composition included microencapsulated thymol, carvacrol, and cinnamaldehyde, at 300 mg/kg of feed. Ten male beagle dogs were divided into two groups, identified as follows: the control group (C; ingested the feed without the additive) and the treated group (T; consumed feed containing the phytogenic blend). The dogs received 300 g of feed/day divided into two meals. Greater neutrophil counts in group T and lymphocyte counts were observed at the end of the experiment, as well as levels of α2-globulins and γ-globulin, while ß1 and ß2-globulins levels were lower in group T. Serum nitrogen oxide levels were higher in group T. Levels of reactive oxygen species were lower in group T at days 30 and 45, unlike activity of glutathione peroxidase that was higher. We found less bacterial contamination in the feces of dogs in group T, i.e., total bacterial count, total coliform counts, and counts of Salmonella and Escherichia coli were lower on days 30 and 45. Phytogenic blend intake reduces bacterial counts in stool and improves antioxidant/oxidative status and immune responses.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Salmonella , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Cães , Fezes , Imunidade , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo
3.
Cell ; 184(18): 4713-4733.e22, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352228

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 infection can cause severe respiratory COVID-19. However, many individuals present with isolated upper respiratory symptoms, suggesting potential to constrain viral pathology to the nasopharynx. Which cells SARS-CoV-2 primarily targets and how infection influences the respiratory epithelium remains incompletely understood. We performed scRNA-seq on nasopharyngeal swabs from 58 healthy and COVID-19 participants. During COVID-19, we observe expansion of secretory, loss of ciliated, and epithelial cell repopulation via deuterosomal cell expansion. In mild and moderate COVID-19, epithelial cells express anti-viral/interferon-responsive genes, while cells in severe COVID-19 have muted anti-viral responses despite equivalent viral loads. SARS-CoV-2 RNA+ host-target cells are highly heterogenous, including developing ciliated, interferon-responsive ciliated, AZGP1high goblet, and KRT13+ "hillock"-like cells, and we identify genes associated with susceptibility, resistance, or infection response. Our study defines protective and detrimental responses to SARS-CoV-2, the direct viral targets of infection, and suggests that failed nasal epithelial anti-viral immunity may underlie and precede severe COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Imunidade , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , Idoso , Efeito Espectador , COVID-19/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nasofaringe/patologia , Nasofaringe/virologia , RNA Viral/análise , RNA Viral/genética , Mucosa Respiratória/patologia , Mucosa Respiratória/virologia , Transcrição Genética , Carga Viral
4.
Goiânia; SES-GO; 20 ago 2021. 1-6 p. ilus.
Não convencional em Português | LILACS, Coleciona SUS, CONASS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1283937

RESUMO

De acordo com o Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) apesar dos avanços obtidos, nos últimos meses, no desenvolvimento de imunizantes para a COVID-19, algumas perguntas continuam sem respostas, como por exemplo, por quanto tempo as vacinas são capazes de proteger a população da infecção pelo SARS-CoV-2 (CDC, 2021), imunidade híbrida e a necessidade de booster, adicionado ao protocolo inicialmente proposto. Apesar de a maioria dos estudos utilizar os níveis séricos de anticorpos neutralizantes contra o SARS-CoV-2, ainda considera-se desconhecido o nível de anticorpos neutralizantes que garante proteção contra a COVID-19 (CALLAWAY, 2021; BENOTMANE et al., 2021). Por outro lado, embora existam outros mecanismos responsáveis pela resposta imune mediada por células T e B de memória imunológica, Khoury e colaboradores (2021) consideram que a concentração dos anticorpos neutralizantes após contato com o vírus (indivíduos convalescentes soropositivos) e/ou após administração de um imunizante seja capaz de predizer a resposta imune à doença.


According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), despite the advances made in recent months in the development of immunizers for COVID-19, some questions remain unanswered, such as, for example, how long are vaccines able to protect the population from SARS-CoV-2 infection (CDC, 2021), hybrid immunity and the need for a booster, added to the initially proposed protocol. Although most studies use serum levels of neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, the level of neutralizing antibodies that guarantee protection against COVID-19 is still unknown (CALLAWAY, 2021; BENOTMANE et al., 2021 ). On the other hand, although there are other mechanisms responsible for the immune response mediated by immune memory T and B cells, Khoury et al (2021) consider that the concentration of neutralizing antibodies after contact with the virus (convalescent seropositive individuals) and/or after administration of an immunizing agent is able to predict the immune response to the disease.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Adulto Jovem , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Imunidade
5.
J Int Med Res ; 49(8): 3000605211015079, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34369192

RESUMO

Primary liver cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in China. Currently, immunotherapy for liver cancer is a research hotspot. Experimental studies and epidemiological investigations have confirmed the antineoplastic activity of low ionizing radiation. The aim of this study was to explore the optimal dose of low ionizing radiation to enhance immune function. Twenty-five New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into five groups (n = 5 each): experimental group 1 (25 mGy), experimental group 2 (50 mGy), experimental group 3 (75 mGy), experimental group 4 (100 mGy), and the control group (0 mGy). VX-2 tumor tissue was injected into rabbits using a high-frequency B-ultrasound probe (3.5 MHz). Rabbits were irradiated, and on day 4 after irradiation, blood was collected from each rabbit. Blood chemistry, interleukin (IL)-4, interferon (IFN)-γ, immunoglobulin (Ig)G, and IgM levels were assessed. On day 15 after irradiation, macrophage phagocytic function was assessed. The rabbits were sacrificed, and the spleen was removed and weighed to calculate its spleen index. Each parameter was highest in the experimental group 3 (75 mGy). Thus, we suspect the optimal low ionizing radiation dose to improve immune function may be 75 mGy.


Assuntos
Radiação Ionizante , Baço , Animais , China , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Imunidade , Coelhos
6.
Hawaii J Health Soc Welf ; 80(8): 195-198, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34355196

RESUMO

Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander (NHPI) populations suffer from disproportionately higher rates of chronic conditions, such as type 2 diabetes, that arises from metabolic dysfunction and are often associated with obesity and inflammation. In addition, the global coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has further compounded the effect of health inequities observed in Indigenous populations, including NHPI communities. Reversible lifestyle habits, such as diet, may either be protective of or contribute to the increasing prevalence of health inequities in these populations via the immunoepigenetic-microbiome axis. This axis offers insight into the connection between diet, epigenetics, the microbiome composition, immune function, and response to viral infection. Epigenetic mechanisms that regulate inflammatory states associated with metabolic diseases, including diabetes, are impacted by diet. Furthermore, diet may modulate the gut microbiome by influencing microbial diversity and richness; dysbiosis of the microbiome is associated with chronic disease. A high fiber diet facilitates a favorable microbiome composition and in turn increases production of intermediate metabolites named short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) that act on metabolic and immune pathways. In contrast, low fiber diets typically associated with a westernized lifestyle decreases the abundance of microbial derived SCFAs. This decreased abundance is characteristic of metabolic syndromes and activation of chronic inflammatory states, having larger implications in disease pathogenesis of both communicable and non-communicable diseases. Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders that once thrived on healthy traditional diets may be more sensitive than non-indigenous peoples to the metabolic perturbation of westernized diets that impinge on the immunoepigenetic-gut microbiome axis. Recent studies conducted in the Maunakea lab at the University of Hawai'i at Manoa John A. Burns School of Medicine have helped elucidate the connections between diet, microbiome composition, metabolic syndrome, and epigenetic regulation of immune function to better understand disease pathogenesis. Potentially, this research could point to ways to prevent pre-disease conditions through novel biomarker discovery using community-based approaches.


Assuntos
Dieta/métodos , Epigênese Genética/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Imunidade/fisiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Pesquisa Biomédica , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/fisiologia , Hawaii/epidemiologia , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/fisiologia
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4917, 2021 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389714

RESUMO

APOBEC3A is a cytidine deaminase driving mutagenesis in tumors. While APOBEC3A-induced mutations are common, APOBEC3A expression is rarely detected in cancer cells. This discrepancy suggests a tightly controlled process to regulate episodic APOBEC3A expression in tumors. In this study, we find that both viral infection and genotoxic stress transiently up-regulate APOBEC3A and pro-inflammatory genes using two distinct mechanisms. First, we demonstrate that STAT2 promotes APOBEC3A expression in response to foreign nucleic acid via a RIG-I, MAVS, IRF3, and IFN-mediated signaling pathway. Second, we show that DNA damage and DNA replication stress trigger a NF-κB (p65/IkBα)-dependent response to induce expression of APOBEC3A and other innate immune genes, independently of DNA or RNA sensing pattern recognition receptors and the IFN-signaling response. These results not only reveal the mechanisms by which tumors could episodically up-regulate APOBEC3A but also highlight an alternative route to stimulate the immune response after DNA damage independently of cGAS/STING or RIG-I/MAVS.


Assuntos
Citidina Desaminase/genética , Dano ao DNA , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Imunidade/genética , Proteínas/genética , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citidina Desaminase/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Proteínas/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Células THP-1 , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima , Vírus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
8.
J Exp Biol ; 224(7)2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424982

RESUMO

The ABC transporter ABCB1 plays an important role in the disposition of xenobiotics. Embryos of most species express high levels of this transporter in early development as a protective mechanism, but its native substrates are not known. Here, we used larvae of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus to characterize the early life expression and role of Sp-ABCB1a, a homolog of ABCB1. The results indicate that while Sp-ABCB1a is initially expressed ubiquitously, it becomes enriched in the developing gut. Using optimized CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing methods to achieve high editing efficiency in the F0 generation, we generated ABCB1a crispant embryos with significantly reduced transporter efflux activity. When infected with the opportunistic pathogen Vibrio diazotrophicus, Sp-ABCB1a crispant larvae demonstrated significantly stronger gut inflammation, immunocyte migration and cytokine Sp-IL-17 induction, as compared with infected control larvae. The results suggest an ancestral function of ABCB1 in host-microbial interactions, with implications for the survival of invertebrate larvae in the marine microbial environment.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Ouriços-do-Mar , Animais , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Imunidade , Larva/genética , Mutagênese , Vibrio
10.
J Immunotoxicol ; 18(1): 93-104, 2021 07 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34436982

RESUMO

The aging immune system is characterized by a low-grade chronic systemic inflammatory state ("inflammaging") marked by elevated serum levels of inflammatory molecules such as interleukin (IL)-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP). These inflammatory markers were also reported to be strong predictors for the development/severity of Type 2 diabetes, obesity, and COVID-19. The levels of these markers have been positively associated with those of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) generated via non-enzymatic glycation and oxidation of proteins and lipids during normal aging and metabolism. Based on the above observations, it is clinically important to elucidate how dietary AGEs modulate inflammation and might thus increase the risk for aging-exacerbated diseases. The present narrative review discusses the potential pro-inflammatory properties of dietary AGEs with a focus on the inflammatory mediators CRP, IL-6 and ferritin, and their relations to aging in general and Type 2 diabetes in particular. In addition, underlying mechanisms - including those related to gut microbiota and the receptors for AGEs, and the roles AGEs might play in affecting physiologies of the healthy elderly, obese individuals, and diabetics are discussed in regard to any greater susceptibility to COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Envelhecimento , Animais , Dieta , Disbiose , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/imunologia , Homeostase , Humanos , Imunidade , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444188

RESUMO

We conducted a systematic review of the effects of a forest therapy program on adults' immune function. We used PICO-SD (participants, interventions, comparisons, outcomes, study design) to identify key items. The participants were adults over the age of 18 and the intervention was forest therapy. Our comparisons included studies that comparatively analyzed urban groups or groups that did not participate in forest therapy intervention. Cases without control groups were also included. Immunological outcome measures were included in measuring intervention outcomes. All experimental studies, such as randomized controlled trials (RCTs), non-equivalent control group designs (non-RCTs), and one-group pretest-posttest design were included in the study design. A total of 13 studies were included for comparison. Forest therapy programs were divided into lodging-type and session-type programs. The representative measures for evaluating the effects of immune function were the number of NK cells, the cytotoxic activity of NK cells, and cytotoxic effector molecules. Most studies reported improvement in these measures when comparing values after intervention with values before the forest therapy intervention. Therefore, forest therapy has been found to be effective in improving immune function. More RCT studies on the effects of forest therapy on immune function are necessary.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Adulto , Florestas , Humanos , Imunidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(3): 99, 2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34370107

RESUMO

Both concepts of the holobiont and the immune system are at the heart of an ongoing scientific and philosophical examination concerning questions of the organism's individuality and identity as well as the relations between organisms and their environment. Examining the holobiont, the question of boundaries and individuality is challenging because it is both an assemblage of organisms with physiological cohesive aspects. I discuss the concept of immunity and the immune system function from the holobiont perspective. Because of the host-microbial close relations of codependence and interdependence, the holobiont is more often than not confused with the host, as the host is the domain in which this entity exists. I discuss the holobiont unique ecological characteristics of microbial assemblages connected to a host in a network of interactions in which the host is one of the organisms in the community but also its landscape. Therefore, I suggest viewing the holobiont as a host-ecosystem and discuss the implication of such a view on the concept of immunity and the meaning of protection. Furthermore, I show that viewing the holobiont as a host ecosystem opens the possibility of using the same ecological definition of boundaries and immunity dealing with an ecological system. Thus, the holobiont's boundaries and immunity are defined by the persistence of its complex system of interactions integrating existing and new interactions. This way of thinking presents a notion of immunity that materializes as the result of the complex interdependence relations between the different organisms composing the holobiont similar to that of an ecosystem. Taking this view further, I discuss the notion of immunogenicity that is ontologically heterogeneous with various causal explanations of the processes of tolerance and targeted immune response. Finally, I discuss the possible conceptualization of already existing and new biomedical practices.


Assuntos
Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/fisiologia , Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Imunidade/fisiologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/imunologia
14.
Cell Rep ; 36(6): 109504, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352226

RESUMO

Early responses to vaccination are important for shaping both humoral and cellular protective immunity. Dissecting innate vaccine signatures may predict immunogenicity to help optimize the efficacy of mRNA and other vaccine strategies. Here, we characterize the cytokine and chemokine responses to the 1st and 2nd dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA (Pfizer/BioNtech) vaccine in antigen-naive and in previously coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-infected individuals (NCT04743388). Transient increases in interleukin-15 (IL-15) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) levels early after boost correlate with Spike antibody levels, supporting their use as biomarkers of effective humoral immunity development in response to vaccination. We identify a systemic signature including increases in IL-15, IFN-γ, and IP-10/CXCL10 after the 1st vaccination, which were enriched by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and IL-6 after the 2nd vaccination. In previously COVID-19-infected individuals, a single vaccination results in both strong cytokine induction and antibody titers similar to the ones observed upon booster vaccination in antigen-naive individuals, a result with potential implication for future public health recommendations.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Quimiocina CXCL10/imunologia , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucina-15/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/metabolismo , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Mensageiro/imunologia
15.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372506

RESUMO

Adenovirus-based vectors are playing an important role as efficacious genetic vaccines to fight the current COVID-19 pandemic. Furthermore, they have an enormous potential as oncolytic vectors for virotherapy and as vectors for classic gene therapy. However, numerous vector-host interactions on a cellular and noncellular level, including specific components of the immune system, must be modulated in order to generate safe and efficacious vectors for virotherapy or classic gene therapy. Importantly, the current widespread use of Ad vectors as vaccines against COVID-19 will induce antivector immunity in many humans. This requires the development of strategies and techniques to enable Ad-based vectors to evade pre-existing immunity. In this review article, we discuss the current status of genetic and chemical capsid modifications as means to modulate the vector-host interactions of Ad-based vectors.


Assuntos
Adenoviridae/genética , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Capsídeo/química , Adenoviridae/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/terapia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Genes Virais , Vetores Genéticos , Humanos , Imunidade , Terapia Viral Oncolítica/métodos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
16.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101369, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333388

RESUMO

Compounds in microalgae-derived feed ingredients in poultry diets may improve intestinal physiology and immunity to protect against damage induced by physiological and pathogen challenges, but mechanisms are examined sparingly. The study objective was to evaluate changes to intestinal morphology, permeability, and systemic immunity in broilers fed a proprietary microalgae ingredient during 2 separate challenge studies. In study 1, two replicate 28 d battery cage trials used 200 Ross 308 broilers each (n = 400) fed a control diet ± 0.175% algae ingredient. Half of the birds were subjected to a 12 h feed restriction challenge and fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-D) intestinal permeability assay on d 28. Study 2 used 800 broilers randomly assigned to the same dietary treatments and housed in floor pens for 42 d. At d 14, intestine and spleen samples were collected from 10 birds/ diet. Half of the remainder was orally inoculated with 10X Coccivac-B52 vaccine in a 2 × 2 factorial treatment design (diet and Eimeria inoculation). The FITC-D assay was conducted at 1, 3, 7, and 14 d post-inoculation (pi) while intestinal and spleen samples were collected at 3, 7, 14, and 28 dpi for histomorphology and flow cytometric immune cell assessment. Study 1 validated intestinal leakage via FITC-D absorbance induced by feed restriction but showed no algae-associated protective effects. In study 2, algae preserved intestinal integrity during coccidiosis (P = 0.04) and simultaneously protected jejunal villus height as early as 7dpi (P < 0.0001), whereas intestinal damage resolution in control birds did not occur until 14 dpi. Algae inclusion increased splenic T cells in unchallenged broilers at d 14 by 29.6% vs. control (P < 0.0001), specifically γδ T cell populations, without impacting performance (P < 0.03). During Eimeria challenge, splenic T cells in algae-fed birds did not show evidence of recruitment to peripheral tissues, while control birds showed a 16.7% reduction compared to their uninoculated counterparts from 3 to 7 dpi (P < 0.0001). This evidence suggests the algae ingredient altered the immune response in a manner that reduced recruitment from secondary lymphoid organs in addition to protecting intestinal physiology.


Assuntos
Coccidiose , Eimeria , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas , Coccidiose/prevenção & controle , Coccidiose/veterinária , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Imunidade , Intestinos
17.
J Immunol ; 207(5): 1288-1297, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341169

RESUMO

Neuropilin-1 (Nrp-1) is a well described marker molecule for CD4+Foxp3+ thymus-derived regulatory T cells (Tregs). In addition, a small population of CD4+Foxp3- conventional (conv) T cells expresses Nrp-1 in naive mice, and Nrp-1 expression has been described to be upregulated on activated CD4+ T cells. However, the function of Nrp-1 expression on CD4+ non-Tregs still remains elusive. In this study, we demonstrate that Nrp-1 expression was induced upon stimulation of CD4+Foxp3- T cells in vitro and during an ongoing immune response in vivo. This activation-induced Nrp-1+CD4+ T cell subset (iNrp-1+) showed a highly activated phenotype in terms of elevated CD25 and CD44 expression, enhanced production of proinflammatory cytokines, and increased proliferation compared with the Nrp-1-CD4+ counterpart. In contrast, Nrp-1+CD4+Foxp3- conv T cells from naive mice (nNrp-1+) were dysfunctional. nNrp-1+CD4+ conv T cells upregulated activation-associated molecules to a lesser extent, exhibited impaired proliferation and produced fewer proinflammatory cytokines than Nrp-1-CD4+ conv T cells upon stimulation in vitro. Moreover, the expression of PD-1 and CTLA-4 was significantly higher on nNrp-1+CD4+Foxp3- T cells compared with iNrp-1+CD4+Foxp3- T cells and Nrp-1-CD4+Foxp3- T cells after stimulation and under homeostatic conditions. Strikingly, transfer of Ag-specific iNrp-1+CD4+ conv T cells aggravated diabetes development, whereas Ag-specific nNrp-1+CD4+ conv T cells failed to induce disease in a T cell transfer model of diabetes. Overall, our results indicate that Nrp-1 expression has opposite functions in recently activated CD4+ non-Tregs compared with CD4+ non-Tregs from naive mice.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead , Neuropilina-1 , Animais , Imunidade , Camundongos , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T , Linfócitos T Reguladores
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(33): e26948, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414957

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Aberrant immunity has been associated with the initiation and progression of cancers such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we aim to develop a signature based on immune-related genes (IRGs) to predict the prognosis of HCC patients. The gene expression profiles of 891 HCC samples were derived from 4 publicly accessible datasets. A total of 1534 IRGs from Immunology Database and Analysis Portal website were obtained as candidate genes for prognostic assessment. Using least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression analysis, 12 IRGs were selected as prognostic biomarkers and were then aggregated to generate an IRG score for each HCC sample. In the training dataset (n = 365), patients with high IRG scores showed a remarkably poorer overall survival than those with low IRG scores (log-rank P < .001). Similar results were documented in 3 independent testing datasets (n = 226, 221, 79, respectively). Multivariate Cox regression and stratified analyses indicated that the IRG score was an independent and robust signature to predict the overall survival in HCC patients. Patients with high IRG scores tended to be in advanced TNM stages, with increased risks of tumor recurrence and metastasis. More importantly, the IRG score was strongly associated with certain immune cell counts, gene expression of immune checkpoints, estimated immune score, and mutation of critical genes in HCC. In conclusion, the proposed IRG score can predict the prognosis and reflect the tumor immune microenvironment of HCC patients, which may facilitate the individualized treatment and provide potential immunotherapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/imunologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/imunologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Análise de Sobrevida , Transcriptoma , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
19.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5074, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417463

RESUMO

ß cells may participate and contribute to their own demise during Type 1 diabetes (T1D). Here we report a role of their expression of Tet2 in regulating immune killing. Tet2 is induced in murine and human ß cells with inflammation but its expression is reduced in surviving ß cells. Tet2-KO mice that receive WT bone marrow transplants develop insulitis but not diabetes and islet infiltrates do not eliminate ß cells even though immune cells from the mice can transfer diabetes to NOD/scid recipients. Tet2-KO recipients are protected from transfer of disease by diabetogenic immune cells.Tet2-KO ß cells show reduced expression of IFNγ-induced inflammatory genes that are needed to activate diabetogenic T cells. Here we show that Tet2 regulates pathologic interactions between ß cells and immune cells and controls damaging inflammatory pathways. Our data suggests that eliminating TET2 in ß cells may reduce activating pathologic immune cells and killing of ß cells.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/patologia , Inflamação/patologia , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Células Secretoras de Insulina/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/imunologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade , Inflamação/genética , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Transcrição Genética
20.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1288: 21-47, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453730

RESUMO

The testis is one of several immune privilege sites. These sites are necessary to decrease inflammation and immune responses that could be damaging to the host. For example, inflammation in the brain, eye or placenta could result in loss of cognitive function, vision or rejection of the semi-allogeneic fetus, respectively. In the testis, immune privilege is "good" as it is necessary for protection of the developing auto-immunogenic germ cells. However, there is also a downside or "bad" part of immune privilege, where pathogens and cancers can take advantage of this privilege and persist in the testis as a sanctuary site. Even worse, the "ugly" of privilege is how re-emerging viruses, such as Ebola and Zika viruses, can establish persistence in the testes and be sexually transmitted even months after they have been cleared from the bloodstream. In this review, we will discuss the delicate balance within the testis that provides immune privilege to protect the germ cells while still allowing for immune function to fight off pathogens and tumors.


Assuntos
Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Feminino , Células Germinativas , Humanos , Privilégio Imunológico , Imunidade , Masculino , Gravidez , Testículo
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