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2.
Science ; 367(6482): 1112-1119, 2020 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139539

RESUMO

The genome versus experience dichotomy has dominated understanding of behavioral individuality. By contrast, the role of nonheritable noise during brain development in behavioral variation is understudied. Using Drosophila melanogaster, we demonstrate a link between stochastic variation in brain wiring and behavioral individuality. A visual system circuit called the dorsal cluster neurons (DCN) shows nonheritable, interindividual variation in right/left wiring asymmetry and controls object orientation in freely walking flies. We show that DCN wiring asymmetry instructs an individual's object responses: The greater the asymmetry, the better the individual orients toward a visual object. Silencing DCNs abolishes correlations between anatomy and behavior, whereas inducing DCN asymmetry suffices to improve object responses.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Drosophila melanogaster/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Individualidade , Neurogênese , Campos Visuais/fisiologia , Vias Visuais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Variação Genética , Orientação/fisiologia , Vias Visuais/anatomia & histologia
3.
Behav Brain Sci ; 43: e21, 2020 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32159474

RESUMO

We discuss opportunities in applying the resource-rationality framework toward answering questions in emotion and mental health research. These opportunities rely on characterization of individual differences in cognitive strategies; an endeavor that may be at odds with the normative approach outlined in the target article. We consider ways individual differences might enter the framework and the translational opportunities offered by each.


Assuntos
Cognição , Saúde Mental , Compreensão , Emoções , Humanos , Individualidade
4.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 4(3): 292-293, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32042120
5.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0221136, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986141

RESUMO

In recent years, consistent individual differences in behavior, or personalities, have been a topic of increasing interest as researchers strive to understand and predict the responses of individuals and populations to anthropogenic changes. Behavioral studies in wild populations often require that animals are live trapped before behavioral observation can occur, and this is especially true in studies investigating animal personalities. However, it is unknown whether the amount of time confined to a live trap may regulate the behavior of trapped individuals. Specifically, if the duration of trap confinement directly influences behavior, then by obtaining wild animals through live trapping we may be confounding the very measurements of greatest interest. To investigate whether the duration of trap confinement influences the behavior of trapped individuals, we performed a study on two small mammal species, focusing specifically on personality traits. We positioned high-definition trail cameras facing Longworth small mammal traps in the field to observe capture events and record the time of capture. We then measured personality in captured deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) and southern red-backed voles (Myodes gapperi) using three standardized tests, and through linear and generalized linear models we found that the time an animal had spent confined to a trap before testing did not affect 86% of behaviors exhibited. Our results showed two weak behavioral effects of confinement duration on boldness and docility resulting from an interaction between the duration of confinement and whether or not an individual was naïve to trapping. Our results suggest that behavioral measurements of wild, trapped small mammals are not determined by the time spent confined to a trap. However, researchers should use caution and consider whether an animal is naïve to trapping during analysis since habituation to the live trap may play a role in the effects of confinement duration on behavior.


Assuntos
Arvicolinae/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Individualidade , Peromyscus/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Mamíferos , Roedores/fisiologia
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 187, 2020 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924769

RESUMO

Individual differences in pain perception are of interest in basic and clinical research as altered pain sensitivity is both a characteristic and a risk factor for many pain conditions. It is, however, unclear how individual sensitivity to pain is reflected in the pain-free resting-state brain activity and functional connectivity. Here, we identify and validate a network pattern in the pain-free resting-state functional brain connectome that is predictive of interindividual differences in pain sensitivity. Our predictive network signature allows assessing the individual sensitivity to pain without applying any painful stimulation, as might be valuable in patients where reliable behavioural pain reports cannot be obtained. Additionally, as a direct, non-invasive readout of the supraspinal neural contribution to pain sensitivity, it may have implications for translational research and the development and assessment of analgesic treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Percepção da Dor/fisiologia , Dor/fisiopatologia , Descanso/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Conectoma , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Dor/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Sports Health ; 12(1): 43-50, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730421

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Student-athletes are subject to significant demands due to their concurrent sporting and academic commitments, which may affect their sleep. This study aimed to compare the self-reported sleep quality, quantity, and intraindividual variability (IIV) of students and student-athletes through an online survey. HYPOTHESIS: Student-athletes will have a poorer sleep quality and quantity and experience more IIV. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 4. METHODS: Sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), while sleep quantity and IIV were assessed using the Consensus Sleep Diary. Initially, the PSQI and additional questions regarding sport participation habits were completed by 138 participants (65 students, 73 student-athletes). From within this sample, 44 participants were recruited to complete the sleep diary for a period of 14 days. RESULTS: The mean PSQI score was 6.89 ± 3.03, with 65% of the sample identified as poor sleepers, but no difference was observed between students and student-athletes. Analysis of sleep patterns showed only possibly to likely small differences in sleep schedule, sleep onset latency, and subjective sleep quality between groups. IIV analysis showed likely moderate to possibly small differences between groups, suggesting more variable sleep patterns among student-athletes. CONCLUSION: This study highlights that sleep issues are prevalent within the university student population and that student-athletes may be at greater risk due to more variable sleep patterns. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: University coaches should consider these results to optimize sleep habits of their student-athletes.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Sono , Estudantes/psicologia , Desempenho Acadêmico , Atletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Masculino , Autorrelato , Latência do Sono , Estresse Psicológico , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Ecol Lett ; 23(2): 399-408, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811699

RESUMO

Research focusing on among-individual differences in behaviour ('animal personality') has been blooming for over a decade. Central theories explaining the maintenance of such behavioural variation posits that individuals expressing greater "risky" behaviours should suffer higher mortality. Here, for the first time, we synthesize the existing empirical evidence for this key prediction. Our results did not support this prediction as there was no directional relationship between riskier behaviour and greater mortality; however there was a significant absolute relationship between behaviour and survival. In total, behaviour explained a significant, but small, portion (5.8%) of the variance in survival. We also found that risky (vs. "shy") behavioural types live significantly longer in the wild, but not in the laboratory. This suggests that individuals expressing risky behaviours might be of overall higher quality but the lack of predation pressure and resource restrictions mask this effect in laboratory environments. Our work demonstrates that individual differences in behaviour explain important differences in survival but not in the direction predicted by theory. Importantly, this suggests that models predicting behaviour to be a mediator of reproduction-survival trade-offs may need revision and/or empiricists may need to reconsider their proxies of risky behaviours when testing such theory.


Assuntos
Individualidade , Personalidade , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Comportamento Predatório , Reprodução , Assunção de Riscos
11.
Dev Sci ; 23(1): e12862, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31111632

RESUMO

The success of human culture depends on early emerging mechanisms of social learning, which include the ability to acquire opaque cultural knowledge through faithful imitation, as well as the ability to advance culture through flexible discovery of new means to goal attainment. This study explores whether this mixture of faithful imitation and goal emulation is based in part on individual differences which emerge early in ontogeny. Experimental measurements and parental reports were collected for a group of 2-year-old children (N = 48, age = 23-32 months) on their imitative behavior as well as other aspects of cognitive and social development. Results revealed individual differences in children's imitative behavior across trials and tasks which were best characterized by a model that included two behavioral routines; one corresponding to faithful imitation, and one to goal emulation. Moreover, individual differences in faithful imitation and goal emulation were correlated with individual differences in theory of mind, prosocial behavior, and temperament. These findings were discussed in terms of their implications for understanding the mechanisms of social learning, ontogeny of cumulative culture, and the benefit of analyzing individual differences for developmental experiments.


Assuntos
Metas , Comportamento Imitativo , Pré-Escolar , Cultura , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Conhecimento , Masculino , Aprendizado Social
12.
Dev Sci ; 23(1): e12867, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125469

RESUMO

The hippocampus is a subcortical structure in the medial temporal lobe involved in cognitive functions such as spatial navigation and reorientation, episodic memory, and associative learning. While much is understood about the role of hippocampal function in learning and memory in adults, less is known about the relations between the hippocampus and the development of these cognitive skills in young children due to the limitations of using standard methods (e.g., MRI) to examine brain structure and function in developing populations. This study used hippocampal-dependent trace eyeblink conditioning (EBC) as a feasible approach to examine individual differences in hippocampal functioning as they relate to spatial reorientation and episodic memory performance in young children. Three- to six-year-old children (N = 50) completed tasks that measured EBC, spatial reorientation, and episodic memory, as well as non-hippocampal-dependent processing speed abilities. Results revealed that when age was held constant, individual differences in EBC performance were significantly related to individual differences in performance on the spatial reorientation test, but not on the episodic memory or processing speed tests. When the relations between hippocampal-dependent EBC and different reorientation strategies were explored, it was found that individual differences in hippocampal function predicted the use of geometric information for reorienting in space as opposed to a combined strategy that uses both geometric information and salient visual cues. The utilization of eyeblink conditioning to examine hippocampal function in young populations and its implications for understanding the dissociation between spatial reorientation and episodic memory development are discussed.


Assuntos
Piscadela/fisiologia , Condicionamento Palpebral/fisiologia , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Memória Episódica , Orientação Espacial/fisiologia , Adulto , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Aprendizagem , Masculino
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683637

RESUMO

With regard to philosophical anthropology, a human ecological framework for the human-environment relationship as an "ecology of the person" is outlined, which focuses on the term "relationship" and aims to be scientifically sound. It also provides theoretical orientations for multiprofessional clinical work. For this purpose, a multi-dimensional basic grid for the characterization of the individual human being is proposed. The necessity and meaningfulness of a differentiation and systematization of the terms "environment", and above all "relationship", are demonstrated, and practical examples and links to similar framework models are given.


Assuntos
Psicologia , Humanos , Individualidade
15.
BMC Psychol ; 7(1): 73, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730492

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a time of considerable social, cognitive, and physiological development. It reflects a period of heightened risk for the onset of mental health problems, as well as heightened opportunity for flourishing and resilience. The CogBIAS Longitudinal Study (CogBIAS-L-S) aims to investigate psychological development during adolescence. METHODS: We present the cohort profile of the sample (N = 504) across three waves of data collection, when participants were approximately 13, 14.5, and 16 years of age. Further, we present descriptive statistics for all of the psychological variables assessed including (a) the self-report mood measures, (b) the other self-report measures, and (c) the behavioural measures. Differential and normative stability were investigated for each variable, in order to assess (i) measurement reliability (internal consistency), (ii) the stability of individual differences (intra-class correlations), and (iii) whether any adolescent-typical developmental changes occurred (multilevel growth curve models). RESULTS: Measurement reliability was good for the self-report measures (> .70), but lower for the behavioural measures (between .00 and .78). Differential stability was substantial, as individual differences were largely maintained across waves. Although, stability was lower for the behavioural measures. Some adolescent-typical normative changes were observed, reflected by (i) worsening mood, (ii) increasing impulsivity, and (iii) improvements in executive functions. CONCLUSIONS: The stability of individual differences was substantial across most variables, supporting classical test theory. Some normative changes were observed that reflected adolescent-typical development. Although, normative changes were relatively small compared to the stability of individual differences. The development of stable psychological characteristics during this period highlights a potential intervention window in early adolescence.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Individualidade , Psicologia do Adolescente , Autorrelato , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Função Executiva , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
16.
Nature ; 575(7782): 290-291, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712705
17.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(12): 2023-2028, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686022

RESUMO

Personality traits can offer considerable insight into the biological basis of individual differences. However, existing approaches toward understanding personality across species rely on subjective criteria and limited sets of behavioral readouts, which result in noisy and often inconsistent outcomes. Here we introduce a mathematical framework for describing individual differences along dimensions with maximum consistency and discriminative power. We validate this framework in mice, using data from a system for high-throughput longitudinal monitoring of group-housed male mice that yields a variety of readouts from across the behavioral repertoire of individual animals. We demonstrate a set of stable traits that capture variability in behavior and gene expression in the brain, allowing for better-informed mechanistic investigations into the biology of individual differences.


Assuntos
Individualidade , Modelos Teóricos , Personalidade , Comportamento Social , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Hierarquia Social , Masculino , Camundongos
18.
Psychol Aging ; 34(7): 1005-1020, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580088

RESUMO

The current study focused on the degree to which decision context (deliberative vs. affective) differentially impacted the use of available information about uncertainty (i.e., probability, positive and negative outcome magnitudes, expected value, and variance/risk) when older adults were faced with decisions under risk. In addition, we examined whether individual differences in general mental ability and executive function moderated the associations between age and information use. Participants (N = 96) completed a neuropsychological assessment and the hot (affective) and cold (deliberative) versions of an explicit risk task. Our results did not find a significant Age × Hot/Cold Condition interaction on overall risk-taking. However, we found that older adults were less likely to use the full decision information available regardless of the decision context. This finding suggested more global age differences in information use. Moreover, older adults were less likely to make expected-value sensitive decisions, regardless of the hot/cold context. Finally, we found that low performance on measures of executive functioning, but not general mental ability, appears to be a risk factor for lower information use. This pattern appears in middle age and progressively becomes stronger in older age. The current work provides evidence that common underlying decision processes may operate in risk tasks deemed either affective or deliberative. It further suggests that underlying mechanisms such as information use may be paramount, relative to differences in the affective context. Additionally, individual differences in neuropsychological function may act as a moderator in the tendency to use available information across affective context. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Individualidade , Testes Neuropsicológicos/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assunção de Riscos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Brain Lang ; 199: 104700, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586791

RESUMO

Recent neurophysiological studies have proposed distinct roles of ß and γ oscillations in implementing top-down and bottom-up processes. The present study aims to test this hypothesis in the domain of speech perception. We examined ß and γ oscillations elicited to a tone contrast in a passive oddball paradigm, and their relationships with discrimination sensitivity d' and RT from two groups of healthy adults who showed high and low discrimination sensitivity to the contrast. The low-sensitivity group showed a significant reduction in ß, which was further related to d'. Individual differences in RT were related to different frequency bands in the two groups, with a RT-ß correlation in the low-sensitivity group, and a RT-γ relation in the high-sensitivity group. Based on these findings, we suggest that ß, implicated in top-down processing, reflects individual differences in phonological representations, and that γ, involved in bottom-up processing, reflects individual differences in acoustic encoding.


Assuntos
Ritmo beta , Ritmo Gama , Individualidade , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fonética
20.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(11): 1844-1856, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591559

RESUMO

Intelligent behavior involves associations between high-dimensional sensory representations and behaviorally relevant qualities such as valence. Learning of associations involves plasticity of excitatory connectivity, but it remains poorly understood how information flow is reorganized in networks and how inhibition contributes to this process. We trained adult zebrafish in an appetitive odor discrimination task and analyzed odor representations in a specific compartment of the posterior zone of the dorsal telencephalon (Dp), the homolog of mammalian olfactory cortex. Associative conditioning enhanced responses with a preference for the positively conditioned odor. Moreover, conditioning systematically remapped odor representations along an axis in coding space that represented attractiveness (valence). Interindividual variations in this mapping predicted variations in behavioral odor preference. Photoinhibition of interneurons resulted in specific modifications of odor representations that mirrored effects of conditioning and reduced experience-dependent, interindividual variations in odor-valence mapping. These results reveal an individualized odor-to-valence map that is shaped by inhibition and reorganized during learning.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem por Associação/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Inibição Neural/fisiologia , Córtex Olfatório/fisiologia , Percepção Olfatória/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Aprendizagem por Discriminação/fisiologia , Feminino , Individualidade , Masculino , Odorantes , Peixe-Zebra
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