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1.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(9): 1479-1492, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31463653

RESUMO

RIG-I is a cytosolic RNA sensor that recognizes short 5' triphosphate RNA, commonly generated during virus infection. Upon activation, RIG-I initiates antiviral immunity, and in some circumstances, induces cell death. Because of this dual capacity, RIG-I has emerged as a promising target for cancer immunotherapy. Previously, a sequence-optimized RIG-I agonist (termed M8) was generated and shown to stimulate a robust immune response capable of blocking viral infection and to function as an adjuvant in vaccination strategies. Here, we investigated the potential of M8 as an anti-cancer agent by analyzing its ability to induce cell death and activate the immune response. In multiple cancer cell lines, M8 treatment strongly activated caspase 3-dependent apoptosis, that relied on an intrinsic NOXA and PUMA-driven pathway that was dependent on IFN-I signaling. Additionally, cell death induced by M8 was characterized by the expression of markers of immunogenic cell death-related damage-associated molecular patterns (ICD-DAMP)-calreticulin, HMGB1 and ATP-and high levels of ICD-related cytokines CXCL10, IFNß, CCL2 and CXCL1. Moreover, M8 increased the levels of HLA-ABC expression on the tumor cell surface, as well as up-regulation of genes involved in antigen processing and presentation. M8 induction of the RIG-I pathway in cancer cells favored dendritic cell phagocytosis and induction of co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86, together with increased expression of IL12 and CXCL10. Altogether, these results highlight the potential of M8 in cancer immunotherapy, with the capacity to induce ICD-DAMP on tumor cells and activate immunostimulatory signals that synergize with current therapies.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Nelfinavir/análogos & derivados , Alarminas/imunologia , Apresentação do Antígeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Calreticulina/metabolismo , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proteína DEAD-box 58/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína HMGB1/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunização , Interferons/metabolismo , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Nelfinavir/farmacologia , Nelfinavir/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
2.
Life Sci ; 232: 116626, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276688

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the suppressor of activator protein-1 regulated by interferon (SARI), in the development and progression of prostate cancer. METHODS: Sixty-seven prostate cancer tissue specimens and 20 benign prostatic hyperplasia specimens were used to investigate the correlation between SARI expression and clinicopathologic parameters. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the SARI and E-cadherin protein expression in the prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia specimens, and their correlation was established. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to determine the SARI mRNA expression in a normal prostate cell line (RWPE-1) and prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP and PC3). Western blotting was used to detect the SARI protein expression in the RWPE-1, LNCaP, and PC3 cell lines. RESULTS: SARI protein expression did not correlate with the prostate cancer patients' age or serum Prostate-Specific Antigen value but did show a correlation with the tumor stage of prostate cancer and Gleason score. SARI and E-cadherin expression in the prostate cancer tissue was significantly lower than in the benign prostatic hyperplasia specimens, suggesting a positive correlation between the SARI and E-cadherin expression. SARI mRNA and protein were highly expressed in RWPE-1, the normal prostate cell line, but SARI mRNA and protein expression were reduced in the prostate cancer cell lines, LNCaP and PC3. Significant differences in the expression were found between the prostate cancer cell lines and the normal prostate cell line. CONCLUSION: In this study, high SARI expression was found to be negatively correlated with the development and progression of prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/genética , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo , Idoso , Western Blotting , Caderinas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Progressão da Doença , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Interferons/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Próstata/citologia , Próstata/patologia , Hiperplasia Prostática/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Fator de Transcrição AP-1/metabolismo , beta Catenina/metabolismo
3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2921, 2019 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266943

RESUMO

Cells maintain the balance between homeostasis and inflammation by adapting and integrating the activity of intracellular signaling cascades, including the JAK-STAT pathway. Our understanding of how a tailored switch from homeostasis to a strong receptor-dependent response is coordinated remains limited. Here, we use an integrated transcriptomic and proteomic approach to analyze transcription-factor binding, gene expression and in vivo proximity-dependent labelling of proteins in living cells under homeostatic and interferon (IFN)-induced conditions. We show that interferons (IFN) switch murine macrophages from resting-state to induced gene expression by alternating subunits of transcription factor ISGF3. Whereas preformed STAT2-IRF9 complexes control basal expression of IFN-induced genes (ISG), both type I IFN and IFN-γ cause promoter binding of a complete ISGF3 complex containing STAT1, STAT2 and IRF9. In contrast to the dogmatic view of ISGF3 formation in the cytoplasm, our results suggest a model wherein the assembly of the ISGF3 complex occurs on DNA.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Fator Gênico 3 Estimulado por Interferon, Subunidade gama/metabolismo , Fator Gênico 3 Estimulado por Interferon/metabolismo , Interferons/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT2/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Fator Gênico 3 Estimulado por Interferon/genética , Fator Gênico 3 Estimulado por Interferon, Subunidade gama/genética , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Células RAW 264.7 , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT2/genética , Transcrição Genética
4.
Nat Immunol ; 20(7): 902-914, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209404

RESUMO

Lupus nephritis is a potentially fatal autoimmune disease for which the current treatment is ineffective and often toxic. To develop mechanistic hypotheses of disease, we analyzed kidney samples from patients with lupus nephritis and from healthy control subjects using single-cell RNA sequencing. Our analysis revealed 21 subsets of leukocytes active in disease, including multiple populations of myeloid cells, T cells, natural killer cells and B cells that demonstrated both pro-inflammatory responses and inflammation-resolving responses. We found evidence of local activation of B cells correlated with an age-associated B-cell signature and evidence of progressive stages of monocyte differentiation within the kidney. A clear interferon response was observed in most cells. Two chemokine receptors, CXCR4 and CX3CR1, were broadly expressed, implying a potentially central role in cell trafficking. Gene expression of immune cells in urine and kidney was highly correlated, which would suggest that urine might serve as a surrogate for kidney biopsies.


Assuntos
Rim/imunologia , Nefrite Lúpica/imunologia , Biomarcadores , Biópsia , Análise por Conglomerados , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Citometria de Fluxo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Interferons/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Leucócitos/imunologia , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Nefrite Lúpica/genética , Nefrite Lúpica/metabolismo , Nefrite Lúpica/patologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Células Mieloides/imunologia , Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Análise de Célula Única , Transcriptoma
5.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 76(16): 3083-3095, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165203

RESUMO

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been investigated in context of chronic inflammatory diseases and demonstrated to degrade multiple components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). However, following several disappointing MMP clinical trials, recent studies have demonstrated unexpected novel functions of MMPs in viral infections and autoimmune inflammatory diseases in unanticipated locations. Thus, MMPs play additional functions in inflammation than just ECM degradation. They can regulate the activity of chemokines and cytokines of the immune response by precise proteolytic processing resulting in activation or inactivation of signaling pathways. MMPs have been demonstrated to cleave multiple substrates of the central nervous systems (CNS) and contribute to promoting and dampening diseases of the CNS. Initially, believed to be solely promoting pathologies, more than 10 MMPs to date have been shown to have protective functions. Here, we present some of the beneficial and destructive roles of MMPs in CNS pathologies and discuss strategies for the use of MMP inhibitors.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Interferons/metabolismo , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Esclerose Múltipla/metabolismo , Esclerose Múltipla/patologia , Inibidores Teciduais de Metaloproteinases/metabolismo
6.
Nat Immunol ; 20(7): 802-811, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213716

RESUMO

Recent advances have highlighted the ability of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in the bone marrow to sense peripheral inflammation or infection and adapt through increased proliferation and skewing toward the myeloid lineage. Such adaptations can meet the increased demand for innate immune cells and can be beneficial in response to infection or myeloablation. However, the inflammation-induced adaptation of hematopoietic and myeloid progenitor cells toward enhanced myelopoiesis might also perpetuate inflammation in chronic inflammatory or cardio-metabolic diseases by generating a feed-forward loop between inflammation-adapted hematopoietic progenitor cells and the inflammatory disorder. Sustained adaptive responses of progenitor cells in the bone marrow can also contribute to trained immunity, a non-specific memory of earlier encounters that in turn facilitates the heightened response of these cells, as well as that of their progeny, to future challenges. Here we discuss the mechanisms that govern the adaptation of hematopoietic progenitor cells to inflammation and its sequelae in the pathogenesis of human disease.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/fisiologia , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/citologia , Humanos , Imunidade , Imunomodulação , Inflamação/patologia , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , Interferons/metabolismo , Mielopoese , Transdução de Sinais , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(12)2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200438

RESUMO

Endogenous retroelements constitute almost half of the mammalian genome. Given that more than 60% of human genomic bases are transcribed, transcripts containing these retroelements may impact various biological processes. However, the physiological roles of most retroelement-containing transcripts are yet to be revealed. Here, we profiled the expression of retroelement-containing human transcripts during vaccination and found that vaccination upregulated transcripts containing only particular retroelements, such as the MLT-int element of endogenous retroviruses. MLT-int-containing transcripts were distributed mainly in the nucleus, suggesting their unique roles in the nucleus. Furthermore, we demonstrated that MLT-int RNA suppressed interferon promoter activity in the absence of immune stimuli. Based on these lines of evidence, we speculate a model of a role of the previously unnoticed MLT-int element in preventing excess innate immune activation after elimination of immune stimuli. Our results may emphasize the importance of retroelement-containing transcripts in maintaining host immune homeostasis.


Assuntos
RNA/genética , Retroelementos , Regulação para Cima , Vacinação , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Interferons/genética , Interferons/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , RNA/metabolismo
8.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2261, 2019 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113940

RESUMO

Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) is the primary sensor for aberrant intracellular dsDNA producing the cyclic dinucleotide cGAMP, a second messenger initiating cytokine production in subsets of myeloid lineage cell types. Therefore, inhibition of the enzyme cGAS may act anti-inflammatory. Here we report the discovery of human-cGAS-specific small-molecule inhibitors by high-throughput screening and the targeted medicinal chemistry optimization for two molecular scaffolds. Lead compounds from one scaffold co-crystallize with human cGAS and occupy the ATP- and GTP-binding active site. The specificity and potency of these drug candidates is further documented in human myeloid cells including primary macrophages. These novel cGAS inhibitors with cell-based activity will serve as probes into cGAS-dependent innate immune pathways and warrant future pharmacological studies for treatment of cGAS-dependent inflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Nucleotidiltransferases/antagonistas & inibidores , Doenças Autoimunes/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Cristalografia por Raios X , DNA/imunologia , DNA/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Interferons/imunologia , Interferons/metabolismo , Macrófagos , Modelos Moleculares , Nucleotídeos Cíclicos/imunologia , Nucleotídeos Cíclicos/metabolismo , Nucleotidiltransferases/imunologia , Nucleotidiltransferases/isolamento & purificação , Nucleotidiltransferases/metabolismo , Cultura Primária de Células , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo
9.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 432, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138127

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accompanied with rapid growth and high density aquaculture, gibel carp has been seriously threatened by Carassius auratus herpesvirus (CaHV) since 2012. In previous study, distinct CaHV resistances and immune responses were revealed in the diseased individuals of three gibel carp gynogenetic clones (A+, F and H). However, little is known about the gene expression changes in the survivors after CaHV challenge, particularly their differences of innate and adaptive immune system between susceptible clone and resistant clone. RESULTS: We firstly confirmed the CaHV carrier state in the survivors of three gibel carp clones after CaHV challenge by evaluating the abundances of five CaHV genes. The assay of viral loads indicated the resistant clone H possessed not only stronger resistance but also higher tolerance to CaHV. Then, 2818, 4047 and 3323 differentially expressed unigenes (DEUs) were screened from the head-kidney transcriptome profiles of survivors compared with controls from clone A+, F and H. GO and KEGG analysis suggested that a persistent immune response might sustain in resistant clone H and F, while susceptible clone A+ had a long-term impact on the circulatory system which was consistent with the major symptoms of bleeding caused by CaHV. Among the top 30 enriched pathways of specifically up-regulated DEUs in respective clones, 26, 7 and 15 pathways in clone H, F and A+ were associated with infections, diseases, or immune-related pathways respectively. In addition, 20 pathways in clone F belonged to "metabolism" or "biogenesis", and 7 pathways involved in "circulatory system" were enriched in clone A+. Significantly, we revealed the differential expression changes of IFN system genes and immunoglobulin (Ig) genes among the survivors of three clones. Finally, myosins and Igs were identified as co-expression modules which were positively or negatively correlated to CaHV viral loads respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our results revealed the common and distinct gene expression changes in immune and circulatory system in the survivors of three gibel carp gynogenetic clones with different CaHV resistances. The current study represents a paradigm of differential innate and adaptive immune reactions in teleost, and will be beneficial to the disease-resistance breeding of gibel carp.


Assuntos
Carpas/genética , Carpas/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/virologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Imunidade Adaptativa/genética , Animais , Carpas/metabolismo , Carpas/virologia , Doenças dos Peixes/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/metabolismo , Genes de Imunoglobulinas , Herpesviridae , Infecções por Herpesviridae/genética , Infecções por Herpesviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata/genética , Interferons/metabolismo , Miosinas/genética , Transdução de Sinais
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(9)2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067687

RESUMO

Rhinovirus (RV) is the predominant virus causing respiratory tract infections. Bronchobini® is a low dose multi component, multi target preparation used to treat inflammatory respiratory diseases such as the common cold, described to ease severity of symptoms such as cough and viscous mucus production. The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of Bronchobini® in RV infection and to elucidate its mode of action. Therefore, Bronchobini®'s ingredients (BRO) were assessed in an ex vivo model of RV infection using mouse precision-cut lung slices, an organotypic tissue capable to reflect the host immune response to RV infection. Cytokine profiles were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and mesoscale discovery (MSD). Gene expression analysis was performed using Affymetrix microarrays and ingenuity pathway analysis. BRO treatment resulted in the significant suppression of RV-induced antiviral and pro-inflammatory cytokine release. Transcriptome analysis revealed a multifactorial mode of action of BRO, with a strong inhibition of the RV-induced pro-inflammatory and antiviral host response mediated by nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB) and interferon signaling pathways. Interestingly, this was due to priming of these pathways in the absence of virus. Overall, BRO exerted its beneficial anti-inflammatory effect by priming the antiviral host response resulting in a reduced inflammatory response to RV infection, thereby balancing an otherwise excessive inflammatory response.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Indutores de Interferon/farmacologia , Interferons/metabolismo , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Picornaviridae/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Transcriptoma , Animais , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Indutores de Interferon/uso terapêutico , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/virologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Infecções por Picornaviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/virologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Rhinovirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Rhinovirus/patogenicidade , Transdução de Sinais
11.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 90: 180-187, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048035

RESUMO

In mammals and fish, emerging evidence highlights that TRIM family members play important roles in the interferon (IFN) antiviral immune response. Fish TRIM family has undergone an unprecedented expansion leading to generation of finTRIM subfamily, which is exclusively specific to fish. Our recent results have shown that FTRCA1 (finTRIM C. auratus 1) is likely a fish species-specific finTRIM member in crucian carp C. auratus and acts as a negative modulator to downregulate fish IFN response by autophage-lysosomal degradation of protein kinase TBK1. In the present study, we found that FTRCA1 also impedes the activation of crucian carp IFN promoter by IRF7 but not by IRF3. Mechanistically, FTRCA1 attenuates IRF7 transcription levels likely due to enhanced decay of IRF7 mRNA, leading to reduced IRF7 protein levels and subsequently reduced fish IFN expression. E3 ligase activity is required for FTRCA1 to negatively regulate IRF7-mediated IFN response, because ligase-inactive mutants and the RING-deleted mutant of FTRCA1 lose the ability to block the activation of crucian carp IFN promoter by IRF7. These results together indicate that FTRCA1 is a multifaceted modulator to target different signaling factors for shaping fish IFN response in crucian carp.


Assuntos
Carpas/genética , Carpas/imunologia , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Fator Regulador 7 de Interferon/metabolismo , Interferons/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética , Animais , Carpas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo
12.
PLoS Pathog ; 15(5): e1007743, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059555

RESUMO

Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV; human herpesvirus 8) belongs to the subfamily of Gammaherpesvirinae and is the etiological agent of Kaposi's sarcoma as well as of two lymphoproliferative diseases: primary effusion lymphoma and multicentric Castleman disease. The KSHV life cycle is divided into a latent and a lytic phase and is highly regulated by viral immunomodulatory proteins which control the host antiviral immune response. Among them is a group of proteins with homology to cellular interferon regulatory factors, the viral interferon regulatory factors 1-4. The KSHV vIRFs are known as inhibitors of cellular interferon signaling and are involved in different oncogenic pathways. Here we characterized the role of the second vIRF protein, vIRF2, during the KSHV life cycle. We found the vIRF2 protein to be expressed in different KSHV positive cells with early lytic kinetics. Importantly, we observed that vIRF2 suppresses the expression of viral early lytic genes in both newly infected and reactivated persistently infected endothelial cells. This vIRF2-dependent regulation of the KSHV life cycle might involve the increased expression of cellular interferon-induced genes such as the IFIT proteins 1, 2 and 3, which antagonize the expression of early KSHV lytic proteins. Our findings suggest a model in which the viral protein vIRF2 allows KSHV to harness an IFN-dependent pathway to regulate KSHV early gene expression.


Assuntos
Endotélio Vascular/virologia , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , Herpesvirus Humano 8/fisiologia , Proteínas Imediatamente Precoces/metabolismo , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/metabolismo , Interferons/metabolismo , Sarcoma de Kaposi/virologia , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Ativação Viral , Células Cultivadas , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Humanos , Proteínas Imediatamente Precoces/genética , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/genética , Interferons/genética , Sarcoma de Kaposi/genética , Sarcoma de Kaposi/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/genética , Latência Viral
13.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2230, 2019 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31110180

RESUMO

LNK (SH2B3) is a key negative regulator of JAK-STAT signaling which has been extensively studied in malignant hematopoietic diseases. We found that LNK is significantly elevated in cutaneous melanoma; this elevation is correlated with hyperactive signaling of the RAS-RAF-MEK pathway. Elevated LNK enhances cell growth and survival in adverse conditions. Forced expression of LNK inhibits signaling by interferon-STAT1 and suppresses interferon (IFN) induced cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis. In contrast, silencing LNK expression by either shRNA or CRISPR-Cas9 potentiates the killing effect of IFN. The IFN-LNK signaling is tightly regulated by a negative feedback mechanism; melanoma cells exposed to IFN upregulate expression of LNK to prevent overactivation of this signaling pathway. Our study reveals an unappreciated function of LNK in melanoma and highlights the critical role of the IFN-STAT1-LNK signaling axis in this potentially devastating disease. LNK may be further explored as a potential therapeutic target for melanoma immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Interferons/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Melanoma/patologia , Proteínas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Animais , Apoptose , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Interferons/imunologia , Melanoma/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
14.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 91: 325-332, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128297

RESUMO

Autophagy, a highly conserved intracellular degradation system, is involved in numerous processes in vertebrate and invertebrate, such as cell survival, ageing, and immune responses. However, the detailed molecular mechanism of autophagy and its immune regulatory role in bivalves are still not well understood. In the present study, an autophagy-related protein ATG10 (designated as CgATG10) was identified from Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. The open reading frame of CgATG10 cDNA was of 621 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 206 amino acid residues with an Autophagy_act_C domain (from 96 to 123 amino acid), which shared high homology with that from C. virginica and Octopus bimaculoides. The mRNA transcripts of CgATG10 were widely expressed in all the tested tissues including mantle, gonad, gills, hemocytes and hepatopancreas, with the highest expression level in mantle. After the stimulation with poly (I:C), the mRNA expression level of CgATG10 in the mantle of oysters was significantly up-regulated (4.92-fold of that in Blank group, p < 0.05), and the LC3-conversion from LC3-I to LC3-II (LC3-II/LC3-I) also increased. After an additional injection of dsRNA to knock-down the expression of CgATG10 (0.33-fold and 0.10-fold compared respectively with Blank group and dsGFP group, p < 0.05), the downstream conversion of CgLC3 was inhibited significantly compared with that of the control dsGFP group, while the expression level of autophagy-initiator CgBeclin1 did not change significantly. In addition, the mRNA transcripts of interferon regulatory factor CgIRF-1 increased significantly in CgATG10-knockdown oysters at 12 h post poly (I:C) stimulation. All the results indicated that CgATG10 might participate in the immune response against poly (I:C) by regulating autophagosome formation and interferon system in oysters.


Assuntos
Autofagossomos/imunologia , Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia/genética , Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia/imunologia , Crassostrea/genética , Crassostrea/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia/química , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Interferons/genética , Interferons/metabolismo , Filogenia , Poli I-C/farmacologia , Alinhamento de Sequência
15.
PLoS Pathog ; 15(5): e1007756, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095648

RESUMO

ADP-ribosylation is a ubiquitous post-translational addition of either monomers or polymers of ADP-ribose to target proteins by ADP-ribosyltransferases, usually by interferon-inducible diphtheria toxin-like enzymes known as PARPs. While several PARPs have known antiviral activities, these activities are mostly independent of ADP-ribosylation. Consequently, less is known about the antiviral effects of ADP-ribosylation. Several viral families, including Coronaviridae, Togaviridae, and Hepeviridae, encode for macrodomain proteins that bind to and hydrolyze ADP-ribose from proteins and are critical for optimal replication and virulence. These results suggest that macrodomains counter cellular ADP-ribosylation, but whether PARPs or, alternatively, other ADP-ribosyltransferases cause this modification is not clear. Here we show that pan-PARP inhibition enhanced replication and inhibited interferon production in primary macrophages infected with macrodomain-mutant but not wild-type coronavirus. Specifically, knockdown of two abundantly expressed PARPs, PARP12 and PARP14, led to increased replication of mutant but did not significantly affect wild-type virus. PARP14 was also important for the induction of interferon in mouse and human cells, indicating a critical role for this PARP in the regulation of innate immunity. In summary, these data demonstrate that the macrodomain is required to prevent PARP-mediated inhibition of coronavirus replication and enhancement of interferon production.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Coronavirus/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Interferons/metabolismo , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/farmacologia , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/metabolismo , Replicação Viral , ADP-Ribosilação , Animais , Coronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/química , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/genética , Domínios Proteicos , Receptor de Interferon alfa e beta/genética , Receptor de Interferon alfa e beta/metabolismo , Virulência
16.
Nat Microbiol ; 4(7): 1120-1128, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30936486

RESUMO

Commensal microbes profoundly impact host immunity to enteric viral infections1. We have shown that the bacterial microbiota and host antiviral cytokine interferon-λ (IFN-λ) determine the persistence of murine norovirus in the gut2,3. However, the effects of the virome in modulating enteric infections remain unexplored. Here, we report that murine astrovirus can complement primary immunodeficiency to protect against murine norovirus and rotavirus infections. Protection against infection was horizontally transferable between immunocompromised mouse strains by co-housing and fecal transplantation. Furthermore, protection against enteric pathogens corresponded with the presence of a specific strain of murine astrovirus in the gut, and this complementation of immunodeficiency required IFN-λ signalling in gut epithelial cells. Our study demonstrates that elements of the virome can protect against enteric pathogens in an immunodeficient host.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/prevenção & controle , Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Trato Gastrointestinal/virologia , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Interferons/metabolismo , Norovirus/imunologia , Animais , Astroviridae/classificação , Astroviridae/genética , Astroviridae/isolamento & purificação , Astroviridae/fisiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/imunologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Transdução de Sinais , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(7)2019 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30986950

RESUMO

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a ubiquitous betaherpesvirus that frequently causes morbidity and mortality in individuals with insufficient immunity, such as transplant recipients, AIDS patients, and congenitally infected newborns. Several antiviral drugs are approved to treat HCMV infections. However, resistant HCMV mutants can arise in patients receiving long-term therapy. Additionally, side effects and the risk to cause birth defects limit the use of currently approved antivirals against HCMV. Therefore, the identification of new drug targets is of clinical relevance. Recent work identified DNA-damage binding protein 1 (DDB1) and the family of the cellular cullin (Cul) RING ubiquitin (Ub) ligases (CRLs) as host-derived factors that are relevant for the replication of human and mouse cytomegaloviruses. The first-in-class CRL inhibitory compound Pevonedistat (also called MLN4924) is currently under investigation as an anti-tumor drug in several clinical trials. Cytomegaloviruses exploit CRLs to regulate the abundance of viral proteins, and to induce the proteasomal degradation of host restriction factors involved in innate and intrinsic immunity. Accordingly, pharmacological blockade of CRL activity diminishes viral replication in cell culture. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge concerning the relevance of DDB1 and CRLs during cytomegalovirus replication and discuss chances and drawbacks of CRL inhibitory drugs as potential antiviral treatment against HCMV.


Assuntos
Citomegalovirus/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Citomegalovirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Interferons/metabolismo , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
MBio ; 10(2)2019 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30837340

RESUMO

Interferons (IFNs) and autophagy are critical neuronal defenses against viral infection. IFNs alter neuronal autophagy by promoting the accumulation of IFN-dependent LC3-decorated autophagic structures, termed LC3 clusters. Here, we analyzed LC3 clusters in sensory ganglia following herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection. In the vicinity of acutely infected neurons, antigen-negative neurons contained structures resembling accumulated autophagosomes and autolysosomes that culminated in LC3 clusters. This accumulation reflects a delayed completion of autophagy. The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) machinery participates in autophagosome closure and is also required for HSV-1 replication. In this study, our results showed that HSV-1 infection in vivo and in primary neurons caused a decrease in Vps4 (a key ESCRT pathway ATPase) RNA and protein with concomitant Stat1 activation and LC3 cluster induction. We also observed that IFNs were sufficient to decrease RNA and protein levels of Vps4 in primary neurons and in other cell types. The accumulation of ubiquitin was also observed at the LC3 cluster sites. Together, our results show that IFNs modulate the ESCRT machinery in neurons in response to HSV-1 infections.IMPORTANCE Neurons rely on IFNs and autophagy as major defenses against viral infections, and HSV must overcome such defenses in order to replicate. In addition to controlling host immunity, HSV must also control host membranes in order to complete its life cycle. HSV uses the host ESCRT membrane scission machinery for viral production and transport. Here we present evidence of a new IFN-dependent mechanism used by the host to prevent ESCRT subversion by HSV. This activity also impacts the dynamics of autophagy, possibly explaining the presence of recently described LC3 clusters in the HSV-infected nervous system. The induced accumulations of ubiquitin observed in these LC3 clusters resembled those observed in certain neurodegenerative diseases, suggesting possible mechanistic parallels between these conditions.


Assuntos
ATPases Associadas a Diversas Atividades Celulares/metabolismo , Complexos Endossomais de Distribuição Requeridos para Transporte/metabolismo , Herpes Simples/patologia , Herpesvirus Humano 1/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Interferons/metabolismo , ATPases Vacuolares Próton-Translocadoras/metabolismo , Animais , Autofagia , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação para Baixo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Camundongos , Neurônios/patologia , Neurônios/virologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/metabolismo
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(3): e0007202, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30830907

RESUMO

Dengue virus (DENV) is the most important vector-borne virus globally. The safe and effective vaccines are still under development and there are no antiviral drugs for DENV induced diseases. In this study, we obtained five DENV1 isolates (DENV1 A to E) from the outbreak of dengue fever in 2014 of Guangzhou, China, and analyzed their replication efficiency and virulence in vitro and in vivo. The results suggested that among the five DENV1 strains, DENV1 B has the highest replication efficiency in both human and mosquito cells in vitro, also causes the highest mortality to suckling mice. Further study suggested that nonstructural proteins from DENV1B have higher capacity to suppress host interferon signaling. In addition, the NS2B3 protease from DENV1B has higher enzymatic activity compared with that from DENV1 E. Finally, we identified that the 64th amino acid of NS2A and the 55th amino acid of NS2B were two virulence determining sites for DENV1. This study provided new evidences of the molecular mechanisms of DENV virulence.


Assuntos
Vírus da Dengue/genética , Vírus da Dengue/patogenicidade , Dengue/virologia , Animais , China , Culicidae , Dengue/sangue , Dengue/imunologia , Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Vírus da Dengue/isolamento & purificação , Células HEK293 , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Interferons/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Peptídeo Hidrolases/genética , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo , Virulência , Replicação Viral/genética
20.
Viruses ; 11(3)2019 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30871000

RESUMO

Autophagy is an essential cellular process by which a cell degrades materials within its cytoplasm. Intracellular pathogens like viruses must deal with autophagy, either positively or negatively, for their own survival and replication. For some viruses, autophagy can even play proviral roles, helping their replication or dissemination. For other viruses, including noroviruses, the exact role of autophagy is more complex. This short review seeks to summarize the known interactions between autophagy, autophagy proteins and norovirus, and to address remaining questions relevant to these interactions.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Norovirus/fisiologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Interferons/metabolismo , Camundongos , Replicação Viral
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