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1.
Proc Biol Sci ; 291(2023): 20240172, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38772418

RESUMO

Tests for the role of species' relative dispersal abilities in ecological and biogeographical models rely heavily on dispersal proxies, which are seldom substantiated by empirical measures of actual dispersal. This is exemplified by tests of dispersal-range size relationships and by metacommunity research that often features invertebrates, particularly freshwater insects. Using rare and unique empirical data on dispersal abilities of caddisflies, we tested whether actual dispersal abilities were associated with commonly used dispersal proxies (metrics of wing size and shape; expert opinion). Across 59 species in 12 families, wing morphology was not associated with actual dispersal. Within some families, individual wing metrics captured some dispersal differences among species, although useful metrics varied among families and predictive power was typically low. Dispersal abilities assigned by experts were either no better than random or actually poorer than random. Our results cast considerable doubt on research underpinned by dispersal proxies and scrutiny of previous research results may be warranted. Greater progress may lie in employing innovative survey and experimental design to measure actual dispersal in the field.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Insetos , Asas de Animais , Animais , Asas de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Asas de Animais/fisiologia , Insetos/fisiologia
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(6): 531, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724710

RESUMO

The Samarco/Vale/BHP mine tailing dam breach that took place in Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, in 2015, deposited high concentrations of metals and metalloids in the Rio Doce basin, severely impacting freshwater and riverine forest ecosystems. To assess developmental instability of caddisflies in response to the environmental impacts of the dam breach, we investigated the fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in the species Smicridea (Rhyacophylax) coronata (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae). FA was assessed at individual and populational scales using geometric morphometric methods in the cephalic capsule and mandibles of larvae and also on the forewings of adults, both collected under the impacted condition, and under the least disturbed condition. The levels of FA increased in response to stressors on the forewings at the populational scale, and on the mandibles, at individual scale. These morphological variations in the larval and adult stages may lead to detrimental effects and result in high mortality rates as well as lower adult fitness. Trichoptera forewings are revealed as suitable traits for assessing FA, holding potential for applications in biomonitoring programs. Directional asymmetry levels were higher than FA levels for all traits, and this correlation could be explained by a transition from fluctuating to directional asymmetry in the presence of heightened disturbance. Our results validate the relationship between the impacts from the dam breach and increased developmental instability in this species with likely cascade effects on the insect community.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Larva , Mineração , Animais , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Insetos , Brasil , Poluentes Químicos da Água
4.
Naturwissenschaften ; 111(3): 30, 2024 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38758365

RESUMO

Succession patterns of carrion insects on large mammal's carrion has been widely studied, notably to estimate the post-mortem interval in forensic investigations as accurately as possible. However, little attention has been paid to the carrion insects living inside these bones once a carcass is skeletonized. One very recent study documented flies emerging from pig carcasses, and only scarce authors reported the presence of other carrion insects taking advantage of the bone marrow. We, thus, aimed to (1) estimate the frequency of inner-bone space colonization by carrion insects, with particular attention to bone-skipper flies; (2) identify the insects living inside the carrion bones; and (3) determine whether or not carrion insects found within the bones can successfully exit the bones and complete their development. We extensively sampled 185 large mammals' bones collected from twelve vulture feeding stations and four isolated carcasses in southwest France and northern Spain. Sampled bones were opened, and the insects found inside were identified. For two bones, foramen, i.e., the holes providing a natural entrance and exit to the bone's inner cavity, was monitored with a camera to assess the insect's putative exit. We describe the entomofauna, i.e., the set of insect species, living within the bones, and illustrate insects' ability to exit the bones for their subsequent development and maturity. These results are discussed in the framework of carrion insect conservation and forensic entomology perspectives.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos , Entomologia Forense , Insetos , Mamíferos , Animais , Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Insetos/fisiologia , França , Espanha , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Dípteros/fisiologia , Dípteros/anatomia & histologia
5.
Sci Data ; 11(1): 475, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724595

RESUMO

InsectSound1000 is a dataset comprising more than 169000 labelled sound samples of 12 insects. The insect sound level spans from very loud (Bombus terrestris) to inaudible to human ears (Aphidoletes aphidimyza). The samples were extracted from more than 1000 h of recordings made in an anechoic box with a four-channel low-noise measurement microphone array. Each sample is a four-channel wave-file of 2500 kHz length, at 16 kHz sample rate and 32 bit resolution. Acoustic insect recognition holds great potential to form the basis of a digital insect sensor. Such sensors are desperately needed to automate pest monitoring and ecological monitoring. With its significant size and high-quality recordings, InsectSound1000 can be used to train data-hungry deep learning models. Used to pretrain models, it can also be leveraged to enable the development of acoustic insect recognition systems on different hardware or for different insects. Further, the methodology employed to create the dataset is presented in detail to allow for the extension of the published dataset.


Assuntos
Acústica , Aprendizado Profundo , Som , Animais , Insetos
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(19): 11221-11229, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38703356

RESUMO

Liposcelis bostrychophila, commonly known as booklouse, is an important stored-product pest worldwide. Studies have demonstrated that booklices have developed resistance to several insecticides. In this study, an integument esterase gene, LbEST-inte4, with upregulated expression, was characterized in L. bostrychophila. Knockdown of LbEST-inte4 resulted in a substantial increase in the booklice susceptibility to malathion. Overexpression of LbEST-inte4 in Drosophila melanogaster significantly enhanced its malathion tolerance. Molecular modeling and docking analysis suggested potential interactions between LbEST-inte4 and malathion. When overexpressed LbEST-inte4 in Sf9 cells, a notable elevation in esterase activity and malathion tolerance was observed. HPLC analysis indicated that the LbEST-inte4 enzyme could effectively degrade malathion. Taken together, the upregulated LbEST-inte4 appears to contribute to malathion tolerance in L. bostrychophila by facilitating the depletion of malathion. This study elucidates the molecular mechanism underlying malathion detoxification and provides the foundations for the development of effective prevention and control measures against psocids.


Assuntos
Esterases , Proteínas de Insetos , Insetos , Inseticidas , Malation , Animais , Malation/metabolismo , Malation/química , Malation/toxicidade , Malation/farmacologia , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Inseticidas/química , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Esterases/metabolismo , Esterases/genética , Esterases/química , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Insetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Inativação Metabólica , Drosophila melanogaster/enzimologia , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/efeitos dos fármacos , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo
7.
Bioinspir Biomim ; 19(4)2024 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38697139

RESUMO

Jumping microrobots and insects power their impressive leaps through systems of springs and latches. Using springs and latches, rather than motors or muscles, as actuators to power jumps imposes new challenges on controlling the performance of the jump. In this paper, we show how tuning the motor and spring relative to one another in a torque reversal latch can lead to an ability to control jump output, producing either tuneable (variable) or stereotyped jumps. We develop and utilize a simple mathematical model to explore the underlying design, dynamics, and control of a torque reversal mechanism, provides the opportunity to achieve different outcomes through the interaction between geometry, spring properties, and motor voltage. We relate system design and control parameters to performance to guide the design of torque reversal mechanisms for either variable or stereotyped jump performance. We then build a small (356 mg) microrobot and characterize the constituent components (e.g. motor and spring). Through tuning the actuator and spring relative to the geometry of the torque reversal mechanism, we demonstrate that we can achieve jumping microrobots that both jump with different take-off velocities given the actuator input (variable jumping), and those that jump with nearly the same take-off velocity with actuator input (stereotyped jumping). The coupling between spring characteristics and geometry in this system has benefits for resource-limited microrobots, and our work highlights design combinations that have synergistic impacts on output, compared to others that constrain it. This work will guide new design principles for enabling control in resource-limited jumping microrobots.


Assuntos
Desenho de Equipamento , Robótica , Torque , Robótica/instrumentação , Robótica/métodos , Animais , Insetos/fisiologia , Biomimética/métodos , Modelos Biológicos , Simulação por Computador , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Locomoção/fisiologia
8.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 379(1904): 20230114, 2024 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705173

RESUMO

The amount of energy available in a system constrains large-scale patterns of abundance. Here, we test the role of temperature and net primary productivity as drivers of flying insect abundance using a novel continental-scale data source: weather surveillance radar. We use the United States NEXRAD weather radar network to generate a near-daily dataset of insect flight activity across a gradient of temperature and productivity. Insect flight activity was positively correlated with mean annual temperature, explaining 38% of variation across sites. By contrast, net primary productivity did not explain additional variation. Grassland, forest and arid-xeric shrubland biomes differed in their insect flight activity, with the greatest abundance in subtropical and temperate grasslands. The relationship between insect flight abundance and temperature varied across biome types. In arid-xeric shrublands and in forest biomes the temperature-abundance relationship was indirectly (through net primary productivity) or directly (in the form of precipitation) mediated by water availability. These results suggest that temperature constraints on metabolism, development, or flight activity shape macroecological patterns in ectotherm abundance. Assessing the drivers of continental-scale patterns in insect abundance and their variation across biomes is particularly important to predict insect community response to warming conditions. This article is part of the theme issue 'Towards a toolkit for global insect biodiversity monitoring'.


Assuntos
Voo Animal , Insetos , Temperatura , Animais , Insetos/fisiologia , Voo Animal/fisiologia , Estados Unidos , Ecossistema , Florestas
9.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 379(1904): 20230103, 2024 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705174

RESUMO

None of the global targets for protecting nature are currently met, although humanity is critically dependent on biodiversity. A significant issue is the lack of data for most biodiverse regions of the planet where the use of frugal methods for biomonitoring would be particularly important because the available funding for monitoring is insufficient, especially in low-income countries. We here discuss how three approaches to insect biomonitoring (computer vision, lidar, DNA sequences) could be made more frugal and urge that all biomonitoring techniques should be evaluated for global suitability before becoming the default in high-income countries. This requires that techniques popular in high-income countries should undergo a phase of 'innovation through simplification' before they are implemented more broadly. We predict that techniques that acquire raw data at low cost and are suitable for analysis with AI (e.g. images, lidar-signals) will be particularly suitable for global biomonitoring, while techniques that rely heavily on patented technologies may be less promising (e.g. DNA sequences). We conclude the opinion piece by pointing out that the widespread use of AI for data analysis will require a global strategy for providing the necessary computational resources and training. This article is part of the theme issue 'Towards a toolkit for global insect biodiversity monitoring'.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Biológico , Insetos , Animais , Inteligência Artificial , Biodiversidade , Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Insetos/fisiologia , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/métodos
10.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 379(1904): 20230115, 2024 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705175

RESUMO

Radar networks hold great promise for monitoring population trends of migrating insects. However, it is important to elucidate the nature of responses to environmental cues. We use data from a mini-network of vertical-looking entomological radars in the southern UK to investigate changes in nightly abundance, flight altitude and behaviour of insect migrants, in relation to meteorological and celestial conditions. Abundance of migrants showed positive relationships with air temperature, indicating that this is the single most important variable influencing the decision to initiate migration. In addition, there was a small but significant effect of moonlight illumination, with more insects migrating on full moon nights. While the effect of nocturnal illumination levels on abundance was relatively minor, there was a stronger effect on the insects' ability to orientate close to downwind: flight headings were more tightly clustered on nights when the moon was bright and when cloud cover was sparse. This indicates that nocturnal illumination is important for the navigational mechanisms used by nocturnal insect migrants. Further, our results clearly show that environmental conditions such as air temperature and light levels must be considered if long-term radar datasets are to be used to assess changing population trends of migrants. This article is part of the theme issue 'Towards a toolkit for global insect biodiversity monitoring'.


Assuntos
Migração Animal , Voo Animal , Insetos , Animais , Insetos/fisiologia , Iluminação , Radar , Lua , Temperatura
11.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 379(1904): 20230112, 2024 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705178

RESUMO

Insects are the most diverse animal taxon on Earth and play a key role in ecosystem functioning. However, they are often neglected by ecological surveys owing to the difficulties involved in monitoring this small and hyper-diverse taxon. With technological advances in biomonitoring and analytical methods, these shortcomings may finally be addressed. Here, we performed passive acoustic monitoring at 141 sites (eight habitats) to investigate insect acoustic activity in the Viruá National Park, Brazil. We first describe the frequency range occupied by three soniferous insect groups (cicadas, crickets and katydids) to calculate the acoustic evenness index (AEI). Then, we assess how AEI varies spatially and temporally among habitat types, and finally we investigate the relationship between vegetation structure variables and AEI for each insect category. Overall, crickets occupied lower and narrower frequency bands than cicadas and katydids. AEI values varied among insect categories and across space and time. The highest acoustic activity occurred before sunrise and the lowest acoustic activity was recorded in pastures. Canopy cover was positively associated with cricket acoustic activity but not with katydids. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the role of time, habitat and vegetation structure in shaping insect activity within diverse Amazonian ecosystems. This article is part of the theme issue 'Towards a toolkit for global insect biodiversity monitoring'.


Assuntos
Acústica , Ecossistema , Vocalização Animal , Animais , Brasil , Gryllidae/fisiologia , Hemípteros/fisiologia , Ortópteros/fisiologia , Insetos/fisiologia
12.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 379(1904): 20230101, 2024 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705179

RESUMO

Insects are the most diverse group of animals on Earth, yet our knowledge of their diversity, ecology and population trends remains abysmally poor. Four major technological approaches are coming to fruition for use in insect monitoring and ecological research-molecular methods, computer vision, autonomous acoustic monitoring and radar-based remote sensing-each of which has seen major advances over the past years. Together, they have the potential to revolutionize insect ecology, and to make all-taxa, fine-grained insect monitoring feasible across the globe. So far, advances within and among technologies have largely taken place in isolation, and parallel efforts among projects have led to redundancy and a methodological sprawl; yet, given the commonalities in their goals and approaches, increased collaboration among projects and integration across technologies could provide unprecedented improvements in taxonomic and spatio-temporal resolution and coverage. This theme issue showcases recent developments and state-of-the-art applications of these technologies, and outlines the way forward regarding data processing, cost-effectiveness, meaningful trend analysis, technological integration and open data requirements. Together, these papers set the stage for the future of automated insect monitoring. This article is part of the theme issue 'Towards a toolkit for global insect biodiversity monitoring'.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Insetos , Insetos/fisiologia , Animais , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/métodos , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/instrumentação , Monitoramento Biológico/métodos
13.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 379(1904): 20230104, 2024 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705176

RESUMO

Technological advancements in biological monitoring have facilitated the study of insect communities at unprecedented spatial scales. The progress allows more comprehensive coverage of the diversity within a given area while minimizing disturbance and reducing the need for extensive human labour. Compared with traditional methods, these novel technologies offer the opportunity to examine biological patterns that were previously beyond our reach. However, to address the pressing scientific inquiries of the future, data must be easily accessible, interoperable and reusable for the global research community. Biodiversity information standards and platforms provide the necessary infrastructure to standardize and share biodiversity data. This paper explores the possibilities and prerequisites of publishing insect data obtained through novel monitoring methods through GBIF, the most comprehensive global biodiversity data infrastructure. We describe the essential components of metadata standards and existing data standards for occurrence data on insects, including data extensions. By addressing the current opportunities, limitations, and future development of GBIF's publishing framework, we hope to encourage researchers to both share data and contribute to the further development of biodiversity data standards and publishing models. Wider commitments to open data initiatives will promote data interoperability and support cross-disciplinary scientific research and key policy indicators. This article is part of the theme issue 'Towards a toolkit for global insect biodiversity monitoring'.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Disseminação de Informação , Insetos , Animais , Entomologia/métodos , Entomologia/normas , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Metadados
14.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 379(1904): 20230102, 2024 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705182

RESUMO

Insect monitoring is pivotal for assessing biodiversity and informing conservation strategies. This study delves into the complex realm of insect monitoring in the Global South-world developing and least-developed countries as identified by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development-highlighting challenges and proposing strategic solutions. An analysis of publications from 1990 to 2024 reveals an imbalance in research contributions between the Global North and South, highlighting disparities in entomological research and the scarcity of taxonomic expertise in the Global South. We discuss the socio-economic factors that exacerbate the issues, including funding disparities, challenges in collaboration, infrastructure deficits, information technology obstacles and the impact of local currency devaluation. In addition, we emphasize the crucial role of environmental factors in shaping insect diversity, particularly in tropical regions facing multiple challenges including climate change, urbanization, pollution and various anthropogenic activities. We also stress the need for entomologists to advocate for ecosystem services provided by insects in addressing environmental issues. To enhance monitoring capacity, we propose strategies such as community engagement, outreach programmes and cultural activities to instill biodiversity appreciation. Further, language inclusivity and social media use are emphasized for effective communication. More collaborations with Global North counterparts, particularly in areas of molecular biology and remote sensing, are suggested for technological advancements. In conclusion, advocating for these strategies-global collaborations, a diverse entomological community and the integration of transverse disciplines-aims to address challenges and foster inclusive, sustainable insect monitoring in the Global South, contributing significantly to biodiversity conservation and overall ecosystem health. This article is part of the theme issue 'Towards a toolkit for global insect biodiversity monitoring'.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Insetos , Insetos/fisiologia , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Entomologia/métodos , Ecossistema , Mudança Climática
15.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 379(1904): 20230121, 2024 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705183

RESUMO

Aquatic macroinvertebrates, including many aquatic insect orders, are a diverse and ecologically relevant organismal group yet they are strongly affected by anthropogenic activities. As many of these taxa are highly sensitive to environmental change, they offer a particularly good early warning system for human-induced change, thus leading to their intense monitoring. In aquatic ecosystems there is a plethora of biotic monitoring or biomonitoring approaches, with more than 300 assessment methods reported for freshwater taxa alone. Ultimately, monitoring of aquatic macroinvertebrates is used to calculate ecological indices describing the state of aquatic systems. Many of the methods and indices used are not only hard to compare, but especially difficult to scale in time and space. Novel DNA-based approaches to measure the state and change of aquatic environments now offer unprecedented opportunities, also for possible integration towards commonly applicable indices. Here, we first give a perspective on DNA-based approaches in the monitoring of aquatic organisms, with a focus on aquatic insects, and how to move beyond traditional point-based biotic indices. Second, we demonstrate a proof-of-concept for spatially upscaling ecological indices based on environmental DNA, demonstrating how integration of these novel molecular approaches with hydrological models allows an accurate evaluation at the catchment scale. This article is part of the theme issue 'Towards a toolkit for global insect biodiversity monitoring'.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos , DNA Ambiental , Insetos , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos/genética , Biodiversidade , Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , DNA Ambiental/análise , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Insetos/genética
16.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 379(1904): 20230122, 2024 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705185

RESUMO

To understand insect abundance, distribution and dynamics, we need to understand the relevant drivers of their populations and communities. While microbial symbionts are known to strongly affect many aspects of insect biology, we lack data on their effects on populations or community processes, or on insects' evolutionary responses at different timescales. How these effects change as the anthropogenic effects on ecosystems intensify is an area of intense research. Recent developments in sequencing and bioinformatics permit cost-effective microbial diversity surveys, tracking symbiont transmission, and identification of functions across insect populations and multi-species communities. In this review, we explore how different functional categories of symbionts can influence insect life-history traits, how these effects could affect insect populations and their interactions with other species, and how they may affect processes and patterns at the level of entire communities. We argue that insect-associated microbes should be considered important drivers of insect response and adaptation to environmental challenges and opportunities. We also outline the emerging approaches for surveying and characterizing insect-associated microbiota at population and community scales. This article is part of the theme issue 'Towards a toolkit for global insect biodiversity monitoring'.


Assuntos
Insetos , Microbiota , Simbiose , Animais , Insetos/microbiologia , Insetos/fisiologia , Microbiota/fisiologia , Biodiversidade
17.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 379(1904): 20230113, 2024 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705181

RESUMO

In the current biodiversity crisis, populations of many species have alarmingly declined, and insects are no exception to this general trend. Biodiversity monitoring has become an essential asset to detect biodiversity change but remains patchy and challenging for organisms that are small, inconspicuous or make (nocturnal) long-distance movements. Radars are powerful remote-sensing tools that can provide detailed information on intensity, timing, altitude and spatial scale of aerial movements and might therefore be particularly suited for monitoring aerial insects and their movements. Importantly, they can contribute to several essential biodiversity variables (EBVs) within a harmonized observation system. We review existing research using small-scale biological and weather surveillance radars for insect monitoring and outline how the derived measures and quantities can contribute to the EBVs 'species population', 'species traits', 'community composition' and 'ecosystem function'. Furthermore, we synthesize how ongoing and future methodological, analytical and technological advancements will greatly expand the use of radar for insect biodiversity monitoring and beyond. Owing to their long-term and regional-to-large-scale deployment, radar-based approaches can be a powerful asset in the biodiversity monitoring toolbox whose potential has yet to be fully tapped. This article is part of the theme issue 'Towards a toolkit for global insect biodiversity monitoring'.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Insetos , Radar , Insetos/fisiologia , Animais , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/métodos , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/instrumentação , Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Voo Animal
18.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 379(1904): 20230120, 2024 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705187

RESUMO

Holistic insect monitoring needs scalable techniques to overcome taxon biases, determine species abundances, and gather functional traits for all species. This requires that we address taxonomic impediments and the paucity of data on abundance, biomass and functional traits. We here outline how these data deficiencies could be addressed at scale. The workflow starts with large-scale barcoding (megabarcoding) of all specimens from mass samples obtained at biomonitoring sites. The barcodes are then used to group the specimens into molecular operational taxonomic units that are subsequently tested/validated as species with a second data source (e.g. morphology). New species are described using barcodes, images and short diagnoses, and abundance data are collected for both new and described species. The specimen images used for species discovery then become the raw material for training artificial intelligence identification algorithms and collecting trait data such as body size, biomass and feeding modes. Additional trait data can be obtained from vouchers by using genomic tools developed by molecular ecologists. Applying this pipeline to a few samples per site will lead to greatly improved insect monitoring regardless of whether the species composition of a sample is determined with images, metabarcoding or megabarcoding. This article is part of the theme issue 'Towards a toolkit for global insect biodiversity monitoring'.


Assuntos
Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Insetos , Insetos/fisiologia , Insetos/classificação , Insetos/genética , Animais , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/métodos , Biodiversidade
19.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 379(1904): 20230118, 2024 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705189

RESUMO

Molecular methods are currently some of the best-suited technologies for implementation in insect monitoring. However, the field is developing rapidly and lacks agreement on methodology or community standards. To apply DNA-based methods in large-scale monitoring, and to gain insight across commensurate data, we need easy-to-implement standards that improve data comparability. Here, we provide three recommendations for how to improve and harmonize efforts in biodiversity assessment and monitoring via metabarcoding: (i) we should adopt the use of synthetic spike-ins, which will act as positive controls and internal standards; (ii) we should consider using several markers through a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach; and (iii) we should commit to the publication and transparency of all protocol-associated metadata in a standardized fashion. For (i), we provide a ready-to-use recipe for synthetic cytochrome c oxidase spike-ins, which enable between-sample comparisons. For (ii), we propose two gene regions for the implementation of multiplex PCR approaches, thereby achieving a more comprehensive community description. For (iii), we offer guidelines for transparent and unified reporting of field, wet-laboratory and dry-laboratory procedures, as a key to making comparisons between studies. Together, we feel that these three advances will result in joint quality and calibration standards rather than the current laboratory-specific proof of concepts. This article is part of the theme issue 'Towards a toolkit for global insect biodiversity monitoring'.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Insetos , Animais , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/métodos , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/normas , Insetos/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/normas
20.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 379(1904): 20230116, 2024 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705191

RESUMO

Many insects depend on high-altitude, migratory movements during part of their life cycle. The daily timing of these migratory movements is not random, e.g. many insect species show peak migratory flight activity at dawn, noon or dusk. These insects provide essential ecosystem services such as pollination but also contribute to crop damage. Quantifying the diel timing of their migratory flight and its geographical and seasonal variation, are hence key towards effective conservation and pest management. Vertical-looking radars provide continuous and automated measurements of insect migration, but large-scale application has not been possible because of limited availability of suitable devices. Here, we quantify patterns in diel flight periodicity of migratory insects between 50 and 500 m above ground level during March-October 2021 using a network of 17 vertical-looking radars across Europe. Independent of the overall daily migratory movements and location, peak migratory movements occur around noon, during crepuscular evening and occasionally the morning. Relative daily proportions of insect migration intensity and traffic during the diel phases of crepuscular-morning, day, crepuscular-evening and night remain largely equal throughout May-September and across Europe. These findings highlight, extend, and generalize previous regional-scale findings on diel migratory insect movement patterns to the whole of temperate Europe. This article is part of the theme issue 'Towards a toolkit for global insect biodiversity monitoring'.


Assuntos
Altitude , Migração Animal , Voo Animal , Insetos , Animais , Voo Animal/fisiologia , Europa (Continente) , Insetos/fisiologia , Estações do Ano
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