Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.967
Filtrar
1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1025796, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36341332

RESUMO

Dysregulated innate and adaptive immune response to rhinoviral infection plays an important role in the exacerbation or progressive course of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). However, few studies have evaluated whether rhinovirus-induced production of anti-viral interferon is deficient or delayed in inflammatory epithelial cells of patients with CRS with nasal polyps. The aim of the present study is to investigate the replication rates of rhinovirus 16 (RV 16), RV16-induced antiviral interferon secretion, and the expression levels of pattern recognition receptors after RV 16 infection or TLR3 stimulation with poly (I: C) in normal and inflammatory epithelial cells. Inflammatory epithelial cells were obtained from CRS patients with nasal polyps and normal epithelial cells were derived from ethmoid sinus mucosa during endoscopic reduction of blowout fracture or uncinate process mucosa of patients with septal deviation. Cultured cells were infected with RV 16 or treated with poly (I: C) for 24, 48, and 72 h. Cells and media were harvested at each time point and used to evaluate RV16 replication rates, the secretion of IFN-ß, -λ1, -λ2, viperin, Mx, and OAS, and the expression levels of TRL3, RIG-I, MDA5, phospho-NFκB, and phospho-IRF3. RV replication rates reached peak levels 48 h after inoculation in both normal and inflammatory epithelial cells and showed no difference between both groups of epithelial cells at any time point. The release of IFN-ß, -λ1, and -λ2 in normal and inflammatory epithelial cells was also strongly induced 48 h after RV16 inoculation but reached peak levels 24 h after poly (I: C) treatment. The expression levels of viperin, Mx, OAS, TLR3, RIG-I, MDA5, phospho-NFκB, and phospho-IRF3 showed similar patterns in both groups of epithelial cells. These results suggest that the production of RV16-induced antiviral interferons is not deficient or delayed in inflammatory epithelial cells from CRS patients with nasal polyps.


Assuntos
Pólipos Nasais , Sinusite , Humanos , Rhinovirus , Pólipos Nasais/metabolismo , Receptor 3 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Antivirais/metabolismo , Sinusite/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais , Interferons/metabolismo , Interferon beta/metabolismo , Doença Crônica
2.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6578, 2022 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36323669

RESUMO

Enhancer deregulation is a well-established pro-tumorigenic mechanism but whether it plays a regulatory role in tumor immunity is largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that tumor cell ablation of mixed-lineage leukemia 3 and 4 (MLL3 and MLL4, also known as KMT2C and KMT2D, respectively), two enhancer-associated histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) mono-methyltransferases, increases tumor immunogenicity and promotes anti-tumor T cell response. Mechanistically, MLL4 ablation attenuates the expression of RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) and DNA methyltransferases through decommissioning enhancers/super-enhancers, which consequently lead to transcriptional reactivation of the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-interferon response and gasdermin D (GSDMD)-mediated pyroptosis, respectively. More importantly, we reveal that both the dsRNA-interferon signaling and GSDMD-mediated pyroptosis are of critical importance to the increased anti-tumor immunity and improved immunotherapeutic efficacy in MLL4-ablated tumors. Thus, our findings establish tumor cell enhancers as an additional layer of immune evasion mechanisms and suggest the potential of targeting enhancers or their upstream and/or downstream molecular pathways to overcome immunotherapeutic resistance in cancer patients.


Assuntos
Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase , Neoplasias , Humanos , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/metabolismo , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Histonas/metabolismo , RNA de Cadeia Dupla , Piroptose , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/terapia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Interferons/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a Fosfato/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo
3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1008072, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36325336

RESUMO

Interferons (IFNs) bind to cell surface receptors and activate the expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) through intracellular signaling cascades. ISGs and their expression products have various biological functions, such as antiviral and immunomodulatory effects, and are essential effector molecules for IFN function. ISGs limit the invasion and replication of the virus in a cell-specific and region-specific manner in the central nervous system (CNS). In addition to participating in natural immunity against viral infections, studies have shown that ISGs are essential in the pathogenesis of CNS disorders such as neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this review is to present a macroscopic overview of the characteristics of ISGs that restrict viral neural invasion and the expression of the ISGs underlying viral infection of CNS cells. Furthermore, we elucidate the characteristics of ISGs expression in neurological inflammation, neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression as well as neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Finally, we summarize several ISGs (ISG15, IFIT2, IFITM3) that have been studied more in recent years for their antiviral infection in the CNS and their research progress in neurological diseases.


Assuntos
Interferons , Viroses , Humanos , Interferons/metabolismo , Antivirais , Viroses/genética , Imunidade Inata , Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA
4.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1019872, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36330521

RESUMO

The common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) is an important farmed species worldwide. Mucosal-associated lymphoid tissues play an essential role in the fight against pathogen infection. Spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) poses a serious threat to the common carp aquaculture industry. Understanding the molecular mechanisms driving mucosal immune responses to SVCV infection is critical. In this study, the mucosal tissues (gills, foregut and hindgut) were collected from normal and infected fishes for transcriptome analysis. A total of 932,378,600 clean reads were obtained, of which approximately 80% were successfully mapped to the common carp genome. 577, 1,054 and 1,014 differential expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the gills, foregut and hindgut, respectively. A quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay indicated that the DEGs expression in the foregut following SVCV infection was consistent with the transcriptome results. Among them, two key genes of the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptor family, melanoma-differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) and laboratory of genetics and physiology 2 (LGP2) (i.e., CcMDA5 and CcLGP2), underwent further analysis. Overexpression of CcMDA5 or CcLGP2 increased phosphorylation of TANK-binding kinase 1 and interferon regulatory factor 3 and the expression of interferon-1 (ifn-1), myxovirus resistance (mx), viperin and interferon-stimulated gene 15 (isg15), and inhibited SVCV replication in epithelioma papulosum cyprini cells. Furthermore, CcLGP2 significantly upregulated the CcMDA5-induced ifn-1 mRNA expression and the activation of the ifn-1 promoter. Finally, confocal microscopy and coimmunoprecipitation experiments revealed that CcLGP2 colocalizes and interacts with CcMDA5 via the C-terminal regulatory domain. This study provides essential gene resources for understanding the fish immune response to SVCV infection and sheds light on the potential role of fish LGP2 in the MDA5 regulation.


Assuntos
Carpas , Doenças dos Peixes , Infecções por Rhabdoviridae , Animais , Carpas/genética , Carpas/metabolismo , Viremia , Interferons/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Antivirais
5.
Front Immunol ; 13: 993614, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36405730

RESUMO

Preclinical and clinical studies suggest that consumption of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) reduces severity of chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. While these ameliorative effects are conventionally associated with downregulated expression of proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine genes, our laboratory has recently identified Type 1 interferon (IFN1)-regulated gene expression to be another key target of omega-3 PUFAs. Here we used single cell RNA sequencing (scRNAseq) to gain new mechanistic perspectives on how the omega-3 PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) influences TLR4-driven proinflammatory and IFN1-regulated gene expression in a novel self-renewing murine fetal liver-derived macrophage (FLM) model. FLMs were cultured with 25 µM DHA or vehicle for 24 h, treated with modest concentration of LPS (20 ng/ml) for 1 and 4 h, and then subjected to scRNAseq using the 10X Chromium System. At 0 h (i.e., in the absence of LPS), DHA increased expression of genes associated with the NRF2 antioxidant response (e.g. Sqstm1, Hmox1, Chchd10) and metal homeostasis (e.g.Mt1, Mt2, Ftl1, Fth1), both of which are consistent with DHA-induced polarization of FLMs to a more anti-inflammatory phenotype. At 1 h post-LPS treatment, DHA inhibited LPS-induced cholesterol synthesis genes (e.g. Scd1, Scd2, Pmvk, Cyp51, Hmgcs1, and Fdps) which potentially could contribute to interference with TLR4-mediated inflammatory signaling. At 4 h post-LPS treatment, LPS-treated FLMs reflected a more robust inflammatory response including upregulation of proinflammatory cytokine (e.g. Il1a, Il1b, Tnf) and chemokine (e.g.Ccl2, Ccl3, Ccl4, Ccl7) genes as well as IFN1-regulated genes (e.g. Irf7, Mx1, Oasl1, Ifit1), many of which were suppressed by DHA. Using single-cell regulatory network inference and clustering (SCENIC) to identify gene expression networks, we found DHA modestly downregulated LPS-induced expression of NF-κB-target genes. Importantly, LPS induced a subset of FLMs simultaneously expressing NF-κB- and IRF7/STAT1/STAT2-target genes that were conspicuously absent in DHA-pretreated FLMs. Thus, DHA potently targeted both the NF-κB and the IFN1 responses. Altogether, scRNAseq generated a valuable dataset that provides new insights into multiple overlapping mechanisms by which DHA may transcriptionally or post-transcriptionally regulate LPS-induced proinflammatory and IFN1-driven responses in macrophages.


Assuntos
Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Camundongos , Animais , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/farmacologia , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Interferons/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Análise de Célula Única , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Macrófagos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(43): e2207280119, 2022 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36252040

RESUMO

The current view of nucleic acid-mediated innate immunity is that binding of intracellular sensors to nucleic acids is sufficient for their activation. Here, we report that endocytosis of virus or foreign DNA initiates a priming signal for the DNA sensor cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)-mediated innate immune response. Mechanistically, viral infection or foreign DNA transfection triggers recruitment of the spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) and cGAS to the endosomal vacuolar H+ pump (V-ATPase), where SYK is activated and then phosphorylates human cGASY214/215 (mouse cGasY200/201) to prime its activation. Upon binding to DNA, the primed cGAS initiates robust cGAMP production and mediator of IRF3 activation/stimulator of interferon genes-dependent innate immune response. Consistently, blocking the V-ATPase-SYK axis impairs DNA virus- and transfected DNA-induced cGAMP production and expression of antiviral genes. Our findings reveal that V-ATPase-SYK-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of cGAS following endocytosis of virus or other cargos serves as a priming signal for cGAS activation and innate immune response.


Assuntos
Endocitose , Imunidade Inata , Nucleotidiltransferases , Quinase Syk , ATPases Vacuolares Próton-Translocadoras , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , DNA , Interferons/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Nucleotidiltransferases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Quinase Syk/metabolismo , Tirosina , ATPases Vacuolares Próton-Translocadoras/metabolismo
7.
Mol Med ; 28(1): 125, 2022 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36273174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress-caused damage to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) underlies the onset and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Impaired mitochondrial biogenesis sensitizes RPE cells to mitochondrial dysfunction, energy insufficiency and death. Src-homology 2 domain-containing phosphatase (SHP)-1 is important in regulating immune responses and cell survival. However, its roles in cell survival are not always consistent. Until now, the effects of SHP-1 on RPE dysfunction, especially mitochondrial homeostasis, remain to be elucidated. We sought to clarify the effects of SHP-1 in RPE cells in response to atRAL-induced oxidative stress and determine the regulatory mechanisms involved. METHODS: In the all trans retinal (atRAL)-induced oxidative stress model, we used the vector of lentivirus to knockdown the expression of SHP-1 in ARPE-19 cells. CCK-8 assay, Annexin V/PI staining and JC-1 staining were utilized to determine the cell viability, cell apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential. We also used immunoprecipitation to examine the ubiquitination modification of stimulator of interferon genes (STING) and its interaction with SHP-1. The expression levels of mitochondrial marker, proteins related to mitochondrial biogenesis, and signaling molecules involved were examined by western blotting analysis. RESULTS: We found that SHP-1 knockdown predisposed RPE cells to apoptosis, aggravated mitochondrial damage, and repressed mitochondrial biogenesis after treatment with atRAL. Immunofluoresent staining and immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed that SHP-1 interacted with the endoplasmic reticulum-resident STING and suppressed K63-linked ubiquitination and activation of STING. Inhibition of STING with the specific antagonist H151 attenuated the effects of SHP-1 knockdown on mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative damage. The adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway acted as the crucial downstream target of STING and was involved in the regulatory processes. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that SHP-1 knockdown potentiates STING overactivation and represses mitochondrial biogenesis and cell survival, at least in part by blocking the AMPK pathway in RPE cells. Therefore, restoring mitochondrial health by regulating SHP-1 in RPE cells may be a potential therapeutic strategy for degenerative retinal diseases including AMD.


Assuntos
Degeneração Macular , Mitocôndrias , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina , Retinaldeído , Humanos , Monofosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Monofosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Anexina A5/metabolismo , Anexina A5/farmacologia , Apoptose/genética , Interferons/genética , Interferons/metabolismo , Interferons/farmacologia , Degeneração Macular/genética , Degeneração Macular/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Biogênese de Organelas , Estresse Oxidativo , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/metabolismo , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/metabolismo , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/patologia , Retinaldeído/metabolismo , Retinaldeído/farmacologia , Sincalida/metabolismo , Sincalida/farmacologia
8.
Viruses ; 14(10)2022 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36298646

RESUMO

In this study, we developed a novel, multiplex qPCR assay for simultaneous detection of RIG-1, MDA5, and IFIT-1 at the mRNA level. The assay was validated in A549 cells transfected with in vitro transcribed RNAs. Both exogenous RNA-GFP and self-amplifying (saRNA-GFP) induced significant expression of RIG-1, MDA5, IFIT-1, as well as type I and III interferons. In contrast, native RNA from intact A549 cells did not upregulate expression of these genes. Next, we evaluated RIG-1, MDA5, and IFIT-1 mRNA levels in the white blood cells of patients with influenza A virus (H3N2) or SARS-CoV-2. In acute phase (about 4 days after disease onset) both viruses induced these genes expression. Clinical observations of SARS-CoV-2 typically describe a two-step disease progression, starting with a mild-to-moderate presentation followed by a secondary respiratory worsening 9 to 12 days after the first onset of symptoms. It revealed that the expression of RIG-1, MDA5, and MxA was not increased after 2 and 3 weeks from the onset the disease, while for IFIT-1 it was observed the second peak at 21 day post infection. It is well known that RIG-1, MDA5, and IFIT-1 expression is induced by the action of interferons. Due to the ability of SOCS-1 to inhibit interferon-dependent signaling, and the distinct antagonism of SARS-CoV-2 in relation to interferon-stimulated genes expression, we assessed SOCS-1 mRNA levels in white blood cells. SARS-CoV-2 patients had increased SOCS-1 expression, while the influenza-infected group did not differ from heathy donors. Moreover, SOCS-1 mRNA expression remained stably elevated during the course of the disease. It can be assumed that augmented SOCS-1 expression is one of multiple mechanisms that allow SARS-CoV-2 to escape from the interferon-mediated immune response. Our results implicate SOCS-1 involvement in the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Interferons , Humanos , Interferons/metabolismo , Helicase IFIH1 Induzida por Interferon/genética , Helicase IFIH1 Induzida por Interferon/metabolismo , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/genética , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/genética , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Proteína DEAD-box 58/genética , Proteína DEAD-box 58/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Antivirais
9.
Sci Signal ; 15(754): eabe1621, 2022 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36194648

RESUMO

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection is a long-standing public health threat, and the development of host-directed therapy for eradicating Mtb infection requires better insights into Mtb-host interactions. Viperin [virus-inhibitory protein, endoplasmic reticulum-associated, interferon (IFN) inducible] is an IFN-inducible protein with broad antiviral activities. Here, we demonstrated that Viperin was increased in abundance in patients with lymphatic and pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Viperin-deficient mice had decreased Mtb bacterial loads and enhanced macrophage responses compared with their wild-type counterparts. Viperin suppressed the formation of a complex containing interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1, TNF receptor-associated factor 6, and transforming growth factor ß-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) and inhibited the TAK1-dependent activation of IκB kinase α/ß, thereby impairing the production of nitric oxide and proinflammatory cytokines. These results suggest that Viperin promotes Mtb infection by inhibiting host innate immune responses in macrophages, suggesting that Viperin may be a candidate target for adjunct host-directed therapy in patients with TB.


Assuntos
Quinases Associadas a Receptores de Interleucina-1 , Fator 6 Associado a Receptor de TNF , Animais , Antivirais/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Quinase I-kappa B/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata , Interferons/metabolismo , Quinases Associadas a Receptores de Interleucina-1/genética , Quinases Associadas a Receptores de Interleucina-1/metabolismo , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Proteínas , Fator 6 Associado a Receptor de TNF/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
10.
J Virol ; 96(21): e0124622, 2022 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36286482

RESUMO

An exuberant host response contributes to influenza A virus (IAV) (or influenza)-mediated lung injury. However, despite significant information on the host response to IAV, the cellular framework and molecular interactions that dictate the development of acute injury in IAV-infected lungs remain incompletely understood. We performed an unbiased single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNAseq) analysis to examine the cellular heterogeneity and regulation of host responses in the IAV model of acute lung injury. At the cellular level, IAV infection promoted the overwhelming recruitment of monocytes that exhibited the cell differentiation trajectory to monocyte-derived macrophages. Together, monocytes and monocyte-derived myeloid cells constituted over 50% of the total immune cells in IAV-infected lungs. In contrast, IAV infection resulted in a significant loss of nonhematopoietic cells. Molecularly, our data show the multidimensional cell-cell communication dynamics of interferon and chemokine signaling between immune and nonimmune cells and the cell-specific molecular pathways regulating the host responses during IAV-induced lung injury. Our data provide a foundation for further exploring the mechanistic association of the IAV host response with acute lung injury. IMPORTANCE A dysregulated host response develops acute lung injury during IAV infection. However, the pathological immune mechanism(s) associated with acute lung injury during IAV infection is yet to be elucidated. In this study, we performed scRNAseq to examine the dynamics of host responses during the peak of IAV-mediated lung injury. At the cellular level, our data reveal significant myelopoiesis predominated by monocytes and macrophages and the simultaneous disruption of the nonhematopoietic cell framework, crucial for regulating inflammation and barrier integrity in IAV-infected lungs. Molecularly, we observed a complex cellular network involving cell-cell communications and a number of unique regulons dictating the outcome of interferon and chemokine responses during peak lung injury. Our data present a unique atlas of cellular changes and the regulation of global and cell-specific host responses during IAV infection. We expect that this information will open new avenues to identify targets for therapeutic intervention against IAV lung injury.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda , Vírus da Influenza A , Influenza Humana , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae , Humanos , Interferons/metabolismo , Pulmão , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/patologia , Antivirais/metabolismo
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36232890

RESUMO

Cancer development is regulated by inflammation. Staufen1 (STAU1) is an RNA-binding protein whose expression level is critical in cancer cells as it is related to cell proliferation or cell death. STAU1 protein levels are downregulated during mitosis due to its degradation by the E3 ubiquitin ligase anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C). In this paper, we map the molecular determinant involved in STAU1 degradation to amino acids 38-50, and by alanine scanning, we shorten the motif to F39PxPxxLxxxxL50 (FPL-motif). Mutation of the FPL-motif prevents STAU1 degradation by APC/C. Interestingly, a search in databases reveals that the FPL-motif is shared by 15 additional proteins, most of them being involved in inflammation. We show that one of these proteins, MAP4K1, is indeed degraded via the FPL-motif; however, it is not a target of APC/C. Using proximity labeling with STAU1, we identify TRIM25, an E3 ubiquitin ligase involved in the innate immune response and interferon production, as responsible for STAU1 and MAP4K1 degradation, dependent on the FPL-motif. These results are consistent with previous studies that linked STAU1 to cancer-induced inflammation and identified a novel degradation motif that likely coordinates a novel family of proteins involved in inflammation. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with the identifier PXD036675.


Assuntos
Inflamação , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases , Alanina , Aminoácidos , Ciclossomo-Complexo Promotor de Anáfase/metabolismo , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Interferons/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo
12.
Cell ; 185(21): 3857-3876, 2022 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36240739

RESUMO

The discovery of the Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway arose from investigations of how cells respond to interferons (IFNs), revealing a paradigm in cell signaling conserved from slime molds to mammals. These discoveries revealed mechanisms underlying rapid gene expression mediated by a wide variety of extracellular polypeptides including cytokines, interleukins, and related factors. This knowledge has provided numerous insights into human disease, from immune deficiencies to cancer, and was rapidly translated to new drugs for autoimmune, allergic, and infectious diseases, including COVID-19. Despite these advances, major challenges and opportunities remain.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Janus Quinases , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Interferons/metabolismo , Janus Quinases/metabolismo , Mamíferos/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição STAT/genética , Fatores de Transcrição STAT/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
13.
Front Immunol ; 13: 985405, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36189279

RESUMO

Granulomas are the hallmark of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. Cytokine-mediated signaling can modulate immune function; thus, understanding the cytokine milieu in granulomas is critical for understanding immunity in tuberculosis (TB). Interferons (IFNs) are important immune mediators in TB, and while type 1 and 2 IFNs have been extensively studied, less is known about type 3 IFNs (IFNλs) in TB. To determine if IFNλs are expressed in granulomas, which cells express them, and how granuloma microenvironments influence IFNλ expression, we investigated IFNλ1 and IFNλ4 expression in macaque lung granulomas. We identified IFNλ expression in granulomas, and IFNλ levels negatively correlated with bacteria load. Macrophages and neutrophils expressed IFNλ1 and IFNλ4, with neutrophils expressing higher levels of each protein. IFNλ expression varied in different granuloma microenvironments, with lymphocyte cuff macrophages expressing more IFNλ1 than epithelioid macrophages. IFNλ1 and IFNλ4 differed in their subcellular localization, with IFNλ4 predominantly localizing inside macrophage nuclei. IFNλR1 was also expressed in granulomas, with intranuclear localization in some cells. Further investigation demonstrated that IFNλ signaling is driven in part by TLR2 ligation and was accompanied by nuclear translocation of IFNλR1. Our data indicate that IFNλs are part of the granuloma cytokine milieu that may influence myeloid cell function and immunity in TB.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Granuloma , Interferons/metabolismo , Macrófagos , Neutrófilos , Primatas/metabolismo , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/metabolismo
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36233010

RESUMO

A generally accepted hypothesis for the initial activation of an immune or autoimmune response argues that alarmins are released from injured, dying and/or activated immune cells, and these products complex with receptors that activate signal transduction pathways and recruit immune cells to the site of injury where the recruited cells are stimulated to initiate immune and/or cellular repair responses. While there are multiple diverse families of alarmins such as interleukins (IL), heat-shock proteins (HSP), Toll-like receptors (TLR), plus individual molecular entities such as Galectin-3, Calreticulin, Thymosin, alpha-Defensin-1, RAGE, and Interferon-1, one phylogenetically conserved family are the Annexin proteins known to promote an extensive range of biomolecular and cellular products that can directly and indirectly regulate inflammation and immune activities. For the present report, we examined the temporal expression profiles of the 12 mammalian annexin genes (Anxa1-11 and Anxa13), applying our temporal genome-wide transcriptome analyses of ex vivo salivary and lacrimal glands from our C57BL/6.NOD-Aec1Aec2 mouse model of Sjögren's Syndrome (SS), a human autoimmune disease characterized primarily by severe dry mouth and dry eye symptoms. Results indicate that annexin genes Anax1-7 and -11 exhibited upregulated expressions and the initial timing for these upregulations occurred as early as 8 weeks of age and prior to any covert signs of a SS-like disease. While the profiles of the two glands were similar, they were not identical, suggesting the possibility that the SS-like disease may not be uniform in the two glands. Nevertheless, this early pre-clinical and concomitant upregulated expression of this specific set of alarmins within the immune-targeted organs represents a potential target for identifying the pre-clinical stage in human SS as well, a fact that would clearly impact future interventions and therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Anexinas , Aparelho Lacrimal , Síndrome de Sjogren , Timosina , Alarminas/genética , Alarminas/metabolismo , Animais , Anexinas/genética , Anexinas/metabolismo , Calreticulina/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Galectina 3/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Humanos , Interferons/metabolismo , Aparelho Lacrimal/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , RNA/metabolismo , Timosina/genética , Transcriptoma , alfa-Defensinas/genética
15.
Front Immunol ; 13: 982786, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36275769

RESUMO

Microglia are the resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS) and play a major role in the regulation of brain homeostasis. To maintain their cellular protein homeostasis, microglia express standard proteasomes and immunoproteasomes (IP), a proteasome isoform that preserves protein homeostasis also in non-immune cells under challenging conditions. The impact of IP on microglia function in innate immunity of the CNS is however not well described. Here, we establish that IP impairment leads to proteotoxic stress and triggers the unfolded and integrated stress responses in mouse and human microglia models. Using proteomic analysis, we demonstrate that IP deficiency in microglia results in profound alterations of the ubiquitin-modified proteome among which proteins involved in the regulation of stress and immune responses. In line with this, molecular analysis revealed chronic activation of NF-κB signaling in IP-deficient microglia without further stimulus. In addition, we show that IP impairment alters microglial function based on markers for phagocytosis and motility. At the molecular level IP impairment activates interferon signaling promoted by the activation of the cytosolic stress response protein kinase R. The presented data highlight the importance of IP function for the proteostatic potential as well as for precision proteolysis to control stress and immune signaling in microglia function.


Assuntos
Microglia , NF-kappa B , Animais , Camundongos , Humanos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteômica , Fagocitose , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Interferons/metabolismo , Ubiquitinas/metabolismo
16.
J Virol ; 96(20): e0068222, 2022 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36190239

RESUMO

Iridoviruses are large DNA viruses which cause great economic losses to the aquaculture industry and serious threats to ecological diversity worldwide. Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV), a novel member of the genus Ranavirus, causes high mortality in grouper aquaculture. Previous work on genome annotation demonstrated that SGIV contained numerous uncharacterized or hypothetical open reading frames (ORFs), whose functions remained largely unknown. Here, we reported that the protein encoded by SGIV ORF131R (VP131) was localized predominantly within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Ectopic expression of GFP-VP131 significantly enhanced SGIV replication, while VP131 knockdown decreased viral infection in vitro, suggesting that VP131 functioned as a proviral factor during SGIV infection. Overexpression of GFP-VP131 inhibited the interferon (IFN)-1 promoter activity and mRNA level of IFN-related genes induced by poly(I:C), Epinephelus coioides cyclic GMP/AMP synthase (EccGAS)/stimulator of IFN genes (EcSTING), TANK-binding kinase 1 (EcTBK1), or melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (EcMDA5), whereas such activation induced by mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (EcMAVS) was not affected. Moreover, VP131 interacted with EcSTING and degraded EcSTING through both the autophagy-lysosome pathway and ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, and targeted for the K63-linked ubiquitination. Of note, we also found that EcSTING significantly accelerated the formation of GFP-VP131 aggregates in co-transfected cells. Finally, GFP-VP131 inhibited EcSTING- or EcTBK1-induced antiviral activity upon red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) infection. Together, our results demonstrated that the SGIV VP131 negatively regulated the IFN response by inhibiting EcSTING-EcTBK1 signaling for viral evasion. IMPORTANCE STING has been identified as a critical factor participating in the innate immune response which recruits and phosphorylates TBK1 and IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) to induce IFN production and defend against viral infection. However, viruses also distort the STING-TBK1 pathway to negatively regulate the IFN response and facilitate viral replication. Here, we reported that SGIV VP131 interacted with EcSTING within the ER and degraded EcSTING, leading to the suppression of IFN production and the promotion of SGIV infection. These results for the first time demonstrated that fish iridovirus evaded the host antiviral response via abrogating the STING-TBK1 signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Bass , Infecções por Vírus de DNA , Doenças dos Peixes , Iridovirus , Ranavirus , Animais , Ranavirus/genética , Bass/genética , Bass/metabolismo , Iridovirus/genética , Iridovirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/veterinária , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/genética , Fator Regulador 3 de Interferon/metabolismo , Antivirais , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Singapura , Proteínas de Peixes , Imunidade Inata/genética , Interferons/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , GMP Cíclico , Ubiquitinas/metabolismo , Monofosfato de Adenosina
17.
J Virol ; 96(20): e0114822, 2022 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36197106

RESUMO

Long interspersed element type 1 (LINE-1) is the only known type of retroelement that can replicate autonomously, and its retrotransposition activity can trigger interferon (IFN) production. IFN production suppresses the infectivity of exogenous viruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). As a counteraction, HIV has been reported to use multiple proteins and mechanisms to suppress LINE-1 replication. However, the mechanisms of HIV-mediated LINE-1 regulation are not fully understood. In this study, we discovered that Nef protein, which is expressed by HIV and is important for HIV pathogenesis, inhibits LINE-1 retrotransposition. Two distinct mechanisms have been uncovered for Nef-induced LINE-1 suppression. Without direct interaction with LINE-1 DNA, Nef potently inhibits the promoter activity of the LINE-1 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) and reduces the expression levels of LINE-1 RNA and proteins. Alternatively, although Nef does not bind to the LINE-1 open reading frame 1 protein (ORF1p) or LINE-1 RNA, it significantly compromises the ORF1p-LINE-1 RNA interaction, which is essential for LINE-1 retrotransposition. Both mechanisms can be suppressed by the G2A mutation, which abolishes myristoylation of Nef, suggesting that membrane attachment is essential for Nef to suppress LINE-1. Consequently, through LINE-1 inhibition, Nef downregulates IFN production in host cells. Therefore, our data revealed that Nef is a potent LINE-1 suppressor and an effective innate immune regulator, which not only provides new information on the intricate interaction between HIV, LINE-1, and IFN signaling systems but also strengthens the importance of Nef in HIV infection and highlights the potential of designing novel Nef-targeting anti-HIV drugs. IMPORTANCE Human immunodeficiency viruses are pathogens of AIDS that were first discovered almost 40 years ago and continue to threaten human lives to date. While currently used anti-HIV drugs are sufficient to suppress viral loads in HIV-infected patients, both drug-resistant HIV strains and adverse side effects triggered by the long-term use of these drugs highlight the need to develop novel anti-HIV drugs targeting different viral proteins and/or different steps in viral replication. To achieve this, more information is required regarding HIV pathogenesis and especially its impact on cellular activities in host cells. In this study, we discovered that the Nef protein expressed by HIV potently inhibits LINE-1 retrotransposition. During our attempt to determine the mechanism of Nef-mediated LINE-1 suppression, two additional functions of Nef were uncovered. Nef effectively repressed the promoter activity of LINE-1 5'-UTR and destabilized the interaction between ORF1p and LINE-1 RNA. Consequently, Nef not only compromises LINE-1 replication but also reduces LINE-1-triggered IFN production. The reduction in IFN production, in theory, promotes HIV infectivity. Together with its previously known functions, these findings indicate that Nef is a potential target for the development of novel anti-HIV drugs. Notably, the G2 residue, which has been reported to be essential for most Nef functions, was found to be critical in the regulation of innate immune activation by Nef, suggesting that compromising myristoylation or membrane attachment of Nef may be a good strategy for the inhibition of HIV infection.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV , Infecções por HIV , HIV-1 , Humanos , Produtos do Gene nef do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/genética , Produtos do Gene nef do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/metabolismo , Retroelementos/genética , Produtos do Gene nef/genética , Fármacos Anti-HIV/metabolismo , Interferons/metabolismo , RNA/metabolismo , Regiões não Traduzidas
18.
J Virol ; 96(20): e0137522, 2022 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36197111

RESUMO

Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) infection leads to autophagy, and the molecular mechanisms behind this phenomenon are unclear. Here, we demonstrate that PPRV infection results in morphological changes of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and activation of activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) of the ER stress unfolded protein response (UPR). Knockdown of ATF6 blocked the autophagy process, suggesting ATF6 is necessary for PPRV-mediated autophagy induction. Further study showed that PPRV infection upregulates expression of the ER-anchored adaptor protein stimulator of interferon genes (STING), which is well-known for its pivotal roles in restricting DNA viruses. Knockdown of STING suppressed ATF6 activation and autophagy induction, implying that STING functions upstream of ATF6 to induce autophagy. Moreover, the STING-mediated autophagy response originated from the cellular pattern recognition receptor melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5). The absence of MDA5 abolished the upregulation of STING and the activation of autophagy. The deficiency of autophagy-related genes (ATG) repressed the autophagy process and PPRV replication, while it had no effect on MDA5 or STING expression. Overall, our work revealed that MDA5 works upstream of STING to activate ATF6 to induce autophagy. IMPORTANCEPPRV infection induces cellular autophagy; however, the intracellular responses and signaling mechanisms that occur upon PPRV infection are obscure, and whether innate immune responses are linked with autophagy to regulate viral replication is largely unknown. Here, we uncovered that the innate immune sensor MDA5 initiated the signaling cascade by upregulating STING, which is best known for its role in anti-DNA virus infection by inducing interferon expression. We first provide evidence that STING regulates PPRV replication by activating the ATF6 pathway of unfolded protein responses (UPRs) to induce autophagy. Our results revealed that in addition to mediating responses to foreign DNA, STING can cross talk with MDA5 to regulate the cellular stress response and autophagy induced by RNA viruses; thus, STING works as an adaptor protein for cellular stress responses and innate immune responses. Modulation of STING represents a promising approach to control both DNA and RNA viruses.


Assuntos
Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes , Animais , Fator 6 Ativador da Transcrição/genética , Fator 6 Ativador da Transcrição/metabolismo , Autofagia , Interferons/metabolismo , Cabras
19.
J Virol ; 96(20): e0139622, 2022 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36222519

RESUMO

Viral hijacking of microtubule (MT)-dependent transport is well understood, but several viruses also express discrete MT-associated proteins (vMAPs), potentially to modulate MT-dependent processes in the host cell. Specific roles for vMAP-MT interactions include subversion of antiviral responses by P3, an isoform of the P protein of rabies virus (RABV; genus Lyssavirus), which mediates MT-dependent antagonism of interferon (IFN)-dependent signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 (STAT1) signaling. P3 also undergoes nucleocytoplasmic trafficking and inhibits STAT1-DNA binding, indicative of intranuclear roles in a multipronged antagonistic strategy. MT association/STAT1 antagonist functions of P3 correlate with pathogenesis, indicating potential as therapeutic targets. However, key questions remain, including whether other P protein isoforms interact with MTs, the relationship of these interactions with pathogenesis, and the extent of conservation of P3-MT interactions between diverse pathogenic lyssaviruses. Using super-resolution microscopy, live-cell imaging, and immune signaling analyses, we find that multiple P protein isoforms associate with MTs and that association correlates with pathogenesis. Furthermore, P3 proteins from different lyssaviruses exhibit variation in intracellular localization phenotypes that are associated with STAT1 antagonist function, whereby P3-MT association is conserved among lyssaviruses of phylogroup I but not phylogroup II, while nucleocytoplasmic localization varies between P3 proteins of the same phylogroup within both phylogroup I and II. Nevertheless, the divergent P3 proteins retain significant IFN antagonist function, indicative of adaptation to favor different inhibitory mechanisms, with MT interaction important to phylogroup I viruses. IMPORTANCE Lyssaviruses, including rabies virus, cause rabies, a progressive encephalomyelitis that is almost invariably fatal. There are no effective antivirals for symptomatic infection, and effective application of current vaccines is limited in areas of endemicity, such that rabies causes ~59,000 deaths per year. Viral subversion of host cell functions, including antiviral immunity, is critical to disease, and isoforms of the lyssavirus P protein are central to the virus-host interface underpinning immune evasion. Here, we show that specific cellular interactions of P protein isoforms involved in immune evasion vary significantly between different lyssaviruses, indicative of distinct strategies to evade immune responses. These findings highlight the diversity of the virus-host interface, an important consideration in the development of pan-lyssavirus therapeutic approaches.


Assuntos
Lyssavirus , Vacinas Antirrábicas , Vírus da Raiva , Raiva , Humanos , Lyssavirus/genética , Interferons/metabolismo , Vírus da Raiva/genética , Antivirais/metabolismo , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , DNA/metabolismo
20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17367, 2022 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36253398

RESUMO

Synovium is critical for maintaining joint homeostasis and may contribute to mechanobiological responses during joint movement. We investigated mechanobiological responses of whole synovium from patients with late-stage knee osteoarthritis (OA). Synovium samples were collected during total knee arthroplasty and assigned to histopathology or cyclic 10% tensile strain loading, including (1) static (control); (2) low-frequency (0.3 Hz); and iii) high-frequency (1.0 Hz) for 30-min. After 6-h incubation, tissues were bisected for RNA isolation and immunostaining (3-nitrotyrosine; 3-NT). RNA sequencing was analyzed for differentially expressed genes and pathway enrichment. Cytokines and lactate were measured in conditioned media. Compared to controls, low-frequency strain induced enrichment of pathways related to interferon response, Fc-receptor signaling, and cell metabolism. High-frequency strain induced enrichment of pathways related to NOD-like receptor signaling, high metabolic demand, and redox signaling/stress. Metabolic and redox cell stress was confirmed by increased release of lactate into conditioned media and increased 3-NT formation in the synovial lining. Late-stage OA synovial tissue responses to tensile strain include frequency-dependent increases in inflammatory signaling, metabolism, and redox biology. Based on these findings, we speculate that some synovial mechanobiological responses to strain may be beneficial, but OA likely disturbs synovial homeostasis leading to aberrant responses to mechanical stimuli, which requires further validation.


Assuntos
Osteoartrite do Joelho , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Interferons/metabolismo , Lactatos/metabolismo , Proteínas NLR/metabolismo , Osteoartrite do Joelho/patologia , RNA/metabolismo , Membrana Sinovial/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...