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1.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444900

RESUMO

Sustainable food systems are often defined by greenhouse gases, land use, effects on biodiversity, and water use. However, this approach does not recognize the reason food is produced-the provision of nutrients. Recently, the relationship between diets and sustainability has been recognized. Most accepted models of 'sustainable diets' focus on four domains: public health, the environment, food affordability, and cultural relevance. Aligned with the FAO's perspective, truly sustainable diets comprise foods that are affordable, nutritious, developed with ingredients produced in an environmentally friendly manner, and consumer preferred. Identifying solutions to address all four domains simultaneously remains a challenge. Furthermore, the recent pandemic exposed the fragility of the food supply when food accessibility and affordability became primary concerns. There have been increasing calls for more nutrient-dense and sustainable foods, but scant recognition of the consumer's role in adopting and integrating these foods into their diet. Dietary recommendations promoting sustainable themes often overlook how and why people eat what they do. Taste, cost, and health motivate consumer food purchase and the food system must address those considerations. Sustainable foods are perceived to be expensive, thus marginalizing acceptance by the people, which is needed for broad adoption into diets for impactful change. Transformational change is needed in food systems and supply chains to address the complex issues related to sustainability, taste, and cost. An emerging movement called regenerative agriculture (a holistic, nature-based approach to farming) provides a pathway to delivering sustainable foods at an affordable cost to consumers. A broad coalition among academia, government, and the food industry can help to ensure that the food supply concurrently prioritizes sustainability and nutrient density in the framework of consumer-preferred foods. The coalition can also help to ensure sustainable diets are broadly adopted by consumers. This commentary will focus on the challenges and opportunities for the food industry and partners to deliver a sustainable supply of nutrient-dense foods while meeting consumer expectations.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/métodos , Indústria Alimentícia/métodos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/métodos , Política Nutricional , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Custos e Análise de Custo , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos
2.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444892

RESUMO

A nutrient profiling model (NPM) was developed in 2005 in the UK to regulate the marketing of foods to children. It was revised in 2018, but the new version has not been finalised. The Eatwell Guide (EWG) is the UK's official food-based dietary guidelines. The aim of this study was to evaluate the agreement between the 2005 and 2018 versions of the NPM and the EWG. Using recent National Diet and Nutrition Surveys, we estimated the healthiness of individual diets based on an EWG dietary score and a NPM dietary index. We then compared the percentage of agreement and Cohen's kappa for each combination of the EWG score and NPM index across the range of observed values for the 2005 and 2018 versions. A total of 3028 individual diets were assessed. Individuals with a higher (i.e., healthier) EWG score consumed a diet with, on average, a lower (i.e., healthier) NPM index both for the 2005 and 2018 versions. Overall, there was good agreement between the EWG score and the NPM dietary index at assessing the healthiness of representative diets of the UK population, when a low cut-off for the NPM dietary index was used, irrespective of the version. This suggests that dietary advice to the public is broadly aligned with NPM-based food policies and vice-versa.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos , Indústria Alimentícia/legislação & jurisprudência , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Marketing/legislação & jurisprudência , Política Nutricional/legislação & jurisprudência , Criança , Dieta Saudável/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Reino Unido
3.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444959

RESUMO

The rapid rise in prevalence of overweight/obesity, as well as high prevalence of type 2 diabetes and other nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases, has led the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) to propose a front-of-package labeling (FOPL) regulation. An effective FOPL system applies a nutrient profile model that identifies foods high in sugar, sodium, and saturated fat that would receive a warning label for consumers to effectively discern between more and less healthy foods. Previous Nutrition Alchemy data collected by the food industry (n = 1306 products) estimated that approximately 96% of foods in India would have at least one warning label based on the FSSAI proposed FOPL. This near universal coverage of warning labels may be inaccurate and misleading. To address this, the current study compared two nutrient profile models, the WHO South-East Asia Region Organization (SEARO) and the Chilean Warning Octagon (CWO) Phase 3, applied to food products available in the Indian market from 2015-2020, collected through Mintel Global New Products Database (n = 10,501 products). Results suggest that 68% of foods and beverages would have at least one ' high-in' level warning label. This study highlights the need to include a more comprehensive sample of food products for assessing the value of warning labels.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Indústria Alimentícia/legislação & jurisprudência , Rotulagem de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Política Nutricional/legislação & jurisprudência , Chile , Comportamento do Consumidor , Bases de Dados Factuais , Extremo Oriente , Humanos , Índia , Valor Nutritivo , Organização Mundial da Saúde
4.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445044

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The promotion of breastmilk substitutes (BMS) is an important barrier to successful breastfeeding. OBJECTIVE: To examine the enactment and implementation of the Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes (the Code) in Vietnam with a focus on marketing practices by the baby food industry and perceptions of caregivers, health workers, and policy makers. METHODS: From May to July 2020, we conducted a mixed-method, cross-sectional study including a survey of 268 pregnant women and 726 mothers of infants aged 0-11 months and in-depth interviews with a subset of interviewed women (n = 39), policy makers, media executives, and health workers (n = 31). RESULTS: In the previous 30 days, two mothers (out of 726) participating in the quantitative survey reported that health workers had recommended BMS, at private hospitals in both cases. In-depth interviews with health workers showed that hospitals have internal procedures to prevent the promotion of BMS by health workers. However, companies employed representatives to promote products not covered under the Code (e.g., commercial milk formula for pregnant women) at antenatal care visits and by gaining contact information from women and using this information to promote BMS outside the hospital, often on social media. In the 30 days preceding the survey, one-fifth of pregnant women were exposed to promotions of commercial milk formula for pregnant women and 7.1% to promotions of BMS. Among mothers of infants, 7.3% and 10.7% of respondents with infants aged 0-5 and 6-11 months, respectively, were exposed to some form of BMS promotion in the past 30 days. Around the time of birth, parents commonly brought BMS to maternity facilities (52.5%) or purchased it nearby (35.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Although Vietnam has a strong regulatory environment for the protection, promotion, and support of breastfeeding, there are implementation, monitoring, and enforcement gaps. Stronger enforcement of national policies to regulate the presence of BMS industry representatives in health facilities-both public and private-and the promotion of BMS products on digital platforms are needed.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Indústria Alimentícia/métodos , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Marketing/métodos , Substitutos do Leite/legislação & jurisprudência , Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Indústria Alimentícia/legislação & jurisprudência , Implementação de Plano de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Marketing/legislação & jurisprudência , Mães/psicologia , Política Nutricional , Percepção , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Vietnã
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(35): 10223-10234, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449216

RESUMO

Fructooligosaccharides (FOSs) are polymers of fructose with a prebiotic activity because of their production and fermentation by bacteria that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract and are widely used in the industry and new functional foods. Lactobacillus gasseri stands out as an important homofermentative microorganism related to FOS production, and its potential applications in the industry are undeniable. In this study, we report the production and characterization of a sucrose-6-phosphate hydrolase from L. gasseri belonging to the GH32 family. Apo-LgAs32 and LgAs32 complexed with ß-d-fructose structures were determined at a resolution of 1.94 and 1.84 Å, respectively. The production of FOS, fructans, 1-kestose, and nystose by the recombinant LgAs32, using sucrose as a substrate, shown in this study is very promising. When compared to its homologous enzyme from Lactobacillus reuteri, the production of 1-kestose by LgAs32 is increased; thus, LgAs32 can be considered as an alternative in fructan production and other industrial applications.


Assuntos
Hexosiltransferases , Lactobacillus gasseri , Indústria Alimentícia , Frutanos , Hexosiltransferases/genética , Oligossacarídeos , Sacarose/análogos & derivados , Fosfatos Açúcares , beta-Frutofuranosidase/genética
6.
Food Res Int ; 147: 110487, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399483

RESUMO

Terpenes are a major class of natural aromatic compounds in grapes and wines to offer the characteristic flavor and aroma, serving as important quality traits of wine products. Saccharomyces cerevisiae represents an excellent cell factory platform for large-scale bio-based terpene production. This review describes the biosynthetic pathways of terpenes in different organisms. The metabolic engineering of S. cerevisiae for promoting terpene biosynthesis and the alternative microbial engineering platforms including filamentous fungi and Escherichia coli are also elaborated. Additionally, the potential applications of the terpene products from engineered microorganisms in food and beverage industries are also discussed. This review provides comprehensive information for an innovative supply way of terpene via microbial cell factory, which could facilitate the development and application of this technique at the industrial scale.


Assuntos
Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Terpenos , Bactérias/genética , Indústria Alimentícia , Fungos/genética , Engenharia Metabólica , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360227

RESUMO

The digital marketing of commercial complementary foods (CCF) is an emerging area of concern in Australia. Although research into traditional methods has identified a range of problems, the marketing and messaging strategies employed within digital spaces have gone largely unscrutinized. This study sought to examine the methods used by CCF manufacturers to promote Australian baby foods and brands in a digital space. A multiple step approach was used to assess the CCF brands available in major Australian retailers, the social media platforms they used, and to thematically analyze the text and visual messages contained in posts published over a three-month period. Of the 15 brands identified, 12 had a digital presence, and all of these used Facebook. Four themes emerged from an analysis of 216 Facebook posts; (1) general product attributes, (2) socially desirable attributes (which included messaging related to taste (41%), self-feeding (29%) and fun (19%)), (3) concern-based attributes (including organic status (40%), age targets (39%) and additive-/allergen-free status (18%)) and (4) health-focused attributes (which included messaging related to healthy/nutritious ingredients (45%), and child development/growth (15%). Messages contained in Facebook posts were mostly positive brand/product aspects (Themes 1 and 2) or parental concern-based aspects (Theme 3 and 4). These themes match previous analyses of marketing content in traditional media and should be closely monitored due to the personalized nature of consumer social media interactions.


Assuntos
Marketing , Mídias Sociais , Austrália , Criança , Alimentos , Indústria Alimentícia , Humanos
8.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1468, 2021 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Consumer trust in food systems is essential for consumers, food industry, policy makers and regulators. Yet no comprehensive tool for measuring consumer trust in food systems exists. Similarly, the impact that trust in the food system has on health-related food behaviours is yet to be empirically examined. The aim of this research was to develop a comprehensive instrument to measure trust in the food system (the Dimensions of Trust in Food Systems Scale (DOTIFS scale) and use it to explore whether trust in the food system impacts consumers' health-related behaviours. METHODS: The DOTIFS scale was developed using sociological theories of trust and pre-existing instruments measuring aspects of trust. It was pilot tested and content validity was assessed with 85 participants. A mixed-methods exploration of the health-related behaviours of 18 conveniently sampled Australian consumers with differing trust scores determined by the DOTIFS scale was then conducted. During March-July 2019 shopping- and home-observations were used to assess participants' food safety practices and exposure to public health fortification programs, while the CSIRO Healthy Diet Score determined their adherence to national dietary guidelines. RESULTS: The DOTIFS scale was found to have high comprehension, ease of use and content validity. Statistical analysis showed scale scores significantly trended as predicted by participants' stated level of trust. Differences were found in the way individuals with more or less trust in the food system comply with national dietary guidelines, are exposed to public health fortification programs, and adhere to recommended food safety practices. CONCLUSIONS: The DOTIFS scale is a comprehensive, sociologically- and empirically- informed assessment of consumer trust in food systems that can be self-administered online to large populations and used to measure changes in consumer trust over time. The differences in health-related behaviours between individuals with varying levels of trust warrant further investigation.


Assuntos
Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Confiança , Austrália , Comportamento do Consumidor , Dieta Saudável , Indústria Alimentícia , Humanos
9.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199586

RESUMO

Natural polymer is a frequently used polymer in various food applications and pharmaceutical formulations due to its benefits and its biocompatibility compared to synthetic polymers. One of the natural polymer groups (i.e., polysaccharide) does not only function as an additive in pharmaceutical preparations, but also as an active ingredient with pharmacological effects. In addition, several natural polymers offer potential distinct applications in gene delivery and genetic engineering. However, some of these polymers have drawbacks, such as their lack of water retention and elasticity. Sacran, one of the high-molecular-weight natural polysaccharides (megamolecular polysaccharides) derived from Aphanothece sacrum (A. sacrum), has good water retention and elasticity. Historically, sacran has been used as a dietary food. Moreover, sacran can be applied in biomedical fields as an active material, excipient, and genetic engineering material. This article discusses the characteristics, extraction, isolation procedures, and the use of sacran in food and biomedical applications.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Animais , Indústria Farmacêutica , Elasticidade , Indústria Alimentícia , Humanos
10.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210093

RESUMO

The development of plant-based functional food ingredients has become a major focus of the modern food industry as a response to changes in consumer attitudes. In particular, many consumers are switching to a plant-based diet because of their concerns about animal-derived foods on the environment, human health, and animal welfare. There has therefore been great interest in identifying, isolating, and characterizing functional ingredients from botanical sources, especially waste streams from food and agricultural production. However, many of these functional ingredients cannot simply be incorporated into foods because of their poor solubility, stability, or activity characteristics. In this article, we begin by reviewing conventional and emerging methods of extracting plant-based bioactive agents from natural resources including ultrasound-, microwave-, pulsed electric field- and supercritical fluid-based methods. We then provide a brief overview of different methods to characterize these plant-derived ingredients, including conventional, chromatographic, spectroscopic, and mass spectrometry methods. Finally, we discuss the design of plant-based delivery systems to encapsulate, protect, and deliver these functional ingredients, including micelles, liposomes, emulsions, solid lipid nanoparticles, and microgels. The potential benefits of these plant-based delivery systems are highlighted by discussing their use for incorporating functional ingredients into traditional meat products. However, the same technologies could also be employed to introduce functional ingredients into plant-based meat analogs.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Indústria Alimentícia , Alimento Funcional , Produtos da Carne , Nanopartículas/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Animais , Humanos , Lipossomos
12.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199960

RESUMO

Young adults are constantly exposed to energy-dense, nutrient-poor food and beverages, particularly through advertising. Exposure can influence poor food choices and negatively impact health. This study aimed to understand young adults' attitudes and experiences associated with food-related advertisements, particularly on social media. This qualitative analysis involved n = 166 Australian 18 to 24-year-olds who were involved in a four-week online conversation on different areas relating to health, social media, and eating. Inductive thematic analysis was utilised on two forums on the recall and perceptions of food-related advertisements. Young adults commonly mentioned aspects of the marketing mix (promotion, product, price, and place) in food advertisements. Participants were more readily able to recall energy-dense, nutrient-poor food advertisements compared to healthy food-related advertisements. Digital advertisements were often discussed alongside the use of ad-blockers and algorithms which tailored their social media viewing to what they like. Participants felt constant exposure to unhealthy food advertisements hindered their ability to realise healthy eating behaviours and created feelings of guilt. This current analysis highlights the need to provide an advertising environment that appropriately motivates healthy eating and a food environment that allows healthy food to be the affordable and convenient option.


Assuntos
Publicidade , Alimentos , Mídias Sociais , Adolescente , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Feminino , Indústria Alimentícia , Humanos , Masculino , Valor Nutritivo , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adulto Jovem
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199033

RESUMO

Food safety is related to health and quality of life. Therefore, the social responsibility of the food industry to ensure food safety has received increasing attention. Influencing factors and mechanisms of participation in food safety certification are important issues in this field. Existing studies on factors affecting food safety certification mainly focus on the impact of a single or few factors. In this study, listed Chinese food companies were selected, and the fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis method was utilized to explore the matching mode of various factors to encourage companies to obtain food safety certification. The following results were obtained. (1) State-owned companies tend to achieve food safety certification. (2) Companies with high media attention are inclined to achieve food safety certification. (3) In state-owned companies, when the company size is small, a higher degree of food safety concern in the mission statement can encourage the company to achieve food safety certification, and when the company size is large, higher media attention can encourage the company to achieve food safety certification. (4) In non-state-owned companies, when food safety concerns are highlighted in the mission statement and media attention is relatively high, the company will gain food safety certification. This study provides new perspectives on food safety-related research and suggestions for government and the public sector to supervise food safety issues in enterprises.


Assuntos
Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Qualidade de Vida , Certificação , China , Indústria Alimentícia
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(29): 8276-8286, 2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264675

RESUMO

Essential oils (EOs) are valuable products commonly employed in the food industry and intensively studied as biopreservatives for the extension of food shelf-life. Unfortunately, EOs might be counterfeit to increase industrial profits. Among the possible adulterants, vegetable oils (VOs) must be considered for their characteristics and low costs. We aimed to apply nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy for the detection and identification of VOs in mixtures with EOs. This innovative strategy is based on comparing the peak area ratio matrices of characteristic VO 13C NMR fatty acid signals with those of adulterated EOs. The identification of the VOs was achieved by calculating the matrix similarity at different confidence levels. The strategy demonstrated the capacity to efficiently recognize the presence of adulteration and the type of VO adulterant in mixtures. Thus, the method was applied to 20 commercial EOs, and VOs were detected and then identified in four samples.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis , Óleos Vegetais , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Indústria Alimentícia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Óleos Vegetais/análise
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 791: 148249, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34118679

RESUMO

The sustainable and continued production of enough food to feed the entire world's population is one of the main concerns in the food industry. Spain, and in particular Galicia, which is an eminently fishing region characterised by the consumption of large quantities of fish, both fresh and processed, must face the challenge of shifting its seafood productive fabric towards a circular economy. To achieve this objective, the first task is to demonstrate that circular economy principles allow to reduce the environmental impacts associated with seafood production. In this sense, this study proposes the environmental evaluation of the skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) value chain within a canning industry located in Galicia through the LCA methodology from an attributional perspective, including the valorisation processes for biowaste (edible and inedible by-products). Results indicate that the main crucial subsystems of the value chain are tuna fishing and the canning process, as it was expected considering other similar studies on seafood products. Moreover, this specific case study demonstrates that the multi-product strategy applied to the canning sector is environmentally viable. Thus, although the environmental impacts of the entire system are increased by including further valorisation operations, the environmental loads assigned to the main product (canned tuna) decrease compared to the one-product system by assigning environmental burdens to other value-added products (tuna pâté, fishmeal, and fish oil).


Assuntos
Indústria Alimentícia , Atum , Animais , Meio Ambiente , Alimentos Marinhos , Espanha
16.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 185: 1-19, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146557

RESUMO

Nanostructured materials along with an added value of polymers-based support carriers have gained high interest and considered ideal for enzyme immobilization. The recently emerged nanoscience interface in the form of nanostructured materials combined with immobilized-enzyme-based bio-catalysis has now become research and development frontiers in advance and applied bio-catalysis engineering. With the involvement of nanoscience, various polymers have been thoroughly developed and exploited to nanostructured engineer constructs as ideal support carriers/matrices. Such nanotechnologically engineered support carriers/matrix possesses unique structural, physicochemical, and functional attributes which equilibrate principal factors and strengthen the biocatalysts efficacy for multipurpose applications. In addition, nano-supported catalysts are potential alternatives that can outstrip several limitations of conventional biocatalysts, such as reduced catalytic efficacy and turnover, low mass transfer efficiency, instability during the reaction, and most importantly, partial, or complete inhibition/deactivation. In this context, engineering robust and highly efficient biocatalysts is an industrially relevant prerequisite. This review comprehensively covered various biopolymers and nanostructured materials, including silica, hybrid nanoflower, nanotubes or nanofibers, nanomembranes, graphene oxide nanoparticles, metal-oxide frameworks, and magnetic nanoparticles as robust matrices for cellulase immobilization. The work is further enriched by spotlighting applied and industrially relevant considerations of nano-immobilized cellulases. For instance, owing to the cellulose-deconstruction features of nano-immobilized cellulases, the applications like lignocellulosic biomass conversion into industrially useful products or biofuels, improved paper sheet density and pulp beat in paper and pulp industry, fruit juice clarification in food industry are evident examples of cellulases, thereof are discussed in this work.


Assuntos
Biopolímeros/química , Celulases/metabolismo , Celulose/química , Biocatálise , Estabilidade Enzimática , Enzimas Imobilizadas/metabolismo , Indústria Alimentícia , Nanoestruturas
17.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 76: 105613, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34119905

RESUMO

Ultrasound has the potential to be broadly applied in the field of agricultural food processing due to advantages such as environmental friendliness, low energy costs, no need for exogenous additives and ease of operation. High-frequency ultrasound is mainly used in medical diagnosis and in the food industry for the identification of ingredients and production line quality testing, while low-frequency ultrasounds is mainly used for extraction and separation, accelerating chemical reactions, auxiliary microbial fermentation and quality enhancement in food industry. Magnetic fields have many advantages of convenient use, such as non-toxic, nonpolluting and safe. High-intensity pulsed magnetic fields are widely used as a physical non-thermal sterilization technology in food processing, while weak magnetic fields are better at activating microorganisms and promoting their growth. Ultrasound and magnetic fields, due to their positive biological effects, have a wide range of applications in the food processing industry. This paper provides an overview of the research progress and applications of ultrasound and magnetic fields in food processing from the perspectives of their biological effects and mechanisms of action. Additionally, with the development and application of physical field technology, physical fields can now be used to provide significant technical advantages for assisting fermentation. Suitable physical fields can promote the growth of microbial cells, improve mycelial production and increase metabolic activity. Furthermore, the current status of research into the use of ultrasound and magnetic field technologies for assisting the fermentation of rare edible fungi, is discussed.


Assuntos
Fermentação , Fungos/metabolismo , Campos Magnéticos , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Manipulação de Alimentos , Indústria Alimentícia
18.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073307

RESUMO

The presence of water in the form of relative humidity (RH) may lead to deliquescence of crystalline components above a certain RH, the deliquescence RH (DRH). Knowing the DRH values is essential, e.g., for the agrochemical industry, food industry, and pharmaceutical industry to identify stability windows for their crystalline products. This work applies the Perturbed-Chain Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (PC-SAFT) to purely predict the DRH of single components (organic acids, sugars, artificial sweeteners, and amides) and multicomponent crystal mixtures thereof only based on aqueous solubility data of the pure components. The predicted DRH values very well agree with the experimental ones. In addition, the temperature influence on the DRH value could be successfully predicted with PC-SAFT. The DRH prediction also differentiates between formation of hydrates and anhydrates. PC-SAFT-predicted phase diagrams of hydrate-forming components illustrate the influence of additional components on the hydrate formation as a function of RH. The DRH prediction via PC-SAFT allows for the determining of the stability of crystals and crystal mixtures without the need for time-consuming experiments.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Química Analítica , Química Farmacêutica , Cristalização , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Indústria Alimentícia , Umidade , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Solubilidade , Açúcares/química , Edulcorantes , Temperatura , Termodinâmica , Água
19.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073537

RESUMO

The negative effects of smoke exposure of grapes in vineyards that are close to harvest are well documented. Volatile phenols in smoke from forest and grass fires can contaminate berries and, upon uptake, are readily converted into a range of glycosylated grape metabolites. These phenolic glycosides and corresponding volatile phenols are extracted into the must and carried through the winemaking process, leading to wines with overtly smoky aromas and flavours. As a result, smoke exposure of grapes can cause significant quality defects in wine, and may render grapes and wine unfit for sale, with substantial negative economic impacts. Until now, however, very little has been known about the impact on grape composition of smoke exposure very early in the season, when grapes are small, hard and green, as occurred with many fires in the 2019-20 Australian grapegrowing season. This research summarises the compositional consequences of cumulative bushfire smoke exposure of grapes and leaves, it establishes detailed profiles of volatile phenols and phenolic glycosides in samples from six commercial Chardonnay and Shiraz blocks throughout berry ripening and examines the observed effects in the context of vineyard location and timing of smoke exposure. In addition, we demonstrate the potential of some phenolic glycosides in leaves to serve as additional biomarkers for smoke exposure of vineyards.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos , Fenol/química , Fumaça , Vitis/química , Incêndios Florestais , Vinho/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Fazendas , Indústria Alimentícia , Frutas/química , Glicosídeos , Glicosilação , New South Wales , Material Particulado , Fenóis , Folhas de Planta/química , Análise de Componente Principal , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
20.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 184: 946-954, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34182000

RESUMO

Polysaccharides are macromolecules obtained from a wide range of sources and are known to have diverse biological activities. The biological activities of polysaccharides depend on their structure and physicochemical properties, including water solubility, monosaccharide composition, degree of branching, molecular structure, and molecular weight. Phosphorylation is a commonly used chemical modification method that improves the physicochemical properties of native polysaccharides, thus enhancing their biological activity, or even imparting novel biological activity. Therefore, phosphorylated polysaccharides have attracted increasing attention owing to their antioxidant, antitumor, antiviral, immunomodulatory, and hepatoprotective effects. In this review, we have discussed recent advances in the phosphorylation of polysaccharides, and the methods used for phosphorylation, structural characterization, and determination of biological activities, to provide a theoretical basis for the use of polysaccharides. The structure-activity relationship of phosphorylated polysaccharides and their use in the food and pharmaceutical industries needs to be further studied.


Assuntos
Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Configuração de Carboidratos , Indústria Farmacêutica , Indústria Alimentícia , Fosforilação , Solubilidade , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Água/química
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