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1.
Waste Manag ; 118: 600-609, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010691

RESUMO

Food loss and waste are serious threats to the sustainability of our food systems. Innovative and multi-faced solutions are continuously being proposed, tested and implemented by researchers, government authorities, non-government bodies and food industries to tackle this problem of food waste. Insect-based bioconversions have been reported as a marketable solution for reducing food waste. This rather novel approach can efficiently convert several tonnes of food waste into valuable products including human food, animal feed, fertiliser and other secondary industrial compounds. This paper couples the production of edible insects with the valorisation of food waste, providing an attractive key for closing the loop of food value chain. Current status of insect processing and their importance in circular economy is also discussed in detail.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Ração Animal , Animais , Insetos Comestíveis , Indústria Alimentícia , Humanos , Insetos
2.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238469, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877469

RESUMO

The spatial arrangement and pore size distribution play an important role in accumulation and protection of exogenous organic matter (EOM) in the soil, but how different organic materials contribute to modify pore structure is poorly understood. We aimed at exploring possible changes in the complexity of the soil phase during fertilization with different doses of digestate and sludges sourced from the agro-food industry. For this purpose, the short-term effects-one year, of soil fertilization, were investigated in several sampling periods and within two depths (0-25 cm and 25-40 cm). Changes in the specific surface area (SSA), total pore volume (VMIP), total pore area (SMIP), average pore radius (RMIP) and pore size distribution (PSD) were monitored using N2 adsorption/desorption (NAD) and mercury porosimetry (MIP) methods. Our results showed that the intensity of observed changes depended on the type and dose of organic material, soil depth and sampling date. Accumulation of EOM increased with soil depth, masking a large proportion of SSA. Deeper soil layer was more susceptible to changes in the pore size distributions due to the formation of new elongated pores. We concluded that this specific structural porosity was related to the decomposition of organic matter during the formation of soil aggregates.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Fertilizantes/análise , Solo/química , Adsorção , Indústria Alimentícia , Mercúrio/química , Nitrogênio/química , Porosidade , Esgotos/química
4.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2020-08-21. (OPS/NMH/RF/20-0034).
em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52592

RESUMO

La OPS convocó el taller con el fin de discutir los análisis previos a la regulación que pueden apoyar y ayudar a guiar el proceso para elaborar una política de eliminación de los ácidos grasos trans de producción industrial (AGT-PI). Los objetivos específicos del taller incluyeron determinar la necesidad de realizar un análisis previo a la regulación capaz de apoyar y orientar las políticas de eliminación de los AGT-PI; debatir posibles modelos para el análisis anterior a la regulación relacionados con las políticas de eliminación de los AGT-PI u otras políticas similares de regulación de los alimentos; y definir los elementos esenciales, así como las brechas de información sobre la preparación de análisis previos a la regulación. Participaron en el taller funcionarios gubernamentales de Argentina, Brasil, Costa Rica, Guyana, Jamaica, México y Paraguay encargados de la regulación de los alimentos, la preparación de análisis de impacto regulatorio y políticas de nutrición. Además, también asistieron a la reunión representantes de la fundación Anaas, la Organización Regional de CARICOM para Normas y Calidad (CROSQ), la Global Health Advocacy Incubator (GHAI), la Alianza de las ENT, Resolve to Save Lives (RTSL, una iniciativa de Vital Strategies) y Salud Justa-México.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Indústria de Óleos e Graxas , Indústria Alimentícia , Doença Crônica
7.
Public Health ; 185: 212-217, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653631

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore sports organisation members' attitudes to sponsorship of sport by energy-dense, nutrient-poor food and drink ('junk food') brands. STUDY DESIGN: The study design is a cross-sectional study. METHODS: An online survey of adult members of three sports organisations that did not accept junk food sponsorship in Victoria, Australia in 2018: one was responsible for an elite team in a national competition (5000-10,000 members); one managed a team sport competition across Victoria (50,000-100,000 registered junior and adult participants, referees and coaches); and one administered a junior team sport competition for boys and girls in a major city (10,000-15,000 participants). RESULTS: Most (71%) of the 2224 respondents reported it was important/very important that their organisation did not accept junk food sponsorship. A higher proportion was concerned/very concerned about junk food companies sponsoring children's sport (60%) compared with such companies sponsoring elite (49%, P < 0.001) or community adult (39%, P < 0.001) sport. A higher proportion of respondents were likely/very likely to support a policy that restricted junk food sponsorship of children's sport (84%), compared with a policy restricting sponsorship of elite (76%, P > 0.001) and adult community (74%, P > 0.001) sport. Two-thirds of respondents supported restricting junk food companies from sponsoring sport, even if fees for children's (66%) and community adult (65%) sport increased, or if membership and attendance costs for elite sport supporters increased (63%). CONCLUSIONS: In the Australian context of this study, junk food sponsorship of sport, particularly children's sport, is a concern to members of sports organisations. Although still high, support for restricting such sponsorship declines if members perceive it will lead to increases in participation costs and decreases in participation opportunities. Initiatives restricting junk food sponsorship of sport are likely to receive strong support from the sports community, particularly when the focus is on children's sport, and participation costs and opportunities are not negatively impacted.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Indústria Alimentícia , Organizações , Esportes/economia , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Fast Foods , Feminino , Apoio Financeiro , Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Afiliação Institucional , Políticas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vitória
8.
Microb Biotechnol ; 13(6): 1689-1701, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32700430

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic is not only a challenge for public health and hospitals, but affects many aspects of our societies. This Lilliput minireview deals with problems that the pandemic causes for the food industry, addressing the presence and persistence of SARS-CoV-2 in the food environment, methods of virus inactivation and the protection of the food worker and the consumer. So far food has not been implicated in the transmission of the infection, but social disruptions caused by the pandemic could cause problems with food security.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Indústria Alimentícia , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Animais , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fezes/virologia , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Esgotos/virologia , Microbiologia da Água
9.
Math Biosci ; 328: 108434, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730811

RESUMO

The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused several million confirmed cases worldwide. The necessity of keeping open and accessible public commercial establishments such as supermarkets or pharmacies increases during the pandemic provided that distancing rules and crowd control are satisfied. Herein, using agent-based models, we explore the potential spread of the novel SARS-CoV-2 considering the case of a small size supermarket. For diverse distancing rules and number of simultaneous users (customers), we question flexible and limited movement policies, guiding the flow and interactions of users in place. Results indicate that a guided, limited in movement and well-organized policy combined with a distance rule of at least 1 m and a small number of users may aid in the mitigation of potential new contagions in more than 90% compared to the usual policy of flexible movement with more users which may reach up to 64% of mitigation of potential new infections under the same distancing conditions. This study may guide novel strategies for the mitigation of the current COVID-19 pandemic, at any stage, and prevention of future outbreaks of SARS-CoV-2 or related viruses.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Comércio , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Análise de Sistemas , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Indústria Alimentícia , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Desinfecção das Mãos , Humanos , Máscaras , Conceitos Matemáticos , Modelos Biológicos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Farmácias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle
12.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234538, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525950

RESUMO

Developing new food products is a complex process. Even if a company performs new product development activities successfully, it is still uncertain if consumers will adopt the product. The Bass diffusion model has often been used to study product adoption. However, existing modifications of the Bass diffusion model do not capture the complexity of consumer food choice and they have limitations in situations where there is no sales data. To avoid these challenges, the system dynamics approach can be employed. This paper aimed at extending the existing system dynamics Bass diffusion model to investigate the dynamic adoption process of insect-based food from a consumer research perspective. We performed a structured review of the literature on edible insects to build the model. The model was used to study adoption of the product amongst consumers in the Netherlands. Simulations revealed that diffusion of a radical innovation, such as an insect-based burger, can proceed for many years before there are observable adopters in the total population, under the currently reported practices in the Netherlands. Expanding awareness of this innovation requires many decades, which can be quickened by developing strategies aimed at increasing word-of-mouth. Nevertheless, the low likelihood to adopt such food remains a challenge towards full adoption, even when the sensory quality of products is improved. To fully explore how to improve the diffusion outcome of edible insects, more knowledge on mechanisms related to positive and negative word-of-mouth, and adoption of insect-based burgers by people who initially reject them, is needed. Our study demonstrated that system dynamics models could have potential in designing new food product strategies in companies, as they facilitate decision-making and uncover knowledge gaps.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Difusão de Inovações , Insetos Comestíveis , Indústria Alimentícia , Modelos Teóricos , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Países Baixos , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 3887-3901, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581536

RESUMO

pH-sensitive hydrogels have been developed greatly over the past few years. This has been possible due to the synthesis of new hydrogel systems with increased sensitivity - a sensitivity of up to 10-5 pH units has already been established. Recently, pH-sensitive hydrogels have shown to be very useful in biomedical applications, such as targeted cancer treatment and treatment of skin lesions. Prolonged drug release has been made available through the use of such hydrogels. The synthesis of pH-sensitive hydrogels is also quick and cost-effective. This review presents a background on the properties of pH-sensitive hydrogels and discusses some of the hydrogels with different sensitivity ranges and their possible applications. A range of synthesis processes have also been briefly introduced along with the fabrication of different structures such as microcantilevers and contact lenses.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Hidrogéis/química , Animais , Bandagens , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Indústria Alimentícia , Humanos , Hidrogéis/uso terapêutico , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365478

RESUMO

(1) Background: Nutrient-poor, energy-dense food and beverage (F&B) advertisements influence children's food preferences, consumption, and purchase requests, contributing to overweight and obesity. Objective: To characterize the nutritional quality of F&B advertised by product placement (PP) in Mexican television programs with the highest audience ratings for children. (2) Methods: A total of 48 h of television programs between December 2016 and January 2017 during the hours with the highest ratings for children were analyzed. Nutritional quality was assessed through the Mexican Ministry of Health (MMH-NPM), the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe (WHO-Europe), and the Pan American Health Organization nutrient profile models (PAHO-NPM). (3) Results: A total of 119 F&B were broadcast, of which more than 60% were unhealthy according to the three nutritional models. Reality shows and movies presented the most PP advertising. The food category most frequently advertised was sugar-sweetened beverages (41.2%). F&B advertised in children's programs had a higher content of energy, total fat, and saturated fat (p < 0.01). (4) Conclusion: The MMH-NPM was the most permissive and the PAHO-NPM was the strictest for evaluating nutritional quality. Mexico must strengthen the regulation of advertising to protect children from its negative effects on health.


Assuntos
Publicidade , Bebidas , Alimentos , Valor Nutritivo , Criança , Europa (Continente) , Indústria Alimentícia , Humanos , México , Televisão
19.
Am J Public Health ; 110(7): 1054-1059, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437274

RESUMO

Objectives. To study changes in food advertising on television after Chile's food marketing restriction was implemented in June 2016.Methods. Food advertisements shown between 6 am and 12 am on the 4 primary broadcast and 4 cable channels with the largest Chilean youth audiences during 2 random weeks in April and May 2016 and 2017 were analyzed for product nutrition and child-directed marketing.Results. The percentage of ads for foods high in energy, saturated fats, sugars, or sodium (HEFSS) decreased from 41.9% before the regulation to 14.8% after the regulation (P < .001). This decrease occurred in programs intended for children (from 49.7% to 12.7%; P < .001) as well as general audiences (from 38.5% to 15.7%; P < .001). The largest declines were seen for sodas, desserts, breakfast cereals and industrialized fruit- and vegetable-flavored drinks. Fewer HEFSS ads featured child-directed content (a decrease from 44.0% to 12.0%; P < .001), and the remaining child-directed HEFSS ads primarily aired on internationally owned cable channels.Conclusions. The significant postregulation decrease in the prevalence of HEFSS television ads suggests that children in Chile are now less exposed to unhealthy food advertising. However, television originating from national and international outlets should still be monitored for compliance.


Assuntos
Publicidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Alimentos , Valor Nutritivo , Televisão/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Publicidade/legislação & jurisprudência , Bebidas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Chile , Indústria Alimentícia/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Marketing/legislação & jurisprudência , Marketing/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
N Z Med J ; 133(1515): 89-96, 2020 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438380

RESUMO

Adolescence marks a developmental period with heightened vulnerability to alcohol use and its consequences. In this viewpoint paper, we examine the involvement of the alcohol industry in alcohol and other drug (AoD) education from both an alcohol harm reduction and a school-based health education perspective, using the example of the Smashed programme to illustrate our critique. We issue caution to schools that are invited to participate.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Indústria Alimentícia , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Etanol , Redução do Dano , Humanos , Nova Zelândia , Instituições Acadêmicas
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