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1.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0298804, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574013

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim was to compare the probability of discharge after hip fracture surgery conditional on being alive and in hospital between patients mobilised within and beyond 36-hours of surgery across groups defined by depression. METHODS: Data were taken from the National Hip Fracture Database and included patients 60 years of age or older who underwent hip fracture surgery in England and Wales between 2014 and 2016. The conditional probability of postsurgical live discharge was estimated for patients mobilised early and for patients mobilised late across groups with and without depression. The association between mobilisation timing and the conditional probability of live discharge were also estimated separately through adjusted generalized linear models. RESULTS: Data were analysed for 116,274 patients. A diagnosis of depression was present in 8.31% patients. In those with depression, 7,412 (76.7%) patients mobilised early. In those without depression, 84,085 (78.9%) patients mobilised early. By day 30 after surgery, the adjusted odds ratio of discharge among those who mobilised early compared to late was 1.79 (95% CI: 1.56-2.05, p<0.001) and 1.92 (95% CI: 1.84-2.00, p<0.001) for those with and without depression, respectively. CONCLUSION: A similar proportion of patients with depression mobilised early after hip fracture surgery when compared to those without a diagnosis of depression. The association between mobilisation timing and time to live discharge was observed for patients with and without depression.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Quadril , Alta do Paciente , Humanos , Depressão/epidemiologia , Fraturas do Quadril/cirurgia , Fraturas do Quadril/diagnóstico , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Inglaterra/epidemiologia
2.
Drug Alcohol Rev ; 43(3): 675-684, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38426344

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: While international literature addresses the links between youth culture and the decline in youth drinking, little research has engaged with scholarship on youth geographies to more fully disentangle these links. This article explores how the decline is connected to shifts in where young people access and drink alcohol. METHODS: Qualitative interviews were conducted with young people aged 12-19 (N = 96) and 29-35 (N = 17) years in England. The interviews explored the place of alcohol in everyday life, with younger participants discussing the present and older participants discussing their youth in the late 1990s to early 2000s. Data were analysed thematically. FINDINGS: Buying alcohol in shops and licensed premises was a common experience for older participants when they were teenagers but few younger participants discussed buying alcohol from commercial settings. Older participants also reflected positively on drinking in outdoor public spaces whereas younger participants, particularly those from working-class backgrounds, regarded this as morally suspect. Young participants instead accessed alcohol from parents and siblings, and often consumed it in their or others' homes in supervised or moderated ways, seeing this as positive and normative. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Spatial shifts in young people's drinking away from public spaces and toward the home appear an important part of a wider trend that renders youth drinking as increasingly moderate, risk-averse, incidental and mediated by parents, rather than excessive, transgressive and integral to youth culture.


Assuntos
Consumo de Álcool por Menores , Adolescente , Humanos , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia
5.
Lancet Public Health ; 9(4): e231-e239, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38553142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are socioeconomic inequalities in the prevalence of multimorbidity and its accumulation across the life course. Estimates of multimorbidity prevalence in English primary care increased by more than two-thirds from 2004 to 2019. We developed a microsimulation model to quantify current and projected multimorbidity inequalities in the English adult population. METHODS: We used primary care data for adults in England from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink Aurum database between 2004 and 2019, linked to the 2015 English Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD), to model time individuals spent in four health states (healthy, one chronic condition, basic multimorbidity [two or more chronic conditions], and complex multimorbidity [three or more chronic conditions affecting three or more body systems]) by sex, age, IMD quintile, birth cohort, and region. We applied these transition times in a stochastic dynamic continuous-time microsimulation model to Office for National Statistics population estimates for adults aged 30-90 years. We calculated projected prevalence and cumulative incident cases from 2019 to 2049 by IMD quintile, age group (younger than 65 years vs 65 years and older), and years to be lived without multimorbidity at age 30 years. FINDINGS: Under the assumption that all chronic conditions were lifelong, and that once diagnosed there was no recovery, we projected prevalence of multimorbidity (basic or complex) increases by 34% from 53·8% in 2019 to 71·9% (95% uncertainty interval 71·8-72·0) in 2049. This rise equates to an 84% increase in the number of people with multimorbidity: from 19·2 million in 2019 to 35·3 million in 2049 (35·3 million to 35·4 million). This projected increase is greatest in the most deprived quintile, with an excess 1·07 million (1·04 million to 1·10 million) cumulative incident basic multimorbidity cases and 0·70 million (0·67 million to 0·74 million) complex multimorbidity cases over and above the projected cases for the least deprived quintile, largely driven by inequalities in those younger than 65 years. The median expected number of years to be lived without multimorbidity at age 30 years in 2019 is 15·12 years (14·62-16·01) in the least deprived IMD quintile and 12·15 years (11·61-12·60) in the most deprived IMD quintile. INTERPRETATION: The number of people living with multimorbidity will probably increase substantially in the next 30 years, a continuation of past observed increases partly driven by changing population size and age structure. Inequalities in the multimorbidity burden increase at each stage of disease accumulation, and are projected to widen, particularly among the working-age population. Substantial action is needed now to address population health and to prepare health-care and social-care systems for coming decades. FUNDING: University of Liverpool and National Institute for Health and Care Research School for Public Health Research.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Multimorbidade , Adulto , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica
6.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 11(4): 274-284, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38490760

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little information is available on the clinical trajectories of children and adolescents who attend general practice (GP) with psychiatric symptoms. We aimed to examine 5-year service use in English primary care for children and adolescents with neurodevelopmental or mental health symptoms or diagnoses. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we used anonymised primary care health records from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink Aurum database (CPRD-Aurum). We identified children and adolescents (aged 3-18 years) presenting to primary care in England between Jan 1, 2000, and May 9, 2016, with a symptom or diagnosis of a mental health, behavioural, or neurodevelopmental condition. Participants were excluded if they had less than 1 year of follow-up. We followed up participants from their index date until either death, transfer out of the practice, or the end of data collection on May 5, 2021, and for trajectory analysis we limited follow-up to 5 years. We used group-based multi-trajectory models to identify clusters with similar trajectories over 5 years of follow-up for three primary outcomes: mental health-related GP contacts, psychotropic medication prescriptions, and specialist mental health-care contact. We did survival analysis to examine the associations between trajectory-group membership and hospital admission for self-harm or death by suicide, as indicators of severe psychiatric distress. FINDINGS: We included 369 340 children and adolescents, of whom 180 863 (49·0%) were girls, 188 438 (51·0%) were boys, 39 (<0·1%) were of indeterminate gender, 290 125 (78·6%) were White, 9161 (2·5%) were South Asian, 10 418 (2·8%) were Black, 8115 (2·2%) were of mixed ethnicity, and 8587 (2·3%) were other ethnicities, and the median age at index presentation was 13·6 years (IQR 8·4-16·7). In the best-fitting, seven-group, group-based multi-trajectory model, over a 5-year period, the largest group (low contact; 207 985 [51·2%]) had low rates of additional service contact or psychotropic prescriptions. The other trajectory groups were moderate, non-pharmacological contact (43 836 [13·0%]); declining contact (25 469 [8·7%]); year-4 escalating contact (18 277 [6·9%]); year-5 escalating contact (18 139; 5·2%); prolonged GP contact (32 147 [8·6%]); and prolonged specialist contact (23 487 [6·5%]). Non-White ethnicity and presentation in earlier study years (eg, 2000-2004) were associated with low-contact group membership. The prolonged specialist-contact group had the highest risk of hospital admission for self-harm (hazard ratio vs low-contact group 2·19 [95% CI 2·03-2·36]) and suicide (2·67 [1·72-4·14]). INTERPRETATION: Most children and adolescents presenting to primary care with psychiatric symptoms or diagnoses have low or declining rates of ongoing contact. If these trajectories reflect symptomatic improvement, these findings provide reassurance for children and adolescents and their caregivers. However, these trajectories might reflect an unmet need for some children and adolescents. FUNDING: National Institute for Health and Care Research and the Wellcome Trust.


Assuntos
Clínicos Gerais , Transtornos Mentais , Masculino , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Adolescente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Psicotrópicos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 346, 2024 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38519921

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study explores regional variations in COVID-19 hospitalization rates, in-hospital mortality, and acute kidney injury (AKI) in England. We investigated the influence of population demographic characteristics, viral strain changes, and therapeutic advances on clinical outcomes. METHODS: Using hospital episode statistics, we conducted a retrospective cohort study with 749,844 admissions in 337,029 adult patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection (March 1, 2020, to March 31, 2021). Multivariable logistic regression identified factors predicting AKI and mortality in COVID-19 hospitalized patients. RESULTS: London had the highest number of COVID-19 admissions (131,338, 18%), followed by the North-west region (122,683, 16%). The North-west had the highest population incidence of COVID-19 hospital admissions (21,167 per million population, pmp), while the South-west had the lowest (9,292 admissions pmp). Patients in London were relatively younger (67.0 ± 17.7 years) than those in the East of England (72.2 ± 16.8 years). The shortest length of stay was in the North-east (12.2 ± 14.9 days), while the longest was in the North-west (15.2 ± 17.9 days). All eight regions had higher odds of death compared to London, ranging from OR 1.04 (95% CI 1.00, 1.07) in the South-west to OR 1.24 (95% CI 1.21, 1.28) in the North-west. Older age, Asian ethnicity, emergency admission, transfers from other hospitals, AKI presence, ITU admission, social deprivation, and comorbidity were associated with higher odds of death. AKI incidence was 30.3%, and all regions had lower odds of developing AKI compared to London. Increasing age, mixed and black ethnicity, emergency admission, transfers from other providers, ITU care, and different levels of comorbidity were associated with higher odds of developing AKI. CONCLUSIONS: London exhibited higher hospital admission numbers and AKI incidence, but lower odds of death compared to other regions in England. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registered on National Library of Medicine website ( www. CLINICALTRIALS: gov ) with registration number NCT04579562 on 8/10/2020.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , COVID-19 , Adulto , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Hospitalização , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Fatores de Risco
8.
Age Ageing ; 53(3)2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38497239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With growing emphasis on palliative care for neurodegenerative conditions, understanding trends in place of death helps improve quality of end-of-life care for people with Parkinson's disease and related disorders (PDRDs), focusing allocation of resources and training and identifying inequalities. OBJECTIVES: Review national and regional place of death trends for people with PDRD including pre- and post-pandemic trends. METHODS: Mortality data for England and Wales (March 2018 and July 2022) were analysed with summary statistics and interrupted time series, exploring place of death for those who died with PDRD, with and without coexisting dementia, with reference to all deaths in England and Wales. RESULTS: Of 2,415,566 adult deaths, 56,790 included mention of PDRD. Hospital deaths were most common in people with PDRD (39.17%), followed by care homes (38.84%). People with PDRD were half as likely to die in hospice compared with the general population (2.03 vs 4.94%). Proportion of care home deaths fell significantly after March 2020 (40.6-37%, P = 0.035). Regionally, London was an outlier with a lower proportion of deaths occurring in care homes with a higher proportion of hospital deaths. CONCLUSION: Place of death for people with PDRD is changing, with more hospice and home deaths. People with PDRD, particularly those with co-existent dementia, are less likely to access inpatient hospice care than the general population. Since the COVID-19 pandemic, the proportion of care home deaths has reduced significantly with an increase in home deaths, with implications for service and resource allocation.


Assuntos
Demência , Doença de Parkinson , Humanos , Demência/epidemiologia , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico , Doença de Parkinson/terapia , Doença de Parkinson/epidemiologia , País de Gales/epidemiologia , Adulto
10.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7475, 2024 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38553484

RESUMO

To detect SARS-CoV-2 amongst asymptomatic care home staff in England, a dual-technology weekly testing regime was introduced on 23 December 2020. A lateral flow device (LFD) and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) test were taken on the same day (day 0) and a midweek LFD test was taken three to four days later. We evaluated the effectiveness of using dual-technology to detect SARS-CoV-2 between December 2020 to April 2021. Viral concentrations derived from qRT-PCR were used to determine the probable stage of infection and likely level of infectiousness. Day 0 PCR detected 1,493 cases of COVID-19, of which 53% were in the early stages of infection with little to no risk of transmission. Day 0 LFD detected 83% of cases that were highly likely to be infectious. On average, LFD results were received 46.3 h earlier than PCR, enabling removal of likely infectious staff from the workplace quicker than by weekly PCR alone. Demonstrating the rapidity of LFDs to detect highly infectious cases could be combined with the ability of PCR to detect cases in the very early stages of infection. In practice, asymptomatic care home staff were removed from the workplace earlier, breaking potential chains of transmission.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Teste para COVID-19 , Inglaterra/epidemiologia
11.
Popul Health Metr ; 22(1): 4, 2024 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38461232

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studying long-term trends in educational inequalities in health is important for monitoring and policy evaluation. Data issues regarding the allocation of people to educational groups hamper the study and international comparison of educational inequalities in mortality. For the UK, this has been acknowledged, but no satisfactory solution has been proposed. OBJECTIVE: To enable the examination of long-term mortality trends by educational level for England and Wales (E&W) in a time-consistent and internationally comparable manner, we propose and implement an approach to deal with the data issues regarding mortality data by educational level. METHODS: We employed 10-year follow-ups of individuals aged 20+ from the Office for National Statistics Longitudinal Study (ONS-LS), which include education information from each decennial census (1971-2011) linked to individual death records, for a 1% representative sample of the E&W population. We assigned the individual cohort data to single ages and calendar years, and subsequently obtained aggregate all-cause mortality data by education, sex, age (30+), and year (1972-2017). Our data adjustment approach optimised the available education information at the individual level, and adjusts-at the aggregate level-for trend discontinuities related to the identified data issues, and for differences with country-level mortality data for the total population. RESULTS: The approach resulted in (1) a time-consistent and internationally comparable categorisation of educational attainment into the low, middle, and high educated; (2) the adjustment of identified data-quality related discontinuities in the trends over time in the share of personyears and deaths by educational level, and in the crude and the age-standardised death rate by and across educational levels; (3) complete mortality data by education for ONS-LS members aged 30+ in 1972-2017 which aligns with country-level mortality data for the total population; and (4) the estimation of inequality measures using established methods. For those aged 30+ , both absolute and relative educational inequalities in mortality first increased and subsequently decreased. CONCLUSION: We obtained additional insights into long-term trends in educational inequalities in mortality in E&W, and illustrated the potential effects of different data issues. We recommend the use of (part of) the proposed approach in other contexts.


Assuntos
Mortalidade , Humanos , País de Gales/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Escolaridade , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
13.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1358433, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38510348

RESUMO

Background: Cervical cancer is the fourth highest incidence of malignancy in the world and a common cause of cancer death in women. We assessed the trends of incidence and mortality and disability-adjusted life year (DALY) in China, England and India from 1990 to 2030. Method: Data were obtained from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) database. We collected the number and rate of incidence, death and DALY from 1990 to 2019 and calculated the estimated annual percentage change (EAPC). Further analysis was carried out by ages and years. We also collected attributable risk factors to cervical cancer. Finally, we utilized the Bayesian Age-Period-Cohort (BAPC) model to forecast trends in the rate of age-standardized incidence (ASIR) and age-standardized death (ASDR) the for the next decade. Result: Globally, the incidence of cervical cancer cases increased from 335,641.56 in 1990 to 565,540.89 in 2019. In 2019, the ASIR and ASDR of cervical cancer were higher than those of India but lower than those of England. Furthermore, unsafe sex and smoking emerge as prominent risk factors for cervical cancer. Over the next decade, ASIR and ASDR are expected to decline in China and England, while India's ASIR is still on an upward trend and ASDR is on a downward trend. Conclusion: The epidemiological data of cervical cancer in these three countries reflects the influence of different stages of development and healthcare systems. Trends over the next decade suggest that China and India still face a huge burden of cervical cancer. When England has made significant progress, China and India need to take more measures to improve the prevention and control of cervical cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Carga Global da Doença , Teorema de Bayes , Incidência , China/epidemiologia , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Índia/epidemiologia
14.
J Hosp Infect ; 143: 33-37, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38529780

RESUMO

A large increase in hospital-onset and intensive-care-unit-onset Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia rates in English acute trusts was observed between 2020 and 2021, coinciding with reported increases in coronavirus disease (COVID-19) cases and associated hospitalizations. Many of these S. aureus bacteraemia cases were defined as co-/secondary infections to COVID-19. Over the same period, increases in the percentage of ventilator-associated pneumonia-related bacteraemia were also found. The COVID-19 pandemic appears to have contributed to the increase in hospital-onset S. aureus bacteraemia in England; further studies are needed to better understand the impacts on patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia , COVID-19 , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Humanos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus aureus , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Medicina Estatal , Pandemias , Hospitais , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia
17.
Lancet Public Health ; 9(3): e178-e185, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38429017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: England implemented a menu calorie labelling policy in large, out-of-home food businesses in 2022. We aimed to model the likely policy impact on population-level obesity and cardiovascular disease mortality, as well as the socioeconomic equity of estimated effects, in the adult population in England. METHODS: For this modelling analysis, we built a comparative assessment model using two scenarios: the current implementation scenario refers to actual deployment only in large (≥250 employees), out-of-home food businesses, whereas the full implementation scenario refers to deployment in every out-of-home food business. We compared each scenario with a counterfactual: the scenario in which no intervention is implemented (ie, baseline). For both scenarios, we modelled the impact of the policy through assumed changes in energy intake due to either consumer response or product reformulation by retailers. We used data from the Office for National Statistics and the National Diet and Nutrition Survey 2009-19, and modelled the effect over 20 years (ie, 2022-41) to capture the long-term impact of the policy and provided mid-period results after 10 years. We used the Monte Carlo approach (2500 iterations) to estimate the uncertainty of model parameters. For each scenario, the model generated the change in obesity prevalence and the total number of deaths prevented or postponed. FINDINGS: The current implementation scenario was estimated to reduce obesity prevalence by 0·31 percentage points (absolute; 95% uncertainty interval [UI] 0·10-0·35), which would prevent or postpone 730 cardiovascular disease deaths (UI 430-1300) of the 830 000 deaths (UI 600 000-1 200 000) expected over 20 years. However, the health benefits would be increased if calorie labelling was implemented in all out-of-home food businesses (2·65 percentage points reduction in obesity prevalence [UI 1·97-3·24] and 9200 cardiovascular disease deaths prevented or postponed [UI 5500-16 000]). Results were similar in the most and the least deprived socioeconomic groups. INTERPRETATION: This study offers the first modelled estimation of the impact of the menu calorie labelling regulation on the adult population in England, although we did not include a cost-effectiveness analysis. Calorie labelling might result in a reduction in obesity prevalence and cardiovascular disease mortality without widening health inequalities. However, our results emphasise the need for the government to be more ambitious by applying this policy to all out-of-home food businesses to maximise impact. FUNDING: European Research Council.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Adulto , Humanos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Ingestão de Energia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
18.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(2): e240582, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38416490

RESUMO

Importance: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are less harmful to users than combustible cigarettes. However, public health and media reporting have often overstated the potential risks of e-cigarettes, and inaccurate perceptions of the harms of vaping relative to smoking are pervasive. Objective: To examine time trends in harm perceptions of e-cigarettes compared with combustible cigarettes among adults who smoke. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nationally representative monthly cross-sectional survey study was conducted from November 2014 to June 2023 in England. Participants were adults who currently smoke. Main Outcomes and Measures: Participants were asked whether they thought e-cigarettes were less harmful, equally harmful, or more harmful than cigarettes, or did not know, with the proportion responding less harmful (vs all other responses) as the primary outcome. Logistic regression was used to test associations between survey wave and participants' perceptions of the harms of e-cigarettes. Results: Data were collected from 28 393 adults who smoke (mean [SD] age, 43.5 [17.3] years; 13 253 [46.7%] women). In November 2014, 44.4% (95% CI, 42.0%-46.8%) thought e-cigarettes were less harmful than cigarettes, 30.3% (95% CI, 28.2%-32.6%) thought e-cigarettes were equally harmful, 10.8% (95% CI, 9.4%-12.3%) thought they were more harmful, and 14.5% (95% CI, 12.9%-16.4%) did not know. However, by June 2023, the proportion who thought e-cigarettes were less harmful had decreased by 40% (prevalence ratio, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.55-0.66), and the proportion who thought e-cigarettes were more harmful had more than doubled (prevalence ratio, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.84-2.54). Changes over time were nonlinear: late 2019 saw a sharp decline in the proportion who thought e-cigarettes were less harmful and increases in the proportions who thought they were equally or more harmful. These changes were short-lived, returning to pre-2019 levels by the end of 2020. However, perceptions worsened again from 2021 up to the end of the study period: the proportion who thought e-cigarettes were more harmful increased to a new high, and the proportion who thought e-cigarettes were less harmful decreased to levels comparable to those in late 2019. As a result, in June 2023, the perception that e-cigarettes were equally as harmful as cigarettes was the most commonly held view among adults who smoke (33.7%; 95% CI, 31.4%-36.1%), with roughly similar proportions perceiving e-cigarettes to be less (26.7%; 95% CI, 24.6%-28.9%) and more (23.3%; 95% CI, 21.1%-25.7%) harmful. Conclusions and Relevance: This survey study of adults who smoke in England found that harm perceptions of e-cigarettes have worsened substantially over the last decade, such that most adults who smoked in 2023 believed e-cigarettes to be at least as harmful as cigarettes. The timing of the 2 most notable changes in harm perceptions coincided with the e-cigarette, or vaping product, use-associated lung injury outbreak in 2019 and the recent increase in youth vaping in England since 2021.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Vaping , Adulto , Adolescente , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Transversais , Surtos de Doenças , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Vaping/epidemiologia
19.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 4849, 2024 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38418486

RESUMO

Persistent tuberculosis (TB) in cattle populations in England has been associated with an exchange of infection with badgers (Meles meles). A badger control policy (BCP) commenced in 2013. Its aim was to decrease TB incidence in cattle by reducing the badger population available to provide a wildlife reservoir for bovine TB. Monitoring data from 52 BCP intervention areas 200-1600 km2 in size, starting over several years, were used to estimate the change in TB incidence rate in cattle herds, which was associated with time since the start of the BCP in each area. A difference in differences analysis addressed the non-random selection and starting sequence of the areas. The herd incidence rate of TB reduced by 56% (95% Confidence Interval 41-69%) up to the fourth year of BCP interventions, with the largest drops in the second and third years. There was insufficient evidence to judge whether the incidence rate reduced further beyond 4 years. These estimates are the most precise for the timing of declines in cattle TB associated with interventions primarily targeting badgers. They are within the range of previous estimates from England and Ireland. This analysis indicates the importance of reducing transmission from badgers to reduce the incidence of TB in cattle, noting that vaccination of badgers, fertility control and on farm biosecurity may also achieve this effect.


Assuntos
Mustelidae , Mycobacterium bovis , Tuberculose Bovina , Animais , Bovinos , Tuberculose Bovina/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Bovina/prevenção & controle , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Políticas , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária
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