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2.
Lupus Sci Med ; 11(1)2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589223

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop an improved score for prediction of severe infection in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), namely, the SLE Severe Infection Score-Revised (SLESIS-R) and to validate it in a large multicentre lupus cohort. METHODS: We used data from the prospective phase of RELESSER (RELESSER-PROS), the SLE register of the Spanish Society of Rheumatology. A multivariable logistic model was constructed taking into account the variables already forming the SLESIS score, plus all other potential predictors identified in a literature review. Performance was analysed using the C-statistic and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). Internal validation was carried out using a 100-sample bootstrapping procedure. ORs were transformed into score items, and the AUROC was used to determine performance. RESULTS: A total of 1459 patients who had completed 1 year of follow-up were included in the development cohort (mean age, 49±13 years; 90% women). Twenty-five (1.7%) had experienced ≥1 severe infection. According to the adjusted multivariate model, severe infection could be predicted from four variables: age (years) ≥60, previous SLE-related hospitalisation, previous serious infection and glucocorticoid dose. A score was built from the best model, taking values from 0 to 17. The AUROC was 0.861 (0.777-0.946). The cut-off chosen was ≥6, which exhibited an accuracy of 85.9% and a positive likelihood ratio of 5.48. CONCLUSIONS: SLESIS-R is an accurate and feasible instrument for predicting infections in patients with SLE. SLESIS-R could help to make informed decisions on the use of immunosuppressants and the implementation of preventive measures.


Assuntos
Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/complicações , Estudos Prospectivos , Imunossupressores , Modelos Logísticos
3.
World J Gastroenterol ; 30(10): 1295-1312, 2024 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38596493

RESUMO

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation is a clinically significant challenge in disease management. This review explores the immunological mechanisms underlying HBV reactivation, emphasizing disease progression and management. It delves into host immune responses and reactivation's delicate balance, spanning innate and adaptive immunity. Viral factors' disruption of this balance, as are interactions between viral antigens, immune cells, cytokine networks, and immune checkpoint pathways, are examined. Notably, the roles of T cells, natural killer cells, and antigen-presenting cells are discussed, highlighting their influence on disease progression. HBV reactivation's impact on disease severity, hepatic flares, liver fibrosis progression, and hepatocellular carcinoma is detailed. Management strategies, including anti-viral and immunomodulatory approaches, are critically analyzed. The role of prophylactic anti-viral therapy during immunosuppressive treatments is explored alongside novel immunotherapeutic interventions to restore immune control and prevent reactivation. In conclusion, this comprehensive review furnishes a holistic view of the immunological mechanisms that propel HBV reactivation. With a dedicated focus on understanding its implications for disease progression and the prospects of efficient management strategies, this article contributes significantly to the knowledge base. The more profound insights into the intricate interactions between viral elements and the immune system will inform evidence-based approaches, ultimately enhancing disease management and elevating patient outcomes. The dynamic landscape of management strategies is critically scrutinized, spanning anti-viral and immunomodulatory approaches. The role of prophylactic anti-viral therapy in preventing reactivation during immunosuppressive treatments and the potential of innovative immunotherapeutic interventions to restore immune control and proactively deter reactivation.


Assuntos
Hepatite B Crônica , Hepatite B , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Humanos , Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite B/tratamento farmacológico , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Antivirais/farmacologia , Progressão da Doença , Ativação Viral , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico
4.
Transpl Int ; 37: 12360, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38596505

RESUMO

Nirmatrelvir/ritonavir is a promising option for preventing severe COVID-19 in solid organ transplant recipients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, concerns have arisen regarding potential drug interactions with calcineurin inhibitors (CNI). This two-phase multicentre retrospective study, involving 113 patients on tacrolimus and 13 on cyclosporine A, aimed to assess the feasibility and outcomes of recommendations issued by The French societies of transplantation (SFT) and pharmacology (SFPT) for CNI management in this context. The study first evaluated adherence to recommendations, CNI exposure, and clinical outcomes. Notably, 96.5% of patients on tacrolimus adhered to the recommendations, maintaining stable tacrolimus trough concentrations (C0) during nirmatrelvir/ritonavir treatment. After reintroduction, most patients experienced increased C0, with 42.9% surpassing 15 ng/mL, including three patients exceeding 40 ng/mL. Similar trends were observed in cyclosporine A patients, with no COVID-19-related hospitalizations. Moreover, data from 22 patients were used to refine the reintroduction strategy. Modelling analyses suggested reintroducing tacrolimus at 50% of the initial dose on day 8, and then at 100% from day 9 as the optimal approach. In conclusion, the current strategy effectively maintains consistent tacrolimus exposure during nirmatrelvir/ritonavir treatment, and a stepwise reintroduction of tacrolimus may be better suited to the low CYP3A recovery.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Lactamas , Leucina , Nitrilas , Transplante de Órgãos , Prolina , Humanos , Tacrolimo , Ciclosporina/uso terapêutico , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Ritonavir/farmacologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tratamento Farmacológico da COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Imunossupressores , Inibidores de Calcineurina/uso terapêutico , Transplantados , Antivirais/uso terapêutico
6.
Nephrol Ther ; 20(2): 1-17, 2024 04 04.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38567520

RESUMO

Introduction: Medication non-adherence is a global concern, particularly in the context of renal transplantation, where it leads to graft failures, increased hospitalizations, diminished quality of life for patients, and higher healthcare costs. The aim of this study was to assess the level of therapeutic adherence among Algerian kidney transplant recipients and identify potential influencing factors. Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional bicenter study was conducted among kidney transplant patients receiving outpatient care at two specialized medical centers in Algeria: the Urology Department of the Hospital Establishment for Urology, Nephrology, and Renal Transplantation in Constantine, and the Nephrology and Renal Transplantation Department of the University Hospital Center (CHU) in Blida, spanning from January to December 2022. Therapeutic adherence was assessed using the 8-item Morisky questionnaire, while the level of knowledge was analyzed through a 12-item questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with non-adherence to therapy. Results: This study included 130 patients with an average age of 47 years and a sex ratio of 1.7. The results revealed therapeutic non-adherence in 40.8% of the patients. Multivariate analysis identified several potentially associated factors, including residence, unemployment status, lack of affiliation with a health insurance fund, the use of a therapeutic regimen involving triple therapy, the occurrence of adverse effects, limited education level, and insufficient disease knowledge. Furthermore, non-adherence was associated with an increased risk of graft rejection. Conclusion: The findings of this study highlight concerning therapeutic adherence among kidney transplant recipients, emphasizing the crucial importance of therapeutic education to improve treatment adherence and underscoring the need to integrate these factors into clinical patient management.


Introduction: La non-observance thérapeutique est un problème mondial préoccupant, notamment dans le contexte de la transplantation rénale où elle entraîne des échecs de greffe, une augmentation des hospitalisations, une détérioration de la qualité de vie des patients et des coûts de santé accrus. Cette étude avait pour objectif d'évaluer le niveau d'observance thérapeutique chez les transplantés rénaux algériens et d'identifier les facteurs qui pourraient l'influencer. Méthodes: Une étude descriptive transversale bicentrique a été menée auprès de patients transplantés rénaux suivis en ambulatoire dans deux centres médicaux spécialisés en Algérie : le service d'urologie de l'Établissement hospitalier spécialisé (EHS) en urologie, néphrologie et transplantation rénale de Constantine ainsi que le service de néphrologie et transplantation rénale du Centre hospitalier universitaire (CHU) de Blida, sur une période allant de janvier à décembre 2022. L'observance thérapeutique a été évaluée à l'aide du questionnaire à 8 items de Morisky, tandis que le niveau de connaissance a été analysé à travers un questionnaire de 12 items. La régression logistique a été utilisée pour identifier les facteurs associés à la non-observance thérapeutique. Résultats: Cette étude a inclus 130 patients présentant un âge moyen de 47 ans et un sex ratio de 1,7. Les résultats ont révélé une non-observance thérapeutique chez 40,8 % des patients. L'analyse multivariée a permis d'identifier plusieurs facteurs potentiellement associés à cette non-observance, notamment le lieu d'habitation, le statut de chômage, l'absence d'affiliation à une caisse d'assurance maladie, l'utilisation d'un schéma thérapeutique incluant une trithérapie, la survenue d'effets indésirables, le niveau d'éducation limité et une connaissance insuffisante de la maladie. En outre, la non-observance a été associée à un risque accru de rejet de greffe. Conclusion: Les résultats de cette étude révèlent une observance thérapeutique préoccupante chez les transplantés rénaux, soulignant l'importance cruciale de l'éducation thérapeutique afin de l'améliorer et mettant en évidence la nécessité d'intégrer ces facteurs dans la gestion clinique des patients.


Assuntos
Transplante de Rim , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transplante de Rim/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Argélia , Qualidade de Vida , Adesão à Medicação , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Rejeição de Enxerto
7.
Clin Transplant ; 38(4): e15307, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38567897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of induction immunosuppression for heart transplantation (HT) is debated given the uncertain benefit and potential risks of infection and malignancy. METHODS: This is a retrospective single-center analysis of 475 consecutive HT recipients from 2003 to 2020 grouped by use of induction with basiliximab group (BG) and the no basiliximab group (NBG). Subgroup analysis by era compared pre-2016 standard-basiliximab (BX) induction and 2016-2020 with selective-BX use as part of a calcineurin-inhibitor-sparing regimen. RESULTS: When adjusted for confounders (sex, age, PRA, eGFR), the BG was less likely to have acute cellular rejection (ACR) (OR.42, p < .001), but had more antibody mediated rejection (AMR) (OR 11.7, p < .001) and more cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) (OR 3.8, p = .04). There was no difference between BG and NBG in the incidence of malignancies or infections. When stratified by era (pre-2016 vs. 2016-2020), ACR remained less common in the BG than the NBG (36% vs. 50%, p = .045) groups, while AMR remained more common (9.7 vs. 0% p = .005). There was no significant difference in conditional survival comparing pre-and post-2016 NBG (HR 2.20 (95% CI.75-6.43); however, both pre-2016 BG and post-2016 BG have significantly higher mortality (HR 2.37 [95% CI 1.02-5.50) and HR 2.69 (95% CI 1.08-6.71), p = .045 and.03, respectively]. CONCLUSION: Basiliximab reduces the incidence of ACR but increases the risk of AMR, CAV, and may be associated with increased mortality. Mechanistic studies are needed to describe a potential T-cell-escape mechanism with enhanced humoral immunity.


Assuntos
Transplante de Coração , Neoplasias , Humanos , Basiliximab/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rejeição de Enxerto/tratamento farmacológico , Rejeição de Enxerto/etiologia , Transplante de Coração/efeitos adversos , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/uso terapêutico
10.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1295011, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38562942

RESUMO

Background: CDKL3 has been associated with the prognosis of several tumors. However, the potential role of CDKL3 in immunotherapy and the tumor microenvironment (TME) in esophageal carcinoma (ESCA) remains unclear. Methods: In this study, Cox regression analysis was used to assess the predictive value of CDKL3 for ESCA outcomes. We systematically correlated CDKL3 with immunological features in the TME. The role of CDKL3 in predicting the efficacy of immunotherapy was also analyzed. Correlation analysis, Cox analysis and LASSO Cox regression were used to construct the CDKL3-related autophagy (CrA) risk score model. The relationship between CDKL3 expression and postoperative pathological complete response (pCR) rate in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) was evaluated using Immunohistochemical staining (IHC). The relationship between CDKL3 expression and autophagy induction was confirmed by immunofluorescence staining and western blot, and the effect of CDKL3 expression on macrophage polarization was verified by flow cytometry. Results: High expression of CDKL3 was found in ESCA and was associated with poor prognosis in ESCA. Moreover, CDKL3 expression was negatively correlated with tumor-infiltrating immune cells (TIICs), the integrality of the cancer immunity cycles, and anti-tumor signatures, while CDKL3 expression was positively correlated with suppressive TME-related chemokines and receptors, immune hyperprogressive genes, and suppressive immune checkpoint, resulting in immunosuppressive TME formation in ESCA. An analysis of immunotherapy cohorts of the ESCA and pan-cancer showed a better response to immunotherapy in tumor patients with lower CDKL3 levels. The CrA risk score model was constructed and validated to accurately predict the prognosis of ESCA. Notably, the CrA risk score of ESCA patients was significantly positively correlated with M2 macrophages. Furthermore, knockdown CDKL3 in KYSE150 cells could inhibit autophagy induction and M2 macrophage polarization. And, radiation could downregulate CDKL3 expression and autophagy induction, while ESCC patients with high CDKL3 expression had a significantly lower response rate after nCRT than those with low CDKL3 expression. Conclusion: CDKL3 may play an important role in anti-tumor immunity by regulating autophagy to promote the formation of immunosuppressive TME, thus playing a critical role in the prognosis of ESCA.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago , Humanos , Neoplasias Esofágicas/genética , Microambiente Tumoral , Autofagia , Western Blotting , Imunossupressores , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética
11.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 74(3): 524-527, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38591291

RESUMO

Objective: To determine the clinico-pathological features and long-term outcome of secondary steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome treated with steroids and calcineurin inhibitors. METHODS: The retrospective cohort study was conducted at the Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplant, Karachi, in June and July 2023, and comprised data from January 1, 2008, to December 31, 2020, of children aged 1-18 years who developed steroid resistance after initial sensitivity to steroids with at least 1-year of follow-up. Demographics as well as time taken to secondary steroid response were documented. Renal biopsy of all patients with secondary steroid resistance had been performed. Eventual outcomes after treatment with calcineurin inhibitors based on the degree of proteinuria and serum albumin levels were used to categorise complete remission, partial remission and no response. Kidney function, as determined by estimated glomerular filtration rate, was recorded. Data was analysed using SPSS 22. RESULTS: Of the 1,000 patients who underwent renal biopsy for steroid resistance, 48(4.8%) had idiopathic steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome; 32(66.7%) males, 16(33.3%) females and median age of 5 years (interquartile range: 4-7.3 years). Median age at diagnosis of nephrotic syndrome was 5 years (interquartile range: 3.6-7.3 years). The median time from nephrotic syndrome to secondary steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome was 23 months (interquartile range: 8.75-44.5 months). Biopsy results at diagnosis showed that 27(56.3%) had minimal change disease. The mean follow-up time was 6.1±3.2 years. Of the 43(89.5%) patients who received cyclosporin for 1 year, 29(67%) obtained complete remission, 5(12%) attained partial remission and no response was seen in 9(21%) patients. Conclusion: Majority of the children had minimal change disease at the time of diagnosis of secondary steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. The long-term response with calcineurin inhibitors was favourable at 1 year.


Assuntos
Nefrose Lipoide , Síndrome Nefrótica , Criança , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Síndrome Nefrótica/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Nefrótica/complicações , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inibidores de Calcineurina/uso terapêutico , Nefrose Lipoide/complicações , Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Syst Rev ; 13(1): 101, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38576005

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Immunosuppressive therapy (IST) is the first choice for severe aplastic anemia (SAA) patients with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) limitation, and the main factor limiting its efficacy is too few residual hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC). Eltrombopag (EPAG), as a small molecule thrombopoietin receptor agonist, can stimulate the proliferation of residual HSPC and restore the bone marrow hematopoietic function of patients. In recent years, many studies have observed the efficacy and safety of IST combined with EPAG in the treatment of SAA, but the results are still controversial. The aim of this study is to systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of IST combined with or without EPGA in the treatment of SAA. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of all relevant literature published up to January 19, 2024. Pooled odds ratio (OR) was calculated to compare the rates, along with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and p value to assess whether the results were statistically significant by Review Manager 5.4.1. The p values for the interactions between each subgroup were calculated by Stata 15.1. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and the Cochrane bias risk assessment tools were respectively used to evaluate the quality of the literature with cohort studies and randomized controlled trials. The Review Manager 5.4.1 and Stata 15.1 were used to assess bias risk and perform the meta-analysis. RESULTS: A total of 16 studies involving 2148 patients were included. The IST combined with the EPAG group had higher overall response rate (ORR) than the IST group at 3 months (pooled OR = 2.10, 95% CI 1.58-2.79, p < 0.00001) and 6 months (pooled OR = 2.13, 95% CI 1.60-2.83, p < 0.00001), but the difference between the two groups became statistically insignificant at 12 months (pooled OR = 1.13, 95% CI 0.75-1.72, p = 0.55). The results of complete response rate (CRR) (pooled OR at 3 months = 2.73, 95% CI 1.83-4.09, p < 0.00001, 6 months = 2.76, 95% CI 2.08-3.67, p < 0.00001 and 12 months = 1.38, 95% CI 0.85-2.23, p = 0.19) were similar to ORR. Compared with the IST group, the IST combined with the EPAG group had better overall survival rate (OSR) (pooled OR = 1.70, 95% CI 1.15-2.51, p = 0.008), but there were no statistically significant differences in event-free survival rate (EFSR) (pooled OR = 1.40, 95% CI 0.93-2.13, p = 0.11), clonal evolution rate (pooled OR = 0.68, 95% CI 0.46-1.00, p = 0.05) and other adverse events between the two groups. The results of subgroup analysis showed that different ages were a source of heterogeneity, but different study types and different follow-up times were not. Moreover, all p-values for the interactions were greater than 0.05, suggesting that the treatment effect was not influenced by subgroup characteristics. CONCLUSION: EPAG added to IST enables patients to achieve earlier and faster hematologic responses with a higher rate of complete response. Although it had no effect on overall EFSR, it improved OSR and did not increase the incidence of clonal evolution and other adverse events.


Assuntos
Anemia Aplástica , Hidrazinas , Imunossupressores , Pirazóis , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Anemia Aplástica/tratamento farmacológico , Anemia Aplástica/epidemiologia , Terapia de Imunossupressão , Benzoatos/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1382728, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38576610

RESUMO

Introduction: We performed a single-arm meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of JAK inhibitors in the treatment of dermatomyositis (DM)/ polymyositis (PM). Methods: Relevant studies from four databases were systematically searched until April 25, 2023. The primary endpoint was Cutaneous Dermatomyositis Disease Area and Severity Index (CDASI) and other outcomes were Manual Muscle Testing (MMT) and Creatine Kinase (CK). According to the type of JAK and medication regimen, we conducted subgroup analyses. The registration number in PROSPERO was CRD42023416493. Results: According to the selection criteria, we identified 7 publications with a total of 91 patients. Regarding skin lesions, the CDASI decreased by 17.67 (95% CI: -20.94 ~ -14.41). The CK increased by 8.64 U (95% CI: -28.25 ~ 45.53). About muscle lesions, MMT increased by 10.31 (95% CI: -2.83 ~ 23.46). Subgroup analysis revealed that different types of JAK inhibitors had various degrees of reduction. CDASI in patients treated with RUX had the lowest one [-20.00 (95% CI: -34.9 ~ -5.1)], followed by TOF [-18.29 (95% CI: -21.8 ~ -14.78)] and BAR [-11.2 (95% CI: -21.51 ~ -0.89)]. Additionally, the mean reduction in CDASI in patients treated with TOF alone was 16.16 (95% CI: -21.21 ~ -11.11), in combination with other immunosuppressants was 18.59 (95% CI: -22.74 ~ -14.45). For safety evaluation, one patient developed Orolabial HSV, and two patients developed thromboembolism events. Discussion: In summary, this meta-analysis demonstrated that JAK inhibitors can potentially treat DM/PM without severe adverse reactions. Systematic review registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/display_record.php?ID=CRD42023416493, identifier CRD42023416493.


Assuntos
Dermatomiosite , Inibidores de Janus Quinases , Polimiosite , Humanos , Dermatomiosite/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Janus Quinases/efeitos adversos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Pele
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(14): e37821, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38579022

RESUMO

Systemic lupus erythematosus mainly affects young women, and approximately half of systemic lupus erythematosus patients develop lupus nephritis (LN). However, data on the types and remission rates of LN in Saudi Arabia are limited. Therefore, we aimed to highlight the LN remission rates in our population. A retrospective record review was conducted between January 2007 and December 2020 in a tertiary center in the western region of Saudi Arabia to determine the remission rates among patients with biopsy-proven LN who met the EULAR\ACR 2019 classification criteria. We identified 59 patients with biopsy-proven LN, mostly in young women. The common histopathological pattern was Class IV LN in 26 patients (44%). Three induction protocols were identified, along with systemic steroids: the high-dose cyclophosphamide protocol in 21 patients (35.6%), low-dose protocol in 4 patients (6.8%), and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in 41 patients (69.5%). Partial response, defined as the reduction of the 24-hour proteinuria by 25% at 3 months and 50% at 6 months, was achieved in 18 patients (33.3%) at 3 months and decreased to 13 patients (24.1%) at 6 months. Complete clinical response, defined as 24-hour urinary protein between 500 and 700 mg at 12 months, was achieved in 44 patients (81.5%). Complete remission was higher among patients with Class IV LN (64.4%). The achievement of partial clinical response at 3 months was significantly lower among patients with hypertension (P = .041). This study presented the LN remission rates in a single center in Saudi Arabia. Similar to previous studies, Class IV LN were the most common histopathological finding in this study. Complete remission at 12 months was achieved in 44 (81%) patients. Delayed remission is associated with hypertension at the time of LN diagnosis.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico , Nefrite Lúpica , Humanos , Feminino , Nefrite Lúpica/complicações , Nefrite Lúpica/tratamento farmacológico , Nefrite Lúpica/diagnóstico , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/complicações , Ácido Micofenólico/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão/complicações , Indução de Remissão
16.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 154: 3630, 2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38579324

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Systemic sclerosis is a chronic autoimmune connective tissue disease leading to microvascular and fibrotic manifestations in multiple organs. Several treatment options and recommendations from different European countries are available. In this study, for which the ambit is Switzerland specifically, we aim to describe the treatment patterns of systemic sclerosis patients with fibrotic manifestations. METHODS: Systemic sclerosis patients were selected from six Swiss tertiary centres recorded in the multicentre, prospective European Scleroderma Trials and Research (EUSTAR) registry. Patients fulfilling the 2013 ACR/EULAR systemic sclerosis classification criteria at baseline were included. To determine the differences in treatment of varying degrees of fibrosis, four groups were identified: (1) patients with a modified Rodnan skin score (mRSS) >0; (2) those with mRSS ≥7; (3) those with interstitial lung disease (SSc-ILD), diagnosed by either chest X-Ray or high-resolution computed tomography; and (4) patients fulfilling one of the additional criteria for extensive interstitial lung disease, defined as interstitial lung disease involvement of >20% in high-resolution computed tomography, dyspnea NYHA-stage 3/4, or a predicted forced vital capacity (FVC) of <70%. RESULTS: A total of 590 patients with systemic sclerosis fulfilled the inclusion criteria. In this cohort, 421 (71.4%) had mRSS >0, of whom 195 (33.1%) had mRSS ≥7; interstitial lung disease was diagnosed in 198 of 456 (43.4%), of whom 106 (18.0 %) showed extensive interstitial lung disease. Regarding non-biologic disease-modifying medications (DMARDs), the most frequently prescribed was methotrexate, followed by hydroxychloroquine and mycophenolate mofetil. Rituximab and tocilizumab were most frequently used among the biologic DMARDs. Specifically, 148/372 (39.8%) of treated patients with skin fibrosis received methotrexate, mycophenolate mofetil or rituximab, and 80/177 (45.2%) with interstitial lung disease received cyclophosphamide, mycophenolate mofetil, tocilizumab or rituximab. Most patients received a proton-pump inhibitor, and few patients underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. CONCLUSION: Overall, in Switzerland, a wide range of medications is prescribed for systemic sclerosis patients. This includes modern, targeted treatments for which randomised controlled clinical trial have been recently reported.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais , Escleroderma Sistêmico , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Ácido Micofenólico/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Suíça , Escleroderma Sistêmico/complicações , Escleroderma Sistêmico/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/etiologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico , Fibrose , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico
17.
Cancer Res Commun ; 4(4): 1004-1015, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38592450

RESUMO

Asbestos and BAP1 germline mutations are risk factors for malignant mesothelioma (MM). While it is well accepted that amphibole asbestos is carcinogenic, the role of serpentine (chrysotile) asbestos in MM has been debated. To address this controversy, we assessed whether minimal exposure to chrysotile could significantly increase the incidence and rate of MM onset in germline Bap1-mutant mice. With either crocidolite or chrysotile, and at each dose tested, MMs occurred at a significantly higher rate and earlier onset time in Bap1-mutant mice than in wild-type littermates. To explore the role of gene-environment interactions in MMs from Bap1-mutant mice, we investigated proinflammatory and protumorigenic factors and the tumor immune microenvironment (TIME). IHC and immunofluorescence staining showed an increased number of macrophages in granulomatous lesions and MMs. The relative number of CD163-positive (CD163+) M2 macrophages in chrysotile-induced MMs was consistently greater than in crocidolite-induced MMs, suggesting that chrysotile induces a more profound immunosuppressive response that creates favorable conditions for evading immune surveillance. MMs from Bap1-mutant mice showed upregulation of CD39/CD73-adenosine and C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (Ccl2)/C-C motif chemokine receptor 2 (Ccr2) pathways, which together with upregulation of IL6 and IL10, promoted an immunosuppressive TIME, partly by attracting M2 macrophages. Interrogation of published human MM RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data implicated these same immunosuppressive pathways and connections with CD163+ M2 macrophages. These findings indicate that increased M2 macrophages, along with upregulated CD39/CD73-adenosine and Ccl2/Ccr2 pathways, contribute to an immunosuppressive TIME in chrysotile-induced MMs of Bap1-mutant mice, suggesting that immunotherapeutic strategies targeting protumorigenic immune pathways could be beneficial in human BAP1 mutation carriers who develop MM. SIGNIFICANCE: We show that germline Bap1-mutant mice have enhanced susceptibility to MM upon minimal exposure to chrysotile asbestos, not only amphibole fibers. Chrysotile induced a more profound immune tumor response than crocidolite in Bap1-mutant mice by upregulating CD39/CD73-adenosine and Ccl2/Ccr2 pathways and recruiting more M2 macrophages, which together contributed to an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Interrogation of human MM RNA-seq data revealed interconnected immunosuppressive pathways consistent with our mouse findings.


Assuntos
Mesotelioma Maligno , Mesotelioma , Neoplasias Mesoteliais , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Asbestos Serpentinas , Amiantos Anfibólicos , Asbesto Crocidolita/toxicidade , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Mesotelioma/induzido quimicamente , Adenosina , Imunossupressores , Células Germinativas
18.
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 56(2): 273-278, 2024 Apr 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38595244

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the rates of low disease activity and clinical remission in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in a real-world setting, and to analyze the related factors of low disease activity and clinical remission. METHODS: One thousand patients with SLE were enrolled from 11 teaching hospitals. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data, as well as treatment regimes were collec-ted by self-completed questionnaire. The rates of low disease activity and remission were calculated based on the lupus low disease activity state (LLDAS) and definitions of remission in SLE (DORIS). Charac-teristics of patients with LLDAS and DORIS were analyzed. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the related factors of LLDAS and DORIS remission. RESULTS: 20.7% of patients met the criteria of LLDAS, while 10.4% of patients achieved remission defined by DORIS. Patients who met LLDAS or DORIS remission had significantly higher proportion of patients with high income and longer disease duration, compared with non-remission group. Moreover, the rates of anemia, creatinine elevation, increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and hypoalbuminemia was significantly lower in the LLDAS or DORIS group than in the non-remission group. Patients who received hydroxychloroquine for more than 12 months or immunosuppressant therapy for no less than 6 months earned higher rates of LLDAS and DORIS remission. The results of Logistic regression analysis showed that increased ESR, positive anti-dsDNA antibodies, low level of complement (C3 and C4), proteinuria, low household income were negatively related with LLDAS and DORIS remission. However, hydroxychloroquine usage for longer than 12 months were positively related with LLDAS and DORIS remission. CONCLUSION: LLDAS and DORIS remission of SLE patients remain to be improved. Treatment-to-target strategy and standar-dized application of hydroxychloroquine and immunosuppressants in SLE are recommended.


Assuntos
Hidroxicloroquina , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
19.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8375, 2024 04 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38600248

RESUMO

Exhausted CD8+ T lymphocytes and tumor-associated macrophages play critical roles in determining cancer prognosis and the efficacy of immunotherapy. Our study revealed a negative correlation between exhausted CD8+ T lymphocytes and prognosis in thyroid carcinoma (THCA). Consensus clustering divided patients into two subgroups of exhaustion with different prognoses, as defined by marker genes of exhausted CD8+ T cells. Subsequently, we constructed an eight-gene prognostic signature, and developed a risk score named the exhaustion-related gene score (ERGS) to forecast both prognosis and immunotherapy response in THCA. Bulk RNA sequencing analysis revealed a higher prevalence of M2 macrophages, indicative of an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME), in the high-ERGS group. Single-cell RNA sequencing showed that SPP1+ macrophages and CD14+ monocytes infiltrations were positively associated with higher ERGS. Functionally, it was determined that SPP1+ macrophages exert an immunosuppressive role, while CD14+ monocytes were implicated in promoting tumor progression and angiogenesis. Analysis of cell-cell interactions between SPP1+ macrophages and T cells highlighted the activation of the SPP1-CD44 and MIF-CD74 axes, both of which could foster an immunosuppressive TME. Therapeutic strategies that target SPP1+ macrophages, CD14+ monocytes, and the SPP1-CD44 and MIF-CD74 axes may potentially improve the prognosis and amplify the immunotherapy response in THCA patients.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide , Humanos , Exaustão das Células T , Prognóstico , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/genética , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/terapia , Imunoterapia , Imunossupressores , RNA , Microambiente Tumoral/genética
20.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1386382, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38585270

RESUMO

Xenotransplantation is emerging as a vital solution to the critical shortage of organs available for transplantation, significantly propelled by advancements in genetic engineering and the development of sophisticated immunosuppressive treatments. Specifically, the transplantation of kidneys from genetically engineered pigs into human patients has made significant progress, offering a potential clinical solution to the shortage of human kidney supply. Recent trials involving the transplantation of these modified porcine kidneys into deceased human bodies have underscored the practicality of this approach, advancing the field towards potential clinical applications. However, numerous challenges remain, especially in the domains of identifying suitable donor-recipient matches and formulating effective immunosuppressive protocols crucial for transplant success. Critical to advancing xenotransplantation into clinical settings are the nuanced considerations of anesthesia and surgical practices required for these complex procedures. The precise genetic modification of porcine kidneys marks a significant leap in addressing the biological and immunological hurdles that have traditionally challenged xenotransplantation. Yet, the success of these transplants hinges on the process of meticulously matching these organs with human recipients, which demands thorough understanding of immunological compatibility, the risk of organ rejection, and the prevention of zoonotic disease transmission. In parallel, the development and optimization of immunosuppressive protocols are imperative to mitigate rejection risks while minimizing side effects, necessitating innovative approaches in both pharmacology and clinical practices. Furthermore, the post-operative care of recipients, encompassing vigilant monitoring for signs of organ rejection, infectious disease surveillance, and psychological support, is crucial for ensuring post-transplant life quality. This comprehensive care highlights the importance of a multidisciplinary approach involving transplant surgeons, anesthesiologists, immunologists, infectiologists and psychiatrists. The integration of anesthesia and surgical expertise is particularly vital, ensuring the best possible outcomes of those patients undergoing these novel transplants, through safe procedural practices. As xenotransplantation moving closer to clinical reality, establishing consensus guidelines on various aspects, including donor-recipient selection, immunosuppression, as well as surgical and anesthetic management of these transplants, is essential. Addressing these challenges through rigorous research and collective collaboration will be the key, not only to navigate the ethical, medical, and logistical complexities of introducing kidney xenotransplantation into mainstream clinical practice, but also itself marks a new era in organ transplantation.


Assuntos
Anestesia , Transplante de Órgãos , Animais , Humanos , Suínos , Transplante Heterólogo/efeitos adversos , Zoonoses , Rim , Imunossupressores
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