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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4596, 2020 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929083

RESUMO

Earlier studies indicate that either the canonical or non-canonical pathways of inflammasome activation have a limited role on malaria pathogenesis. Here, we report that caspase-8 is a central mediator of systemic inflammation, septic shock in the Plasmodium chabaudi-infected mice and the P. berghei-induced experimental cerebral malaria (ECM). Importantly, our results indicate that the combined deficiencies of caspases-8/1/11 or caspase-8/gasdermin-D (GSDM-D) renders mice impaired to produce both TNFα and IL-1ß and highly resistant to lethality in these models, disclosing a complementary, but independent role of caspase-8 and caspases-1/11/GSDM-D in the pathogenesis of malaria. Further, we find that monocytes from malaria patients express active caspases-1, -4 and -8 suggesting that these inflammatory caspases may also play a role in the pathogenesis of human disease.


Assuntos
Caspase 8/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Malária Cerebral/enzimologia , Animais , Encéfalo/patologia , Caspase 1/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Ativação Enzimática , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos , Malária Cerebral/genética , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Monócitos/metabolismo , Plasmodium chabaudi/fisiologia , Baço/metabolismo , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo
2.
J Toxicol Sci ; 45(9): 559-567, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879255

RESUMO

Lead is a main threat to human health due to its neurotoxicity and the astrocyte is known to be a common deposit site of lead in vivo. However, the detailed mechanisms related to lead exposure in the astrocytes were unclear. In order to deeply investigate this issue, we used Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and astrocytes isolated from the hippocampus of SD rats to establish the lead-exposed animal and cell models through treating with lead acetate. The expression levels of GFAP, LC3, and p62 in the rat hippocampus were detected by immunofluorescence and Western blot after lead exposure. The effects of autophagy on lead-exposed astrocytes were studied by further autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) induction. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe autophagosomes in astrocytes after lead acetate treatment, followed by assessing related autophagy protein markers. In addition, some inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress markers were also evaluated after lead exposure and 3-MA administration. We found that lead exposure induced activation of astrocytes, as evidenced by increased GFAP levels and GFAP-positive staining cells in the rat hippocampus. Moreover, lead exposure induced autophagy in astrocytes, as evidenced by increased LC3II and Beclin 1 protein levels and decreased p62 expression in both the rat hippocampus and astrocytes, and it was confirmed that this autophagy was activated through blocking the downstream Akt/target of the rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in astrocytes. Furthermore, it was shown that treatment of lead acetate increased the release of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), and the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in astrocytes, which could be alleviated by further 3-MA induction. Therefore, we conclude that lead exposure can induce the autophagy of astrocytes via blocking the Akt/mTOR pathway, leading to accelerated release of inflammatory factors and oxidative stress indicators in astrocytes.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/metabolismo , Astrócitos/fisiologia , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/genética , Compostos Organometálicos/toxicidade , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/genética , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/metabolismo , Hipocampo/citologia , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Masculino , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
3.
Life Sci ; 259: 118382, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898532

RESUMO

AIM: Vancomycin (VCM) is a glycopeptide antibiotic widely used to treat serious infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and has been associated with some severe side effects such as hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. However, the underlying mechanism of VCM-induced hepatotoxicity is not yet fully understood. Therefore, the current study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of zingerone (Zin) against VCM-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: VCM was intraperitoneally administered at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) for 7 days alone and in combination with the orally administered Zin (25 and 50 mg/kg b.w). KEY FINDINGS: Zin treatment significantly improved VCM-induced hepatic lipid peroxidation, glutathione depletion, reduced antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) activities and liver function markers (aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and alanine aminotransferase). Histopathological integrity and immunohistochemical expression of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in the VCM-induced liver tissue were ameliorated after Zin administration. In addition, Zin reversed the changes in levels and/or activities of inflammatory and apoptotic parameters such as nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), p53, cysteine aspartate specific protease-3 (caspase-3), cysteine aspartate specific protease-8 (caspase-8), cytochrome c, Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax) and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) in the VCM-induced hepatotoxicity. SIGNIFICANCE: Collectively, these results reveal probable ameliorative role of Zin against VCM-induced hepatotoxicity.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Guaiacol/análogos & derivados , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Vancomicina/toxicidade , Animais , Western Blotting , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Guaiacol/uso terapêutico , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
4.
Mol Cell ; 80(1): 43-58.e7, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32937100

RESUMO

Immune cell function depends on specific metabolic programs dictated by mitochondria, including nutrient oxidation, macromolecule synthesis, and post-translational modifications. Mitochondrial adaptations have been linked to acute and chronic inflammation, but the metabolic cues and precise mechanisms remain unclear. Here we reveal that histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) is essential for shaping mitochondrial adaptations for IL-1ß production in macrophages through non-histone deacetylation. In vivo, HDAC3 promoted lipopolysaccharide-induced acute inflammation and high-fat diet-induced chronic inflammation by enhancing NLRP3-dependent caspase-1 activation. HDAC3 configured the lipid profile in stimulated macrophages and restricted fatty acid oxidation (FAO) supported by exogenous fatty acids for mitochondria to acquire their adaptations and depolarization. Rather than affecting nuclear gene expression, HDAC3 translocated to mitochondria to deacetylate and inactivate an FAO enzyme, mitochondrial trifunctional enzyme subunit α. HDAC3 may serve as a controlling node that balances between acquiring mitochondrial adaptations and sustaining their fitness for IL-1ß-dependent inflammation.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Adulto , Animais , Caspase 1/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/patologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitocôndrias/ultraestrutura , Subunidade alfa da Proteína Mitocondrial Trifuncional/metabolismo , Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Fosforilação Oxidativa , Adulto Jovem
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4561, 2020 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917873

RESUMO

The protein high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is released into the extracellular space in response to many inflammatory stimuli, where it is a potent signaling molecule. Although research has focused on downstream HMGB1 signaling, the means by which HMGB1 exits the cell is controversial. Here we demonstrate that HMGB1 is not released from bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment. We also explore whether HMGB1 is released via the pore-forming protein gasdermin D after inflammasome activation, as is the case for IL-1ß. HMGB1 is only released under conditions that cause cell lysis (pyroptosis). When pyroptosis is prevented, HMGB1 is not released, despite inflammasome activation and IL-1ß secretion. During endotoxemia, gasdermin D knockout mice secrete HMGB1 normally, yet secretion of IL-1ß is completely blocked. Together, these data demonstrate that in vitro HMGB1 release after inflammasome activation occurs after cellular rupture, which is probably inflammasome-independent in vivo.


Assuntos
Proteína HMGB1/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a Fosfato/metabolismo , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Endotoxemia/metabolismo , Feminino , Proteína HMGB1/genética , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas de Ligação a Fosfato/genética , Piroptose , Transdução de Sinais
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3816, 2020 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732870

RESUMO

Detection of microbial components such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) by Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) on macrophages induces a robust pro-inflammatory response that is dependent on metabolic reprogramming. These innate metabolic changes have been compared to aerobic glycolysis in tumour cells. However, the mechanisms by which TLR4 activation leads to mitochondrial and glycolytic reprogramming are unknown. Here we show that TLR4 activation induces a signalling cascade recruiting TRAF6 and TBK-1, while TBK-1 phosphorylates STAT3 on S727. Using a genetically engineered mouse model incapable of undergoing STAT3 Ser727 phosphorylation, we show ex vivo and in vivo that STAT3 Ser727 phosphorylation is critical for LPS-induced glycolytic reprogramming, production of the central immune response metabolite succinate and inflammatory cytokine production in a model of LPS-induced inflammation. Our study identifies non-canonical STAT3 activation as the crucial signalling intermediary for TLR4-induced glycolysis, macrophage metabolic reprogramming and inflammation.


Assuntos
Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Células Cultivadas , Expressão Gênica , Glicólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Fosforilação , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Serina/genética , Serina/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Fator 6 Associado a Receptor de TNF/genética , Fator 6 Associado a Receptor de TNF/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4243, 2020 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32843625

RESUMO

Increased extracellular Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]ex) trigger activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in monocytes through calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR). To prevent extraosseous calcification in vivo, the serum protein fetuin-A stabilizes calcium and phosphate into 70-100 nm-sized colloidal calciprotein particles (CPPs). Here we show that monocytes engulf CPPs via macropinocytosis, and this process is strictly dependent on CaSR signaling triggered by increases in [Ca2+]ex. Enhanced macropinocytosis of CPPs results in increased lysosomal activity, NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and IL-1ß release. Monocytes in the context of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) exhibit increased CPP uptake and IL-1ß release in response to CaSR signaling. CaSR expression in these monocytes and local [Ca2+] in afflicted joints are increased, probably contributing to this enhanced response. We propose that CaSR-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome activation contributes to inflammatory arthritis and systemic inflammation not only in RA, but possibly also in other inflammatory conditions. Inhibition of CaSR-mediated CPP uptake might be a therapeutic approach to treating RA.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Receptores de Detecção de Cálcio/metabolismo , Animais , Calcinose , Cálcio/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Inflamação , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Camundongos , Monócitos/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/deficiência , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Pinocitose , Receptores de Detecção de Cálcio/deficiência , Transdução de Sinais , Células THP-1 , alfa-2-Glicoproteína-HS/metabolismo
8.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 28: e20200033, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785523

RESUMO

Aim To evaluate the cytotoxicity, biocompatibility and mineralization capacity of BIO-C PULPO, and MTA. Methodology L929 fibroblasts were cultured and MTT assay was used to determine the material cytotoxicity on 6, 24, and 48 h. A total of 30 male rats (Wistar) aged between 4 and 6 months, weighing between 250 and 300 g were used. Polyethylene tubes containing BIO-C PULPO, MTA, and empty tubes were implanted into dorsal connective tissue. After the experimental periods (7, 15, 30, 60, and 90 days) the tubes were histologically analyzed using hematoxylin-eosin (H&E), immunolabeling of IL-1ß and TNF-α, and von Kossa staining, or without staining for polarized light analysis. The average number of inflammatory cells was quantified; the mineralization assessment was determined by the area marked in µm2 and semiquantitative immunolabeling analyses of IL-1ß and TNF-α were performed. Then, data underwent statistical analysis with a 5% significance level. Results It was observed that BIO-C PULPO and MTA presented cytocompatibility at 6, 24, and 48 similar or higher than control for all evaluated period. On periods 7 and 15 days, BIO-C PULPO was the material with the highest number of inflammatory cells (p<0.05). On periods 30, 60, and 90 days, BIO-C PULPO and MTA presented similar inflammatory reactions (p>0.05). No statistical differences were found between Control, BIO-C PULPO, and MTA for immunolabeling of IL-1ß and TNF-α in the different periods of analysis (p<0.05). Positive von Kossa staining and birefringent structures under polarized light were observed in all analyzed periods in contact with both materials, but larger mineralization area was found with BIO-C PULPO on day 90 (p<0.05). Conclusion BIO-C PULPO was biocompatible and induced mineralization similar to MTA.


Assuntos
Biomineralização , Cimentos Dentários , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Materiais Restauradores do Canal Radicular , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Compostos de Alumínio , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis , Compostos de Cálcio , Combinação de Medicamentos , Inflamação , Masculino , Óxidos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Silicatos , Tela Subcutânea
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(17)2020 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32824985

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to examine the use of an inflammasome competitor as a preventative agent. Coronaviruses have zoonotic potential due to the adaptability of their S protein to bind receptors of other species, most notably demonstrated by SARS-CoV. The binding of SARS-CoV-2 to TLR (Toll-like receptor) causes the release of pro-IL-1ß, which is cleaved by caspase-1, followed by the formation and activation of the inflammasome, which is a mediator of lung inflammation, fever, and fibrosis. The NLRP3 (NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3) inflammasome is implicated in a variety of human diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD), prion diseases, type 2 diabetes, and numerous infectious diseases. By examining the use of 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl sulfone (DDS) in the treatment of patients with Hansen's disease, also diagnosed as Alzheimer's disease, this study demonstrates the diverse mechanisms involved in the activation of inflammasomes. TLRs, due to genetic polymorphisms, can alter the immune response to a wide variety of microbial ligands, including viruses. In particular, TLR2Arg677Trp was reported to be exclusively present in Korean patients with lepromatous leprosy (LL). Previously, mutation of the intracellular domain of TLR2 has demonstrated its role in determining the susceptibility to LL, though LL was successfully treated using a combination of DDS with rifampicin and clofazimine. Of the three tested antibiotics, DDS was effective in the molecular regulation of NLRP3 inflammasome activators that are important in mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Parkinson's disease (PD), and AD. The specific targeting of NLRP3 itself or up-/downstream factors of the NLRP3 inflammasome by DDS may be responsible for its observed preventive effects, functioning as a competitor.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Dapsona/farmacologia , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Clofazimina/farmacologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Hanseníase/genética , Pandemias , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/patologia , Rifampina/farmacologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/genética
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(15)2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32752138

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, overlaps with the ongoing epidemics of cigarette smoking and electronic cigarette (e-cig) vaping. However, there is scarce data relating COVID-19 risks and outcome with cigarette or e-cig use. In this study, we mined three independent RNA expression datasets from smokers and vapers to understand the potential relationship between vaping/smoking and the dysregulation of key genes and pathways related to COVID-19. We found that smoking, but not vaping, upregulates ACE2, the cellular receptor that SARS-CoV-2 requires for infection. Both smoking and use of nicotine and flavor-containing e-cigs led to upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inflammasome-related genes. Specifically, chemokines including CCL20 and CXCL8 are upregulated in smokers, and CCL5 and CCR1 are upregulated in flavor/nicotine-containing e-cig users. We also found genes implicated in inflammasomes, such as CXCL1, CXCL2, NOD2, and ASC, to be upregulated in smokers and these e-cig users. Vaping flavor and nicotine-less e-cigs, however, did not lead to significant cytokine dysregulation and inflammasome activation. Release of inflammasome products, such as IL-1B, and cytokine storms are hallmarks of COVID-19 infection, especially in severe cases. Therefore, our findings demonstrated that smoking or vaping may critically exacerbate COVID-19-related inflammation or increase susceptibility to COVID-19.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Fumar Tabaco , Adulto , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Brônquios/citologia , Quimiocina CCL20/genética , Quimiocina CCL20/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-8/genética , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína Adaptadora de Sinalização NOD2/genética , Proteína Adaptadora de Sinalização NOD2/metabolismo , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Regulação para Cima , Adulto Jovem
11.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1518, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32655582

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a member of the genus Betacoronavirus within the family Coronaviridae. It is an enveloped single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus. Since December of 2019, a global expansion of the infection has occurred with widespread dissemination of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). COVID-19 often manifests as only mild cold-like symptomatology, but severe disease with complications occurs in 15% of cases. Respiratory failure occurs in severe disease that can be accompanied by a systemic inflammatory reaction characterized by inflammatory cytokine release. In severe cases, fatality is caused by the rapid development of severe lung injury characteristic of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Although ARDS is a complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection, it is not viral replication or infection that causes tissue injury; rather, it is the result of dysregulated hyperinflammation in response to viral infection. This pathology is characterized by intense, rapid stimulation of the innate immune response that triggers activation of the Nod-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome pathway and release of its products including the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-1ß. Here we review the literature that describes the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 and NLRP3 activation and describe an important role in targeting this pathway for the treatment of severe COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Inflamassomos/antagonistas & inibidores , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/metabolismo , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/farmacologia , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/farmacologia , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/uso terapêutico , Interleucina-1beta/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Camundongos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Piroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/etiologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos de Guaiano/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos de Guaiano/uso terapêutico , Sulfonas/farmacologia , Sulfonas/uso terapêutico
12.
J Toxicol Sci ; 45(7): 401-409, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612008

RESUMO

Dihydropyrazines (DHPs), including 3-hydro-2,2,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine (DHP-3), are glycation products that are spontaneously generated in vivo and ingested via food. DHPs generate various radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can induce the expression of several antioxidant genes in HepG2 cells. However, detailed information on DHP-response pathways remains elusive. To address this issue, we investigated the effects of DHP-3 on the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway, a ROS-sensitive signaling pathway. In lipopolysaccharide-stimulated (LPS-stimulated) HepG2 cells, DHP-3 decreased phosphorylation levels of inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB) and NF-κB p65, and nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65. In addition, DHP-3 reduced the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and the adaptor protein myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88). Moreover, DHP-3 suppressed the mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1ß). Taken together, these results suggest that DHP-3 acts as a negative regulator of the TLR4-MyD88-mediated NF-κB signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Dicarbetoxi-Di-Hidrocolidina/análogos & derivados , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Dicarbetoxi-Di-Hidrocolidina/efeitos adversos , Dicarbetoxi-Di-Hidrocolidina/toxicidade , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
13.
J Pharmacol Sci ; 144(2): 61-68, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32684333

RESUMO

The effects of adipokine administration to the hypothalamic preoptic area (POA), which is one of the body temperature (BT) regulation centers in the central nervous system, on BT were investigated in male Wistar rats. BT was measured in conscious rats using telemetry. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and lipocalin-2 produced hyperthermia, and the effects induced by IL-1ß (25 ng) and IGF-1 (5 µg) were sustainable and remarkable. IL-6 did not show any significant effect. The IGF-1-induced effect was inhibited by pretreatment with IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) or NVP-AEW541 (NVP, a selective inhibitor of type 1 IGF receptor tyrosine kinase, IGF1R TK). NVP-induced inhibition was observed only in the early phase of IGF-1-induced hyperthermia. In addition, IGF-1 increased the IL-1ß concentration in the microdialysate of POA perfusion, but did not increase the IL-1ß concentration in the plasma or the PGE2 concentration in the microdialysate. These findings suggested that IGF-1 produced hyperthermia, which was mediated, at least a part, through an increased IL-1ß concentration after activation of IGF1R TK in the POA, and the IGF-IGFBP system possibly participates in BT homeostasis in the POA.


Assuntos
Adipocinas/administração & dosagem , Adipocinas/farmacologia , Temperatura Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura Corporal/genética , Área Pré-Óptica/metabolismo , Área Pré-Óptica/fisiologia , Animais , Quimiocina CCL2/administração & dosagem , Quimiocina CCL2/farmacologia , Febre/induzido quimicamente , Febre/genética , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/administração & dosagem , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/farmacologia , Interleucina-1beta/administração & dosagem , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/farmacologia , Lipocalina-2/administração & dosagem , Lipocalina-2/farmacologia , Masculino , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Receptor IGF Tipo 1/metabolismo
14.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 16(3): 405-409, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719244

RESUMO

Activation of inflammasomes has a decisive role in host defense mechanism against pathogens and other intracellular risk factors, but recently, it has been revealed that they play a significant role in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including cancer. Nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, the best-studied inflammasome, has contrasting roles in cancer development and progressions. In head-and-neck cancers, the upregulated level of NLRP3 promotes tumor progression. The main objective of this review is to provide current knowledge on the involvement of NLRP3 inflammasome in head-and-neck cancers. Deeper understanding of the biology of this dynamic protein complex provides new scope for the development of more effective anticancer therapies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Imunidade Inata , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/metabolismo , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética , Receptores de Reconhecimento de Padrão/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
15.
Am J Chin Med ; 48(5): 1091-1102, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668967

RESUMO

Black ginseng (BG), which is ginseng that has been steamed and dried nine times, and its main protopanaxatriol-type ginsenosides Rg4, Rg6, Rh4, and Rg2 have been reported to exhibit various forms of biological activity, including antiseptic, antidiabetic, wound-healing, immune-stimulatory, and anti-oxidant activity. The aim of the this study was to examine the effects of [Formula: see text] (a rare protopanaxatriol-type ginsenoside fraction; Rg2, Rg4, Rg6, Rh1, and Rh4) on heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) induction and on the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX-)2 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAECs). [Formula: see text] was tested to determine its effect on iNOS protein expression and inflammatory markers (interleukin [IL]-1[Formula: see text] and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-[Formula: see text] in the lung tissue of LPS-treated mice. The results showed that [Formula: see text] induced the expression of HO-1, reduced LPS-activated NF-[Formula: see text]B-luciferase activity, and inhibited iNOS/NO and COX-2/PGE2, which contributed to the inhibition of STAT-1 phosphorylation. In particular, [Formula: see text] induced the translocation of Nrf2 from the cytosol to the nucleus by increasing Nrf2-ARE activity and decreased IL-1[Formula: see text] production in LPS-activated HPAECs. This reduction in iNOS/NO expression due to [Formula: see text] was reversed by siHO-1 RNA transfection. In LPS-treated mice, [Formula: see text] significantly reduced lung tissue iNOS protein levels and TNF-[Formula: see text] levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In conclusion, these findings indicate that [Formula: see text] has a critical anti-inflammatory effect due to its ability to regulate iNOS via the inhibition of p-STAT-1 and NF-[Formula: see text]B, and thus it may be suitable for the treatment of inflammatory disease.


Assuntos
Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Inflamação/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Panax/química , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/metabolismo , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Ginsenosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Luciferases/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Fitoterapia
16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3687, 2020 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703941

RESUMO

Microglia, resident immune cells of the CNS, are thought to defend against infections. Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic infection that can cause severe neurological disease. Here we report that during T. gondii infection a strong NF-κB and inflammatory cytokine transcriptional signature is overrepresented in blood-derived macrophages versus microglia. Interestingly, IL-1α is enriched in microglia and IL-1ß in macrophages. We find that mice lacking IL-1R1 or IL-1α, but not IL-1ß, have impaired parasite control and immune cell infiltration within the brain. Further, we show that microglia, not peripheral myeloid cells, release IL-1α ex vivo. Finally, we show that ex vivo IL-1α release is gasdermin-D dependent, and that gasdermin-D and caspase-1/11 deficient mice show deficits in brain inflammation and parasite control. These results demonstrate that microglia and macrophages are differently equipped to propagate inflammation, and that in chronic T. gondii infection, microglia can release the alarmin IL-1α, promoting neuroinflammation and parasite control.


Assuntos
Interleucina-1alfa/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Microglia/imunologia , Proteínas de Ligação a Fosfato/metabolismo , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Cerebral/imunologia , Animais , Encéfalo/citologia , Encéfalo/imunologia , Encéfalo/parasitologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Doença Crônica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Interleucina-1alfa/genética , Interleucina-1alfa/imunologia , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Microglia/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a Fosfato/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Fosfato/imunologia , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose Cerebral/sangue , Toxoplasmose Cerebral/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose Cerebral/patologia
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(32): 19408-19414, 2020 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719138

RESUMO

Untoward effector CD4+ T cell responses are kept in check by immune regulatory mechanisms mediated by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. CD4+ T helper 17 (Th17) cells, characterized by IL-17 production, play important roles in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases (such as arthritis, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease, among others) and in the host response to infection and cancer. Here, we demonstrate that human CD4+ T cells cells exposed to a Th17-differentiating milieu are significantly more resistant to immune suppression by CD8+ T cells compared to control Th0 cells. This resistance is mediated, in part, through the action of IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-17AF heterodimer through their receptors (IL-17RA and IL-17RC) on CD4+ T cells themselves, but not through their action on CD8+ T cells or APC. We further show that IL-17 can directly act on non-Th17 effector CD4+ T cells to induce suppressive resistance, and this resistance can be reversed by blockade of IL-1ß, IL-6, or STAT3. These studies reveal a role for IL-17 cytokines in mediating CD4-intrinsic immune resistance. The pathways induced in this process may serve as a critical target for future investigation and immunotherapeutic intervention.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Tolerância Imunológica/imunologia , Interleucina-17/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Diferenciação Celular , Humanos , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia
18.
Chemosphere ; 257: 127035, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702804

RESUMO

Human exposure to environmental chemicals might play a role in the pathogenesis of unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA). Bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol S (BPS) have been suggested to affect reproductive health. However, the mechanism remains unclear. To explore the association between BPA and BPS exposure and oxidative stress and immune homeostasis, we conducted a cross-sectional study and revealed BPA and BPS levels in relation to these two factors which were supposed to be implicated in miscarriage. 111 URSA patients were recruited and we analyzed urinary BPA and BPS concentrations, oxidative stress biomarkers (8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and 8-isoprostane) and serum immune balance biomarkers (IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, TNF-α, TGF-ß and IFN-γ). Multivariable linear regression models were used to evaluate the correlation between bisphenols exposure and outcome biomarkers. After adjustment for age, BMI, menstrual cycle, and parity history, creatinine-adjusted BPA was significantly associated with increases in 8-isoprostane (ß = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.07, 1.41; p = 0.031) and IFN-γ (ß = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.00, 0.36; p = 0.046). No statistical correlation between BPS and biomarkers of oxidative stress or immune balance was observed when all participants were analyzed. Further analysis revealed that in the subgroup of BPS > limit of detection (0.01 ng/ml), creatinine-adjusted BPS was significantly associated with increases in IL-10 (ß = 0.22, 95% CI = 0.00, 0.45; p = 0.048). Our findings suggested that BPA and BPS exposure might be related to oxidative stress and immune imbalance in URSA patients. Overall, our work might suggest potential pathogenic and aetiological associations among the bisphenols, biomarkers and URSA, which offers hypotheses for further studies.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Fenóis/toxicidade , Sulfonas/toxicidade , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Dinoprosta/análogos & derivados , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Gravidez
19.
Int J Immunogenet ; 47(4): 319-323, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32654378

RESUMO

Susceptibility to viral infection, development of immunity, response to treatment and patient clinical outcomes are all under the control of heritable factors in the host. In the context of the current SARS-Cov-2 pandemic, this review considers existing immunogenetic knowledge of virus-immune system interactions. A major focus is to highlight areas in which work is required in order to improve understanding of antiviral immune responses and to move towards improved patient management.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/patologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/imunologia , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
20.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 40(7): 757-63, 2020 Jul 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32648401

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of acupuncture at "Baihui" (GV 20) through "Qubin" (GB 7) on NLRP3 inflammatory corpuscle in rats with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and to explore the action mechanism of acupuncture on promoting the recovery of neural function in rats with ICH. METHODS: Forty SPF six-week-old male SD rats were randomly divided into a sham operation group, a model group, a non-acupoint group and an acupuncture group, 10 rats in each group. The rats in the model group, non-acupoint group and acupuncture group were intervened with autologous blood injection to prepare ICH model, while the rats in the sham operation group were only intervened with operation but not injection with autologous blood. About 3 hours after the establishment of the model, the rats in the acupuncture group were intervened with acupuncture at "Baihui" (GV 20) through "Qubin" (GB 7), once every 12 hours, for 7 days; the rats in the non-acupoint group were intervened with acupuncture at the non-acupoint [parallel to the "Baihui" (GV 20), 1 cm next to the midline] on the affected side, and other treatment was the same as the acupuncture group. At the end of the intervention, the composite nerve function score of each group was evaluated; the histomorphology of the hemorrhage penumbra was observed by HE staining; the expression of NLRP3 inflammatory corpuscle in the brain was detected by immunohistochemistry; the relative protein expression levels of NLRP3, interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) and interleukin-18 (IL-18) in brain were detected by the method of Western blot. RESULTS: Seven days into intervention, compared with the sham operation group, each item score and total score of composite nerve function in the model group were significantly reduced (P<0.01, P<0.05). There was edema and karyopyknosis in brain neuron as well as necrocytosis and inflammatory cell infiltration in the model group. Compared with the model group and the non-acupoint group, the total score of composite nerve function and the scores of symmetrical movement of limbs (LS) and proprioception of tentacles (VP) in the acupuncture group were increased (P<0.01, P<0.05), and the cell necrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration were relieved. Compared with the sham operation group, NLRP3 inflammatory corpuscle expression and the relative protein expression levels of NLRP3, IL-1ß and IL-18 in brain tissue in the model group were increased (P<0.01); compared with the model group and the non-acupoint group, NLRP3 inflammatory corpuscle expression and the relative protein expression levels of NLRP3, IL-1ß and IL-18 in brain tissue in the acupuncture group were reduced (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Acupuncture at "Baihui" (GV 20) through "Qubin" (GB 7) could downregulate the expression of NLRP3, IL-1ß and IL-18 in the brain tissue of ICH rats, inhibit the inflammatory response, and promote the recovery of neural function.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Hemorragia Cerebral/terapia , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Pontos de Acupuntura , Animais , Encéfalo , Hemorragia Cerebral/metabolismo , Interleucina-18/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
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