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1.
Cogn Res Princ Implic ; 5(1): 63, 2020 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33275199

RESUMO

Exposure to 'fake news' can result in false memories, with possible consequences for downstream behaviour. Given the sharp rise in online misinformation during the coronavirus pandemic, it is important to understand the factors that influence the development of false memories. The present study measured susceptibility to false memories following exposure to fabricated news stories about the pandemic in a sample of 3746 participants. We investigated the effect of individual differences in (1) knowledge about COVID-19, (2) engagement with media or discussion about the coronavirus, (3) anxiety about COVID-19 and (4) analytical reasoning. Notably, objectively and subjectively assessed knowledge about COVID-19 were not significantly correlated. Objectively assessed knowledge was associated with fewer false memories but more true memories, suggesting a true discrimination between true and fake news. In contrast, participants who merely believed themselves to be very knowledgeable were more likely to report a memory for true stories, but showed no reduction in false memories. Similarly, individuals who reported high levels of media engagement or anxiety about COVID-19 reported an increase in true (but not false) memories. Finally, higher levels of analytical reasoning were associated with fewer memories for both true and fabricated stories, suggesting a stricter threshold for reporting a memory for any story. These data indicate that false memories can form in response to fake COVID-19 news and that susceptibility to this misinformation is affected by the individual's knowledge about and interaction with COVID-19 information, as well as their tendency to think critically.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Repressão Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Meios de Comunicação , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Irlanda , Conhecimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Mídias Sociais , Adulto Jovem
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5725, 2020 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33184286

RESUMO

Deep neural networks (DNNs) excel at visual recognition tasks and are increasingly used as a modeling framework for neural computations in the primate brain. Just like individual brains, each DNN has a unique connectivity and representational profile. Here, we investigate individual differences among DNN instances that arise from varying only the random initialization of the network weights. Using tools typically employed in systems neuroscience, we show that this minimal change in initial conditions prior to training leads to substantial differences in intermediate and higher-level network representations despite similar network-level classification performance. We locate the origins of the effects in an under-constrained alignment of category exemplars, rather than misaligned category centroids. These results call into question the common practice of using single networks to derive insights into neural information processing and rather suggest that computational neuroscientists working with DNNs may need to base their inferences on groups of multiple network instances.


Assuntos
Neurociência Cognitiva/métodos , Individualidade , Redes Neurais de Computação , Animais , Encéfalo
3.
Oecologia ; 194(4): 621-634, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141325

RESUMO

Foraging is risky and involves balancing the benefits of resource acquisition with costs of predation. Optimal foraging theory predicts where, when and how long to forage in a given spatiotemporal distribution of risks and resources. However, significant variation in foraging behaviour and resource exploitation remain unexplained. Using single foragers in artificial landscapes of perceived risks and resources with diminishing returns, we aimed to test whether foraging behaviour and resource exploitation are adjusted to risk level, vary with risk during different components of foraging, and (co)vary among individuals. We quantified foraging behaviour and resource exploitation for 21 common voles (Microtus arvalis). By manipulating ground cover, we created simple landscapes of two food patches varying in perceived risk during feeding in a patch and/or while travelling between patches. Foraging of individuals was variable and adjusted to risk level and type. High risk during feeding reduced feeding duration and food consumption more strongly than risk while travelling. Risk during travelling modified the risk effects of feeding for changes between patches and resulting evenness of resource exploitation. Across risk conditions individuals differed consistently in when and how long they exploited resources and exposed themselves to risk. These among-individual differences in foraging behaviour were associated with consistent patterns of resource exploitation. Thus, different strategies in foraging-under-risk ultimately lead to unequal payoffs and might affect lower trophic levels in food webs. Inter-individual differences in foraging behaviour, i.e. foraging personalities, are an integral part of foraging behaviour and need to be fully integrated into optimal foraging theory.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Individualidade , Animais , Arvicolinae , Cadeia Alimentar , Humanos , Comportamento Predatório
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038834

RESUMO

COVID-19 symptoms vary from silence to rapid death, the latter mediated by both a cytokine storm and a thrombotic storm. SARS-CoV (2003) induces Cox-2, catalyzing the synthesis, from highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA), of eicosanoids and docosanoids that mediate both inflammation and thrombosis. HUFA balance between arachidonic acid (AA) and other HUFA is a likely determinant of net signaling to induce a healthy or runaway physiological response. AA levels are determined by a non-protein coding regulatory polymorphisms that mostly affect the expression of FADS1, located in the FADS gene cluster on chromosome 11. Major and minor haplotypes in Europeans, and a specific functional insertion-deletion (Indel), rs66698963, consistently show major differences in circulating AA (>50%) and in the balance between AA and other HUFA (47-84%) in free living humans; the indel is evolutionarily selective, probably based on diet. The pattern of fatty acid responses is fully consistent with specific genetic modulation of desaturation at the FADS1-mediated 20:3→20:4 step. Well established principles of net tissue HUFA levels indicate that the high linoleic acid and low alpha-linoleic acid in populations drive the net balance of HUFA for any individual. We predict that fast desaturators (insertion allele at rs66698963; major haplotype in Europeans) are predisposed to higher risk and pathological responses to SARS-CoV-2 could be reduced with high dose omega-3 HUFA.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/biossíntese , Inflamação/etiologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Trombose/etiologia , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Haplótipos , Humanos , Individualidade , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Lipogênese/genética , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Trombose/epidemiologia , Trombose/genética , Trombose/metabolismo
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(42): 26170-26175, 2020 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020285

RESUMO

Among deaths of despair, the individual and community correlates of US suicides have been consistently identified and are well known. However, the suicide rate has been stubbornly unyielding to reduction efforts, promoting calls for novel research directions. Linking levels of influence has been proposed in theory but blocked by data limitations in the United States. Guided by theories on the importance of connectedness and responding to unique data challenges of low base rates, geographical dispersion, and appropriate comparison groups, we attempt a harmonization of the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) and the American Community Survey (ACS) to match individual and county-level risks. We theorize cross-level sociodemographic homogeneity between individuals and communities, which we refer to as "social similarity" or "sameness," focusing on whether having like-others in the community moderates individual suicide risks. While analyses from this new Multilevel Suicide Data for the United States (MSD-US) replicate several individual and contextual findings, considering sameness changes usual understandings of risk in two critical ways. First, high individual risk for suicide among those who are younger, not US born, widowed or married, unemployed, or have physical disabilities is cut substantially with greater sameness. Second, this moderating pattern flips for Native Americans, Alaska Natives, Asians, and Hispanics, as well as among native-born and unmarried individuals, where low individual suicide risk increases significantly with greater social similarity. Results mark the joint influence of social structure and culture, deliver unique insights on the complexity of connectedness in suicide, and offer considerations for policy and practice.


Assuntos
Individualidade , Vigilância da População , Meio Social , Suicídio Consumado/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Masculino , Casamento , Transtornos Mentais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Suicídio Consumado/psicologia , Desemprego , Estados Unidos , Violência , Adulto Jovem
7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16747, 2020 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028896

RESUMO

Chronotype has been mostly assessed with subjective scales. Objective assessment has been undertaken with actigraphy, although problems may occur in classifying chronotype. The aims of the study were to assess chronotype in school-age children using a novel integrative measurement (TAP) derived from non-invasive assessments of wrist temperature (T) physical activity (A) and body position (P) and to explore associations between chronotype, sleep disturbances, and metabolic components. Four-hundred-thirty-two children of 8-12 years were recruited from a Mediterranean area of Spain. Measurements were: (a) Chronotype objectively (7-day-rhythms of TAP) and subjectively measured (Munich-chronotype-self-reported questionnaire); (b) sleep rhythms and light exposition; (c) 7-day-diaries of food intake; (d) anthropometry and metabolic parameters; (e) academic scores. TAP acrophase was able to assess eveningness. As compared to more morning-types, more evening-types displayed lower amplitude in temperature rhythms, increased physical activity in the evening, delayed sleep and midpoint of intake and had more frequent social jet lag (P < 0.05). More evening-types had higher light intensity at 2 h before sleep and lower melatonin values (01:00 h). Eveningness associated with higher BMI and metabolic risk (higher values of insulin, glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol). Evening-types presented better grades in art. In conclusion, more evening-types, as objectively assessed, presented sleep alterations, social jet lag, obesity and higher metabolic risk.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Individualidade , Comportamento Social , Actigrafia , Criança , Colesterol/análise , Feminino , Glucose/análise , Humanos , Insulina/análise , Masculino , Melatonina/análise , Saliva/química , Sono , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários , Triglicerídeos/análise
8.
PLoS Biol ; 18(10): e3000871, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33090992

RESUMO

Mathematical ability is heritable and related to several genes expressing proteins in the brain. It is unknown, however, which intermediate neural phenotypes could explain how these genes relate to mathematical ability. Here, we examined genetic effects on cerebral cortical volume of 3-6-year-old children without mathematical training to predict mathematical ability in school at 7-9 years of age. To this end, we followed an exploration sample (n = 101) and an independent replication sample (n = 77). We found that ROBO1, a gene known to regulate prenatal growth of cerebral cortical layers, is associated with the volume of the right parietal cortex, a key region for quantity representation. Individual volume differences in this region predicted up to a fifth of the behavioral variance in mathematical ability. Our findings indicate that a fundamental genetic component of the quantity processing system is rooted in the early development of the parietal cortex.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Individualidade , Matemática , Comportamento , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Substância Cinzenta/anatomia & histologia , Cones de Crescimento/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Tamanho do Órgão , Lobo Parietal/anatomia & histologia , Receptores Imunológicos/genética
9.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239613, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002053

RESUMO

Theoretical and empirical considerations suggest that individual differences in infant visual attention correlate with variations in cognitive skills later in childhood. Here we tested this hypothesis in infants from rural Malawi (n = 198-377, depending on analysis), who were assessed with eye tracking tests of visual orienting, anticipatory looks, and attention to faces at 9 months, and more conventional tests of cognitive control (A-not-B), motor, language, and socioemotional development at 18 months. The results showed no associations between measures of infant attention at 9 months and cognitive skills at 18 months, either in analyses linking infant visual orienting with broad cognitive outcomes or analyses linking specific constructs between the two time points (i.e., switching of anticipatory looks and manual reaching responses), as correlations varied between -0.08 and 0.14. Measures of physical growth, and family socioeconomic characteristics were also not correlated with cognitive outcomes at 18 months in the current sample (correlations between -0.10 and 0.19). The results do not support the use of the current tests of infant visual attention as a predictive tool for 18-month-old infants' cognitive skills in the Malawian setting. The results are discussed in light of the potential limitations of the employed infant tests as well as potentially unique characteristics of early cognitive development in low-resource settings.


Assuntos
Atenção , Comportamento do Lactente , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Percepção Visual , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Cognição , Medições dos Movimentos Oculares , Movimentos Oculares , Feminino , Fixação Ocular , Humanos , Individualidade , Lactente , Comportamento do Lactente/fisiologia , Comportamento do Lactente/psicologia , Malaui , Masculino , Psicologia da Criança , Fatores Socioeconômicos
10.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 260-263, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017978

RESUMO

The cross-subject variability, or individuality, of electroencephalography (EEG) signals often has been an obstacle to extracting target-related information from EEG signals for classification of subjects' perceptual states. In this paper, we propose a deep learning-based EEG classification approach, which learns feature space mapping and performs individuality detachment to reduce subject-related information from EEG signals and maximize classification performance. Our experiment on EEG-based video classification shows that our method significantly improves the classification accuracy.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Individualidade
11.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1937): 20201201, 2020 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081618

RESUMO

Most of the empirical research on sex differences and cultural variations in morality has relied on within-culture analyses or small-scale cross-cultural data. To further broaden the scientific understanding of sex differences in morality, the current research relies on two international samples to provide the first large-scale examination of sex differences in moral judgements nested within cultures. Using a sample from 67 countries (Study 1; n = 336 691), we found culturally variable sex differences in moral judgements, as conceptualized by Moral Foundations Theory. Women consistently scored higher than men on Care, Fairness, and Purity. By contrast, sex differences in Loyalty and Authority were negligible and highly variable across cultures. Country-level sex differences in moral judgements were also examined in relation to cultural, socioeconomic, and gender-equality indicators revealing that sex differences in moral judgements are larger in individualist, Western, and gender-equal societies. In Study 2 (19 countries; n = 11 969), these results were largely replicated using Bayesian multi-level modelling in a distinct sample. The findings were robust when incorporating cultural non-independence of countries into the models. Specifically, women consistently showed higher concerns for Care, Fairness, and Purity in their moral judgements than did men. Sex differences in moral judgements were larger in individualist and gender-equal societies with more flexible social norms. We discuss the implications of these findings for the ongoing debate about the origin of sex differences and cultural variations in moral judgements as well as theoretical and pragmatic implications for moral and evolutionary psychology.


Assuntos
Julgamento , Princípios Morais , Caracteres Sexuais , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Masculino
12.
Dev Cogn Neurosci ; 45: 100859, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920280

RESUMO

Psychosocial stress increases risky decision-making (DM). It is widely accepted that individual variation in neural phenotypes underlie variability in this behavioral tendency in adults, but is less examined in adolescents. Our goal was to test the hypothesis that the relation between neural phenotypes and stress-related risky DM is better characterized by individual variation than by age. Using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography to characterize the accumbofrontal tract, we determined if it uniquely moderated how stress affects risky DM, over and above age. A daily diary design monitored participants' daily stress for two weeks. Participants completed a DTI scan and performed a task in which decisions varied by expected value, once each on a day when they endorsed feeling higher (and lower) than usual levels of stress. Multilevel logistic regression analyses revealed that all participants were more likely to take risks as expected reward value increased; this behavior was greater under high versus low stress for individuals with low accumbofrontal tract integrity, whereas DM was less influenced by stress for individuals with high accumbofrontal tract integrity, regardless of age. Results suggest that individual differences in brain structure may be more germane to characterizing risky decisions in adolescents, rather than ontogeny.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Tomada de Decisões/ética , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão/métodos , Individualidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Assunção de Riscos
13.
Dev Cogn Neurosci ; 45: 100855, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942148

RESUMO

A key goal of human neurodevelopmental research is to map neural and behavioral trajectories across both health and disease. A growing number of developmental consortia have begun to address this gap by providing open access to cross-sectional and longitudinal 'big data' repositories. However, it remains challenging to develop models that enable prediction of both within-subject and between-subject neurodevelopmental variation. Here, we present a conceptual and analytical perspective of two essential ingredients for mapping neurodevelopmental trajectories: state and trait components of variance. We focus on mapping variation across a range of neural and behavioral measurements and consider concurrent alterations of state and trait variation across development. We present a quantitative framework for combining both state- and trait-specific sources of neurobehavioral variation across development. Specifically, we argue that non-linear mixed growth models that leverage state and trait components of variance and consider environmental factors are necessary to comprehensively map brain-behavior relationships. We discuss this framework in the context of mapping language neurodevelopmental changes in early childhood, with an emphasis on measures of functional connectivity and their reliability for establishing robust neurobehavioral relationships. The ultimate goal is to statistically unravel developmental trajectories of neurobehavioral relationships that involve a combination of individual differences and age-related changes.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Sistema Nervoso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15283, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943701

RESUMO

Negative emotionality is a well-established and stable risk factor for affective disorders. Individual differences in negative emotionality have been linked to associative learning processes which can be captured experimentally by computing CS-discrimination values in fear conditioning paradigms. Literature suffers from underpowered samples, suboptimal methods, and an isolated focus on single questionnaires and single outcome measures. First, the specific and shared variance across three commonly employed questionnaires [STAI-T, NEO-FFI-Neuroticism, Intolerance of Uncertainty (IU) Scale] in relation to CS-discrimination during fear-acquisition in multiple analysis units (ratings, skin conductance, startle) is addressed (NStudy1 = 356). A specific significant negative association between STAI-T and CS-discrimination in SCRs and between IU and CS-discrimination in startle responding was identified in multimodal and dimensional analyses, but also between latent factors negative emotionality and fear learning, which capture shared variance across questionnaires/scales and across outcome measures. Second, STAI-T was positively associated with CS-discrimination in a number of brain areas linked to conditioned fear (amygdala, putamen, thalamus), but not to SCRs or ratings (NStudy2 = 113). Importantly, we replicate potential sampling biases between fMRI and behavioral studies regarding anxiety levels. Future studies are needed to target wide sampling distributions for STAI-T and verify whether current findings are generalizable to other samples.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Extinção Psicológica/fisiologia , Medo/fisiologia , Individualidade , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Condicionamento Clássico/fisiologia , Feminino , Resposta Galvânica da Pele/fisiologia , Humanos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Reflexo de Sobressalto/fisiologia , Incerteza
15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4503, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908145

RESUMO

Most humans believe in a god, but many do not. Differences in belief have profound societal impacts. Anthropological accounts implicate bottom-up perceptual processes in shaping religious belief, suggesting that individual differences in these processes may help explain variation in belief. Here, in findings replicated across socio-religiously disparate samples studied in the U.S. and Afghanistan, implicit learning of patterns/order within visuospatial sequences (IL-pat) in a strongly bottom-up paradigm predict 1) stronger belief in an intervening/ordering god, and 2) increased strength-of-belief from childhood to adulthood, controlling for explicit learning and parental belief. Consistent with research implicating IL-pat as a basis of intuition, and intuition as a basis of belief, mediation models support a hypothesized effect pathway whereby IL-pat leads to intuitions of order which, in turn, lead to belief in ordering gods. The universality and variability of human IL-pat may thus contribute to the global presence and variability of religious belief.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Intuição/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Religião e Psicologia , Religião , Adolescente , Adulto , Afeganistão , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(37): 22780-22786, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868412

RESUMO

Does being disagreeable-that is, behaving in aggressive, selfish, and manipulative ways-help people attain power? This question has long captivated philosophers, scholars, and laypeople alike, and yet prior empirical findings have been inconclusive. In the current research, we conducted two preregistered prospective longitudinal studies in which we measured participants' disagreeableness prior to entering the labor market and then assessed the power they attained in the context of their work organization ∼14 y later when their professional careers had unfolded. Both studies found disagreeable individuals did not attain higher power as opposed to extraverted individuals who did gain higher power in their organizations. Furthermore, the null relationship between disagreeableness and power was not moderated by individual differences, such as gender or ethnicity, or by contextual variables, such as organizational culture. What can account for this null relationship? A close examination of behavior patterns in the workplace found that disagreeable individuals engaged in two distinct patterns of behavior that offset each other's effects on power attainment: They engaged in more dominant-aggressive behavior, which positively predicted attaining higher power, but also engaged in less communal and generous behavior, which predicted attaining less power. These two effects, when combined, appeared to cancel each other out and led to a null correlation between disagreeableness and power.


Assuntos
Personalidade/fisiologia , Poder Psicológico , Adulto , Dissidências e Disputas , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Relações Interpessoais , Liderança , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Ocupações , Estudos Prospectivos , Personalidade Tipo A
17.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238892, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913369

RESUMO

Counterproductive academic behaviors (CAB) is a problem that has plagued academic institutions for centuries. However, research has mostly been focused on higher learning institutes in North America. For this reason, literature on CAB must be expanded to other geographical areas and academic levels. The present research analyses the prevalence and correlates of CAB in a sample of Spanish high school students. The results indicate that CAB is a common phenomenon, cheating and low effort behaviors being the most prevalent forms. Correlational analyses revealed that conscientiousness (ρ = -.55, p < .01), emotional stability (ρ = .28, p < .01), and agreeableness (ρ = -.26, p < .05) are predictors of CAB. Multiple regression analyses showed that conscientiousness is the dimension exerting the strongest impact on CAB (ß = -.64, p < .01), followed by agreeableness, and emotional stability. These three dimensions accounted for 51% of CAB variance. Last, implications for theory and practice are described.


Assuntos
Individualidade , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Decepção , Avaliação Educacional , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Análise de Regressão , Espanha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Nature ; 585(7824): 239-244, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879485

RESUMO

Obligate endosymbiosis, in which distantly related species integrate to form a single replicating individual, represents a major evolutionary transition in individuality1-3. Although such transitions are thought to increase biological complexity1,2,4-6, the evolutionary and developmental steps that lead to integration remain poorly understood. Here we show that obligate endosymbiosis between the bacteria Blochmannia and the hyperdiverse ant tribe Camponotini7-11 originated and also elaborated through radical alterations in embryonic development, as compared to other insects. The Hox genes Abdominal A (abdA) and Ultrabithorax (Ubx)-which, in arthropods, normally function to differentiate abdominal and thoracic segments after they form-were rewired to also regulate germline genes early in development. Consequently, the mRNAs and proteins of these Hox genes are expressed maternally and colocalize at a subcellular level with those of germline genes in the germplasm and three novel locations in the freshly laid egg. Blochmannia bacteria then selectively regulate these mRNAs and proteins to make each of these four locations functionally distinct, creating a system of coordinates in the embryo in which each location performs a different function to integrate Blochmannia into the Camponotini. Finally, we show that the capacity to localize mRNAs and proteins to new locations in the embryo evolved before obligate endosymbiosis and was subsequently co-opted by Blochmannia and Camponotini. This pre-existing molecular capacity converged with a pre-existing ecological mutualism12,13 to facilitate both the horizontal transfer10 and developmental integration of Blochmannia into Camponotini. Therefore, the convergence of pre-existing molecular capacities and ecological interactions-as well as the rewiring of highly conserved gene networks-may be a general feature that facilitates the origin and elaboration of major transitions in individuality.


Assuntos
Formigas/embriologia , Formigas/microbiologia , Bactérias , Evolução Biológica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Individualidade , Simbiose/genética , Animais , Formigas/citologia , Formigas/genética , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Feminino , Genes Homeobox/genética , Herança Materna/genética , Oócitos/citologia , Oócitos/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
19.
Agora (Rio J.) ; 23(2): 24-34, maio-ago. 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1130818

RESUMO

Resumo: O estudo busca articular os possíveis sentidos expressos em letras de rap do cenário paulistano e o processo de amadurecimento emocional juvenil, a partir da teoria psicanalítica de D. W. Winnicott. Os trechos musicais selecionados foram alocados em três categorias de análise: a) Rap e os processos integrativos; b) Rap e a socialização juvenil; e c) A criatividade no rap. Verificou-se que as letras retratam o rap como instrumento facilitador ao uso de recursos psíquicos, a fim de colocar as angústias sob domínio egoico, conduzindo o indivíduo a uma posição transformadora de si, contribuindo para o amadurecimento e saúde emocional.


Abstract: The article seeks to articulate the possible meanings expressed in rap of the São Paulo scenario and the process of emotional maturation of the young, based on D. Winnicott's psychoanalytic theory. The sections are seen in three categories of analysis: a) Rap and the integrative processes; b) Rap and youth socialization; and c) Creativity without rap. It was found that the lyrics portray rap as an instrument which facilitates the use of psychic resources, in order to place the behavior on the egoic, leading the individual into a transforming position of self, contributing to maturity and emotional health.


Assuntos
Adolescente , Emoções , Individualidade
20.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236987, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745087

RESUMO

The relationship between mood states and state creativity has long been investigated. Exploring individual differences may provide additional important information to further our understanding of the complex mood-creativity relationship. The present study explored the state-level mood-creativity relationship from the perspective of trait creativity. We employed the experience sampling method (ESM) in a cohort of 56 college students over five consecutive days. The participants reported their state creativity on originality and usefulness dimensions at six random points between 9:00 a.m. and 11:00 p.m., along with a 10-item concurrent mood state report. Their trait creativity was measured by the Guildford Alternative Uses Test (AUT) and the Remote Associates Test (RAT). We found moderating effects of the participants' trait creativity on their state-level mood-creativity relationship. Specifically, whereas the positive correlation between positive mood state and originality of state creativity was stronger for the participants with higher AUT flexibility scores, stronger positive correlations between negative mood state and originality of state creativity were observed for individuals with higher AUT originality scores. Our findings provide evidence in support of introducing individual differences to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of the mood-creativity link. The results could be of practical value, in developing individualized mood state regulation strategies for promoting state creativity.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Criatividade , Individualidade , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
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