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1.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 222: 103463, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34952450

RESUMO

Sensory Processing Sensitivity (SPS) is a common, heritable, and evolutionarily conserved trait, describing inter-individual differences in responsiveness and a more cautious approach to novel stimuli. It is associated with increased activation of brain regions involved in awareness, integration of sensory information, and empathy during processing of emotional faces. Furthermore, SPS is related to better performance in a visual detection task. Even though SPS is conceptualized to be closely related to traits characterized by pausing before acting, no study to date has assessed the relation between SPS and inhibitory control in a behavioral inhibition task. The present study fills this gap by investigating how SPS influences individual performance on two different antisaccade paradigms including emotional face stimuli. In addition, we assessed self-reported mood, anxiety, and depressiveness. Results showed that SPS was related to faster processing speed on the emotional, but not the classic antisaccade paradigm. Moreover, SPS predicted inhibitory control speed above mood and depressiveness. Our results provide evidence that higher SPS participants show superior inhibitory abilities, especially during the processing of emotional stimuli. This is in line with earlier findings showing better performance in a visual detection task as well as increased brain activation during emotional face processing.


Assuntos
Emoções , Reconhecimento Facial , Medições dos Movimentos Oculares , Humanos , Individualidade , Sensação
2.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 213: 105253, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419664

RESUMO

Operational momentum (OM) refers to the behavioral tendency to overestimate or underestimate the results of addition or subtraction, respectively. The cognitive mechanism of the OM effect and how it is related to the development of symbolic math abilities are not well understood. The current study examined whether individual differences in the OM effect are related to symbolic arithmetic abilities, number line estimation performance, and the space-magnitude association effect in young children. In this study, first-grade elementary school children manifested the OM effect during approximate addition and subtraction. Individual differences in the OM effect were not correlated with number line estimation error. Interestingly, children who showed a greater degree of the OM effect performed not worse, but better on the symbolic arithmetic task. In addition, the OM effect was correlated with the space-magnitude association (size congruity) effect measured with the Numerical Stroop task. More specifically, the OM bias was correlated with the ability to inhibit interference from competing information on the incongruent trials of the Numerical Stroop task. Our results suggest that the inaccuracy of numerical magnitude representations is not the source of the OM effect. Given that children with better math ability showed a greater OM bias, a stronger OM effect may reflect better intuition in arithmetic operations. Altogether, we carefully interpret these findings as suggesting that a greater OM effect reflects superior intuition or fundamental knowledge of arithmetic operations and a more adult-like maturation of the reorienting component of the attentional system.


Assuntos
Atenção , Individualidade , Adulto , Viés , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Matemática , Movimento (Física)
3.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261603, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34972148

RESUMO

Although children are overall sensitive to inequality and prefer fair allocation of resources, they also often display ingroup favouritism. Inquiring about the factors that can shape the tension between these two driving forces in children, we focused on the role of parents. Extending the limited literature in this field, the present work examined whether individual differences in 3-to 11-year-old White children's (N = 154, 78 boys) evaluations of fair versus pro-ingroup behaviours in an intergroup context vary as a function of both mothers' and fathers' social dominance orientation (SDO), right-wing authoritarianism (RWA), and moral foundations. Parents completed a questionnaire. Children were presented with a scenario in which two ingroup members distributed candies to two other children, one White and one Black, either in an egalitarian way or displaying a clear ingroup favouritism. Afterwards, their attitudes towards the two ingroup members who had distributed the candies were assessed through both an Implicit Association Test and explicit questions. Although children displayed on average an explicit preference for the fair over the pro-ingroup target, this preference did not emerge at the implicit level. Most importantly, both children's explicit and implicit attitudes were related to mothers' SDO, indicating that at increasing level of mothers' SDO children's inequality aversion tended to drop. Overall, these results emphasize the relevance of mothers' support for social hierarchy in relation to the way in which children balance the two competing drives of equality endorsement and pro-ingroup bias.


Assuntos
Hierarquia Social , Individualidade , Pais , Predomínio Social , Identificação Social , Afeto , Atitude , Autoritarismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Pai , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Princípios Morais , Mães , Sexismo , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Exp Psychol ; 68(4): 175-188, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34918538

RESUMO

Automobile accidents are a frequent occurrence in the United States and commonly result in legal ramifications. Through a fundamental attribution error (FAE) framework (Ross, 1977), the current research examined how individuals perceive blame and negligence in these cases. In Study 1 (N = 360), we manipulated the driver (you vs. stranger) of a hypothetical accident scenario and the situational circumstances surrounding the accident (favorable vs. unfavorable). Supporting the FAE, individuals' situational blame attributions only varied as a function of situational circumstances when they themselves were hypothetically driving. However, neither the driver nor the situation significantly predicted dispositional blame attributions. Yet, Study 1 provided initial support for the importance of an individual's trait tendency to neglect situational constraints when making dispositional blame attributions. In Study 2 (N = 212), we again manipulated situational circumstances surrounding the hypothetical accident, but within the context of a mock civil trial. Results provided additional support for the importance of this trait tendency and expanded our findings of dispositional blame attributions to perceptions of negligence. Implications include the importance of considering trait individual differences in the likelihood to ignore situational demands when individuals are making legally relevant judgments about automobile accidents.


Assuntos
Imperícia , Percepção Social , Humanos , Individualidade , Julgamento
5.
Exp Psychol ; 68(4): 189-197, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34918541

RESUMO

The current research investigated whether individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) and affective states have differential effects on lexical-semantic repetition priming outcomes based on whether participants were first- or second-language English speakers. Individual differences in priming effects have often been overlooked in the priming literature. Using logistic mixed-effects models to account for within-subject variation, the current paper investigated a three-way interaction between WMC, negative affect (NA) score, and language primacy on lexical-semantic repetition priming outcomes. The results indicate that a statistically significant three-way interaction exists between language primacy, WMC, and NA scores. No significant interaction effect was found for positive affect scores. We present an argument which posits that an individual's primary language and subsequent familiarity with the primed concepts, in conjunction with individual differences in WMC and mood, plays an important role in determining the most effective strategy used to complete a word-stem completion task. The implications of the findings presented highlight that second-language English speakers are more susceptible to priming effects when prime-inducing stimuli are constructed using English lexicon; however, larger WMC and heighted negative affective states help to mitigate these priming effects.


Assuntos
Individualidade , Priming de Repetição , Humanos , Idioma , Memória de Curto Prazo , Semântica
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(51)2021 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34916287

RESUMO

The surge of post-truth political argumentation suggests that we are living in a special historical period when it comes to the balance between emotion and reasoning. To explore if this is indeed the case, we analyze language in millions of books covering the period from 1850 to 2019 represented in Google nGram data. We show that the use of words associated with rationality, such as "determine" and "conclusion," rose systematically after 1850, while words related to human experience such as "feel" and "believe" declined. This pattern reversed over the past decades, paralleled by a shift from a collectivistic to an individualistic focus as reflected, among other things, by the ratio of singular to plural pronouns such as "I"/"we" and "he"/"they." Interpreting this synchronous sea change in book language remains challenging. However, as we show, the nature of this reversal occurs in fiction as well as nonfiction. Moreover, the pattern of change in the ratio between sentiment and rationality flag words since 1850 also occurs in New York Times articles, suggesting that it is not an artifact of the book corpora we analyzed. Finally, we show that word trends in books parallel trends in corresponding Google search terms, supporting the idea that changes in book language do in part reflect changes in interest. All in all, our results suggest that over the past decades, there has been a marked shift in public interest from the collective to the individual, and from rationality toward emotion.


Assuntos
Idioma , Livros/história , Emoções , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Individualidade , Idioma/história , Bibliotecas Digitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Linguística/história , Linguística/tendências , Jornais como Assunto/história , Jornais como Assunto/tendências , Análise de Componente Principal
7.
Emotion ; 21(8): 1712-1720, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34941321

RESUMO

Research suggests that the within-person inverse relationship between negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA) indicates poorer emotional well-being, and this interaffect correlation fluctuates in relation to the context of the individual. Specifically, age, stress, and global PA all relate to changes in the interaffect correlation. The current study used comprehensive data from the Notre Dame Study of Health and Well-Being, which allowed us to uniquely examine between-person differences in within-person change and variability in the interaffect correlation, thereby examining these constructs from a process-oriented perspective. Midlife and later-life participants (N = 965) completed daily questionnaires assessing stress, NA, and PA. Three-level multilevel models illustrated that the interaffect correlation becomes more negative during times of stress, adults with greater global PA experience a stronger inverse interaffect correlation during times of stress, and days of higher stress relate to a stronger inverse interaffect correlation for older adults compared to midlife adults. The findings illustrate the idiographic nature of these relationships and suggest that later-life adults and adults with high levels of global PA undergoing higher than typical stressful situations experience stronger inverse interaffect correlations. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Afeto , Emoções , Idoso , Gerenciamento de Dados , Humanos , Individualidade , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261570, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34929017

RESUMO

Previous studies targeting inter-individual differences in pain processing in migraine mainly focused on the perception of pain. Our main aim was to disentangle pain anticipation and perception using a classical fear conditioning task, and investigate how migraine frequency and pre-scan cortisol-to-dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) ratio as an index of neurobiological stress response would relate to neural activation in these two phases. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data of 23 participants (18 females; mean age: 27.61± 5.36) with episodic migraine without aura were analysed. We found that migraine frequency was significantly associated with pain anticipation in brain regions comprising the midcingulate and caudate, whereas pre-scan cortisol-to DHEA-S ratio was related to pain perception in the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA). Both results suggest exaggerated preparatory responses to pain or more general to stressors, which may contribute to the allostatic load caused by stressors and migraine attacks on the brain.


Assuntos
Sulfato de Desidroepiandrosterona/metabolismo , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/psicologia , Percepção da Dor , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Química Encefálica , Sulfato de Desidroepiandrosterona/análise , Feminino , Neuroimagem Funcional , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Individualidade , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 150(4): 3038, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34717515

RESUMO

In songbirds, song has traditionally been considered a vocalization mainly produced by males. However, recent research suggests that both sexes produce song. While the function and structure of male black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) fee-bee song have been well-studied, research on female song is comparatively limited. Past discrimination and playback studies have shown that male black-capped chickadees can discriminate between individual males via their fee-bee songs. Recently, we have shown that male and female black-capped chickadees can identify individual females via their fee-bee song even when presented with only the bee position of the song. Our results using discriminant function analyses (DFA) support that female songs are individually distinctive. We found that songs could be correctly classified to the individual (81%) and season (97%) based on several acoustic features including but not limited to bee-note duration and fee-note peak frequency. In addition, an artificial neural network was trained to identify individuals based on the selected DFA acoustic features and was able to achieve 90% accuracy by individual and 93% by season. While this study provides a quantitative description of the acoustic structure of female song, the perception and function of female song in this species requires further investigation.


Assuntos
Aves Canoras , Vocalização Animal , Acústica , Animais , Percepção Auditiva , Abelhas , Feminino , Individualidade , Masculino , Estações do Ano
10.
Vaccine ; 39(45): 6653-6659, 2021 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635374

RESUMO

The objective of this experiment is to assess whether priming for contamination and purity causes a change in attitudes to health interventions, including vaccination, and complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs). An online priming experiment was conducted with four between-subject experimental conditions including photos of: 1) biological contamination, 2) chemical contamination, 3) pure environments, such as pristine landscapes, and 4) hazard signs/icons indicating physical threats. Two control conditions included photos of neutral scenes and neutral icons, whereby experimental groups were compared against the related control groups (photograph for conditions 1-3 and neutral icons for condition 4). Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the six conditions, and after exposure to the images they were asked to rate 10 conventional and alternative health interventions for effectiveness and safety, as well being assessed for disgust sensitivity using the reduced-item DPSS-R [10]. A total of 642 adults completed the experiment. Exposure to primes did not cause a differential change in ratings of health interventions. Nevertheless, higher levels of sensitivity to disgust were associated with lower ratings of the effectiveness of MMR vaccination, tetanus injection, antibiotics, and surgery; and higher levels of sensitivity to disgust were associated with higher ratings of effectiveness of vitamins/minerals. In conclusion, this online experiment did not find an experimental effect of priming for contamination and purity on subjects' ratings of the safety and effectiveness of conventional and alternative health interventions. This indicates that attitudes to these health interventions are not influenced by a temporary increase in the salience of feelings of contamination or purity. However, individual differences in disgust sensitivity are related to their attitudes to vaccination and CAM interventions.


Assuntos
Atitude , Vacinação , Adulto , Humanos , Individualidade
11.
Eur J Neurosci ; 54(9): 7260-7273, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618375

RESUMO

The ability to flexibly manipulate memory representations is embedded in visual working memory (VWM) and can be tested using paradigms with retrospective cues. Although valid retrospective cues often facilitate memory recall, invalid ones may or may not result in performance costs. We investigated individual differences in utilising retrospective cues and evaluated how these individual differences are associated with brain oscillatory activity at rest. At the behavioural level, we operationalised flexibility as the ability to make effective use of retrospective cues or disregard them if required. At the neural level, we tested whether individual differences in such flexibility were associated with properties of resting-state alpha oscillatory activity (8-12 Hz). To capture distinct aspects of these brain oscillations, we evaluated their power spectral density and temporal dynamics using long-range temporal correlations (LRTCs). In addition, we performed multivariate patterns analysis (MVPA) to classify individuals' level of behavioural flexibility based on these neural measures. We observed that alpha power alone (magnitude) at rest was not associated with flexibility. However, we found that the participants' ability to manipulate VWM representations was correlated with alpha LRTC and could be decoded using MVPA on patterns of alpha power. Our findings suggest that alpha LRTC and multivariate patterns of alpha power at rest may underlie some of the individual differences in using retrospective cues in working memory tasks.


Assuntos
Sinais (Psicologia) , Memória de Curto Prazo , Encéfalo , Humanos , Individualidade , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
J Exp Psychol Anim Learn Cogn ; 47(3): 364-370, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618534

RESUMO

Short assessments of spatial working memory (SWM) in dogs are becoming popular evaluations of canine aging and individual differences. In a typical SWM task, an experimenter hides a reward inside of a bucket at a specific stimulus position while the dog watches. Then, following a varying delay interval, the dog is released to choose a bucket. The longest delay at which the dog can successfully choose the bucket containing the reward is considered to reflect the dog's SWM duration. Although past studies were informative, the tasks often lacked a valid measure of SWM due to dogs' ability to use nonmnemonic strategies, such as body orientation or sustained attention, to successfully solve these tasks without relying on working memory mechanisms. Therefore, we designed the first study to assess the internal validity of these tasks by directly comparing dogs' performance on two experimental conditions. We found that dogs performed worse in a control condition in which nonmnemonic strategies were eliminated compared with a typical SWM task condition. In addition, our results indicate a strong relationship between the percentage of delay time that a dog spends orienting its head or body to the correct bucket and performance in a typical SWM task. These findings were the first to show a difference in SWM performance when dogs' use of nonmnemonic strategies was controlled and stress the importance of considering the internal validity of these tasks if used to examine SWM in future work. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Memória de Curto Prazo , Memória Espacial , Animais , Atenção , Cães , Individualidade , Recompensa
13.
J Pers Soc Psychol ; 121(2): 257-284, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34636587

RESUMO

We report seven studies that introduce and validate two unique aspects of evaluation that supplement the original Need to Evaluate (NE) scale (Jarvis & Petty, 1996). Whereas the original scale focused on the tendency to have attitudes, the two new scales focus on the tendencies to learn and express attitudes. Although the new scales are correlated with the original scale and each other, each new scale is shown to be related in a unique way to other relevant scales, and most importantly, to predict different outcomes. Study 1 develops the new learning and expressing aspects of evaluation. Study 2 establishes the factor structure of these new dimensions and distinguishes them from the having aspect identified in the original NE scale. Study 3 demonstrates the convergent and discriminant validity of the two new NE scales in relation to relevant existing individual differences. Study 4 shows that the new NE-learning and expressing scales can predict people's preference for different roles in an impending group discussion. Study 5 shows that the NE-expressing scale predicts attitudes in a paradigm where people generate persuasive arguments and Study 6 shows that the NE-learning scale predicts attitudes in response to an external message using evaluative language. Finally, Study 7 shows that the original NE scale predicts above and beyond the two new scales in accounting for people's tendencies to have and possess attitudes toward various social and political issues. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Atitude , Individualidade , Humanos , Idioma , Motivação , Comunicação Persuasiva
14.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258242, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637460

RESUMO

We examined the detailed behavioral characteristics of transfer of skill and the ability of the adaptive control of thought rational (ACT-R) architecture to account for this with its new Controller module. We employed a simple action video game called Auto Orbit and investigated the control tuning of timing skills across speed perturbations of the environment. In Auto Orbit, players needed to learn to alternate turn and shot actions to blow and burst balloons under time constraints imposed by balloon resets and deflations. Cognitive and motor skill transfer was assessed both in terms of game performance and in terms of the details of their motor actions. We found that skill transfer across speeds necessitated the recalibration of action timing skills. In addition, we found that acquiring skill in Auto Orbit involved a progressive decrease in variability of behavior. Finally, we found that players with higher skill levels tended to be less variable in terms of action chunking and action timing. These findings further shed light on the complex cognitive and motor mechanisms of skill transfer across speeds in complex task environments.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Jogos de Vídeo , Adulto , Algoritmos , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0255531, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613975

RESUMO

Some evidence suggests that people behave more cooperatively and generously when observed or in the presence of images of eyes (termed the 'watching eyes' effect). Eye images are thought to trigger feelings of observation, which in turn motivate people to behave more cooperatively to earn a good reputation. However, several recent studies have failed to find evidence of the eyes effect. One possibility is that inconsistent evidence in support of the eyes effect is a product of individual differences in sensitivity or susceptibility to the cue. In fact, some evidence suggests that people who are generally more prosocial are less susceptible to situation-specific reputation-based cues of observation. In this paper, we sought to (1) replicate the eyes effect, (2) replicate the past finding that people who are dispositionally less prosocial are more responsive to observation than people who are more dispositionally more prosocial, and (3) determine if this effect extends to the watching eyes effect. Results from a pre-registered study showed that people did not give more money in a dictator game when decisions were made public or in the presence of eye images, even though participants felt more observed when decisions were public. That is, we failed to replicate the eyes effect and observation effect. An initial, but underpowered, interaction model suggests that egoists give less than prosocials in private, but not public, conditions. This suggests a direction for future research investigating if and how individual differences in prosociality influence observation effects.


Assuntos
Comportamento/fisiologia , Olho/fisiopatologia , Motivação/fisiologia , Adulto , Sinais (Psicologia) , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
16.
Conscious Cogn ; 95: 103208, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601354

RESUMO

In everyday life, people often experience involuntary thoughts about their personal past and future events in response to incidental cues in the environment. Yet, despite the abundance of such cues, our consciousness is not constantly flooded by these involuntary autobiographical memories (IAMs) and involuntary future thoughts (IFTs). The main goal of the present study was to further investigate the possibility that cognitive inhibitory control keeps these involuntary cognitions at bay. To test this inhibition hypothesis, we conducted a large-scale study (n = 157) in which groups of participants with different levels of inhibitory control (low, medium, high) and individuals with ADHD spectrum symptoms were engaged in a laboratory vigilance task in which the frequency of IFTs and IAMs was assessed. Contrary to predictions, although participants across groups differed significantly in terms of their individual inhibitory control capacity, the number of IFTs and IAMs reported during the vigilance task was comparable. In addition, individuals with the ADHD spectrum symptoms did not report more spontaneous thoughts compared to other groups. Together, these findings lend little support for the idea that inhibition is a key mechanism that regulates the occurrence of IAMs and IFTs in everyday life. Other possible mechanisms and avenues for future research are discussed.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Memória Episódica , Cognição , Humanos , Individualidade , Rememoração Mental
17.
J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform ; 47(9): 1149-1165, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34694846

RESUMO

Attention is limited, both in processing capacity (leading to phenomena of "inattentional blindness") and in the capacity for selective focus (leading to distraction). Load theory (e.g., Lavie, 1995) accounts for both limitations by proposing that perceptual processing has limited capacity but proceeds automatically and in parallel on all stimuli within capacity. Here we tested these claims by applying load theory to the phenomenon of "subitizing": the parallel detection and individuation of a limited number of items, established in enumeration research. We predicted that distractor interference will be found within but not beyond a person's subitizing capacity (measured as the transition from parallel to serial slope). Participants reported the number of target shapes from brief displays while ignoring irrelevant cartoon-image distractors. As predicted, distractor cost on enumeration performance was found within subitizing capacity and eliminated in larger set sizes. Moreover, individual differences results demonstrated that distractor effects depended on an individual's capacity (i.e., their serial-to-parallel transition point), rather than on set size per se. These results provide new evidence for the load theory hypotheses that perceptual processing is automatic and parallel within its limited capacity, while extending it to account for selective attention during enumeration. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Atenção , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Cegueira , Cognição , Humanos , Individualidade
18.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 64(10): 3720-3733, 2021 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525309

RESUMO

Purpose Individuals vary in their ability to learn the sound categories of nonnative languages (nonnative phonetic learning) and to adapt to systematic differences, such as accent or talker differences, in the sounds of their native language (native phonetic learning). Difficulties with both native and nonnative learning are well attested in people with speech and language disorders relative to healthy controls, but substantial variability in these skills is also present in the typical population. This study examines whether this individual variability can be organized around a common ability that we label "phonetic plasticity." Method A group of healthy young adult participants (N = 80), who attested they had no history of speech, language, neurological, or hearing deficits, completed two tasks of nonnative phonetic category learning, two tasks of learning to cope with variation in their native language, and seven tasks of other cognitive functions, distributed across two sessions. Performance on these 11 tasks was compared, and exploratory factor analysis was used to assess the extent to which performance on each task was related to the others. Results Performance on both tasks of native learning and an explicit task of nonnative learning patterned together, suggesting that native and nonnative phonetic learning tasks rely on a shared underlying capacity, which is termed "phonetic plasticity." Phonetic plasticity was also associated with vocabulary, comprehension of words in background noise, and, more weakly, working memory. Conclusions Nonnative sound learning and native language speech perception may rely on shared phonetic plasticity. The results suggest that good learners of native language phonetic variation are also good learners of nonnative phonetic contrasts. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.16606778.


Assuntos
Fonética , Percepção da Fala , Humanos , Individualidade , Idioma , Ruído , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256987, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506528

RESUMO

The temporal binding window refers to the time frame within which temporal grouping of sensory information takes place. Sense of agency is the feeling of being in control of one's actions, and their associated outcomes. While previous research has shown that temporal cues and multisensory integration play a role in sense of agency, no studies have directly assessed whether individual differences in the temporal binding window and sense of agency are associated. In all three experiments, to assess sense of agency, participants pressed a button triggering, after a varying delay, the appearance of the circle, and reported their sense of agency over the effect. To assess the temporal binding window a simultaneity judgment task (Experiment 1) and a double-flash illusion task (Experiment 2 and 3) was also performed. As expected, the temporal binding window correlated with the sense of agency window. In Experiment 3, these processes were modulated by applying occipital tACS at either 14Hz or 8Hz. We found 14Hz tACS stimulation was associated with narrower temporal biding window and sense of agency window. Our results suggest the temporal binding window and the time window of sense of agency are related. They also point towards a possible underlying neural mechanism (alpha peak frequency) for this association.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva , Julgamento , Desempenho Psicomotor , Percepção do Tempo , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Ilusões , Individualidade , Intenção , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
20.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 220: 103422, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592586

RESUMO

Individuals vary in emotion recognition ability (ERA), but the causes and correlates of this variability are not well understood. Previous studies have largely focused on unimodal facial or vocal expressions and a small number of emotion categories, which may not reflect how emotions are expressed in everyday interactions. We investigated individual differences in ERA using a brief test containing dynamic multimodal (facial and vocal) expressions of 5 positive and 7 negative emotions (the ERAM test). Study 1 (N = 593) showed that ERA was positively correlated with emotional understanding, empathy, and openness, and negatively correlated with alexithymia. Women also had higher ERA than men. Study 2 was conducted online and replicated the recognition rates from Study 1 (which was conducted in lab) in a different sample (N = 106). Study 2 also showed that participants who had higher ERA were more accurate in their meta-cognitive judgments about their own accuracy. Recognition rates for visual, auditory, and audio-visual expressions were substantially correlated in both studies. Results provide further clues about the underlying structure of ERA and its links to broader affective processes. The ERAM test can be used for both lab and online research, and is freely available for academic research.


Assuntos
Expressão Facial , Individualidade , Sintomas Afetivos , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reconhecimento Psicológico
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