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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 326, 2021 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436607

RESUMO

Adipose tissue-resident T cells have been recognized as a critical regulator of thermogenesis and energy expenditure, yet the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we show that high-fat diet (HFD) feeding greatly suppresses the expression of disulfide-bond A oxidoreductase-like protein (DsbA-L), a mitochondria-localized chaperone protein, in adipose-resident T cells, which correlates with reduced T cell mitochondrial function. T cell-specific knockout of DsbA-L enhances diet-induced thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and protects mice from HFD-induced obesity, hepatosteatosis, and insulin resistance. Mechanistically, DsbA-L deficiency in T cells reduces IFN-γ production and activates protein kinase A by reducing phosphodiesterase-4D expression, leading to increased BAT thermogenesis. Taken together, our study uncovers a mechanism by which T cells communicate with brown adipocytes to regulate BAT thermogenesis and whole-body energy homeostasis. Our findings highlight a therapeutic potential of targeting T cells for the treatment of over nutrition-induced obesity and its associated metabolic diseases.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica , Glutationa Transferase/deficiência , Interferon gama/biossíntese , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Termogênese , Adipócitos Marrons/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos Marrons/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Animais , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Alimentar , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Interferon gama/administração & dosagem , Interferon gama/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos Knockout , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/patologia , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Termogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Termogênese/genética , Proteína Desacopladora 1/metabolismo
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 301, 2021 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436596

RESUMO

Macrophages are innate immune cells that contribute to fighting infections, tissue repair, and maintaining tissue homeostasis. To enable such functional diversity, macrophages resolve potentially conflicting cues in the microenvironment via mechanisms that are unclear. Here, we use single-cell RNA sequencing to explore how individual macrophages respond when co-stimulated with inflammatory stimuli LPS and IFN-γ and the resolving cytokine IL-4. These co-stimulated macrophages display a distinct global transcriptional program. However, variable negative cross-regulation between some LPS + IFN-γ-specific and IL-4-specific genes results in cell-to-cell heterogeneity in transcription. Interestingly, negative cross-regulation leads to mutually exclusive expression of the T-cell-polarizing cytokine genes Il6 and Il12b versus the IL-4-associated factors Arg1 and Chil3 in single co-stimulated macrophages, and single-cell secretion measurements show that these specialized functions are maintained for at least 48 h. This study suggests that increasing functional diversity in the population is one strategy macrophages use to respond to conflicting environmental cues.


Assuntos
Polaridade Celular , Macrófagos/citologia , Animais , Arginase/metabolismo , Polaridade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Polaridade Celular/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Interferon gama/farmacologia , Interleucina-12/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Redes Neurais de Computação , Razão de Chances , Análise de Célula Única , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Phytomedicine ; 80: 153394, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), which can be induced by interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) in the tumor microenvironment, is a critical immune checkpoint in cancer immunotherapy. Natural products which reduce IFN-γ-induced PD-L1 might be exert immunotherapy effect. Licochalcone A (LCA), a natural compound derived from the root of Glycyrrhiza inflata Batalin. (Fabaceae), was found to interfere IFN-γ-induced PD-L1. PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to further clarify the effect and the mechanism of LCA on inhibiting IFN-γ-induced PD-L1 in lung cancer cells. METHODS: The expression levels of PD-L1 were evaluated by flow cytometry, western blot and qRT-PCR. Click-iT protein synthesis assay and luciferase assay were used to identify the effect of LCA on protein synthesis. Jurkat T cell proliferation and apoptosis in the co-culture system were detected by flow cytometry. Flow cytometry was also applied to evaluate reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. RESULTS: LCA downregulated IFN-γ-induced PD-L1 protein expression and membrane localization in human lung cancer cells, regardless of inhibiting PD-L1 mRNA level or promoting its protein degradation. LCA decreased apoptosis and proliferative inhibition of Jurkat T cells caused by IFN-γ-induced PD-L1-expressing in A549 cells in the co-culture system. Strikingly, LCA was verified as a protein synthesis inhibitor, which reduced both cap-dependent and -independent translation. LCA inhibited PD-L1 translation, likely due to inhibition of 4EBP1 phosphorylation (Ser 65) and activation of PERK-eIF2α pathway. Furthermore, LCA induced ROS generation in a time-dependent manner in lung cancer cells. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) not only revered ROS generation triggered by LCA but also restored IFN-γ-induced expression of PD-L1. Both the inhibition of 4EBP1 phosphorylation (Ser 65) and activation of PERK-eIF2α axis triggered by LCA was restored by co-treatment with NAC. CONCLUSION: LCA abrogated IFN-γ-induced PD-L1 expression via ROS generation to abolish the protein translation, indicating that LCA has the potential to be applied in cancer immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Chalconas/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interferon gama/farmacologia , Células Jurkat , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Evasão Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Gene ; 771: 145347, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33333228

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pre-licensing mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) with IFN-γ and TNF-α can empower their immune fate and induce a more effective immune regulation. However, the cellular heterogeneity of MSCs limits our understanding of this inflammatory licensing. METHODS: The publicly available Gene Expression Omnibus single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) data of human bone marrow-derived MSCs with or without IFN-γ and TNF-α licensing were analyzed. Based on the scRNA-seq data and related marker genes, the cell-cycle, stemness, differentiative potencies, and immunomodulate capability of unlicensed and licensed MSCs were compared. RESULTS: After removing low-quality cells and regressing out the ribosomal gene effects, high-quality data reflecting IFN-γ and TNF-α effect on MSCs were chosen for further analysis. Despite the heterogeneity, pre-licensing didn't influence the cell-cycle and stemness of human bone marrow-derived MSCs. The osteogenesis potencies were decreased, the chondrogenesis potencies were increased while the adipogenesis potencies were stable in licensed MSCs. Licensed MSCs also showed more effective immunomodulate capability including expression of related chemokines, cytokines, surface molecules, and receptors. CONCLUSION: Collectively, our study showed the expression profiles of human bone marrow-derived unlicensed and licensed MSCs about the cell cycle, stemness, differentiative potencies, and immunomodulate capability at single-cell resolution, which may help the comprehensive understanding about the inflammatory licensing of human bone marrow-derived MSCs and their further clinical application.


Assuntos
Redes Reguladoras de Genes/efeitos dos fármacos , Interferon gama/farmacologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Condrogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/imunologia , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise de Sequência de RNA
5.
J Cell Physiol ; 236(2): 1131-1147, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643158

RESUMO

Since the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in December 2019 in China, there has been an upsurge in the number of deaths and infected individuals throughout the world, thereby leading to the World Health Organization declaration of a pandemic. Since no specific therapy is currently available for the same, the present study was aimed to explore the SARS-CoV-2 genome for the identification of immunogenic regions using immunoinformatics approach. A series of computational tools were applied in a systematic way to identify the epitopes that could be utilized in vaccine development. The screened-out epitopes were passed through several immune filters, such as promiscuousity, conservancy, antigenicity, nonallergenicity, population coverage, nonhomologous to human proteins, and affinity with human leukocyte antigen alleles, to screen out the best possible ones. Further, a construct comprising 11 CD4, 12 CD8, 3 B cell, and 3 interferon-γ epitopes, along with an adjuvant ß-defensin, was designed in silico, resulting in the formation of a multiepitope vaccine. The in silico immune simulation and population coverage analysis of the vaccine sequence showed its capacity to elicit cellular, humoral, and innate immune cells and to cover up a worldwide population of more than 97%. Further, the interaction analysis of the vaccine construct with Toll-like receptor 3 (immune receptor) was carried out by docking and dynamics simulations, revealing high affinity, constancy, and pliability between the two. The overall findings suggest that the vaccine may be highly effective, and is therefore required to be tested in the lab settings to evaluate its efficacy.


Assuntos
/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Genoma Viral , Interferon gama/imunologia , /genética , Antígenos Virais , Clonagem Molecular , Epitopos de Linfócito B/genética , Epitopos de Linfócito T/genética , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Moleculares , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Filogenia , Conformação Proteica , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Vacinas de Subunidades/imunologia , Proteínas Virais/imunologia
6.
Cytokine ; 137: 155323, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045526

RESUMO

Cytokine dysregulation is the proposed mechanism for Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum levels of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-5, IL-8, Il-9, IL-17, TGF-ß and IFN-γ in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. The study was conducted between 63 adult patients with COVID-19 and compared with 33 age and gender-matched healthy subjects as controls. The age range in both groups was 50-70 years. The patients were classified into mild group (33 patients) and severe group (30 patients). Serum samples were collected from all participants and tested for the cytokine levels by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) method. Statistical analysis was performed using the one-way ANOVA. The mean serum levels of IFN-γ, TGF-ß, IL-17 and IL-8 in the COVID-19 patients were significantly higher than those observed in the control group. A comparison of between the mild and severe groups showed significant differences in TGF-ß levels. The mean concentration of serum IL-5 and IL-9 in patients with COVID-19 did not differ from those in the control group. Systemic IL-17 levels correlated positively and significantly with TGF-ß in patients with COVID-19. Th1 (IFN-γ), Treg (TGF-ß), and Th17 (IL-17) cytokines concentration were increased in COVID-19 patients. Interferon-γ and IL-17 are involved in inducing and mediating proinflammatory responses. Our data suggest that TGF-ß can be used as a predictive factor of disease severity in patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
/sangue , Citocinas/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Interferon gama/sangue , Interleucina-17/sangue , Interleucina-5/sangue , Interleucina-8/sangue , Interleucina-9/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/sangue
7.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0239246, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347446

RESUMO

Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a chronic relapsing disorder characterized by an impaired ability to stop or control alcohol use despite adverse social, occupational, or health consequences. AUD is associated with a variety of physiological changes and is a substantial risk factor for numerous diseases. We aimed to characterize systemic alterations in immune responses using a well-established mouse model of chronic intermittent alcohol exposure to induce alcohol dependence. We exposed mice to chronic intermittent ethanol vapor for 4 weeks and analyzed the expression of cytokines IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12 and IL-17 by different immune cells in the blood, spleen and liver of alcohol dependent and non-dependent control mice through multiparametric flow cytometry. We found increases in IFN-γ and IL-17 expression in a cell type- and organ-specific manner. Often, B cells and neutrophils were primary contributors to increased IFN-γ and IL-17 levels while other cell types played a secondary role. We conclude that chronic alcohol exposure promotes systemic pro-inflammatory IFN-γ and IL-17 responses in mice. These responses are likely important in the development of alcohol-related diseases, but further characterization is necessary to understand the initiation and effects of systemic inflammatory responses to chronic alcohol exposure.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/metabolismo , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/metabolismo
8.
Front Immunol ; 11: 596684, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33362779

RESUMO

Background: The current outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) poses an unprecedented health crisis. The most common chronic illness among patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 is hypertension. Immune dysregulation plays an important role in SARS-CoV-2 infection and in the development of hypertension; however, the dynamic immunological characteristics of COVID-19 patients with hypertension remain largely unclear. Methods: In total, 258 hypertensive patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 were included in this study. CD38+HLA-DR+ and CD38+PD-1+ CD8+ T cells, IFNγ+CD4+ and IFNγ+CD8+ T cells, the titers of IgG, IgM, and IgA against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, and SARS-CoV-2 throat viral loads were measured weekly over 4 weeks after the onset of symptoms. Clinical outcomes were also monitored. Findings: CD4+ T lymphopenia was observed in 100% of the severe and critical cases. Compared with the surviving patients, the patients with fatal outcomes exhibited high and prolonged expression of CD38+HLA-DR+ and CD38+PD-1+ on CD8+ T cells, low expression of SARS-CoV-2-specific IFNγ+CD4+ and IFNγ+CD8+ T cells, low titers of IgG, IgM, and IgA against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, and high SARS-CoV-2 viral load during the illness. In the surviving patients, the viral load was significantly inversely correlated with SARS-CoV-2-specific IFNγ+CD8+and IFNγ+CD4+ T cells, IgG, IgM, and IgA. Interpretation: T lymphopenia is common in critical or severe COVID-19 cases with hypertension. Prolonged activation and exhaustion of CD8+ T cells were associated with severe disease. The delayed SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody responses may be insufficient for overcoming severe SARS-CoV-2 infection in the absence of SARS-CoV-2-specific cellular responses.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Hipertensão/patologia , /imunologia , /patologia , Estado Terminal , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Interferon gama/sangue , Linfopenia/sangue , Estudos Retrospectivos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Carga Viral
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 828, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe and disseminated non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infections are frequently linked to a genetic predisposition but acquired defects of the interferon gamma (IFNγ) / interleukin 12 (IL-12) pathway need to be considered in adult patients with persistent or recurrent infections. Neutralizing anti-IFNγ autoantibodies disrupting IFNγ signalling have been identified as the cause of a severe and unique acquired immunodeficiency syndrome with increased susceptibility to NTM and other intracellular pathogens. CASE PRESENTATION: An adult Asian female with a previous history of recurrent NTM infections presented with persistent diarrhea, abdominal pain, night sweats and weight loss. Severe colitis due to a simultaneous infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Salmonella typhimurium was diagnosed, with both pathogens also detectable in blood samples. Imaging studies further revealed thoracic as well as abdominal lymphadenopathy and a disseminated Mycobacterium intracellulare infection was diagnosed after a lymph node biopsy. Further diagnostics revealed the presence of high-titer neutralizing anti-IFNγ autoantibodies, allowing for the diagnosis of adult-onset immunodeficiency with anti-IFNγ autoantibodies (AIIA). CONCLUSIONS: We here present a severe case of acquired immunodeficiency with anti-IFNγ autoantibodies with simultaneous, disseminated infections with both viral and microbial pathogens. The case illustrates how the diagnosis can cause considerable difficulties and is often delayed due to unusual presentations. Histological studies in our patient give further insight into the pathophysiological significance of impaired IFNγ signalling. B-cell-depleting therapy with rituximab offers a targeted treatment approach in AIIA.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/diagnóstico , Citomegalovirus/isolamento & purificação , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/diagnóstico , Interferon gama/imunologia , Linfadenopatia/diagnóstico , Complexo Mycobacterium avium/isolamento & purificação , Infecção por Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare/diagnóstico , Infecções por Salmonella/diagnóstico , Salmonella typhimurium/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Biópsia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/complicações , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/virologia , Diagnóstico Tardio , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/complicações , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-12/metabolismo , Linfadenopatia/complicações , Linfadenopatia/tratamento farmacológico , Linfadenopatia/patologia , Infecção por Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare/complicações , Infecção por Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção por Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare/microbiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/complicações , Infecções por Salmonella/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Front Immunol ; 11: 585647, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33133104

RESUMO

Cytokine storm resulting from SARS-CoV-2 infection is one of the leading causes of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and lung fibrosis. We investigated the effect of inflammatory molecules to identify any marker that is related to lung fibrosis in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Seventy-six COVID-19 patients who were admitted to Youan Hospital between January 21 and March 20, 2020 and recovered were recruited for this study. Pulmonary fibrosis, represented as fibrotic volume on chest CT images, was computed by an artificial intelligence (AI)-assisted program. Plasma samples were collected from the participants shortly after admission, to measure the basal inflammatory molecules levels. At discharge, fibrosis was present in 46 (60.5%) patients whose plasma interferon-γ (IFN-γ) levels were twofold lower than those without fibrosis (p > 0.05). The multivariate-adjusted logistic regression analysis demonstrated the inverse association risk of having lung fibrosis and basal circulating IFN-γ levels with an estimate of 0.43 (p = 0.02). Per the 1-SD increase of basal IFN-γ level in circulation, the fibrosis volume decreased by 0.070% (p = 0.04) at the discharge of participants. The basal circulating IFN-γ levels were comparable with c-reactive protein in the discrimination of the occurrence of lung fibrosis among COVID-19 patients at discharge, unlike circulating IL-6 levels. In conclusion, these data indicate that decreased circulating IFN-γ is a risk factor of lung fibrosis in COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Interferon gama/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Fibrose Pulmonar/etiologia , Idoso , Inteligência Artificial , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/sangue , Fibrose Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Fatores de Risco , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5163, 2020 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057020

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease-associated kinase LRRK2 has been linked to IFN type II (IFN-γ) response in infections and to dopaminergic neuronal loss. However, whether and how LRRK2 synergizes with IFN-γ remains unclear. In this study, we employed dopaminergic neurons and microglia differentiated from patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells carrying LRRK2 G2019S, the most common Parkinson's disease-associated mutation. We show that IFN-γ enhances the LRRK2 G2019S-dependent negative regulation of AKT phosphorylation and NFAT activation, thereby increasing neuronal vulnerability to immune challenge. Mechanistically, LRRK2 G2019S suppresses NFAT translocation via calcium signaling and possibly through microtubule reorganization. In microglia, LRRK2 modulates cytokine production and the glycolytic switch in response to IFN-γ in an NFAT-independent manner. Activated LRRK2 G2019S microglia cause neurite shortening, indicating that LRRK2-driven immunological changes can be neurotoxic. We propose that synergistic LRRK2/IFN-γ activation serves as a potential link between inflammation and neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease.


Assuntos
Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/imunologia , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Proteína Quinase-2 com Repetições Ricas em Leucina/metabolismo , Microglia/imunologia , Doença de Parkinson/imunologia , Sinalização do Cálcio/genética , Diferenciação Celular , Citocinas/metabolismo , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Glicólise/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/fisiologia , Interferon gama/imunologia , Microscopia Intravital , Serina-Treonina Proteína Quinase-2 com Repetições Ricas em Leucina/genética , Microglia/metabolismo , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Mutação , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC/metabolismo , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , Cultura Primária de Células , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Células THP-1
12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5173, 2020 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057068

RESUMO

In ovarian cancer (OC), IL-17-producing T cells (Th17s) predict improved survival, whereas regulatory T cells predict poorer survival. We previously developed a vaccine whereby patient-derived dendritic cells (DCs) are programmed to induce Th17 responses to the OC antigen folate receptor alpha (FRα). Here we report the results of a single-arm open-label phase I clinical trial designed to determine vaccine safety and tolerability (primary outcomes) and recurrence-free survival (secondary outcome). Immunogenicity is also evaluated. Recruitment is complete with a total of 19 Stage IIIC-IV OC patients in first remission after conventional therapy. DCs are generated using our Th17-inducing protocol and are pulsed with HLA class II epitopes from FRα. Mature antigen-loaded DCs are injected intradermally. All patients have completed study-related interventions. No grade 3 or higher adverse events are seen. Vaccination results in the development of Th1, Th17, and antibody responses to FRα in the majority of patients. Th1 and antibody responses are associated with prolonged recurrence-free survival. Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxic activity against FRα is also associated with prolonged RFS. Of 18 patients evaluable for efficacy, 39% (7/18) remain recurrence-free at the time of data censoring, with a median follow-up of 49.2 months. Thus, vaccination with Th17-inducing FRα-loaded DCs is safe, induces antigen-specific immunity, and is associated with prolonged remission.


Assuntos
Vacinas Anticâncer/administração & dosagem , Células Dendríticas/transplante , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/terapia , Células Th17/imunologia , Idoso , Vacinas Anticâncer/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Receptor 1 de Folato/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Humoral , Injeções Intradérmicas , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/imunologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Ovarianas/imunologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Células Th17/metabolismo , Transplante Autólogo/efeitos adversos , Transplante Autólogo/métodos
13.
Anticancer Res ; 40(11): 6473-6484, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an intractable tumor that has a very poor prognosis despite intensive treatment with temozolomide plus radiotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixteen newly diagnosed patients with high-grade gliomas were enrolled in a phase II study of the α-type-1 DC vaccine. Briefly, DCs obtained from the culture of enriched monocytes in the presence of a cytokine cocktail, were pulsed with a cocktail of 5 synthetic peptides and cryopreserved until injection into patients. RESULTS: The amount of IL-12 produced by activated DCs was higher than that previously reported. Among 15 evaluable patients, 10 showed positive CTL responses to any peptides in an ELISPOT assay. After 6 years of observation, five patients were still alive, and two of these patients were relapse-free. Moreover, a significant survival-prolonging effect was verified in DC-treated glioma patients. CONCLUSION: Peptide-cocktail-pulsed α-type-1 DC vaccines have a potential therapeutic effect on survival when used in combination with the standard regimen, which is partly based on IL-12-IFN-γ-mediated T-cell activation.


Assuntos
Vacinas Anticâncer/administração & dosagem , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Glioma/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Polaridade Celular/imunologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Glioma/imunologia , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , Interferon gama/genética , Interleucina-12/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/imunologia , Monócitos/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/imunologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Vacinação/métodos
14.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(10): 921, 2020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33110074

RESUMO

The immunological mechanisms underlying the clinical presentation of SARS-CoV-2 infection and those influencing the disease outcome remain to be defined. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) have been described to be highly increased during COVID-19, however, their role remains elusive. We performed an in depth analysis of MDSC in 128 SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. Polymorphonuclear (PMN)-MDSC expanded during COVID-19, in particular in patients who required intensive care treatments, and correlated with IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α plasma levels. PMN-MDSC inhibited T-cells IFN-γ production upon SARS-CoV-2 peptides stimulation, through TGF-ß- and iNOS-mediated mechanisms, possibly contrasting virus elimination. Accordingly, a multivariate regression analysis found a strong association between PMN-MDSC percentage and fatal outcome of the disease. The PMN-MDSC frequency was higher in non-survivors than survivors at the admission time, followed by a decreasing trend. Interestingly, this trend was associated with IL-6 increase in non-survivors but not in survivors. In conclusion, this study indicates PMN-MDSC as a novel factor in the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV2 infection, and open up to new therapeutic options.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Células Supressoras Mieloides/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Células Supressoras Mieloides/citologia , Neutrófilos/citologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Pandemias , Peptídeos/imunologia , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Curva ROC , Taxa de Sobrevida , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/sangue , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
15.
Rev Iberoam Micol ; 37(2): 41-46, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33041191

RESUMO

Critically ill COVID-19 patients have higher pro-inflammatory (IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, tumor necrosis alpha) and anti-inflammatory (IL-4, IL-10) cytokine levels, less CD4 interferon-gamma expression, and fewer CD4 and CD8 cells. This severe clinical situation increases the risk of serious fungal infections, such as invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, invasive candidiasis or Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. However, few studies have investigated fungal coinfections in this population. We describe an update on published reports on fungal coinfections and our personal experience in three Spanish hospitals. We can conclude that despite the serious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 in many patients, the scarcity of invasive mycoses is probably due to the few bronchoscopies and necropsies performed in these patients because of the high risk in aerosol generation. However, the presence of fungal markers in clinically relevant specimens, with the exception of bronchopulmonary colonization by Candida, should make it advisable to early implement antifungal therapy.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Candidíase Invasiva/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Aspergilose Pulmonar Invasiva/epidemiologia , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Humanos , Interferon gama/sangue , Interleucinas/sangue , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Espanha/epidemiologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5258, 2020 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067458

RESUMO

Macrophages play an essential role in the early immune response against Toxoplasma and are the cell type preferentially infected by the parasite in vivo. Interferon gamma (IFNγ) elicits a variety of anti-Toxoplasma activities in macrophages. Using a genome-wide CRISPR screen we identify 353 Toxoplasma genes that determine parasite fitness in naїve or IFNγ-activated murine macrophages, seven of which are further confirmed. We show that one of these genes encodes dense granule protein GRA45, which has a chaperone-like domain, is critical for correct localization of GRAs into the PVM and secretion of GRA effectors into the host cytoplasm. Parasites lacking GRA45 are more susceptible to IFNγ-mediated growth inhibition and have reduced virulence in mice. Together, we identify and characterize an important chaperone-like GRA in Toxoplasma and provide a resource for the community to further explore the function of Toxoplasma genes that determine fitness in IFNγ-activated macrophages.


Assuntos
Interferon gama/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasmose/imunologia , Animais , Feminino , Genoma de Protozoário , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Humanos , Interferon gama/genética , Macrófagos/parasitologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Toxoplasma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Toxoplasma/metabolismo , Toxoplasma/patogenicidade , Toxoplasmose/genética , Toxoplasmose/parasitologia , Virulência
17.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 38 Suppl 126(4): 27-33, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095140

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Assess if kynurenines metabolites are biomarkers of damage at labial salivary gland biopsy (LSGB). METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study including 99 patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (AECG 2002 or ACR/EULAR 2017). Kynurenines were measured in plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: 95.9% were females, 51±12 years. Most had focal lymphocytic sialadenitis with focus score ≥1 (73.7%, n=73/99). The majority had mild to severe acinar atrophy (70.4%, n=57/81) and adipose infiltration (51.2%, n=39/80). Individuals with adipose infiltration were older (53.49±12.33 vs. 47.51±11.29 years, p=0.016), showed higher frequency of glandular dysfunction and higher kynurenines levels. Schirmer's test ≤ 5 mm/5min was found in 69.2% of individuals with adipose infiltration compared to 41% without (p=0.012) and unstimulated whole salivary flow (UWSF) was found in 87.2% compared to 70% without adipose infiltration (p=0.063). Additionally, individuals with adipose infiltration showed higher kynurenines metabolites compared with those without: quinolinic acid (503.35±193.30 vs. 427.35±285.76 nmol/L, p=0.029), kynurenine (1.99±0.6, 54 vs. 1.61±0.46 µmol/L, p=0.006), kynurenine/tryptophan ratio (KTR) (0.030±0.09 vs. 0.025±0.01, p=0.031) and anthranilic acid (03±4.96 vs. 16.46±5.24 nmol/L, p=0.022). CONCLUSIONS: Kynurenines are biomarkers of greater adipose infiltration in LSGB and glandular dysfunction suggesting that activation of interferon-γ pathway is involved in the salivary and lacrimal glands damage.


Assuntos
Interferon gama , Cinurenina , Tecido Adiposo , Biomarcadores , Biópsia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação , Masculino
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(41): e22504, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031288

RESUMO

In clinical trials of tofacitinib for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Japanese and Korean patients had higher incidence of herpes zoster (HZ) than subjects from elsewhere; however, post-market data from Asia are lacking. Hence, we investigated the incidence of HZ and its risk factors in Taiwanese RA patients receiving tofacitinib. At a medical center in Taichung, Taiwan, we enrolled patients with active RA treated with tofacitinib between January 4, 2015 and December 9, 2017, following unsuccessful methotrexate therapy and no tofacitinib exposure RA patients as a control group. Demographic characteristics, interferon-gamma levels, and lymphocyte counts were compared. Among 125 tofacitinib-treated RA patients, 7 developed HZ, an incidence rate of 3.6/100 person-years. Patients with HZ had shorter disease duration than those without, but higher frequency of prior HZ. Baseline interferon-gamma levels and HLA-DR activated T cell counts were positively correlated and significantly lower in patients with HZ than without. Strikingly, 5/7 HZ cases occurred within 4 months of starting tofacitinib therapy. Incidence of HZ in tofacitinib-treated Taiwanese RA patients is lower than rates in Japan or Korea, and commensurate with the global average. HZ may occur soon after commencing tofacitinib therapy. The role of interferon-gamma and activated T cells in tofacitinib-related HZ deserves further investigation.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Herpes Zoster/epidemiologia , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Pirróis/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T , Idoso , Artrite Reumatoide/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Interferon gama/sangue , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taiwan/epidemiologia
19.
Adv Mater ; 32(40): e2004210, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32864794

RESUMO

For rapid response against the prevailing COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 19), it is a global imperative to exploit the immunogenicity of existing formulations for safe and efficient vaccines. As the most accessible adjuvant, aluminum hydroxide (alum) is still the sole employed adjuvant in most countries. However, alum tends to attach on the membrane rather than entering the dendritic cells (DCs), leading to the absence of intracellular transfer and process of the antigens, and thus limits T-cell-mediated immunity. To address this, alum is packed on the squalene/water interphase is packed, forming an alum-stabilized Pickering emulsion (PAPE). "Inheriting" from alum and squalene, PAPE demonstrates a good biosafety profile. Intriguingly, with the dense array of alum on the oil/water interphase, PAPE not only adsorbs large quantities of SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) antigens, but also harbors a higher affinity for DC uptake, which provokes the uptake and cross-presentation of the delivered antigens. Compared with alum-treated groups, more than six times higher antigen-specific antibody titer and three-fold more IFN-γ-secreting T cells are induced, indicating the potent humoral and cellular immune activations. Collectively, the data suggest that PAPE may provide potential insights toward a safe and efficient adjuvant platform for the enhanced COVID-19 vaccinations.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/química , Vacinas Virais/química , Compostos de Alúmen/química , Animais , Antígenos Virais/química , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Emulsões , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia
20.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239231, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997686

RESUMO

It is controversially discussed whether immune-deficient mice experience severity in the absence of infection. Because a comprehensive analysis of the well-being of immune-deficient mice under specific pathogen free conditions is missing, we used a multi-parametric test analyzing, corticosterone, weight, nest building and facial expression over a period of 9 month to determine the well-being of two immune-deficient mouse lines (recombination activating gene 2- and interferon gamma receptor-deficient mice). We do not find evidence for severity when comparing immune-deficient mice to their heterozygous immune-competent littermates. Our data challenge the assumption that immune-deficiency per se regardless of housing conditions causes severity. Based on our study we propose to use objective non-invasive parameters determined by laboratory animal science for decisions concerning severity of immune-deficient mice.


Assuntos
Corticosterona/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Interferon gama/genética , Camundongos SCID/genética , Animais , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Corticosterona/imunologia , Humanos , Infecções/genética , Infecções/imunologia , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID/imunologia , Dor/genética , Dor/patologia , Receptores de Interferon/deficiência , Receptores de Interferon/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Testosterona/genética
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