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1.
Anticancer Res ; 39(11): 6231-6240, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704852

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The present study aimed to prospectively examine the usefulness of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) release (IGR) as a biomarker in non-small-cell lung cancer patients receiving immune checkpoint inhibitor treatment (ICI-Tx). PATIENTS AND METHODS: IGR was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at four time points: within 14 days before ICI-Tx (T1), and 8±3 (T2), 22±7 (T3), and 43±7 (T4) days after ICI-Tx. RESULTS: Twenty-nine patients were divided into three groups based on IFN-γ levels in the IGR-positive control: Group-1 (n=8) with <10 IU/ml at T1, Group-2 (n=12) with a decrease in IFN-γ levels to <10 IU/ml at T3 and/or T4, and Group-3 (n=9) without changes in IFN-γ levels. Early progression and ICI-induced interstitial pneumonitis were frequently observed in Group-1 and Group-2, respectively. Group-3 exhibited more treatment cycles than the other groups. All three groups showed clear differences in clinical outcomes. CONCLUSION: IFN-γ levels could be a biomarker for ICI-Tx.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Interferon gama/sangue , Tuberculose Latente/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Latente/etiologia , Tuberculose Latente/metabolismo , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/etiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Fatores de Tempo
2.
J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol ; 38(2): 173-183, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679280

RESUMO

In the present study, we investigated the effects of conditioned media (CM) collected from the cancer cell lines (K562, MCF-7, and HeLa) on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from the healthy human blood. The soluble factors in the CM are probably responsible for the differential mRNA expressions of Foxp3, Helios, Neuropilin- 1 (NRP-1), and glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP), along with IFN-γ and TGF-ß in PBMCs cultured with cancer cells CM. The PBMCs cultured with CM of K562 showed increased expression of Foxp3, Helios, NRP-1, GARP, IFN-γ, and TGF-ß compared to PBMCs cultured with CM of MCF-7 and HeLa cells. In addition, the intracellular staining on PBMCs cultured with CM from cell lines were also evaluated for CD4, CD25, Foxp3, Helios, and NRP-1 by multicolor flow cytometry. The expression of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+, CD4+Helios+Foxp3+ and CD+NRP-1+Foxp3+ showed retarded cell population compared to control PBMCs. Our data suggest that soluble factors in CM of cancer cells may trigger the immune response in PBMCs resulting in a systematic response. Further research could lead to the identification of specific soluble factors that are involved in trafficking of cells into the immune cascades, which could be a safe and promising strategy for targeting human cancers.


Assuntos
Expressão Gênica , Interferon gama/genética , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados , Células HeLa , Humanos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Células K562 , Células MCF-7 , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
3.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(12): 2055-2066, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724091

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibition suggests promising progress for the treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the underlying cellular mechanisms remain unclear because liver cancer cells apparently do not upregulate inhibitory checkpoint molecules. Here, we analysed whether regulatory T cells (Tregs) can alternatively trigger checkpoint inhibition pathways in HCC. Using flow cytometry we analysed expression of checkpoint molecules (PD-1, PD-L1, CTLA-4, GITR, Tim-3) on peripheral CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs and their secretion of inhibitory mediators (IL-10, IL-35, TGF-beta, galectin-9) in 116 individuals (50 patients with HCC, 41 non-tumour bearing liver disease controls, 25 healthy controls). Functional activity of Tregs on T effector cells (IFN-gamma production, cytotoxicity) was characterized in vitro using a lectin-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (LDCC) assay against checkpoint inhibitor-negative P815 target cells. Unlike liver patients without malignancy and healthy controls, the frequency of checkpoint inhibitor-positive Tregs inversely correlated to age of patients with HCC (PD-L1, p = 0.0080; CTLA-4, p = 0.0029) and corresponded to enhanced numbers of Tregs producing IL-10 and IL-35 (p < 0.05 each). Tregs inhibited IFN-gamma secretion and cytotoxicity of CD8+ T cells when added to LDCC against P815 cells. Treg-induced inhibition of IFN-gamma secretion could be partially blocked by neutralizing PD-1 and PD-L1 antibodies specifically in HCC patients. In HCC peripheral Tregs upregulate checkpoint inhibitors and contribute to systemic immune dysfunction and antitumoural activity by several inhibitory pathways, presumably facilitating tumour development at young age. Blocking PD-L1/PD-1 interactions in vitro selectively interfered with inhibitory Treg -T effector cell interactions in the patients with HCC and resulted in improved antitumoural activity also against checkpoint inhibitor-negative tumour cells.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/imunologia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Feminino , Humanos , Tolerância Imunológica , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
4.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(9): 1077-1083, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594149

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the influence of IFN-γ and IL-12 levels in prenatal peripheral blood of HBsAg-positive parturients on intrauterine transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV). Methods: A case-control study was conducted in 282 HBsAg positive parturients and 43 health parturients (control group) in Northwest Women and Children Hospital of Shaanxi Province. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect five serological makers of hepatitis B in peripheral blood of parturients. HBV DNA was detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR. Detection of cytokines IFN-γ and IL-12 levels were conducted with liquid chip-based flow cytometry method. The serum levels of five serological markers of hepatitis B and HBV DNA in 285 newborns were detected within 24 hours after birth. Results: The incidence of intrauterine dominant infection (DBI), occult infection (OBI) and intrauterine transmission of HBV in HBsAg positive parturients were 7.37% (21/285), 40.70% (116/285) and 48.07% (137/285), respectively. The level of IFN-γ in peripheral blood of HBsAg-negative parturients was significantly lower than those of HBsAg-positive parturients (t=-2.55, P=0.011), NBIT group (t=-2.54, P=0.012) and OBI group (t=-2.33, P=0.021). In HBV DNA load of 10(3)-10(6) copies/ml group, the levels of IFN-γ in the DBI group were significantly lower than those in OBI group and NBIT group (P<0.01). The level of IFN-γ in maternal peripheral blood decreased significantly with the increased severity of intrauterine transmission of HBV (χ(2)=6.40, P=0.041). In the antiviral treatment group, the level of IL-12 in maternal peripheral blood decreased significantly with the increased severity of intrauterine transmission of HBV (χ(2)=8.90, P=0.012). Multivariate analysis showed that there was a significant linear relationship between maternal IFN-γ level and maternal age, placenta previa and hepatitis B vaccine injection (P<0.05). The linear relationship between the level of maternal IL-12 and the mode of rupture and hepatitis B vaccine injection had statistical significance (P<0.05). Conclusions: HBV can stimulate the expression of IFN-γ and inhibit the secretion of IL-12 in pregnant and lying-in women, but the expression of IFN-γ in HBsAg-positive parturients showed intra-group differentiation, and the maternal level of IFN-γ will decrease in HBeAg-positive and high-HBV DNA loadstatus. Increasing the levels of IFN-γ and IL-12 in HBsAg-positive parturients is beneficial to block intrauterine transmission of HBV, especially DBI.


Assuntos
Hepatite B , Interleucina-12/metabolismo , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , DNA Viral , Feminino , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Vírus da Hepatite B , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Gravidez
5.
Anticancer Res ; 39(10): 5369-5374, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570431

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells are ex vivo expanded major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-unrestricted cytotoxic cells with promising effects against a variety of cancer types. Regulatory T-cells (T-reg) have been shown to reduce the effectiveness of CIK cells against tumor cells. Peptide P60 has been shown to inhibit the immunosuppressive functions of T-regs. This study aimed at examining the effect of p60 on CIK cells efficacy against renal and pancreatic cancer cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effect of P60 on CIK cytotoxicity was examined using flow cytometry, WST-8-based cell viability assay and interferon γ (IFNγ) ELISA. RESULTS: P60 treatment resulted in a significant decrease in the viability of renal and pancreatic cancer cell lines co-cultured with CIK cells. No increase in IFNγ secretion from CIK cells was detected following treatment with P60. P60 caused no changes in the distribution of major effector cell populations in CIK cell cultures. CONCLUSION: P60 may potentiate CIK cell cytotoxicity against tumor cells.


Assuntos
Células Matadoras Induzidas por Citocinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Cocultura/métodos , Células Matadoras Induzidas por Citocinas/metabolismo , Citotoxicidade Imunológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Neoplasias Renais/metabolismo , Pâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(46): 12752-12760, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642668

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis, the major risk of cardiovascular events, is a chronic vascular inflammatory disease. Pterostilbene is a naturally occurring dimethylated analogue of resveratrol and has recently been demonstrated to be beneficial against cardiovascular diseases. However, the underlying mechanisms of pterostilbene on atherosclerosis remain elusive. Experimental atherosclerosis was induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) in apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE-/-) mice. Pterostilbene was administered intragastrically for 16 weeks. We found that pterostilbene significantly attenuated thoracic and abdominal atherosclerotic plaque formation in HFD-fed ApoE-/-mice, accompanied by modulated lipid profiles and reduced production of proinflammatory cytokines (including IL-6, IFN-γ, and TNF-α). In addition, pterostilbene restored vascular redox balance in thoracic and abdominal aorta, evidenced by enhanced catalase (CAT) expression and activities, and decreased malondialdehyde and H2O2 production. Notably, pterostilbene specifically induced CAT expression and activities in the vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) of thoracic and abdominal aorta. In vitro, pterostilbene markedly promoted the expression and activity of CAT and decreased ox-low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-mediated VSMC proliferation and intracellular H2O2 production, which was abolished by CAT siRNA knockdown or inhibition. Pterostilbene-induced CAT expression was associated with inhibition of Akt, PRAS40, and GSK-3ß signaling activation and upregulation of PTEN. Our data clearly demonstrated that pterostilbene exerted an antiatherosclerotic effect by inducing CAT and modulating the VSMC function.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Catalase/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/enzimologia , Estilbenos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Aorta/metabolismo , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Apolipoproteínas E/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Catalase/genética , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/genética , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas LDL/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Oxirredução
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(43): e17608, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651870

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate the changes of cytokines and the effect of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) signaling pathway on T cell function in patients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP).Totally, 40 untreated ITP patients were recruited and 30 healthy people were recruited as the healthy control. Then whole blood of ITP patients and healthy control was collected, respectively. The sPD-L1/anti-PD-1 was used to activate or block the programmed death (PD-1)/PD-L1 signaling pathway. The expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were detected by flow cytometry. PBMCs were treated with cluster of differentiation (CD3), cluster of differentiation 28 (CD28), and phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) for 48 hours. Serum levels of sPD-1, sPD-L1, and cytokines were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Compared with the healthy control group, the percentages of PD-1+CD3+CD4+ T cells and PD-L1+HLA-DR+CD11c+ DC cells were increased in ITP patients. The levels of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin-17 (IL-17), and sPD-1 in the serum of ITP patients were increased, while IL-4 and transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) were decreased. Additionally, the level of sPD-1 was negatively correlated with the platelet count. Consistently, after treatment with CD3, CD28, and PHA, IFN-γ and IL-17 levels in culture supernatant of PBMCs from ITP patients were significantly higher than those from healthy controls whereas IL-4 and TGF-ß levels were significantly lower. Furthermore, IFN-γ and IL-17 levels secreted by PBMCs from ITP patients decreased after sPD-L1 administration, however, IL-4 and TGF-ß levels were increased. The level of IFN-γ in ITP group remained higher after anti-PD-1 blockage, but the levels of IL-4, TGF-ß, and IL-17 were not significantly influenced.sPD-1 may cause the dysfunction of PD-1/PD-L1 signaling pathway, and its level is related to the severity of ITP patients. Activation of PD-1/PD-L1 with sPD-L1 may restore the imbalance of Th1/Th2 and Treg/Th17 cell subtypes in ITP patients but anti-PD-1 may exacerbate disease by enhancing IFN-γ production.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Equilíbrio Th1-Th2/fisiologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Adulto , Antígenos CD28/imunologia , Complexo CD3/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Citocinas/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fito-Hemaglutininas/imunologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/fisiologia , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/sangue , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Equilíbrio Th1-Th2/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
9.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents ; 33(5): 1369-1376, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637897

RESUMO

The objective of this paper was to study the effects of PYR-ARG-PRO-ARG-LEU-SER-HIS-YSGLY-PRO-MET-PRO-PHE-OH (APELIN-13) on the expression of inflammatory factors interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in rats with experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN). A total of 30 rats were divided into a control group, an EAN group, and an APELIN-13 group. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the levels of IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ in rat plasma. Real-time quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Western blot were used to detect the protein and mRNA expression of IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ in rat lymph nodes. In the EAN group, the infiltration of various types of inflammatory cells and focal demyelination were observed near the nerve fascicles of sciatic nerves. Compared with the EAN group, the infiltration of inflammatory cells and demyelination in the APELIN-13 group decreased significantly. The levels of plasma IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ in the EAN group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P < 0.05) but significantly lower than those in the APELIN-13 group (P < 0.05). Compared with the control group, the mRNA and protein expression of IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the EAN group but decreased significantly in the APELIN-13 group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, APELIN-13 exerted a protective effect against EAN in rats.


Assuntos
Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/farmacologia , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Neurite Autoimune Experimental/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Animais , Ratos
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 792, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus multilocularis (E. multilocularis), and considered as public health issue. Parasite-host immune interaction is pivotal during infection. As a subset of innate lymphoid cells, NK cells are known to play an important role during virus, bacteria, intra/extracellular parasitic infections and tumor progression. However, the possible role of NK cells in E. multilocularis infection in both human and murine is little known. Herein, the functional alteration of hepatic NK cells and their related molecules in E. multilocularis infected mice were studied. METHODS: 2000 protoscoleces (PSCs) were injected to C57BL/6 mice via the portal vein to establish secondary E. multilocularis infection. NK cells population and their related molecules (CD69, Ly49D, Ly49G2, Ly49H, Ly49I, NKG2A, NKG2D, granzyme B, IFN-γ, TNF-α) were assessed by using fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) techniques and qRT-PCR. NK cell depletion was performed for further understanding the possible function of NK cells during infection. RESULTS: The total frequencies of NK cells and NK-derived IFN-γ production were significantly reduced at designated time points (2, 4, 12 weeks). The liver resident (CD49a+DX5-) NK cells are decreased at 4 weeks after inoculation and which is significantly lower than in control mice. Moreover, in vivo antibody-mediated NK cell depletion increased parasitic load and decreased peri-parasitic fibrosis. Expression of the inhibitory receptor NKG2A was negatively related to NK- derived IFN-γ secretion. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed down regulates of NK cells and upper regulates of NKG2A expression on NK cells during E. multilocularis infection. Reduction of NK cell frequencies and increased NKG2A might result in low cytotoxic activity through decreased IFN-γ secretion in E. multilocularis infection. This result might be helpful to restore NK cell related immunity against E. multilocularis infection to treat alveolar echinococcosis.


Assuntos
Echinococcus multilocularis/fisiologia , Subfamília C de Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/metabolismo , Animais , Equinococose/microbiologia , Equinococose/patologia , Feminino , Tolerância Imunológica , Integrina alfa1/metabolismo , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Células Matadoras Naturais/citologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Fígado/imunologia , Fígado/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Subfamília C de Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/genética , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
APMIS ; 127(12): 797-804, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514254

RESUMO

Brucellosis is a worldwide bacterial zoonosis caused by Brucella spp. No approved vaccine is available for human use against the disease. In this study, outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) from a Brucella melitensis biovar 1 human isolate obtained in Iran were used to immunize BALB/c mice (n = 12) by 2 intramuscular injections with a 2-week interval. Another group of 12 mice was used as non-vaccinated controls. Two weeks after the last vaccination, six mice of each group were sacrificed, and proliferation and interferon gamma (IFNγ) production responses of their splenocytes were evaluated following in vitro stimulation with killed Brucella cells. The other mice were challenged with the virulent B. melitensis isolate. Two weeks later, mice were killed and spleens were cultured to determine the number of the challenge strain. The results showed proliferative response and IFNγ production of splenocytes from vaccinated mice (stimulation index: 2.18 ± 0.57, and 1519.35 ± 10.70 pg/mL, respectively) were significantly higher than those of control mice (stimulation index: 1.02 ± 0.02, and 210.01 ± 17.58 pg/mL, respectively). Numbers of the challenge strain in spleens of vaccinated mice were also significantly less than those in the controls with 1.6 units of protection. Our study revealed vaccination with OMVs of the B. melitensis isolate could induce specific immune responses and protection against infection in the mouse model suggesting their potential application for active immunization against brucellosis.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Brucelose/imunologia , Brucella melitensis/imunologia , Brucelose/imunologia , Brucelose/prevenção & controle , Vesículas Extracelulares/imunologia , Animais , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/imunologia , Brucella melitensis/citologia , Brucelose/microbiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Baço/metabolismo , Baço/microbiologia , Vacinação
12.
Presse Med ; 48(9): 919-930, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31543394

RESUMO

Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a large-vessel vasculitis involving the aorta and its main branches, especially supra aortic branches. Although much progress has been made, the pathophysiology remains incompletely understood. An initial trigger, suspected of infectious origin, lead to the maturation and recruitment of dendritic cells (DC). The lack of migration of these DC allows the local recruitment of T-lymphocytes (LT). These LT- CD4+ polarize in Type 1 helper (Th1), Th17 but also Th9. A qualitative and quantitative deficit in regulatory T cells (Treg) is observed under the influence of IL-21 overproduction. In addition, an imbalance in the Th17/Treg balance is favored by IL-6. The secretion of IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-6, IL-33 is responsible for a sustained local inflammatory reaction that is organized around tertiary lymphoid follicles. Locally recruited macrophages secrete reactive forms of oxygen together with VEGF and PDGF. These growth factors, together with neurotrophins and endothelin contribute to increase the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). The imbalance between matrix metalloproteases (MMP)-2, MMP-9 and MMP-14 and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2 also contribute to the remodeling process occurring in the vessel wall. Finally, arterial neovascularization contribute to the perpetuation of lymphocyte recruitment. This persistent remodeling is sometimes complicated by ischemic events responsible for the initial severity of the disease.


Assuntos
Arterite de Células Gigantes/fisiopatologia , Remodelação Vascular/fisiologia , Animais , Linfócitos B/fisiologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/fisiologia , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Células Dendríticas/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Arterite de Células Gigantes/tratamento farmacológico , Arterite de Células Gigantes/etiologia , Arterite de Células Gigantes/patologia , Humanos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Interleucina-33/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/fisiologia , Interleucinas/biossíntese , Ativação Linfocitária/fisiologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Neovascularização Patológica/fisiopatologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/fisiologia , Células Th17/fisiologia
13.
Chem Biol Interact ; 311: 108790, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400342

RESUMO

Preclinical assays play a key role in research in research on the neurobiology of pain and the development of novel analgesics. Drugs available for the treatment of inflammatory pain are not fully effective and show adverse effects. Thus, we investigated the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesic effects of bis(3-amino-2-pyridine) diselenide (BAPD), a new analgesic drug prototype. BAPD effects were investigated using nociception models induced by chemical (glutamate), immunologic (Freund's Complete Adjuvant - CFA) and thermal stimuli in Swiss mice. Mice were orally (p.o.) treated with BAPD (0.1-50 mg/kg) 30 min prior to the glutamate and hot-plate tests and a time-course (0.5 up to 8 h) of the antinociceptive effect of BAPD (50 mg/kg, p. o.) was evaluated in a CFA model. In the CFA model, BAPD effects on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) and interferon-γ (INF-γ) expression, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, oxidative (2,2'-Azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline 6-sulfonic acid and 2,2-diphe- nyl-1-picrylhydrazyl levels) and histological parameters were evaluated. The safety of the compound (50 and 300 mg/kg, p. o.) was verified for 72 h. BAPD reduced the licking time induced by glutamate and caused an increase in latency response to thermal stimulus. Naloxone reversed the antinociceptive effect of BAPD. Paw edema formation induced by glutamate or CFA injection was reduced by BAPD. Mechanical hyperalgesia induced by CFA was attenuated by BAPD. BAPD did not protect against the increase in MPO activity and decrease of the 2,2'-Azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline 6-sulfonic acid and 2,2-diphe- nyl-1-picrylhydrazyl levels induced by CFA. BAPD protected against histological alterations and reduction on the levels of gene expression COX-2 and INF-γ in the paw of mice exposed to CFA. BAPD was safe at the doses and time evaluated. BAPD exerts acute antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesic actions, suggesting that it may represent an alternative in the future development of new therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Nociceptividade/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Opioides/metabolismo , Analgésicos/química , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Edema/patologia , Comportamento Exploratório/efeitos dos fármacos , Pé/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Glutâmico/farmacologia , Interferon gama/genética , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/patologia , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo , Receptores Opioides/genética , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
14.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(9): 1429-1441, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31428800

RESUMO

MHC class I-related chain A (MICA) is one of the major ligands for natural killer group 2 member D (NKG2D), which is an activating NK receptor. MICA is expressed on the surface of human epithelial tumor cells, and its shedding from tumor cells leads to immunosuppression. To activate immune response in the tumor microenvironment, we designed an anti-VEGFR2-MICA bispecific antibody (JZC01), consisting of MICA and an anti-VEGFR2 single chain antibody fragment (JZC00) and explored its potential anti-tumor activity. JZC01 targeted vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and inhibited tumorigenesis by blocking the VEGFR2 signaling pathway. Additionally, JZC01 promoted NK and CD8+ T cells to release IFN-γ and engaged activated lymphocytes to lysis of VEGFR2-expressing tumor cells. The in vivo anti-tumor activity of JZC01 was investigated by establishing a Lewis lung cancer cell-transplanted mouse model. It effectively reduced the tumor vascular density and increased the infiltration and activation of NK and CD8+ T cells in the tumor microenvironment. Thus, JZC01 functions in anti-tumor angiogenesis and anti-tumor immune activation, and showed improved anti-tumor efficacy combined with docetaxel, which provides a new insight into anti-tumor therapy.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Biespecíficos/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/imunologia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Biespecíficos/genética , Apoptose , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Lewis , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Tolerância Imunológica , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 745, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to the similar clinical, lung imaging, and pathological characteristics, talaromycosis is most commonly misdiagnosed as tuberculosis. This study aimed to identify the characteristics of talaromycosis pleural effusion (TMPE) and to distinguish TMPE from tuberculosis pleural effusion (TPE). METHODS: We enrolled 19 cases each of TMPE and TPE from Guangxi, China. Patients' clinical records, pleural effusion tests, biomarker test results, and receiver operating characteristic curves were analyzed. RESULTS: In total, 39.8% (65/163) of patients exhibited serous effusion, of whom 61 were non-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients; 68.85% of the non-HIV-infected patients (42/61) had TMPE. Thoracentesis was performed only in 19 patients, all of whom were misdiagnosed with tuberculosis and received long-term anti-tuberculosis treatment. In four of these patients, interleukin (IL)-23, IL-27, and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) measurements were not performed since pleural effusion samples could not be collected because the effusion had been drained prior to the study. In the remaining 15 patients, pleural effusion samples were collected. Talaromyces marneffei was isolated from the pleural effusion and pleural nodules. Most TMPEs were characterized by yellowish fluid, with marked elevation of protein content and nucleated cell counts. However, neutrophils were predominantly found in TMPEs, and lymphocytes were predominantly found in TPEs (both p < 0.05). Adenosine deaminase (ADA) and IFN-γ levels in TMPEs were significantly lower than those in TPEs (all p < 0.05) and provided similar accuracies for distinguishing TMPEs from TPEs. IL-23 concentration in TMPEs was significantly higher than that in TPEs (p < 0.05), and it provided similar accuracy for diagnosing TMPEs. IL-27 concentrations in TMPEs were significantly lower than those in TPEs (all p < 0.05) but was not useful for distinguishing TMPE from TPE. CONCLUSIONS: Talaromycosis can infringe on the pleural cavity via the translocation of T. marneffei into the pleural space. Nonetheless, this phenomenon is still commonly neglected by clinicians. TMPE is a yellowish fluid with exudative PEs and predominant neutrophils. Higher neutrophil counts and IL-23 may suggest talaromycosis. Higher lymphocyte counts, ADA activity, and IFN-γ concentration may suggest tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Micoses/etiologia , Derrame Pleural/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pleural/diagnóstico , Adenosina Desaminase/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Subunidade p19 da Interleucina-23/metabolismo , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Linfócitos/microbiologia , Linfócitos/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Micoses/microbiologia , Neutrófilos/microbiologia , Neutrófilos/patologia , Derrame Pleural/diagnóstico , Derrame Pleural/tratamento farmacológico , Curva ROC , Talaromyces/patogenicidade , Tuberculose Pleural/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pleural/etiologia
16.
Exp Parasitol ; 205: 107736, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442455

RESUMO

Goats are frequently described as an intermediate host for the protozoan Neospora caninum, manifesting the disease mainly by recurrent abortions with placentitis and encephalitis in fetuses. Several reports of natural and experimental infections in cattle and mice show differences in the immune response, and the outcome of the infection can be variable depending on the species affected and by the behavior of the infective strain. This study describes for the first time two Neospora caninum strains isolated from naturally infected goats from the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. One placenta and one brain from different goats were processed for a first bioassay in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). Subsequently, a second bioassay was performed by inoculating the processed brain samples from gerbils into Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) knockout mice (KO mice). Tachyzoites collected from the peritoneal fluid of the KO mice were inoculated into VERO cell monolayers, where they presented a very slow growth rate. The tachyzoites were also inoculated into BALB/c mice with a dose of 106 tachyzoites per animal. After a 5-week follow up, the animals infected with both of the strains developed a strong polarized Th1 response with increased serum and spleen gene expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (mainly IFN-γ and TNF-α) in the first week. Tissue lesions were mild in the animals infected with both strains. Despite the strong immune response preventing an infection in the visceral organs, the parasite was able to reach the brain, causing progressive brain lesions from the second to fifth week post infection. The NC-goat1-infected mice presented with severe meningoencephalitis, but the NC-goat2-infected animals had considerable histological brain lesions only at week 5. Immunohistochemical analysis of the mouse brains revealed a different pattern of inflammatory cells compared to the naturally infected goats. A severe inflammatory infiltrate of CD3+ T lymphocytes was found in the NC-goat1-infected mice. A more discrete infiltrate of CD3+ T cells was found in the NC-goat2-infected animals. Additionally, IBA1 IHC revealed an intense microglial reaction and monocyte perivascular cuffs in the NC-goat1-infected animals and lower microglia/monocyte infiltrates in the NC-goat2-infected mice. This work contributes knowledge on the pathogenicity of new Neospora caninum strains in mice, comparable with other well-established mouse models of the disease, and demonstrates the importance of studying goats as an intermediate host of this parasite.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Neospora/patogenicidade , Animais , Bioensaio/veterinária , Encéfalo/parasitologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Gerbillinae , Doenças das Cabras/patologia , Cabras , Imuno-Histoquímica/veterinária , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Neospora/isolamento & purificação , Pâncreas/patologia , Placenta/patologia , Gravidez , Baço/metabolismo , Baço/patologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Células Vero
17.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 216: 109892, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446206

RESUMO

Cyclosporine and glucocorticoids are powerful immunosuppressive agents used to treat many inflammatory diseases in dogs. Cyclosporine inhibits calcineurin-dependent pathways of T cell activation and resultant T cell cytokine production, and glucocorticoids directly inhibit genes coding for cytokines. Little work has been done comparing the effects of these agents on T cell cytokine production in dogs. Our study measured T cell interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) production using flow cytometry and T cell IL-2 and IFN-γ gene expression using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in activated canine T cells incubated with cyclosporine and dexamethasone in vitro. For flow cytometric assays, diluted whole blood was cultured for 7 h in the presence of cyclosporine (10, 100, 500, and 1000 ng/mL) or dexamethasone (10 ng/mL, 100 ng/mL, 1 µg/mL, and 10 µg/mL). For qRT-PCR, whole blood was cultured for 5 h with the same drugs at the same concentrations, and RNA was then extracted from leukocytes. Flow cytometry and qRT-PCR both demonstrated inhibition of IL-2 and IFN-γ that was concentration-dependent in response to cyclosporine, and was more variable for dexamethasone. Quantitative RT-PCR but not flow cytometry documented significant reduction of IL-2 expression after dexamethasone treatment, while both methods showed concentration-dependent suppression of IFN-γ. Quantitative RT-PCR also revealed additional cytokine suppression at higher cyclosporine concentrations, an effect not found using flow cytometry, and may therefore be the preferred method for cytokine determination in dogs. Suppression of IL-2 and IFN-γ in activated T cells may have potential as an indicator of the efficacy of cyclosporine and glucocorticoids in suppressing canine T cell function in vivo, and may therefore be of value for characterizing the immunosuppression induced by these drugs in clinical patients.


Assuntos
Ciclosporina/farmacologia , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Ciclosporina/administração & dosagem , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Cães , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Imunidade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Interferon gama/genética , Interleucina-2/genética
18.
Cancer Sci ; 110(10): 3061-3067, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444833

RESUMO

Tryptophan metabolism is important to induce immune tolerance in tumors. To date, 3 types of tryptophan-metabolizing enzymes have been identified: indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 and 2 (IDO1 and IDO2) and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase 2. Numerous studies have focused on IDO1 as its expression is enhanced in various cancers. Recently, IDO2 has been identified as a tryptophan-metabolizing enzyme that is involved in several immune functions and expressed in cancers such as pancreatic cancer. However, the biological role of IDO2 in the induction of immune tolerance in tumors has not yet been reported. In the present study, we examined the effects of Ido2 depletion on tumor growth in a mouse model of Lewis lung carcinoma by using Ido2-knockout mice. Ido2-knockout mice had reduced tumor volumes compared to WT mice. Furthermore, Ido2 depletion altered the tumor microenvironment, such as tryptophan accumulation and kynurenine reduction, leading to enhancement of immune cell invasion. Finally, enzyme-linked immunospot assay revealed that Ido2 depletion enhanced γ-interferon secretion in the tumor. In conclusion, Ido2 is an important immune regulator in the tumor microenvironment. Our data indicate that IDO2 is a potential target for cancer treatment and drug development.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Lewis/terapia , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes/métodos , Indolamina-Pirrol 2,3,-Dioxigenase/genética , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Animais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Lewis/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Lewis/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Lewis/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cinurenina/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Triptofano/metabolismo , Carga Tumoral , Evasão Tumoral , Microambiente Tumoral , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
19.
Nature ; 571(7764): 205-210, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270459

RESUMO

The mammalian brain contains neurogenic niches that comprise neural stem cells and other cell types. Neurogenic niches become less functional with age, but how they change during ageing remains unclear. Here we perform single-cell RNA sequencing of young and old neurogenic niches in mice. The analysis of 14,685 single-cell transcriptomes reveals a decrease in activated neural stem cells, changes in endothelial cells and microglia, and an infiltration of T cells in old neurogenic niches. T cells in old brains are clonally expanded and are generally distinct from those in old blood, which suggests that they may experience specific antigens. T cells in old brains also express interferon-γ, and the subset of neural stem cells that has a high interferon response shows decreased proliferation in vivo. We find that T cells can inhibit the proliferation of neural stem cells in co-cultures and in vivo, in part by secreting interferon-γ. Our study reveals an interaction between T cells and neural stem cells in old brains, opening potential avenues through which to counteract age-related decline in brain function.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Encéfalo/citologia , Movimento Celular , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Neurogênese , Análise de Célula Única , Nicho de Células-Tronco/fisiologia , Linfócitos T/citologia , Animais , Sangue , Proliferação de Células , Células Clonais/citologia , Técnicas de Cocultura , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microglia/citologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transdução de Sinais , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética
20.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2955, 2019 07 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273203

RESUMO

Dendritic cells (DCs), a vital component of the innate immune system, are considered to lack antigen specificity and be devoid of immunological memory. Strategies that can induce memory-like responses from innate cells can be utilized to elicit protective immunity in immune deficient persons. Here we utilize an experimental immunization strategy to modulate DC inflammatory and memory-like responses against an opportunistic fungal pathogen that causes significant disease in immunocompromised individuals. Our results show that DCs isolated from protectively immunized mice exhibit enhanced transcriptional activation of interferon and immune signaling pathways. We also show long-term memory-like cytokine responses upon subsequent challenge with the fungal pathogen that are abrogated with inhibitors of specific histone modifications. Altogether, our study demonstrates that immunization strategies can be designed to elicit memory-like DC responses against infectious disease.


Assuntos
Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Memória Imunológica , Animais , Criptococose/imunologia , Criptococose/microbiologia , Cryptococcus/fisiologia , Células Dendríticas/microbiologia , Feminino , Histonas/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/patologia , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/microbiologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Fenótipo , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Vacinação
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