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1.
Handb Exp Pharmacol ; 268: 3-19, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424388

RESUMO

Allergy has shown a dramatic increase in prevalence in the last decades. However, allergic diseases are probably not new. Asthma and eczema have been described in ancient societies like Egypt, China and in the Greco-Roman culture. In the middle-ages descriptions of hay fever can be found in Persian-Arabian literature (called "rose fever"). Scientific allergology started in the nineteenth century with descriptions of hay fever and experimental studies showing pollen as elicitors. Milestones in the twentieth century comprise the description of anaphylaxis, the creation of the terms "allergy" and "atopy", the Prausnitz-Küstner test and finally the discovery of IgE and the development of the Radio-Allergo-Sorbent-Test (RAST) for routine detection of specific IgE antibodies. Progress in cellular immunology led to the description of T-cell subsets Th1 and Th2. Mast cell and basophil research progressed since the first description to histamine release studies. Leukotrienes were detected. Pharmacotherapy started in the early twentieth century with adrenaline (epinephrine) followed by antihistamines and cortisone. Allergen-specific immunotherapy was introduced. Epidemiologic studies pointed to a role of environmental pollutants as allergy enhancing factors and protective influences from farm environment. Through the progress in experimental allergology and immunology targeted therapeutics have been developed for various atopic conditions.


Assuntos
Asma , Hipersensibilidade , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal , Basófilos , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/terapia , Imunoglobulina E
2.
Handb Exp Pharmacol ; 268: 393-403, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34173866

RESUMO

Diagnostics in type-1 allergy rely on medical history and clinical examination. Extent and severity of signs and symptoms can be documented by standardized scores and questionnaires. Both skin prick test and intradermal test are useful for search of immunoglobulin E-mediated sensitizations but the availability of commercially available diagnostic extracts has been markedly reduced during the last years. Investigation of total and of specific serum IgE is the most important in vitro diagnostic analyte in type-1 allergy. Identification of the individual molecules to which patients are sensitized, known as molecular or component-resolved diagnostics (CRD), has recently markedly improved management of type-1 allergy to pollen, food and hymenoptera venoms. Main features of CRD are increased analytic sensitivity, detection of cross-reactivity and determination of individual sensitization profiles which allow for risk assessment and facilitate decisions for or against allergen immunotherapy. Basophil activation test as well as determination of selected biomarkers (e.g. tryptase) may also be helpful in some cases. If any allergy test is positive, one will have to distinguish reactions, which are clinically relevant, from those, which are not. In vivo provocation tests (e.g. nasal provocation, oral drug or food challenge) may help to clarify the relevance of a sensitization.


Assuntos
Alérgenos , Hipersensibilidade , Dessensibilização Imunológica , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/diagnóstico , Imunoglobulina E , Pólen
3.
Food Chem ; 372: 131226, 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627095

RESUMO

The effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on the conformation and immunoreactivity of bovine ß-lactoglobulin (BLG) were studied. BLG was treated under 100-600 MPa at the temperature of 20-60 °C. The immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding ability of BLG decreased when the pressure increased from 0.1 to 200 MPa. However, the IgE binding increased with the increase in pressure from 200 to 400 MPa, followed by a gradual decrease until a pressure of 600 MPa. The IgE binding ability continuously decreased with an increase in pressure at 60 °C. The conformation of HHP-treated BLG was evaluated using fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism spectroscopy and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Increasing the temperature and pressure promoted the unfolding of BLG, causing the disappearance of some α-helixes and some ß-sheets. Based on ELISA analysis, it was revealed that HHP-termperature treatment altered the immunoreactivity of BLG by altering the structures and conformational states of BLG.


Assuntos
Imunoglobulina E , Lactoglobulinas , Animais , Bovinos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Pressão Hidrostática , Temperatura
4.
Food Chem ; 372: 131308, 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655828

RESUMO

The effects of phosphorylation on the allergenicity of bovine α-lactalbumin (BLA) and digestive products were studied in vitro digestion. Two components with different molecular weight and conformation were obtained from natural and phosphorylated BLA. In vivo and in vitro assessment of allergenicity showed that phosphorylation prior to digestion significantly decreased the IgE/IgG binding capacity and allergic response in KU812 cells, and reduced the levels of IgG, IgE, IL-4 and histamine, with an increase in IFN-γ levels in mouse serum, depending on the changes in BLA structures, producing numerous small peptides. There were four phosphorylated sites (S22, T29, S47 and S70) in the high molecular weight components of phosphorylated BLA after digestion. These phosphorylated sites could mask the linear epitopes of digestive products, resulting in reduced allergic activity. Phosphorylation prior to digestion of dairy products can reduce the risk of anaphylaxis in patients with milk allergy to some extent.


Assuntos
Alérgenos , Lactalbumina , Animais , Bovinos , Digestão , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E , Camundongos , Fosforilação
5.
Food Chem ; 371: 131132, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555704

RESUMO

Filamin C (FLN c) and triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) are novel allergens of crab (Scylla paramamosain) which are sharing common epitopes. This work aimed to assess their contributions to the induction and elicitation of allergenic responses. Balb/c mice were sensitized by intraperitoneal injections and challenged by intragastric gavage with purified proteins. Upon oral challenge, FLN c triggered more severe anaphylactic symptoms, higher levels of specific antibodies and histamine in serum than TIM, while TIM was a more active promotor of early specific antibody production and stimulated stronger Th2-biased responses. Combined with the results of in vitro assays, the data demonstrated that though with common epitopes, the two allergens showed a different allergenicity, TIM favored Th2 polarization in sensitization stage, while FLN c had a better ability to stimulate B cells and is highly immunogenic in oral challenge stage. The findings can help with the better understanding of allergenicity of crab allergens.


Assuntos
Alérgenos , Braquiúros , Animais , Epitopos , Imunoglobulina E , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
6.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 282: 114574, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461187

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Gekko gecko is used as a traditional medicine for various diseases including respiratory disorders in northeast Asian countries, mainly Korea, Japan, and China. AIM OF THE STUDY: Allergic asthma is a chronic respiratory disease caused by an inappropriate immune response. Due to the recent spread of coronavirus disease 2019, interest in the treatment of pulmonary disorders has rapidly increased. In this study, we investigated the anti-asthmatic effects of G. gecko extract (GGE) using an established mouse model of ovalbumin-induced asthma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To evaluate the anti-asthmatic effects of GGE, we evaluated histological changes and the responses of inflammatory mediators related to allergic airway inflammation. Furthermore, we investigated the regulatory effects of GGE on type 2 helper T (Th2) cell activation. RESULTS: Administration of GGE attenuated asthmatic phenotypes, including inflammatory cell infiltration, mucus production, and expression of Th2 cytokines. Furthermore, GGE treatment reduced Th2 cell activation and differentiation. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that GGE alleviates allergic airway inflammation by regulating Th2 cell activation and differentiation.


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Tradicional do Leste Asiático , Muco/metabolismo , Ovalbumina , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Asma/patologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , COVID-19 , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Pandemias , Células Th2/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th2/imunologia , Triptaminas/farmacologia
7.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(10): 11006-11012, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic skin inflammation with a heterogeneous immunological profile. Leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 (LECT2) is a liver-derived multifunctional cytokine that has been studied due to its important role in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. However, the relationship between AD and LECT2 has not been defined. This study was performed to investigate the levels of LECT2 in patients with AD and to determine whether it was associated with the severity and clinical characteristics of AD. METHODS: The study included 42 AD patients and 30 healthy controls from the Affiliated Hospital of Medical School of Ningbo University. Participants' serum levels of LECT2 were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. The values in the patient group and control group were statistically compared. The relationships between the different markers were evaluated by correlation analysis. RESULTS: The serum levels of LECT2 were significantly higher in AD patients than those in the controls. In addition, LECT2 was significantly correlated with the Scoring of Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index, the level of immunoglobulin E (IgE), and eosinophils (P<0.01, for all 3). CONCLUSIONS: Serum LECT2 levels were evaluated in AD patients. The results showed that LECT2 may be a useful biomarker of AD, and may participate in the occurrence and regulation of inflammation in AD progression.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica , Biomarcadores , Fatores Quimiotáticos , Eosinófilos , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular , Contagem de Leucócitos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(46): 14004-14012, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34761930

RESUMO

The effects of ultrasound combined with glycation (UCG) on the allergenicity and human microbial community of ß-Lg during in vitro digestion were studied by ELISA, cell experiments, and 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing. UCG modification and subsequent digestion significantly reduced allergenicity. The decrease in the allergenicity of ß-Lg depended not only on the low digestibility of glycated ß-Lg, which led to the decrease of some peptides with complete immunogenicity, but also the masking effect of glycation on allergen epitopes of ß-Lg. Meanwhile, UCG modification and subsequent digestion could alter the structures of intestinal microbiota and the community abundance at phylum, family, and genus levels, such as Bacteroidota, Fusobacteriota, Enterobacteriaceae, Bacteroidaceae, Ruminococcaceae, Bacteroides, and Faecalibacterium. These results show that simulated in vitro digestion of modified ß-Lg reduces allergenicity and alters human intestinal microbiota, which could provide a theoretical basis for studying the relationship between intestinal dysbiosis and cow's milk allergy.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hipersensibilidade a Leite , Alérgenos , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E , Lactoglobulinas , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Ultrassom
9.
J Immunol ; 207(11): 2637-2648, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34732470

RESUMO

Mast cells are important effector cells in the immune system and undergo activation (i.e., degranulation) by two major mechanisms: IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated mechanisms. Although IgE-mediated degranulation is well researched, the cellular mechanisms of non-IgE-mediated mast cell activation are poorly understood despite the potential to induce similar pathophysiological effects. To better understand non-IgE mast cell degranulation, we characterized and compared cellular metabolic shifts across several mechanisms of degranulation (allergen-induced [IgE-mediated], 20 nm of silver nanoparticle-mediated [non-IgE], and compound 48/80-mediated [non-IgE]) in murine bone marrow-derived mast cells. All treatments differentially impacted mitochondrial activity and glucose uptake, suggesting diverging metabolic pathways between IgE- and non-IgE-mediated degranulation. Non-IgE treatments depleted mast cells' glycolytic reserve, and compound 48/80 further inhibited the ability to maximize mitochondrial respiration. This cellular reprogramming may be indicative of a stress response with non-IgE treatments. Neither of these outcomes occurred with IgE-mediated degranulation, hinting at a separate programmed response. Fuel flexibility between the three primary mitochondrial nutrient sources was also eliminated in activated cells and this was most significant in non-IgE-mediated degranulation. Lastly, metabolomics analysis of bone marrow-derived mast cells following degranulation was used to compare general metabolite profiles related to energetic pathways. IgE-mediated degranulation upregulated metabolite concentrations for the TCA cycle and glycolysis compared with other treatments. In conclusion, mast cell metabolism varies significantly between IgE- and non-IgE-mediated degranulation suggesting novel cell regulatory mechanisms are potentially driving unexplored pathways of mast cell degranulation.


Assuntos
Imunoglobulina E/metabolismo , Mastócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Mastócitos/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
10.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 34(6): 761-765, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34636791

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: α-Gal syndrome is among a vexing perioperative consideration for anesthesiologists. Commonly referred to as 'red meat allergy', α-Gal syndrome is precipitated by a lone star tick bite resulting in the formation of immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies against the tick salivary glycoproteins and noncatarrhine mammalian tissue. RECENT FINDINGS: Up to 20% of the population in the southeastern United States may test positive for IgE antibodies to α-Gal. Increasingly, recognition of α-Gal syndrome as an immune response to red meat consumption and certain drugs, many of which may be administered within the perioperative period, has led to greater awareness of the insidious nature of its presentation - from mild urticaria and gastrointestinal symptoms to severe anaphylaxis. SUMMARY: With the increasing prevalence and identification of α-Gal syndrome, a safe and tailored perioperative process is needed to integrate a pathway that involves multidisciplinary communication, robust information sharing platform, and a structured peri-procedure management.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Picadas de Carrapatos , Animais , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/epidemiologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E , Gestão de Riscos
11.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684380

RESUMO

The fermented soy product ImmuBalance contains many active ingredients and its beneficial effects on some allergic diseases have been reported. We hypothesized that ImmuBalance could have potential effects on airway inflammation in a murine model of asthma. Mice sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin developed airway inflammation. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was assessed for inflammatory cell counts and levels of cytokines. Lung tissues were examined for cell infiltration and mucus hypersecretion. Oral administration of ImmuBalance significantly inhibited ovalbumin-induced eosinophilic inflammation and decreased Th2 cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (p < 0.05). In addition, lung histological analysis showed that ImmuBalance inhibited inflammatory cell infiltration and airway mucus production. Our findings suggest that supplementation with ImmuBalance may provide a novel strategy for the prevention or treatment of allergic airway inflammation.


Assuntos
Asma/terapia , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados , Inflamação/patologia , Pulmão/patologia , Soja/química , Animais , Peso Corporal , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Contagem de Células , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dieta , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eosinófilos/metabolismo , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Inflamação/sangue , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Ovalbumina
12.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD012929, 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Targeting the immunoglobulin E pathway and the interleukin-5 pathway with specific monoclonal antibodies directed against the cytokines or their receptors is effective in patients with severe asthma. However, there are patients who have suboptimal responses to these biologics. Since interleukin-4 and interleukin-13, signalling through the interleukin-4 receptor, have multiple effects on the biology of asthma, therapies targeting interleukin-4 and -13 (both individually and combined) have been developed. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of anti-interleukin-13 or anti-interleukin-4 agents, compared with placebo, anti-immunoglobulin E agents, or anti-interleukin-5 agents, for the treatment of children, adolescents, or adults with asthma. SEARCH METHODS: We identified studies from the Cochrane Airways Trials Register, which is maintained by the Information Specialist for the Group and through searches of the US National Institutes of Health Ongoing Trials Register ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. The search was carried out on the 16 October 2020. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included parallel-group randomised controlled trials that compared anti-interleukin-13 or -4 agents (or agents that target both interleukin-13 and interleukin-4) with placebo in adolescents and adults (aged 16 years or older) or children (younger than 16 years), with a diagnosis of asthma; participants could receive their usual short- or long-acting medications (e.g. inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), long-acting beta adrenoceptor agonists (LABA), long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMA), and/or leukotriene receptor antagonists) provided that they were not part of the randomised treatment. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methods expected by Cochrane. MAIN RESULTS: We identified and included 41 RCTs. Of these, 29 studies contributed data to the quantitative analyses, randomly assigning 10,604 people with asthma to receive an anti-interleukin-13 (intervention) or anti-interleukin-4 agent (intervention), or placebo (comparator). No relevant studies were identified where the comparator was an anti-immunoglobulin agent or an anti-interleukin-5 agent. Studies had a duration of between 2 and 52 (median 16) weeks. The mean age of participants across the included studies ranged from 22 to 55 years. Only five studies permitted enrolment of children and adolescents, accounting for less than 5% of the total participants contributing data to the present review. The majority of participants had moderate or severe uncontrolled asthma. Concomitant ICS use was permitted or required in the majority (21 of 29) of the included studies. The use of maintenance systemic corticosteroids was not permitted in 19 studies and was permitted or required in five studies (information not reported in five studies). Regarding the most commonly assessed anti-interleukin-13/-4 agents, four studies evaluated dupilumab (300 mg once every week (Q1W), 200 mg once every two weeks (Q2W), 300 mg Q2W, 200 mg once every four weeks (Q4W), 300 mg Q4W, each administered by subcutaneous (SC) injection); eight studies evaluated lebrikizumab (37.5 mg Q4W, 125 mg Q4W, 250 mg Q4W each administered by SC injection); and nine studies (3259 participants) evaluated tralokinumab (75 mg Q1W, 150 mg Q1W, 300 mg Q1W, 150 mg Q2W, 300 mg Q2W, 600 mg Q2W, 300 mg Q4W, each administered by SC injection; 1/5/10 mg/kg administered by intravenous (IV) injection); all anti-interleukin-13 or-4 agents were compared with placebo. The risk of bias was generally considered to be low or unclear (insufficient detail provided); nine studies were considered to be at high risk for attrition bias and three studies were considered to be at high risk for reporting bias. The following results relate to the primary outcomes. The rate of exacerbations requiring hospitalisation or emergency department (ED) visit was probably lower in participants receiving tralokinumab versus placebo (rate ratio 0.68, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.98; moderate-certainty evidence; data available for tralokinumab (anti-interleukin-13) only). In participants receiving an anti-interleukin-13/-4 agent, the mean improvement versus placebo in adjusted asthma quality of life questionnaire score was 0.18 units (95% CI 0.12 to 0.24; high-certainty evidence); however, this finding was deemed not to be a clinically relevant improvement. There was likely little or no difference between groups in the proportion of patients who reported all-cause serious adverse events (anti-interleukin-13/-4 agents versus placebo, OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.09; moderate-certainty evidence). In terms of secondary outcomes, there may be little or no difference between groups in the proportion of patients who experienced exacerbations requiring oral corticosteroids (anti-interleukin-13/-4 agents versus placebo, rate ratio 0.98, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.32; low-certainty evidence). Anti-interleukin-13/-4 agents probably improve asthma control based on asthma control questionnaire score (anti-interleukin-13/-4 agents versus placebo, mean difference -0.19; 95% CI -0.24 to -0.14); however, the magnitude of this result was deemed not to be a clinically relevant improvement. The proportion of patients experiencing any adverse event was greater in those receiving anti-interleukin-13/-4 agents compared with those receiving placebo (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.30; high-certainty evidence); the most commonly reported adverse events in participants treated with anti-interleukin-13/-4 agents were upper respiratory tract infection, nasopharyngitis, headache and injection site reaction. The pooled results for the exploratory outcome, the rate of exacerbations requiring oral corticosteroids (OCS) or hospitalisation or emergency department visit, may be lower in participants receiving anti-interleukin-13/-4 agents versus placebo (rate ratio 0.71, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.77; low-certainty evidence). Results were generally consistent across subgroups for different classes of agent (anti-interleukin-13 or anti-interleukin-4), durations of study and severity of disease. Subgroup analysis based on category of T helper 2 (TH2) inflammation suggested greater efficacy in patients with higher levels of inflammatory biomarkers (blood eosinophils, exhaled nitric oxide and serum periostin). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Based on the totality of the evidence, compared with placebo, anti-interleukin-13/-4 agents are probably associated with a reduction in exacerbations requiring hospitalisation or ED visit, at the cost of increased adverse events, in patients with asthma. No clinically relevant improvements in health-related quality of life or asthma control were identified. Therefore, anti-interleukin-13 or anti-interleukin-4 agents may be appropriate for adults with moderate-to-severe uncontrolled asthma who have not responded to other treatments. These conclusions are generally supported by moderate or high-certainty evidence based on studies with an observation period of up to one year.


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos , Asma , Adolescente , Adulto , Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E , Interleucina-13/uso terapêutico , Interleucina-4/uso terapêutico , Interleucina-5/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto Jovem
13.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 127(5): 530-535, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34688426

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify treatment approaches that can be used in the management of patients with asthma who lack significant type 2 inflammation, also called T2 low asthma. DATA SOURCES: Recent expert guideline updates on the management of asthma, recent journal articles and review articles, and foundational journal articles are referenced. STUDY SELECTIONS: This review cites clinical cohort studies of highly characterized patients with asthma, clinical interventional trials of high impact, mechanistic studies relevant to T2 low asthma, and emerging work in this area. RESULTS: T2 low asthma accounts for approximately one-third to one-half of individuals with asthma. Characteristics of participants with T2 low asthma include higher body mass index, cigarette smoking/smoke exposure, relative lack of responsiveness to steroids, less bronchodilator reversibility, and often the presence of neutrophilic inflammation. Multiple available interventions target these characteristics, including standard inhalers, azithromycin, and lifestyle interventions of weight loss and smoking cessation. CONCLUSION: Treatment of T2 low asthma should involve currently available approaches and will benefit from improved definition and understanding of disease pathobiology.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Agonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/patologia , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Inflamação/patologia , Agonistas Muscarínicos/uso terapêutico , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar
14.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684397

RESUMO

Crustacean allergy, especially to shrimp, is the most predominant cause of seafood allergy. However, due to the high flexibility of immunoglobulin E (IgE), its three-dimensional structure remains unsolved, and the molecular mechanism of shrimp allergen recognition is unknown. Here a chimeric IgE was built in silico, and its variable region in the light chain was replaced with sequences derived from shrimp tropomyosin (TM)-allergic patients. A variety of allergenic peptides from the Chinese shrimp TM were built, treated with heating, and subjected to IgE binding in silico. Amino acid analysis shows that the amino acid residue conservation in shrimp TM contributes to eliciting an IgE-mediated immune response. In the shrimp-allergic IgE, Glu98 in the light chain and other critical residues that recognize allergens from shrimp are implicated in the molecular basis of IgE-mediated shrimp allergy. Heat treatment could alter the conformations of TM allergenic peptides, impact their intramolecular hydrogen bonding, and subsequently decrease the binding between these peptides and IgE. We found Glu98 as the characteristic amino acid residue in the light chain of IgE to recognize general shrimp-allergic sequences, and heat-induced conformational change generally desensitizes shrimp allergens.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/imunologia , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Penaeidae/imunologia , Frutos do Mar , Tropomiosina/química , Tropomiosina/imunologia , Alérgenos/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Epitopos/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/terapia , Temperatura Alta , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Imunoglobulina E/química , Imunoglobulina E/metabolismo , Imunossupressão , Modelos Moleculares , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/química , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/imunologia , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Conformação Proteica , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/química , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/imunologia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Tropomiosina/metabolismo
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(39): e27314, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596130

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and nasal nitric oxide (nNO) in allergic rhinitis (AR) and patients with or without bronchial asthma (BA).A total of 90 patients who were diagnosed with persistent AR (AR group, n = 30), BA (BA group, n = 30), or allergic rhinitis with bronchial asthma (AR-BA) (AR-BA group, n = 30), were enrolled in this study, along with 30 healthy adult volunteers (control group, n = 30). The participants were further divided into 2 groups based on the results of a skin-prick test (SPT): a highly atopic group (SPT = 3+ and above) and a moderately atopic group (SPT = 2+ and below). All participants underwent FeNO and nNO measurement, an absolute blood eosinophil count, total serum immunoglobulin measurement, and horizontal baseline lung capacity determination.The results showed that the FeNO levels in the 3 observation groups were significantly higher than those in the control group (P < .01), and in the BA group they were significantly higher than in the AR-BA group (P < .01). The levels of nNO in both the AR group and the AR-BA group were higher than those in the control group and the BA group (P < .01), but there was no significant difference between the AR group and the AR-BA group (P > .05). The levels of nNO in the BA group were also significantly different from those in the control group (P < .01).FeNO and nNO are positively correlated with the degree of AR in patients with BA; therefore, nNO levels can be used as an inflammatory marker of AR in patients with BA. FeNO can also be used as an inflammatory marker of AR in patients complicated with BA as a warning indicator of asthma.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/patologia , Óxido Nítrico/análise , Nariz/patologia , Rinite Alérgica/epidemiologia , Rinite Alérgica/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Eosinófilos/metabolismo , Expiração , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Função Respiratória , Adulto Jovem
16.
Immunol Allergy Clin North Am ; 41(4): 627-638, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34602233

RESUMO

Anaphylaxis is an acute, potentially life-threatening systemic hypersensitivity reaction. Classically, anaphylaxis is an immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated reaction; however, IgG or immune complex complement-related immunologic reactions that lead to degranulation of mast cells can also cause anaphylaxis. Food allergy is the most common cause of anaphylaxis, followed by drugs. Patients with anaphylaxis commonly present with symptoms involving skin or mucous membranes, followed by respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms. Epinephrine is the drug of choice for treating anaphylaxis. Patients and caregivers should be educated on the use of epinephrine autoinjectors with periodic review of symptoms and emergency action plan for anaphylaxis.


Assuntos
Anafilaxia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Adolescente , Anafilaxia/diagnóstico , Anafilaxia/tratamento farmacológico , Anafilaxia/epidemiologia , Criança , Epinefrina/uso terapêutico , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/diagnóstico , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E , Mastócitos
17.
Immunol Allergy Clin North Am ; 41(4): 571-585, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34602229

RESUMO

Food allergy is an immune-mediated disease and must be differentiated from other adverse effects related to food that are non-immune mediated. Symptoms of immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated allergy can range from mild to severe, and life-threatening anaphylaxis may occur. Current recommended strategies for diagnosis include the use of skin prick tests, allergen-specific serum IgE, and/or oral food challenges. Management entails allergen avoidance and appropriate treatment of allergic reactions should accidental ingestions occur. Treatment approaches under investigation include immunotherapy as well as biologics and novel vaccines. Attention has also recently focused on implementing strategies for prevention of food allergy.


Assuntos
Anafilaxia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Alérgenos , Anafilaxia/diagnóstico , Anafilaxia/etiologia , Anafilaxia/prevenção & controle , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/terapia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E , Testes Cutâneos
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(43): 12870-12879, 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34689550

RESUMO

Sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein is a stable allergen in Scylla paramamosain and named Scy p 4. To explore the importance of linear epitopes in the immunoglobulin G (IgG)/immunoglobulin E (IgE)-binding capacity of Scy p 4, chemical denaturants were used to destroy the structure. Scy p 4 was reduced with dithiothreitol and subsequently alkylated with iodoacetamide (IAA). Furthermore, the structural analysis indicated that IAA-Scy p 4 was an unstructured protein. The inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that IAA-Scy p 4 could inhibit the binding of Scy p 4 to sensitize serum, with inhibition rates reached 55%. Moreover, the linear mimotopes of Scy p 4 were predicted in silico. Three linear epitopes were verified by serological tests and named L-Scy p 4-1 (AA76-91), L-Scy p 4-2 (AA111-125), and L-Scy p 4-3 (AA137-146). Overall, these data provide an understanding of the relationship between the structure and allergenicity about Scy p 4, and the identified linear epitopes can be used for diagnosis and food processing of shellfish allergy.


Assuntos
Imunoglobulina G , Hipersensibilidade a Frutos do Mar , Alérgenos , Epitopos , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639235

RESUMO

Nanomaterials have found extensive interest in the development of novel vaccines, as adjuvants and/or carriers in vaccination platforms. Conjugation of protein antigens at the particle surface by non-covalent adsorption is the most widely used approach in licensed particulate vaccines. Hence, it is essential to understand proteins' structural integrity at the material interface in order to develop safe-by-design nanovaccines. In this study, we utilized two model proteins, the wild-type allergen Bet v 1 and its hypoallergenic fold variant (BM4), to compare SiO2 nanoparticles with Alhydrogel® as particulate systems. A set of biophysical and functional assays including circular dichroism spectroscopy and proteolytic degradation was used to examine the antigens' structural integrity at the material interface. Conjugation of both biomolecules to the particulate systems decreased their proteolytic stability. However, we observed qualitative and quantitative differences in antigen processing concomitant with differences in their fold stability. These changes further led to an alteration in IgE epitope recognition. Here, we propose a toolbox of biophysical and functional in vitro assays for the suitability assessment of nanomaterials in the early stages of vaccine development. These tools will aid in safe-by-design innovations and allow fine-tuning the properties of nanoparticle candidates to shape a specific immune response.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/imunologia , Antígenos de Plantas/imunologia , Epitopos/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Nanopartículas/química , Dióxido de Silício/química , Vacinas/imunologia , Alérgenos/química , Humanos , Hidrogéis , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia
20.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 122(11): 778-784, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672668

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to analyse the diagnostic performance of the basophil activation test (BAT), to compare the diagnostic reliability of BATs performed with different types of allergens, which are available in Slovakia and to verify the correlation between the symptom severity and the sensitivity and specificity of the BAT in 114 patients with suspected hymenoptera venom allergy (HVA). BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of the HVA and the identification of the appropriate venom for immunotherapy are in Slovakia based on detailed patient'medical history, skin tests and detection of sIgE. In unclear cases, where the clinical decision regarding the relevant insect species for immunotherapy is difficult, the cellular tests are recommended in several countries, such as Sweden, Spain, Germany, Denmark and Italy. In Slovakia, BAT is not adapted as s part of routine diagnostic work-up. METHODS: The identification of the culprit hymenoptera species among 114 patients was based on detailed history, skin tests and detection of sIgE. Obtained results were compared with the results acquired by the BAT. RESULTS: The sensitivity of the BAT was 80.8 % and the specificity was 87.8 %. The sensitivity of the BAT was higher when using Soluprick SQ Allergens, but the specificity was higher with BUHLMANN CAST Allergens. In the study no correlation between the symptom severity and the sensitivity and specificity of the BAT was observed. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that the BAT can be recommended in the identification of the appropriate venom for immunotherapy, the only specific treatment that is currently available for patients with HVA. Allergen source is one of critical factors in diagnostic reliability of the BAT (Tab. 4, Ref. 29) Keywords: hymenoptera venom allergy, allergy diagnosis, basophil activation test, sensitivity, specificity.


Assuntos
Venenos de Artrópodes , Himenópteros , Hipersensibilidade , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos , Animais , Basófilos , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/diagnóstico , Imunoglobulina E , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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