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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1287: 201-222, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034034

RESUMO

Notch is a key evolutionary conserved pathway, which has fascinated and engaged the work of investigators in an uncountable number of biological fields, from development of metazoans to immunotherapy for cancer. The study of Notch has greatly contributed to the understanding of cancer biology and a substantial effort has been spent in designing Notch-targeting therapies. Due to its broad involvement in cancer, targeting Notch would allow to virtually modulate any aspect of the disease. However, this means that Notch-based therapies must be highly specific to avoid off-target effects. This review will present the newest mechanistic and therapeutic advances in the Notch field and discuss the promises and challenges of this constantly evolving field.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Neoplasias/terapia , Receptores Notch/antagonistas & inibidores , Humanos , Neoplasias/imunologia , Fenótipo , Receptores Notch/metabolismo
2.
Urol Clin North Am ; 47(4): 413-417, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008492

RESUMO

In recent years, immunotherapy has been the focus of great interest to researchers, clinicians, and the general public. Traditionally cancer therapy has been thought to be limited to surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy. Some clinicians have considered it the so-called fifth pillar of cancer therapy, following surgery, cytotoxic chemotherapy, radiation, and targeted therapy. However, the origins of immunotherapy in cancer treatment reach back at least into the nineteenth century. This article reviews the origins, development, and future of immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Urológicas/imunologia , Neoplasias Urológicas/terapia , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Imunoterapia/história , Estados Unidos , Neoplasias Urológicas/patologia
3.
Urol Clin North Am ; 47(4): 419-431, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008493

RESUMO

The management of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has evolved rapidly in recent years with several immunotherapy-based combinations of strategies approved as first-line therapies. Targeted strategies, including systemic antiangiogenesis agents and immune checkpoint blockade, form the basis of a therapeutic approach. With rising rates of recurrence after first-line treatment, it is increasingly important to not only adopt a personalized treatment plan with minimal adverse events but also develop predictive biomarkers for response. This review discusses currently available first-line and second-line therapies in RCC and their pivotal data, with specific focus on ongoing clinical trials in the adjuvant setting, including those involving novel agents.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/cirurgia , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Terapia Combinada , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Nefrectomia/métodos , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
4.
Urol Clin North Am ; 47(4): 433-442, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008494

RESUMO

Natural killer (NK) cells are potently cytolytic innate lymphocytes involved in the immune surveillance of tumors and virally infected cells. Although much progress has been made in manipulating the ability of T cells to recognize and eliminate tumors, a comprehensive understanding of NK-cell infiltration into solid tumors, and their amenability to immunomodulation, remains incomplete. This article discusses recent studies showing that urologic tumors are infiltrated by NK cells and that these NK cells are often dysfunctional, but that strategies interfering with inhibitory axes have significant potential to alleviate this dysfunction.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia/métodos , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Neoplasias Urogenitais/terapia , Terapia Biológica/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Neoplasias Renais/imunologia , Neoplasias Renais/terapia , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/imunologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Medição de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/imunologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/terapia , Neoplasias Urogenitais/imunologia
5.
Urol Clin North Am ; 47(4): 443-456, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008495

RESUMO

Cancer vaccines, cytokines, and checkpoint inhibitors are immunotherapeutic agents that act within the cancer immunity cycle. Prostate cancer has provided unique opportunities for, and challenges to, immunotherapy drug development, including low tumor mutational burdens, limited expression of PD-L1, and minimal T-cell intratumoral infiltrates. Nevertheless, efforts are ongoing to help prime prostate tumors by turning a "cold" prostate cancer "hot" and thus rendering them more susceptible to immunotherapy. Combination treatments, use of molecular biomarkers, and use of new immunotherapeutic agents provide opportunities to enhance the immune response to prostate tumors.


Assuntos
Vacinas Anticâncer/uso terapêutico , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Medição de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Urol Clin North Am ; 47(4): 457-467, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008496

RESUMO

Biochemically recurrent prostate cancer represents a stage of prostate cancer where conventional (continued on next page) computed tomography and technetium Tc 99m bone scan imaging are unable to detect disease after curative intervention despite rising prostate-specific antigen. There is no clear standard of care and no systemic therapy has been shown to improve survival. Immunotherapy-based treatments potentially are attractive options relative to androgen deprivation therapy due to the generally more favorable side-effect profile. Biochemically recurrent prostate cancer patients have a low tumor burden and likely lymph node-based disease, which may make them more likely to respond to immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia/métodos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/terapia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Idoso , Terapia Combinada , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico por imagem , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Seleção de Pacientes , Prognóstico , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Medição de Risco , Papel (figurativo) , Análise de Sobrevida , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Urol Clin North Am ; 47(4): 469-474, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008497

RESUMO

Multiple immunologic platforms have provided minimal impact in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, necessitating that novel approaches continue to be developed. Although checkpoint inhibitors have been largely ineffective, there remain small cohorts of patients who have durable responses but lack the conventional indicators for response to this class of drugs, that is, high mutational burden or significant genomic alterations, as seen in other solid tumors. This article presents an update on the evolution of immunotherapeutics that target a more lethal form of prostate cancer and provides the groundwork for future considerations as to how this field should proceed.


Assuntos
Quinases Ciclina-Dependentes/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/terapia , Idoso , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Vacinas Anticâncer/administração & dosagem , Quinases Ciclina-Dependentes/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Fenótipo , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Prognóstico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Urol Clin North Am ; 47(4): 475-485, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008498

RESUMO

Cancer is a highly complex and heterogeneous disease and immunotherapy has shown promise as a therapeutic approach. The increased resolution afforded by single-cell analysis offers the hope of finding and characterizing previously underappreciated populations of cells that could prove useful in understanding cancer progression and treatment. Urologic and prostate cancers are inherently heterogeneous diseases, and the potential for single-cell analysis to help understand and develop immunotherapeutic approaches to treat these diseases is very exciting. In this review, we view cancer immunotherapy through a single-cell lens and discuss the state-of-the-art technologies that enable advances in this field.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia/métodos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Masculino , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/tendências , Prognóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Medição de Risco , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Análise de Célula Única , Resultado do Tratamento , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Neoplasias Urológicas/genética , Neoplasias Urológicas/patologia , Neoplasias Urológicas/terapia
9.
Urol Clin North Am ; 47(4): 487-510, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008499

RESUMO

The advent of immunotherapy has revolutionized cancer treatment. Prostate cancer has an immunosuppressive microenvironment and a low tumor mutation burden, resulting in low neoantigen expression. The consensus was that immunotherapy would be less effective in prostate cancer. However, recent studies have reported that prostate cancer does have a high number of DNA damage and repair gene defects. Immunotherapies that have been tested in prostate cancer so far have been mainly vaccines and checkpoint inhibitors. A combination of genomically targeted therapies, with approaches to alleviate immune response and thereby make the tumor microenvironment immunologically hot, is promising.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Anticâncer/administração & dosagem , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Animais , Antígenos de Neoplasias/efeitos dos fármacos , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Previsões , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Metástase Neoplásica/genética , Metástase Neoplásica/imunologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Resultado do Tratamento , Microambiente Tumoral/genética
10.
Urol Clin North Am ; 47(4): 511-521, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008500

RESUMO

The age of immuno-oncology has ushered in a rush within the biopharmaceutical industry. This intense focus has been characterized as a frenzy or overhyped, but represents a substantial investment in new products that hope to harness the immune system against cancer. Such agents include next-generation checkpoint antagonists, immune costimulatory agonists, and a diverse array of novel mechanisms of action and therapeutic modalities targeting immune cell types and the interplay of the host and tumor at the immune synapse. This article surveys the clinical development and investment activity with Immuno-Oncology, specifically prostate, kidney, and bladder cancers.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Biotecnologia/tendências , Imunoterapia/métodos , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Urogenitais/imunologia , Neoplasias Urogenitais/terapia , Biotecnologia/métodos , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Neoplasias Urogenitais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Urogenitais/patologia
11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040502

RESUMO

Objective:To observe the secondary prevention efficacy of subcutaneous immunotherapy in children with allergic rhinitis(AR) and cough variant asthma(CVA) and to analyze its effect on the levels of serum sIgG4, IL-27 and IL-33. Method:The clinical data of 112 children aged 5-12 years with AR and CVA were retrospectively analyzed and divided into control group(52 cases) and SCIT group(60 cases). The patients were followed up for 3 years. The control group was received symptomatic treatment only, and the SCIT group was received SCIT on the basis of the control group. The numbers of cases of the two groups of children who produced new allergens and developed CA were analyze during the 3-year treatment. Changes in serum sIgG4, IL-27, IL-33 levels, TNSS, DCSS, NCSS, TRMS, TCMS, VAS score, and FEV1% before and after treatment were analyzed. Result:During the treatment, 4 patients(6.67%) in the SCIT group produced the new allergen, and 20 patients(38.46%) in the control group(χ²=16.73, P<0.05). There were only 3 cases(5.00%) in the SCIT group, which developed into CA, while 15 cases(28.85%) in the control group. The difference between the groups was statistically significant(χ²=11.74, P<0.05). Compared with baseline, serum levels of sIgG4 and IL-27 in both groups were significantly increased after 3 years of treatment(P<0.05), while serum levels of IL-33 were significantly decreased(P<0.05). After 3 years of treatment, serum levels of sIgG4 and IL-27 in the SCIT group were significantly higher than those in the control group, and serum levels of IL-33 were significantly lower than those in the control group(P<0.05). Compared with baseline, TNSS, DCSS, NCSS, TRMS, TCMS, VAS, and FEV1% in both groups were significantly improved at 1, 2, and 3 years of treatment(P<0.05). There was no significant difference in TNSS, DCSS, NCSS, TRMS, TCMS, VAS and FEV1% between the two groups at baseline(P>0.05), while after 1, 2 and 3 years of treatment the above indicators in the SCIT group were significantly better than those in the control group(P<0.05). Conclusion:SCIT treatment can prevent AR with CVA patients from producing new allergens and developing into CA, and improve serum sIgG4 and IL-27 and IL-33 levels.


Assuntos
Asma , Interleucina-27 , Rinite Alérgica , Asma/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Tosse , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Injeções Subcutâneas , Interleucina-33 , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rinite Alérgica/terapia , Prevenção Secundária
12.
Rev Prat ; 70(5): 471-474, 2020 May.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058629

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors for treatment of advanced stage melanoma. Immunotherapy, which stimulates the anti-tumor immune response, has significantly modified the prognosis of advanced stage melanoma. Anti-CTLA4 monoclonal antibody, ipilimumab, showed a benefit on survival compared to chemotherapy in 2011. Anti-PD1, nivolumab and pembrolizumab subsequently showed superior clinical benefit including overall survival and tolerance over anti-CTLA4. Currently, the combination of ipilimumab and nivolumab appears as the most effective immunotherapy but the toxicity of this regimen is a limitation. Anti-PD1 antibodies have also been evaluated in the adjuvant setting for patients with stage III or IV resected melanoma where they have shown a significant benefit in term of relapse-free-survival. Studies are underway to evaluate these drugs in stage II resected melanoma and in neo-adjuvant setting with promising results.


Assuntos
Melanoma , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Ipilimumab/uso terapêutico , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4909, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999291

RESUMO

Effectively activating macrophages against cancer is promising but challenging. In particular, cancer cells express CD47, a 'don't eat me' signal that interacts with signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα) on macrophages to prevent phagocytosis. Also, cancer cells secrete stimulating factors, which polarize tumor-associated macrophages from an antitumor M1 phenotype to a tumorigenic M2 phenotype. Here, we report that hybrid cell membrane nanovesicles (known as hNVs) displaying SIRPα variants with significantly increased affinity to CD47 and containing M2-to-M1 repolarization signals can disable both mechanisms. The hNVs block CD47-SIRPα signaling axis while promoting M2-to-M1 repolarization within tumor microenvironment, significantly preventing both local recurrence and distant metastasis in malignant melanoma models. Furthermore, by loading a stimulator of interferon genes (STING) agonist, hNVs lead to potent tumor inhibition in a poorly immunogenic triple negative breast cancer model. hNVs are safe, stable, drug loadable, and suitable for genetic editing. These properties, combined with the capabilities inherited from source cells, make hNVs an attractive immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Micropartículas Derivadas de Células/imunologia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Melanoma/terapia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/terapia , Animais , Antígeno CD47/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/transplante , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Ativação de Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Melanoma/imunologia , Melanoma/secundário , Proteínas de Membrana/agonistas , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Camundongos , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/imunologia , Nucleotídeos Cíclicos/administração & dosagem , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/imunologia , Evasão Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Evasão Tumoral/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
14.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(10): e463-e476, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002442

RESUMO

Immunotherapy represents a paradigm shift in oncology treatment. The goal of immunotherapy is to overcome immunosuppression induced by a tumour and its microenvironment, thereby allowing the immune system to target and kill cancer cells. The immunotherapy era began when the first immune checkpoint inhibitor, ipilimumab, was approved for use almost a decade ago. This therapeutic approach is associated with distinct types of response, including processes such as pseudoprogression (ie, increased tumour burden via radiology, which is not accompanied by clinical deterioration) and hyperprogression (ie, rapid progression of the disease as a result of immunotherapy). In this Review, we focus on therapeutic approaches for patients who progress on immunotherapy. We review the different types of clinical responses associated with immunotherapy and describe treatment options for this population.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/terapia , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias/terapia , Algoritmos , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Progressão da Doença , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/imunologia , Humanos , Critérios de Avaliação de Resposta em Tumores Sólidos , Terapia de Salvação
15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4946, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009409

RESUMO

Immune-related adverse events (irAEs), caused by anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies, can lead to fulminant and even fatal consequences and thus require early detection and aggressive management. However, a comprehensive approach to identify biomarkers of irAE is lacking. Here, we utilize a strategy that combines pharmacovigilance data and omics data, and evaluate associations between multi-omics factors and irAE reporting odds ratio across different cancer types. We identify a bivariate regression model of LCP1 and ADPGK that can accurately predict irAE. We further validate LCP1 and ADPGK as biomarkers in an independent patient-level cohort. Our approach provides a method for identifying potential biomarkers of irAE in cancer immunotherapy using both pharmacovigilance data and multi-omics data.


Assuntos
Genômica , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Fatorial , Humanos , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
16.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-47849

RESUMO

Pesquisadora do Instituto tem escolhido trabalho que aperfeiçoa imunoterapia contra melanoma na mucosa, tipo de câncer raro e grave


Assuntos
Imunoterapia , Melanoma , Pesquisa Médica Translacional
17.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 154: 103070, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871325

RESUMO

Cancer is a heterogeneous disease, occurs due to transcriptional changes in genetic and epigenetic including numerous genes and proteins. Worldwide, breast cancer (BC) is the life-threatening malignancies in women, is characterized by the occurrence of more than one molecular alteration. The incidence and mortality of BC are growing every day because of the adoption of western living standards, metropolitanization, and more life expectancy. Even though many modern approaches are available for the detection and treatment of BC, despite of these, it remains the topmost cause of death in women. This review highlights various approaches, including the importance of clinical, pathological, and molecular aspects of BC. Moreover, risk factors, biomarkers, immunotherapy, investigational drugs, and their role through tumor targets and immune systems have been discussed for management of BC. Furthermore, various targeting approaches for tumors through nanocarriers and their clinical trials have been elaborated in BC challenges and future perspectives.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Drogas em Investigação , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia
18.
BMJ ; 370: m3176, 2020 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958461

RESUMO

Despite considerable advances in treatment approaches in the past two decades, multiple myeloma remains an incurable disease. Treatments for myeloma continue to evolve with many emerging immunotherapies. The first immunotherapy used to treat hematologic cancers, including multiple myeloma, was an allogeneic stem cell transplant. In the mid-2000s, immunomodulatory drugs thalidomide, lenalidomide, and subsequently pomalidomide were proven to be effective in multiple myeloma and substantially improved survival. The next wave of immunotherapies for multiple myeloma included the monoclonal antibodies daratumumab and elotuzumab, which were approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2015. Subsequently, a variety of immunotherapies have been developed for multiple myeloma, including chimeric antigen receptor T cells, bispecific antibodies, antibody drug conjugates, and checkpoint inhibitors. Many of these emerging treatments target the B cell maturation antigen, which is expressed on plasma cells, although several other novel receptors are also being studied. This review summarizes the evidence of these various immunotherapies, their mechanism of action, and data from clinical trials regarding the treatments' safety and efficacy.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia , Mieloma Múltiplo/terapia , Drogas em Investigação/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Células-Tronco
19.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(17): 9208-9215, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965016

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In December 2019, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection broke out in Wuhan, China. However, we still lack a comprehensive understanding of this emerging virus. In this manuscript, we collected relevant articles and reviewed the characteristics about SARS-CoV-2. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed an online search on PubMed and Web of Science with the keywords COVID-19, 2019-nCoV and SARS-CoV-2, and summarized the epidemiology, virology, clinical features and treatments of SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: We retrieved 157 published papers about SARS-CoV-2 from January, 2020 to April, 2020. We found that SARS-CoV-2 was a kind of virus with low mortality rate and high infectivity. This virus can enter human cells through angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in alveoli and activate immune response in human body. SARS-CoV-2 infection can be classified as asymptomatic, mild, common, severe, and critical. We summarized antiviral drugs against SARS-CoV-2, such as remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine and favipiravir. Because the vaccine of SARS-CoV-2 is developing, more clinical studies are needed to verify the safety and efficacy of these treatments. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus that has caused a global pandemic. We should pay more attention to prevent SARS-CoV-2 and try to control it sooner.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunização Passiva , Imunoterapia , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
20.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(9): e419-e430, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888471

RESUMO

Notable advances have been achieved in the treatment of cancer since the advent of immunotherapy, and immune checkpoint inhibitors have shown clinical benefit across a wide variety of tumour types. Nevertheless, most patients still progress on these treatments, highlighting the importance of unravelling the underlying mechanisms of primary resistance to immunotherapy. A well described biomarker of non-responsiveness to immune checkpoint inhibitors is the absence or low presence of lymphocytes in the tumour microenvironment, so-called cold tumours. There are five mechanisms of action that have the potential to turn cold tumours into so-called hot and inflamed tumours, hence increasing the tumour's responsiveness to immunotherapy-increasing local inflammation, neutralising immunosuppression at the tumour site, modifying the tumour vasculature, targeting the tumour cells themselves, or increasing the frequency of tumour-specific T cells. In this Review, we discuss preclinical data that serves as the basis for ongoing immunotherapy clinical trials for the treatment of non-immunoreactive tumours, as well as reviewing clinical and translational data where available. We explain how improving our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of primary resistance to immunotherapy will help elucidate an increasingly granular view of the tumour microenvironment cellular composition, functional status, and cellular localisation, with the goal of further therapy refinement.


Assuntos
Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/imunologia , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Inflamação/terapia , Neoplasias/terapia , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/imunologia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Quinase 1 do Ponto de Checagem/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinase 1 do Ponto de Checagem/imunologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Imunidade Celular/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/imunologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
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