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1.
Arch Microbiol ; 206(6): 257, 2024 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38734773

RESUMO

There is a growing imperative for research into alternative compounds for the treatment of the fungal infections. Thus, many studies have focused on the analysis of antifungal proteins and peptides from different plant sources. Among these molecules are protease inhibitors (PIs). Previously, PIs present in the peptide-rich fractions called PEF1, PEF2 and PEF3 were identified from Capsicum chinense seeds, which have strong activity against phytopathogenic fungi. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanism of action and antimicrobial activity of PIs from PEF2 and PEF3 on the growth of yeasts of the genus Candida. In this work, analyses of their antimicrobial activity and cell viability were carried out. Subsequently, the mechanism of action by which the PIs cause the death of the yeasts was evaluated. Cytotoxicity was assessed in vitro by erythrocytes lysis and in vivo in Galleria mellonella larvae. PEF2 and PEF3 caused 100% of the growth inhibition of C. tropicalis and C. buinensis. For C. albicans inhibition was approximately 60% for both fractions. The PEF2 and PEF3 caused a reduction in mitochondrial functionality of 54% and 46% for C. albicans, 26% and 30% for C. tropicalis, and 71% and 68% for C. buinensis, respectively. These fractions induced morphological alterations, led to membrane permeabilization, elevated ROS levels, and resulted in necrotic cell death in C. tropicalis, whilst demonstrating low toxicity toward host cells. From the results obtained here, we intend to contribute to the understanding of the action of PIs in the control of fungal diseases of medical importance.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Candida , Inibidores de Proteases , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Animais , Capsicum/microbiologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/microbiologia , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1391758, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38716194

RESUMO

Campylobacter jejuni, a Gram-negative bacterium, is one of the most common causes of foodborne illness worldwide. Its adhesion mechanism is mediated by several bacterial factors, including flagellum, protein adhesins, lipooligosaccharides, proteases, and host factors, such as surface glycans on epithelial cells and mucins. Fungal lectins, specialized carbohydrate-binding proteins, can bind to specific glycans on host and bacterial cells and thus influence pathogenesis. In this study, we investigated the effects of fungal lectins and protease inhibitors on the adhesion of C. jejuni to model biotic surfaces (mucin, fibronectin, and collagen) and Caco-2 cells as well as the invasion of Caco-2 cells. The lectins Marasmius oreades agglutinin (MOA) and Laccaria bicolor tectonin 2 (Tec2) showed remarkable efficacy in all experiments. In addition, different pre-incubations of lectins with C. jejuni or Caco-2 cells significantly inhibited the ability of C. jejuni to adhere to and invade Caco-2 cells, but to varying degrees. Pre-incubation of Caco-2 cells with selected lectins reduced the number of invasive C. jejuni cells the most, while simultaneous incubation showed the greatest reduction in adherent C. jejuni cells. These results suggest that fungal lectins are a promising tool for the prevention and treatment of C. jejuni infections. Furthermore, this study highlights the potential of fungi as a rich reservoir for novel anti-adhesive agents.


Assuntos
Aderência Bacteriana , Campylobacter jejuni , Lectinas , Inibidores de Proteases , Campylobacter jejuni/efeitos dos fármacos , Campylobacter jejuni/fisiologia , Campylobacter jejuni/metabolismo , Humanos , Células CACO-2 , Aderência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Lectinas/metabolismo , Lectinas/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteases/metabolismo , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucinas/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/microbiologia , Fibronectinas/metabolismo
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10419, 2024 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38710746

RESUMO

The present work elicits a novel approach to combating COVID-19 by synthesizing a series of azo-anchored 3,4-dihydroimidazo[4,5-b]indole derivatives. The envisaged methodology involves the L-proline-catalyzed condensation of para-amino-functionalized azo benzene, indoline-2,3-dione, and ammonium acetate precursors with pertinent aryl aldehyde derivatives under ultrasonic conditions. The structures of synthesized compounds were corroborated through FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and mass analysis data. Molecular docking studies assessed the inhibitory potential of these compounds against the main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2. Remarkably, in silico investigations revealed significant inhibitory action surpassing standard drugs such as Remdesivir, Paxlovid, Molnupiravir, Chloroquine, Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), and (N3), an irreversible Michael acceptor inhibitor. Furthermore, the highly active compound was also screened for cytotoxicity activity against HEK-293 cells and exhibited minimal toxicity across a range of concentrations, affirming its favorable safety profile and potential suitability. The pharmacokinetic properties (ADME) of the synthesized compounds have also been deliberated. This study paves the way for in vitro and in vivo testing of these scaffolds in the ongoing battle against SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Antivirais , Tratamento Farmacológico da COVID-19 , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus , Indóis , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Inibidores de Proteases , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/síntese química , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/química , Indóis/farmacologia , Indóis/química , Indóis/síntese química , Células HEK293 , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteases/química , Inibidores de Proteases/síntese química , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Imidazóis/química , Imidazóis/síntese química , Simulação por Computador , COVID-19/virologia , Compostos Azo/farmacologia , Compostos Azo/química , Compostos Azo/síntese química
4.
Cryo Letters ; 45(3): 149-157, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38709186

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The industrial scale cryo-storage of raw tissue materials requires a robust, low-cost and easy-to-operate method that can facilitate the down-stream process. OBJECTIVE: The study was aimed to develop the multifunctional protective solutions (MPS) for transportation at ambient conditions and also subsequent cryo-storage below -20 degree C of raw porcine hides for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Protective solutions with antimicrobial activity and proteinase-inhibiting activity were developed and tested for its efficacy in preserving the extracellular matrix of porcine dermis from microbial spoilage, proteolytic degradation, freeze damage and excessive dehydration during shipping and cryo-storage. The MPSs contained phosphate-buffered saline with ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) added as chelator and proteinase inhibitor, as well as glycerol or maltodextrin (M180) as cryoprotectants. RESULTS: MPSs prepared with EDTA and glycerol or M180 had significant antimicrobial activity and proteinase-inhibiting activity during the period of shipping and handling. Glycerol and M180 prevented eutectic salt precipitation and excessive freeze dehydration upon cryo-storage of porcine hides. Without glycerol or M180, hides could be freeze-dehydrated to the low hydration at ~0.4 g/g dw, and formed irreversible plications after freezing. A critical hydration (0.8~0.9 g/g dw) was observed for the extracellular matrix of porcine dermis, and dehydration to a lower level could impose enormous stress and potential damage. The soaking of porcine hides in MPSs decreased water content as glycerol and M180 entered into dermis. Upon equilibration, the glycerol content in the tissue was about 94% of the incubating glycerol solution, but the M180 content in the tissue was only about 50% of the incubating M180 solution, indicating that M180 did not get into the entire aqueous domain within dermis. MPSs reduced ice formation and increased the unfrozen water content of porcine raw hides upon cryo-storage. CONCLUSION: MPSs prepared with EDTA and glycerol or M180 have antimicrobial activity and proteinase-inhibiting activity, which can be used for transportation and cryo-storage of raw hides at the industrial scale. Glycerol at 7.5% w/v and M180 at 20% w/v were sufficient to prevent freeze damage and excessive freeze dehydration. Doi.org/10.54680/fr24310110312.


Assuntos
Criopreservação , Crioprotetores , Medicina Regenerativa , Engenharia Tecidual , Animais , Medicina Regenerativa/métodos , Suínos , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Criopreservação/métodos , Crioprotetores/farmacologia , Crioprotetores/química , Ácido Edético/química , Ácido Edético/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteases/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Matriz Extracelular/química , Matriz Extracelular/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 267(Pt 1): 131392, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582483

RESUMO

The main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2 is critical in the virus's replication cycle, facilitating the maturation of polyproteins into functional units. Due to its conservation across taxa, Mpro is a promising target for broad-spectrum antiviral drugs. Targeting Mpro with small molecule inhibitors, such as nirmatrelvir combined with ritonavir (Paxlovid™), which the FDA has approved for post-exposure treatment and prophylaxis, can effectively interrupt the replication process of the virus. A key aspect of Mpro's function is its ability to form a functional dimer. However, the mechanics of dimerization and its influence on proteolytic activity remain less understood. In this study, we utilized biochemical, structural, and molecular modelling approaches to explore Mpro dimerization. We evaluated critical residues, specifically Arg4 and Arg298, that are essential for dimerization. Our results show that changes in the oligomerization state of Mpro directly affect its enzymatic activity and dimerization propensity. We discovered a synergistic relationship influencing dimer formation, involving both intra- and intermolecular interactions. These findings highlight the potential for developing allosteric inhibitors targeting Mpro, offering promising new directions for therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Antivirais , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus , Multimerização Proteica , SARS-CoV-2 , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Multimerização Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/química , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Humanos , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/química , Tratamento Farmacológico da COVID-19 , Modelos Moleculares , COVID-19/virologia , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteases/química
6.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 756: 110019, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38688397

RESUMO

Neutral endopeptidase or neprilysin (NEP) cleaves the natriuretic peptides, bradykinin, endothelin, angiotensin II, amyloid ß protein, substance P, etc., thus modulating their effects on heart, kidney, and other organs. NEP has a proven role in hypertension, heart disease, renal disease, Alzheimer's, diabetes, and some cancers. NEP inhibitor development has been in focus since the US FDA approved a combination therapy of angiotensin II type 1 receptor inhibitor (valsartan) and NEP inhibitor (sacubitril) for use in heart failure. Considering the importance of NEP inhibitors the present work focuses on the designing of a potential lead for NEP inhibition. A structure-based pharmacophore modelling approach was employed to identify NEP inhibitors from the pool of 1140 chemical entities obtained from the ZINC database. Based on the docking score and pivotal interactions, ten molecules were selected and subjected to binding free energy calculations and ADMET predictions. The top two compounds were studied further by molecular dynamics simulations to determine the stability of the ligand-receptor complex. ZINC0000004684268, a phenylalanine derivative, showed affinity and complex stability comparable to sacubitril. However, in silico studies indicated that it may have poor pharmacokinetic parameters. Therefore, the molecule was optimized using bioisosteric replacements, keeping the phenylalanine moiety intact, to obtain five potential lead molecules with an acceptable pharmacokinetic profile. The works thus open up the scope to further corroborate the present in silico findings with the biological analysis.


Assuntos
Desenho de Fármacos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Neprilisina , Neprilisina/antagonistas & inibidores , Neprilisina/química , Neprilisina/metabolismo , Humanos , Inibidores de Proteases/química , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Farmacóforo
7.
J Med Chem ; 67(9): 7048-7067, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38630165

RESUMO

Emerging RNA viruses, including SARS-CoV-2, continue to be a major threat. Cell entry of SARS-CoV-2 particles via the endosomal pathway involves cysteine cathepsins. Due to ubiquitous expression, cathepsin L (CatL) is considered a promising drug target in the context of different viral and lysosome-related diseases. We characterized the anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity of a set of carbonyl- and succinyl epoxide-based inhibitors, which were previously identified as inhibitors of cathepsins or related cysteine proteases. Calpain inhibitor XII, MG-101, and CatL inhibitor IV possess antiviral activity in the very low nanomolar EC50 range in Vero E6 cells and inhibit CatL in the picomolar Ki range. We show a relevant off-target effect of CatL inhibition by the coronavirus main protease α-ketoamide inhibitor 13b. Crystal structures of CatL in complex with 14 compounds at resolutions better than 2 Å present a solid basis for structure-guided understanding and optimization of CatL inhibitors toward protease drug development.


Assuntos
Antivirais , Catepsina L , SARS-CoV-2 , Catepsina L/antagonistas & inibidores , Catepsina L/metabolismo , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/síntese química , Animais , Chlorocebus aethiops , Células Vero , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Inibidores de Cisteína Proteinase/farmacologia , Inibidores de Cisteína Proteinase/química , Inibidores de Cisteína Proteinase/síntese química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteases/química , Inibidores de Proteases/síntese química , Inibidores de Proteases/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares
8.
Virus Res ; 344: 199368, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38588924

RESUMO

Several viruses are now known to code for deubiquitinating proteases in their genomes. Ubiquitination is an essential post-translational modification of cellular substrates involved in many processes in the cell, including in innate immune signalling. This post-translational modification is regulated by the ubiquitin conjugation machinery, as well as various host deubiquitinating enzymes. The conjugation of ubiquitin chains to several innate immune related factors is often needed to induce downstream signalling, shaping the antiviral response. Viral deubiquitinating proteins, besides often having a primary function in the viral replication cycle by cleaving the viral polyprotein, are also able to cleave ubiquitin chains from such host substrates, in that way exerting a function in innate immune evasion. The presence of viral deubiquitinating enzymes has been firmly established for numerous animal-infecting viruses, such as some well-researched and clinically important nidoviruses, and their presence has now been confirmed in several plant viruses as well. Viral proteases in general have long been highlighted as promising drug targets, with a current focus on small molecule inhibitors. In this review, we will discuss the range of viral deubiquitinating proteases known to date, summarise the various avenues explored to inhibit such proteases and discuss novel strategies and models intended to inhibit and study these specific viral enzymes.


Assuntos
Enzimas Desubiquitinantes , Enzimas Desubiquitinantes/metabolismo , Enzimas Desubiquitinantes/antagonistas & inibidores , Enzimas Desubiquitinantes/genética , Humanos , Proteases Virais/metabolismo , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Ubiquitinação , Animais , Replicação Viral , Antivirais/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus/enzimologia , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/genética , Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38608142

RESUMO

Protease is the enzyme accountable for the breakdown of proteins i.e., proteolysis. Proteases are reportedly involved in the events of growth, development, progression and metastasis of cancers. If any agent could inhibit/retard the protease enzyme, i.e., protease inhibitor, it would arrest the cancer; thus indicating the significance of exploring protease inhibitors for latest anti-malignant drug discovery. Higher plants are the rich sources of different protease inhibitors that are effective against several types of malignancies both at preclinical and clinical stages. Natural protease inhibitors of herbal origin have both cancer chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic properties together with inhibitory activity against different types of pertinent proteases. Clinically, these herbal agents are found to be safe unlike the synthetic antineoplastic agents. Further studies in this direction are necessary in pursuit of newer generation drugs without adverse reactions for the prevention and treatment of malignancies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Inibidores de Proteases , Humanos , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteases/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Antivirais
10.
Molecules ; 29(7)2024 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38611800

RESUMO

4-Chloroisocoumarin compounds have broad inhibitory properties against serine proteases. Here, we show that selected 3-alkoxy-4-chloroisocoumarins preferentially inhibit the activity of the conserved serine protease High-temperature requirement A of Chlamydia trachomatis. The synthesis of a new series of isocoumarin-based scaffolds has been developed, and their anti-chlamydial properties were investigated. The structure of the alkoxy substituent was found to influence the potency of the compounds against High-temperature requirement A, and modifications to the C-7 position of the 3-alkoxy-4-chloroisocoumarin structure attenuate anti-chlamydial properties.


Assuntos
Álcoois , Chlamydia trachomatis , Inibidores de Proteases , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Terapia Enzimática , Isocumarinas , Serina Endopeptidases , Serina Proteases
11.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 26(18): 14006-14017, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38683190

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 and its variants are crossing the immunity barrier induced through vaccination. Recent Omicron sub-variants are highly transmissible and have a low mortality rate. Despite the low severity of Omicron variants, these new variants are known to cause acute post-infectious syndromes. Nowadays, novel strategies to develop new potential inhibitors for SARS-CoV-2 and other Omicron variants have gained prominence. For viral replication and survival the main protease of SARS-CoV-2 plays a vital role. Peptide-like inhibitors that mimic the substrate peptide have already proved to be effective in inhibiting the Mpro of SARS-CoV-2 variants. Our systematic canonical amino acid point mutation analysis on the native peptide has revealed various ways to improve the native peptide of the main protease. Multi mutation analysis has led us to identify and design potent peptide-analog inhibitors that act against the Mpro of the Omicron sub-variants. Our in-depth analysis of all-atom molecular dynamics studies has paved the way to characterize the atomistic behavior of Mpro in Omicron variants. Our goal is to develop potent peptide-analogs that could be therapeutically effective against Omicron and its sub-variants.


Assuntos
Proteases 3C de Coronavírus , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Peptídeos , SARS-CoV-2 , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/enzimologia , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/química , Humanos , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , Desenho de Fármacos , Inibidores de Proteases/química , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , COVID-19/virologia
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(8)2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38673962

RESUMO

In the global pandemic scenario, dengue and zika viruses (DENV and ZIKV, respectively), both mosquito-borne members of the flaviviridae family, represent a serious health problem, and considering the absence of specific antiviral drugs and available vaccines, there is a dire need to identify new targets to treat these types of viral infections. Within this drug discovery process, the protease NS2B/NS3 is considered the primary target for the development of novel anti-flavivirus drugs. The NS2B/NS3 is a serine protease that has a dual function both in the viral replication process and in the elusion of the innate immunity. To date, two main classes of NS2B/NS3 of DENV and ZIKV protease inhibitors have been discovered: those that bind to the orthosteric site and those that act at the allosteric site. Therefore, this perspective article aims to discuss the main features of the use of the most potent NS2B/NS3 inhibitors and their impact at the social level.


Assuntos
Antivirais , Dengue , Inibidores de Proteases , Infecção por Zika virus , Animais , Humanos , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/farmacologia , RNA Helicases DEAD-box , Dengue/tratamento farmacológico , Dengue/virologia , Vírus da Dengue/efeitos dos fármacos , Nucleosídeo-Trifosfatase , Inibidores de Proteases/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteases/química , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidases/química , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/química , Proteases Virais , Zika virus/efeitos dos fármacos , Zika virus/enzimologia , Infecção por Zika virus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
13.
Chem Biodivers ; 21(5): e202302089, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38526531

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 main protease, as a key target for antiviral therapeutics, is instrumental in maintaining virus stability, facilitating translation, and enabling the virus to evade innate immunity. Our research focused on designing non-covalent inhibitors to counteract the action of this protease. Utilizing a 3D-QSAR model and contour map, we successfully engineered eight novel non-covalent inhibitors. Further evaluation and comparison of these novel compounds through methodologies including molecular docking, ADMET analysis, frontier molecular orbital studies, molecular dynamics simulations, and binding free energy revealed that the inhibitors N02 and N03 demonstrated superior research performance (N02 ΔGbind=-206.648 kJ/mol, N03 ΔGbind=-185.602 kJ/mol). These findings offer insightful guidance for the further refinement of molecular structures and the development of more efficacious inhibitors. Consequently, future investigations can draw upon these findings to unearth more potent inhibitors, thereby amplifying their impact in the treatment and prevention of associated diseases.


Assuntos
Antivirais , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Inibidores de Proteases , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade , SARS-CoV-2 , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/enzimologia , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteases/química , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/química , Humanos , Tratamento Farmacológico da COVID-19 , Termodinâmica , Estrutura Molecular
14.
Expert Opin Ther Pat ; 34(1-2): 17-49, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38445468

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cysteine proteases are involved in a broad range of biological functions, ranging from extracellular matrix turnover to immunity. Playing an important role in the onset and progression of several diseases, including cancer, immune-related and neurodegenerative disease, viral and parasitic infections, cysteine proteases represent an attractive drug target for the development of therapeutic tools. AREAS COVERED: Recent scientific and patent literature focusing on the design and study of cysteine protease inhibitors with potential therapeutic application has been reviewed. EXPERT OPINION: The discovery of a number of effective structurally diverse cysteine protease inhibitors opened up new challenges and opportunities for the development of therapeutic tools. Mechanistic studies and the availability of X-ray crystal structures of some proteases, alone and in complex with inhibitors, provide crucial information for the rational design and development of efficient and selective cysteine protease inhibitors as preclinical candidates for the treatment of different diseases.


Assuntos
Cisteína Proteases , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Humanos , Inibidores de Cisteína Proteinase/farmacologia , Inibidores de Cisteína Proteinase/química , Patentes como Assunto , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia
15.
Chem Biodivers ; 21(4): e202301786, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38466126

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 caused pandemic represented a major risk for the worldwide human health, animal health and economy, forcing extraordinary efforts to discover drugs for its prevention and cure. Considering the extensive interest in the pregnane glycosides because of their diverse structures and excellent biological activities, we investigated them as antiviral agents against SARS-COV-2. We selected 21 pregnane glycosides previously isolated from the genus Caralluma from Asclepiadaceae family to be tested through virtual screening molecular docking simulations for their potential inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. Almost all target compounds showed a more or equally negative docking energy score relative to the co-crystallized inhibitor X77 (S=-12.53 kcal/mol) with docking score range of (-12.55 to -19.76 kcal/mol) and so with a potent predicted binding affinity to the target enzyme. The activity of the most promising candidates was validated by in vitro testing. Arabincoside C showed the highest activity (IC50=35.42 µg/ml) and the highest selectivity index (SI=9.9) followed by Russelioside B (IC50=50.80 µg/ml), and Arabincoside B (IC50=53.31 µg/ml).


Assuntos
Apocynaceae , COVID-19 , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus , Animais , Humanos , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/química , Apocynaceae/química , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/antagonistas & inibidores , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Pregnanos/farmacologia , Pregnanos/química , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteases/química , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo
16.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0299301, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38517870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic began in 2019 as a result of the advent of a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2. At present, there are a limited number of approved antiviral agents for the treatment of COVID-19. Remdesivir, Molnupiravir, and Paxlovid have been approved by the FDA to treat COVID-19 infections. Research has shown that the main protease enzyme (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2 plays a crucial role in the enzymatic processing of viral polyproteins. This makes Mpro an interesting therapeutic target for combating infections caused by emerging coronaviruses. METHODS: The pharmacological effects of pyrroles and their derivatives have a wide range of applications. In our study, we focused on synthesizing nine novel derivatives of 2-arylamino-dihydro-indeno[1,2-b] pyrrol-4(1H)-one, with a particular emphasis on their antiviral properties. Using in silico studies involving molecular docking and DFT analyses in the gas phase using the B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p) basis set, we studied these compounds with respect to their interactions with the Mpro of SARS-CoV-2. The results of the docking analysis revealed that the synthesized compounds exhibited favorable inhibitory effects. Notably, compound 5f demonstrated the highest effectiveness against the target protein. Furthermore, the pharmacokinetic and drug-like properties of the synthesized derivatives of 2-arylamino-dihydroindeno[1,2-b] pyrrol-4(1H)-one indicated their potential as promising candidates for further development as inhibitors targeting SARS-CoV-2. However, it is imperative to determine the in vitro efficacy of these compounds through comprehensive biochemical and structural analyses.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus , Pandemias , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , SARS-CoV-2 , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia
17.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 103: 129706, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38508325

RESUMO

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are responsible for a wide range of illnesses in both animals and human. The main protease (Mpro) of CoVs is an attractive drug target, owing its critical and highly conserved role in viral replication. Here, we developed and refined an enzymatic technique to identify putative Mpro inhibitors from 189 marine chemicals and 46 terrestrial natural products. The IC50 values of Polycarpine (1a), a marine natural substance we studied and synthesized, are 30.0 ± 2.5 nM for SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and 0.12 ± 0.05 µM for PEDV Mpro. Our research further demonstrated that pretreatment with Polycarpine (1a) inhibited the betacoronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and alphacoronavirus PEDV multiplication in Vero-E6 cells. As a result, Polycarpine (1a), a pan-inhibitor of Mpro, will function as an effective and promising antiviral option to combat CoVs infection and as a foundation for further therapeutic research.


Assuntos
Antivirais , Urocordados , Animais , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humanos , Antivirais/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Células Vero
18.
Viruses ; 16(3)2024 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38543704

RESUMO

The continuous emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants caused the persistence of the COVID-19 epidemic and challenged the effectiveness of the existing vaccines. The viral proteases are the most attractive targets for developing antiviral drugs. In this scenario, our study explores the use of HIV-1 protease inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2. An in silico screening of a library of HIV-1 proteases identified four anti-HIV compounds able to interact with the 3CLpro of SARS-CoV-2. Thus, in vitro studies were designed to evaluate their potential antiviral effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2. We employed pseudovirus technology to simulate, in a highly safe manner, the adsorption of the alpha (α-SARS-CoV-2) and omicron (ο-SARS-CoV-2) variants of SARS-CoV-2 and study the inhibitory mechanism of the selected compounds for cell-virus interaction. The results reported a mild activity against the viral proteases 3CLpro and PLpro, but efficient inhibitory effects on the internalization of both variants mediated by cathepsin B/L. Our findings provide insights into the feasibility of using drugs exhibiting antiviral effects for other viruses against the viral and host SARS-CoV-2 proteases required for entry.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Cisteína Proteases , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Cisteína Endopeptidases/genética , Proteases Virais , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular
19.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 103: 117577, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38518735

RESUMO

Small-molecule antivirals that prevent the replication of the SARS-CoV-2 virus by blocking the enzymatic activity of its main protease (Mpro) are and will be a tenet of pandemic preparedness. However, the peptidic nature of such compounds often precludes the design of compounds within favorable physical property ranges, limiting cellular activity. Here we describe the discovery of peptide aldehyde Mpro inhibitors with potent enzymatic and cellular antiviral activity. This structure-activity relationship (SAR) exploration was guided by the use of calculated hydration site thermodynamic maps (WaterMap) to drive potency via displacement of waters from high-energy sites. Thousands of diverse compounds were designed to target these high-energy hydration sites and then prioritized for synthesis by physics- and structure-based Free-Energy Perturbation (FEP+) simulations, which accurately predicted biochemical potencies. This approach ultimately led to the rapid discovery of lead compounds with unique SAR that exhibited potent enzymatic and cellular activity with excellent pan-coronavirus coverage.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/química , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteases/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular
20.
J Virol ; 98(4): e0125823, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38546211

RESUMO

Dengue fever, an infectious disease prevalent in subtropical and tropical regions, currently lacks effective small-molecule drugs as treatment. In this study, we used a fluorescence peptide cleavage assay to screen seven compounds to assess their inhibition of the dengue virus (DENV) NS2B-NS3 protease. DV-B-120 demonstrated superior inhibition of NS2B-NS3 protease activity and lower toxicity compared to ARDP0006. The selectivity index of DV-B-120 was higher than that of ARDP0006. In vivo assessments of the antiviral efficacy of DV-B-120 against DENV replication demonstrated delayed mortality of suckling mice treated with the compound, with 60-80% protection against life-threatening effects, compared to the outcomes of DENV-infected mice treated with saline. The lower clinical scores of DENV-infected mice treated with DV-B-120 indicated a reduction in acute-progressive illness symptoms, underscoring the potential therapeutic impact of DV-B-120. Investigations of DV-B-120's ability to restore the antiviral type I IFN response in the brain tissue of DENV-infected ICR suckling mice demonstrated its capacity to stimulate IFN and antiviral IFN-stimulated gene expression. DV-B-120 not only significantly delayed DENV-2-induced mortality and illness symptoms but also reduced viral numbers in the brain, ultimately restoring the innate antiviral response. These findings strongly suggest that DV-B-120 holds promise as a therapeutic agent against DENV infection and highlight its potential contribution in addressing the current lack of effective treatments for this infectious disease.IMPORTANCEThe prevalence of dengue virus (DENV) infection in tropical and subtropical regions is escalating due to factors like climate change and mosquito vector expansion. With over 300 million annual infections and potentially fatal outcomes, the urgent need for effective treatments is evident. While the approved Dengvaxia vaccine has variable efficacy, there are currently no antiviral drugs for DENV. This study explores seven compounds targeting the NS2B-NS3 protease, a crucial protein in DENV replication. These compounds exhibit inhibitory effects on DENV-2 NS2B-NS3, holding promise for disrupting viral replication and preventing severe manifestations. However, further research, including animal testing, is imperative to assess therapeutic efficacy and potential toxicity. Developing safe and potent treatments for DENV infection is critical in addressing the rising global health threat posed by this virus.


Assuntos
Vírus da Dengue , Dengue , Piperidinas , Animais , Camundongos , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Doenças Transmissíveis , Dengue/tratamento farmacológico , Vírus da Dengue/fisiologia , Endopeptidases/farmacologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Piperidinas/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/química
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