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3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 49(4): 989-999, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621906

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate the effect of Naotaifang(NTF) on the proteins associated with microglial polarization and glial scar in the rat model of cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury(CIRI). The CIRI model was established by middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion. The 48 successfully modeled rats were randomized into model 7 d, model 14 d, NTF 7 d, and NTF 14 d groups(n=12). In addition, 12 SD rats were selected as the sham group. The NTF group was administrated with NTF suspension at 27 g·kg~(-1)·d~(-1) by gavage, and the sham, model 7 d, and model 14 d groups were administrated with the same volume of normal saline every day by gavage for 7 and 14 days, respectively. After the intervention, Longa score was evaluated. The infarct volume was measured by 2,3,5-triphenyl-2H-tetrazolium chloride(TTC) staining. Morris water maze and open field tests were carried out to evaluate the spatial learning, memory, cognitive function, and anxiety degree of rats. Hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining was employed to observe the morphological structure and damage of the brain tissue. The immunofluorescence assay was employed to measure the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein(GFAP) and glial scar. Western blot was employed to determine the protein levels of GFAP, neurocan, phosphacan, CD206, arginase-1(Arg-1), interleukin(IL)-1ß, IL-6, and IL-4. Compared with the sham, model 7 d and model 14 d groups showed cerebral infarction of different degrees, severe pathological injury of cerebral cortex and hippocampus, neurological impairment, reduced spatial learning and memory, cognitive dysfunction, severe anxiety, astrocyte hyperplasia, thickening penumbra glial scar, and up-regulated protein levels of IL-1ß, IL-6, GFAP, neurocan, phosphacan, CD206, and Arg-1(P<0.01). Compared with the model group, NTF 7 d and NTF 14 d groups improved spatial learning, memory, and cognitive function, reduced anxiety, improved nerve function, reduced cerebral infarction volume, reduced astrocyte hyperplasia, thinned penumbra glial scar, down-regulated the protein levels of GFAP, neurocan, phosphacan, IL-6, and IL-1ß, and up-regulated the protein levels of IL-4, CD206, and Arg-1(P<0.05 or P<0.01). NTF exerts a neuroprotective effect on CIRI by inducing the M2 polarization of microglia, inhibiting inflammatory response, and reducing the formation of glial scar.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Traumatismo por Reperfusão , Ratos , Animais , Microglia/metabolismo , Gliose/patologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Hiperplasia , Interleucina-4 , Interleucina-6 , Neurocam , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases Classe 5 Semelhantes a Receptores , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo
4.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 49(5): 1266-1274, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621974

RESUMO

This paper investigates the intervention effect and mechanism of Banxia Xiexin Decoction(BXD) on colitis-associated colorectal cancer(CAC) infected with Fusobacterium nucleatum(Fn). C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into a control group, Fn group, CAC group [azoxymethane(AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium salt(DSS)](AOM/DSS), model group, and BXD group. Except for the control and AOM/DSS groups, the mice in the other groups were orally administered with Fn suspension twice a week. The AOM/DSS group, model group, and BXD group were also injected with a single dose of 10 mg·kg~(-1) AOM combined with three cycles of 2.5% DSS taken intragastrically. The BXD group received oral administration of BXD starting from the second cycle until the end of the experiment. The general condition and weight changes of the mice were monitored during the experiment, and the disease activity index(DAI) was calculated. At the end of the experiment, the colon length and weight of the mice in each group were compared. Hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining was used to observe the pathological changes in the colon tissue. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was used to detect the levels of interleukin(IL)-2, IL-4, and IL-6 inflammatory factors in the serum. Immunohistochemistry(IHC) was used to detect the expression of Ki67, E-cadherin, and ß-catenin in the colon tissue. Western blot was used to detect the protein content of Wnt3a, ß-catenin, E-cadherin, annexin A1, cyclin D1, and glycogen synthase kinase-3ß(GSK-3ß) in the colon tissue. The results showed that compared with the control group, the Fn group had no significant lesions. The mice in the AOM/DSS group and model group had decreased body weight, increased DAI scores, significantly increased colon weight, and significantly shortened colon length, with more significant lesions in the model group. At the same time, the colon histology of the model group showed more severe adenomas, inflammatory infiltration, and cellular dysplasia. The levels of IL-4 and IL-6 in the serum were significantly increased, while the IL-2 content was significantly decreased. The IHC results showed low expression of E-cadherin and high expression of Ki67 and ß-catenin in the model group, with a decreased protein content of E-cadherin and GSK-3ß and an increased protein content of Wnt3a, ß-catenin, annexin A1, and cyclin D1. After intervention with BXD, the body weight of the mice increased; the DAI score decreased; the colon length increased, and the tumor decreased. The histopathology showed reduced tumor proliferation and reduced inflammatory infiltration. The levels of IL-6 and IL-4 in the serum were significantly decreased, while the IL-2 content was increased. Meanwhile, the expression of E-cadherin was upregulated, and that of Ki67 and ß-catenin was downregulated. The protein content of E-cadherin and GSK-3ß increased, while that of Wnt3a, ß-catenin, annexin A1, and cyclin D1 decreased. In conclusion, BXD can inhibit CAC infected with Fn, and its potential mechanism may be related to the inhibition of Fn binding to E-cadherin, the decrease in annexin A1 protein level, and the regulation of the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway.


Assuntos
Anexina A1 , Neoplasias Associadas a Colite , Colite , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Camundongos , Animais , Colite/complicações , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Colite/genética , beta Catenina/genética , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Ciclina D1/metabolismo , Fusobacterium nucleatum/metabolismo , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Antígeno Ki-67/metabolismo , Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Caderinas/metabolismo , Peso Corporal , Sulfato de Dextrana/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Azoximetano
5.
BMC Psychiatry ; 24(1): 285, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammation has become a critical pathological mechanism of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). NLRP3 is a critical inflammatory pathway to maintain the immune balance. Recently, preclinical evidence showed that Resolvin D1 might potentially offer a new option for antidepressant treatment due to its protective effects through the inhibition of neuroinflammation. However, whether they have clinical value in the diagnosis and treatment evaluation of adolescent depression was unclear. METHODS: Forty-eight untreated first-episode adolescent patients with moderate to severe major depressive disorder, as well as 30 healthy adolescents (HCs, age and gender-matched), were enrolled for this study. Their ages ranged from 13 to 18 (15.75 ± 1.36) years. The patients were treated with fluoxetine for 6-8 weeks. HDRS-17 was used to evaluate the severity of depressive symptoms. Venous blood samples were collected at baseline for the two groups and at the time-point of post-antidepressant treatment for the patients. Serum concentrations of RvD1, NLRP3, IL-1ß, IL-18, and IL-4 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) pre- and post-fluoxetine treatment. RESULTS: Serum levels of RvD1 and anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-4 were significantly elevated in adolescents with MDD compared to healthy adolescents, but no significant difference in NLRP3, IL-1ß, and IL-18 between the two groups. Meanwhile, RvD1 (positively) and IL-4 (negatively) were correlated with the severity of symptoms (HDRS-17 scores) after adjusting age, gender, and BMI. Interestingly, fluoxetine treatment significantly reduced the serum levels of RvD1, NLRP3, IL-1ß, and IL-18 in MDD adolescents but increased the levels of IL-4 relative to baseline. Furthermore, we observed that serum levels of RvD1 might be an excellent distinguishing indicator for depression and healthy adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: Our study is the first to compare RvD1 and NLRP3 between adolescent MDD and HCs. Our findings of reactive increase of RvD1 in adolescent MDD comprised a novel and critical contribution. Our results showed the presence of inflammation resolution unbalanced in adolescents with MDD and indicated that RvD1 might be an ideal biomarker for diagnosing and treating adolescent MDD.


Assuntos
Citocinas , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos , Humanos , Adolescente , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Interleucina-18 , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR , Fluoxetina/uso terapêutico , Interleucina-4/uso terapêutico , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico
6.
Science ; 384(6691): eabo7027, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574142

RESUMO

Macrophages are functionally heterogeneous cells essential for apoptotic cell clearance. Apoptotic cells are defined by homogeneous characteristics, ignoring their original cell lineage identity. We found that in an interleukin-4 (IL-4)-enriched environment, the sensing of apoptotic neutrophils by macrophages triggered their tissue remodeling signature. Engulfment of apoptotic hepatocytes promoted a tolerogenic phenotype, whereas phagocytosis of T cells had little effect on IL-4-induced gene expression. In a mouse model of parasite-induced pathology, the transfer of macrophages conditioned with IL-4 and apoptotic neutrophils promoted parasitic egg clearance. Knockout of phagocytic receptors required for the uptake of apoptotic neutrophils and partially T cells, but not hepatocytes, exacerbated helminth infection. These findings suggest that the identity of apoptotic cells may contribute to the development of distinct IL-4-driven immune programs in macrophages.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Interleucina-4 , Macrófagos , Fagocitose , Esquistossomose mansoni , Animais , Camundongos , Apoptose/imunologia , Interleucina-4/genética , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Macrófagos/imunologia , Camundongos Knockout , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Fagocitose/imunologia , Hepatócitos/imunologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/genética , Esquistossomose mansoni/imunologia
7.
Mol Biol Rep ; 51(1): 499, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38598121

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Aerobic physical training (APT) reduces eosinophilic airway inflammation, but its effects and mechanisms in severe asthma remain unknown. METHODS: An in vitro study employing key cells involved in the pathogenesis of severe asthma, such as freshly isolated human eosinophils, neutrophils, and bronchial epithelial cell lineage (BEAS-2B) and lung fibroblasts (MRC-5 cells), was conducted. Additionally, an in vivo study using male C57Bl/6 mice, including Control (Co; n = 10), Trained (Exe; n = 10), house dust mite (HDM; n = 10), and HDM + Trained (HDM + Exe; n = 10) groups, was carried out, with APT performed at moderate intensity, 5x/week, for 4 weeks. RESULTS: HDM and bradykinin, either alone or in combination, induced hyperactivation in human neutrophils, eosinophils, BEAS-2B, and MRC-5 cells. In contrast, IL-10, the primary anti-inflammatory molecule released during APT, inhibited these inflammatory effects, as evidenced by the suppression of numerous cytokines and reduced mRNA expression of the B1 receptor and ACE-2. The in vivo study demonstrated that APT decreased bronchoalveolar lavage levels of bradykinin, IL-1ß, IL-4, IL-5, IL-17, IL-33, TNF-α, and IL-13, while increasing levels of IL-10, klotho, and IL-1RA. APT reduced the accumulation of polymorphonuclear cells, lymphocytes, and macrophages in the peribronchial space, as well as collagen fiber accumulation, epithelial thickness, and mucus accumulation. Furthermore, APT lowered the expression of the B1 receptor and ACE-2 in lung tissue and reduced bradykinin levels in the lung tissue homogenate compared to the HDM group. It also improved airway resistance, tissue resistance, and tissue damping. On a systemic level, APT reduced total leukocytes, eosinophils, neutrophils, basophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes in the blood, as well as plasma levels of IL-1ß, IL-4, IL-5, IL-17, TNF-α, and IL-33, while elevating the levels of IL-10 and IL-1RA. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that APT inhibits the severe asthma phenotype by targeting kinin signaling.


Assuntos
Asma , Bradicinina , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Masculino , Interleucina-10 , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1 , Interleucina-17 , Interleucina-33 , Interleucina-4 , Interleucina-5 , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
8.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1339387, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38571947

RESUMO

Background: Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a globally prevalent and recurrent pathogen that primarily causes slow growth and immunosuppression in pigs. Porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3), a recently discovered virus, commonly leads to reproductive disorders in pigs and has been extensively disseminated worldwide. Infection with a single PCV subtype alone does not induce severe porcine circovirus-associated diseases (PCVD), whereas concurrent co-infection with PCV2 and PCV3 exacerbates the clinical manifestations. Pseudorabies (PR), a highly contagious disease in pigs, pose a significant threat to the swine industry in China. Methods: In this study, recombinant strains named rPRV-2Cap/3Cap and rPRV-2Cap/3Cap/IL4 was constructed by using a variant strain XJ of pseudorabies virus (PRV) as the parental strain, with the TK/gE/gI genes deleted and simultaneous expression of PCV2 Cap, PCV3 Cap, and IL-4. The two recombinant strains obtained by CRISPR/Cas gE gene editing technology and homologous recombination technology has genetic stability in baby hamster Syrian kidney-21 (BHK-21) cells and is safe to mice. Results: rPRV-2Cap/3Cap and rPRV-2Cap/3Cap/IL4 exhibited good safety and immunogenicity in mice, inducing high levels of antibodies, demonstrated 100% protection against the PRV challenge in mice, reduced viral loads and mitigated pathological changes in the heart, lungs, spleen, and lymph nodes during PCV2 challenge. Moreover, the recombinant viruses with the addition of IL-4 as a molecular adjuvant outperformed the non-addition group in most indicators. Conclusion: rPRV-2Cap/3Cap and rPRV-2Cap/3Cap/IL4 hold promise as recombinant vaccines for the simultaneous prevention of PCV2, PCV3, and PRV, while IL-4, as a vaccine molecular adjuvant, effectively enhances the immune response of the vaccine.


Assuntos
Circovirus , Herpesvirus Suídeo 1 , Pseudorraiva , Suínos , Animais , Camundongos , Herpesvirus Suídeo 1/genética , Pseudorraiva/prevenção & controle , Interleucina-4/genética , Circovirus/genética , Vacinas Sintéticas
9.
Curr Microbiol ; 81(5): 127, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575759

RESUMO

An urgent need is to introduce an effective vaccine against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) infection. In the present study, a multi-stage M.tb immunodominant Fcγ1 fusion protein (Ag85B:HspX:hFcγ1) was designed and produced, and the immunogenicity of purified protein was evaluated. This recombinant fusion protein was produced in the Pichia pastoris expression system. The HiTrap-rPA column affinity chromatography purified and confirmed the fusion protein using ELISA and Western blotting methods. The co-localisation assay was used to confirm its proper folding and function. IFN-γ, IL-12, IL-4, and TGF-ß expression in C57BL/6 mice then evaluated the immunogenicity of the construct in the presence and absence of BCG. After expression optimisation, medium-scale production and the Western blotting test confirmed suitable production of Ag85B:HspX:hFcγ1. The co-localisation results on antigen-presenting cells (APCs) showed that Ag85B:HspX:hFcγ1 properly folded and bound to hFcγRI. This strong co-localisation with its receptor can confirm inducing proper Th1 responses. The in vivo immunisation assay showed no difference in the expression of IL-4 but a substantial increase in the expression of IFN-γ and IL-12 (P ≤ 0.02) and a moderate increase in TGF-ß (P = 0.05). In vivo immunisation assay revealed that Th1-inducing pathways have been stimulated, as IFN-γ and IL-12 strongly, and TGF-ß expression moderately increased in Ag85B:HspX:hFcγ1 group and Ag85B:HspX:hFcγ1+BCG. Furthermore, the production of IFN-γ from splenocytes in the Ag85B:HspX:hFcγ1 group was enormously higher than in other treatments. Therefore, this Fc fusion protein can make a selective multi-stage delivery system for inducing appropriate Th1 responses and is used as a subunit vaccine alone or in combination with others.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Vacinas contra a Tuberculose , Camundongos , Animais , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Antígenos de Bactérias/genética , Vacina BCG , Interleucina-4 , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Interleucina-12 , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta , Vacinas contra a Tuberculose/genética , Aciltransferases/genética
10.
Rev Med Liege ; 79(4): 255-259, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38602214

RESUMO

Severe asthma often features a T2 high profile regulated by cytokines such as interleukins IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13. Dupilumab (Dupixent®) is humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the α subunit of the receptor for IL-4 and IL-13. Here we summarise the immunogical background of severe asthma which supports the use of dupilumab and the pivotal randomised controlled trials which have established the efficacy of dupilumab in treating people with severe asthma. Dupilumab reduces the exacerbation rate, has corticosteroids sparing effect, provides sustained improvement in expiratory flow rates and improved asthma control and quality of life with a reassuring safety profile. Dupilumab reduces the levels of FeNO values and of serum IgE but not those of circulating eosinophils. We also report on a few real life data with dupilumab supporting its clinical effectiveness.


L'asthme sévère est souvent caractérisé par un profil immunologique dit «T2 high¼ régulé par des cytokines telles que les interleukines IL-4, IL-5 et IL-13. Le dupilumab (Dupixent®) est un anticorps monoclonal humanisé dirigé contre la sous-unité α du récepteur à l'IL-4 et à l'IL-13. Nous présentons ici les bases immunologiques qui annoncent son efficacité dans le traitement de l'asthme sévère et les grandes études contrôlées qui ont validé son efficacité. Le dupilumab réduit la fréquence des exacerbations, permet une épargne en corticoïdes systémiques, améliore les débits expiratoires, le contrôle de la maladie et la qualité de vie des personnes asthmatiques, sans donner lieu à des effets secondaires notables. Il réduit le taux de FeNO et des IgE sériques, mais pas celui des éosinophiles circulants. Nous donnons également un aperçu de quelques données obtenues en vie réelle pour souligner son utilité en clinique.


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Asma , Humanos , Interleucina-4/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Interleucina-13/uso terapêutico , Qualidade de Vida , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Antiasmáticos/farmacologia , Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico
11.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1363938, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605962

RESUMO

Arginine and tryptophan are pivotal in orchestrating cytokine-driven macrophage polarization and immune activation. Specifically, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) stimulates inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression), leading to the conversion of arginine into citrulline and nitric oxide (NO), while Interleukin-4 (IL4) promotes arginase activation, shifting arginine metabolism toward ornithine. Concomitantly, IFN-γ triggers indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) and Interleukin-4 induced 1 (IL4i1), resulting in the conversion of tryptophan into kynurenine and indole-3-pyruvic acid. These metabolic pathways are tightly regulated by NAD+-dependent sirtuin proteins, with Sirt2 and Sirt5 playing integral roles. In this review, we present novel insights that augment our understanding of the metabolic pathways of arginine and tryptophan following Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, particularly their relevance in macrophage responses. Additionally, we discuss arginine methylation and demethylation and the role of Sirt2 and Sirt5 in regulating tryptophan metabolism and arginine metabolism, potentially driving macrophage polarization.


Assuntos
Arginina , Tuberculose , Humanos , Arginina/metabolismo , Triptofano/metabolismo , Interleucina-4 , Sirtuína 2 , Ativação de Macrófagos , Interferon gama/farmacologia
12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38604686

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of LAG-3 deficiency (LAG3-/-) on natural killer (NK) cell function and hepatic fibrosis in mice infected with Echinococcus multilocularis. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice, each weighing (20 ± 2) g, were divided into the LAG3-/- and wild type (WT) groups, and each mouse in both groups was inoculated with 3 000 E. multilocularis protoscoleces via the hepatic portal vein. Mouse liver and spleen specimens were collected 12 weeks post-infection, sectioned and stained with sirius red, and the hepatic lesions and fibrosis were observed. Mouse hepatic and splenic lymphocytes were isolated, and flow cytometry was performed to detect the proportions of hepatic and splenic NK cells, the expression of CD44, CD25 and CD69 molecules on NK cell surface, and the secretion of interferon γ (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10 and IL-17A. RESULTS: Sirius red staining showed widening of inflammatory cell bands and hyperplasia of fibrotic connective tissues around mouse hepatic lesions, as well as increased deposition of collagen fibers in the LAG3-/-group relative to the WT group. Flow cytometry revealed lower proportions of mouse hepatic (6.29% ± 1.06% vs. 11.91% ± 1.85%, P < 0.000 1) and splenic NK cells (4.44% ± 1.22% vs. 5.85% ± 1.10%, P > 0.05) in the LAG3-/- group than in the WT group, and the mean fluorescence intensity of CD44 was higher on the surface of mouse hepatic NK cells in the LAG3-/- group than in the WT group (t = -3.234, P < 0.01), while no significant differences were found in the mean fluorescence intensity of CD25 or CD69 on the surface of mouse hepaticNK cells between the LAG3-/- and WT groups (both P values > 0.05). There were significant differences between the LAG3-/- and WT groups in terms of the percentages of IFN-γ (t = -0.723, P > 0.05), TNF-α (t = -0.659, P > 0.05), IL-4 (t = -0.263, P > 0.05), IL-10 (t = -0.455, P > 0.05) or IL-17A secreted by mouse hepatic NK cells (t = 0.091, P > 0.05), and the percentage of IFN-γ secreted by mouse splenic NK cells was higher in the LAG3-/- group than in the WT group (58.40% ± 1.64% vs. 50.40% ± 4.13%; t = -4.042, P < 0.01); however, there were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of the proportions of TNF-α (t = -1.902, P > 0.05), IL-4 (t = -1.333, P > 0.05), IL-10 (t = -1.356, P > 0.05) or IL-17A secreted by mouse splenic NK cells (t = 0.529, P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: During the course of E. multilocularis infections, LAG3-/- promotes high-level secretion of IFN-γ by splenic NK cells, which may participate in the reversal the immune function of NK cells, resulting in aggravation of hepatic fibrosis.


Assuntos
Echinococcus multilocularis , Interleucina-10 , Animais , Camundongos , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Interleucina-17/farmacologia , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Interleucina-4/farmacologia , Echinococcus multilocularis/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/genética
13.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 12(4): e1248, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38607233

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Regulatory CD4+ T cells (Tregs) are pivotal for inhibition of autoimmunity. Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is an autoimmune cholestatic liver disease of unknown etiology where contribution of Tregs is still unclear. Activation of the JAK-STAT pathway critically modifies functions of Tregs. In PSC, we studied activation of STAT proteins and Treg functions in response to cytokines. METHODS: In 51 patients with PSC, 10 disease controls (chronic replicative hepatitis C), and 36 healthy controls we analyzed frequencies of Foxp3+CD25+CD127lowCD4+ Tregs, their expression of ectonucleotidase CD39, and cytokine-induced phosphorylation of STAT1, 3, 5, and 6 using phospho-flow cytometry. In parallel, we measured cytokines IFN-gamma, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-2, and IL-4 in serum via bead-based immunoassays. RESULTS: In patients with PSC, ex vivo frequencies of peripheral Tregs and their expression of CD39 were significantly reduced (p < .05 each). Furthermore, serum levels of IFN-gamma, IL-6, IL-2, and IL-4 were markedly higher in PSC (p < .05 each). Unlike activation of STAT1, STAT5, and STAT6, IL-6 induced increased phosphorylation of STAT3 in Tregs of PSC-patients (p = .0434). Finally, STAT3 activation in Tregs correlated with leukocyte counts. CONCLUSIONS: In PSC, we observed enhanced STAT3 responsiveness of CD4+ Tregs together with reduced CD39 expression probably reflecting inflammatory activity of the disease.


Assuntos
Colangite Esclerosante , Linfócitos T , Humanos , Interleucina-6 , Interleucina-2 , Interleucina-4 , Janus Quinases , Fatores de Transcrição STAT , Transdução de Sinais , Citocinas , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos
14.
Bioorg Chem ; 146: 107320, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38569323

RESUMO

Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) plays a crucial role as a target for allergy treatment due to its involvement in immunoreceptor signaling. The purpose of this study was to identify natural inhibitors of Syk and assess their effects on the IgE-mediated allergic response in mast cells and ICR mice. A list of eight compounds was selected based on pharmacophore and molecular docking, showing potential inhibitory effects through virtual screening. Among these compounds, sophoraflavanone G (SFG) was found to inhibit Syk activity in an enzymatic assay, with an IC50 value of 2.2 µM. To investigate the conformational dynamics of the SYK-SFG system, we performed molecular dynamics simulations. The stability of the binding between SFG and Syk was evaluated using root mean square deviation (RMSD) and root mean square fluctuation (RMSF). In RBL-2H3 cells, SFG demonstrated a dose-dependent suppression of IgE/BSA-induced mast cell degranulation, with no significant cytotoxicity observed at concentrations below 10.0 µM within 24 h. Furthermore, SFG reduced the production of TNF-α and IL-4 in RBL-2H3 cells. Mechanistic investigations revealed that SFG inhibited downstream signaling proteins, including phospholipase Cγ1 (PLCγ1), as well as mitogen-activated protein kinases (AKT, Erk1/2, p38, and JNK), in mast cells in a dose-dependent manner. Passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) experiments demonstrated that SFG could reduce ear swelling, mast cell degranulation, and the expression of COX-2 and IL-4. Overall, our findings identify naturally occurring SFG as a direct inhibitor of Syk that effectively suppresses mast cell degranulation both in vitro and in vivo.


Assuntos
Interleucina-4 , Mastócitos , Camundongos , Animais , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Interleucina-4/farmacologia , Mastócitos/metabolismo , Anafilaxia Cutânea Passiva , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Imunoglobulina E/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina E/farmacologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
15.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 18: 941-951, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38560522

RESUMO

Atopic dermatitis (AD), a common pruritic and chronic inflammatory skin disease, has a major impact on a patient's quality of life. It is characterized by dry, itchy, and eczema-like rashes. AD is more prevalent in young children and has been linked to a variety of other allergy disorders. Traditional drug therapy has certain limitations for treating young children with AD. However, biologics have good clinical application prospects in the medical treatment of young patients. Dupilumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody, specifically binds to the IL-4 Rα subunit, inhibiting IL-4 and IL-13 signaling and blocking the occurrence of type 2 inflammatory response. It has a good effect on treating infants and children with moderate-to-severe AD. This review explores the safety and efficacy of dupilumab in the treatment of AD in infants and children and the impact of early intervention on AD progression, with the aim of informing clinical practice in the use of dupilumab for the treatment of young patients with AD.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica , Criança , Lactente , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Qualidade de Vida , Interleucina-4 , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Método Duplo-Cego
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(15): e37811, 2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38608055

RESUMO

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) play important roles in inducing M1 and M2 macrophage polarization. Studies have shown that LPS can promote the polarization of macrophages to M1-type and produce many pro-inflammatory cytokines, while IL-4 can promote the polarization of macrophages to M2-type and produce many anti-inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, Connexin 43 (Cx43) is widely expressed in macrophages and has various regulatory functions. However, whether Cx43 is involved in the regulation of macrophage M1/M2 polarization has not been fully studied. This study examined the role of Cx43 and M2 polarization markers using Western blot, immunofluorescence, flow cytometry. Cx43 overexpression was induced using Cx43 overexpressing lentivirus. The statistical software SPSS 20.0 (IBM Corp.) and GraphPad Prism 8.0 (GraphPad Software, La Jolla, CA, United States) were used to analyze the results. P values < .05 were considered to indicate statistically significant differences. Our results showed that LPS promotes the polarization of macrophages to M1-type, which is accompanied by an increase in Cx43 expression from 0 to 24 hours. Moreover, the application of the Cx43-specific blockers Gap19 and Gap26 reduces the expression of macrophage M1-type polarization markers. Thus, the expression of Cx43 increases first, and then, due to the initiation of intracellular autophagy during LPS-induced macrophage M1 polarization. Cx43 is degraded and the expression of Cx43 decreases from 24 hours to 48 hours. IL-4 decreases the expression of Cx43 from 24 hours to 48 hours and promotes the transformation of macrophages to M2-type. The application of Cx43 overexpression lentivirus leads to a reduction in the expression of M2 polarization markers. IL-4-induced M2 polarization of macrophages inhibits cell autophagy, reducing Cx43 degradation and leading to an increase in Cx43 from 24 hours to 48 hours. Thus, Cx43 expression in M2-type polarization experiences a reduction at first and then an increase from 24 hours to 48 hours. The direction of macrophage polarization can be controlled by regulating the expression of Cx43, thus providing a theoretical basis for treating atherosclerosis, tumors, and other diseases associated with macrophage polarization.


Assuntos
Conexina 43 , Interleucina-4 , Animais , Camundongos , Conexina 43/genética , Citocinas , Interleucina-4/imunologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Macrófagos
18.
Tissue Cell ; 87: 102342, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38430848

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: T2DM is a chronic disorder with progressive neuromuscular alterations. L-arginine (ARG) is the most common semi-essential amino acid having several metabolic functions. AIM: to investigate the impact of L-arginine in combating diabetic-induced neuromyopathy and its possible mechanisms. MATERIALS & METHODS: 24 rats were divided into CON, CON+ARG, DC, DC+ARG. Behavioral tests, Body weight (BW), fasting blood glucose (FBG), insulin, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and irisin were done. Creatine kinase-MM (CK-MM), interleukin 4 (IL-4), interleukin 6 (IL-6), TAC, MDA, expression of microRNA-29a mRNA & light chain 3 protein were determined in muscle. Histological and NF-κß immunohistochemical expression in muscle and nerve were assessed. RESULTS: ARG supplementation to diabetic rats improved altered behavior, significantly increased BW, insulin, TAC, irisin and Il-4, decreased levels of glucose, microRNA-29a, NF-κß and LC3 expression, PAI-1, CK-MM and restored the normal histological appearance. CONCLUSIONS: ARG supplementation potently alleviated diabetic-induced neuromuscular alterations.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , MicroRNAs , Doenças Musculares , Animais , Ratos , Fibronectinas/genética , Interleucina-4 , Inibidor 1 de Ativador de Plasminogênio/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Oxidativo , Arginina , Antioxidantes , Insulina , Autofagia , MicroRNAs/genética
19.
Cell Commun Signal ; 22(1): 162, 2024 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38448976

RESUMO

Microglia/macrophages are major contributors to neuroinflammation in the central nervous system (CNS) injury and exhibit either pro- or anti-inflammatory phenotypes in response to specific microenvironmental signals. Our latest in vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated that curcumin-treated olfactory ensheathing cells (aOECs) can effectively enhance neural survival and axonal outgrowth, and transplantation of aOECs improves the neurological outcome after spinal cord injury (SCI). The therapeutic effect is largely attributed to aOEC anti-inflammatory activity through the modulation of microglial polarization from the M1 to M2 phenotype. However, very little is known about what viable molecules from aOECs are actively responsible for the switch of M1 to M2 microglial phenotypes and the underlying mechanisms of microglial polarization. Herein, we show that Interleukin-4 (IL-4) plays a leading role in triggering the M1 to M2 microglial phenotype, appreciably decreasing the levels of M1 markers IL­1ß, IL­6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and elevating the levels of M2 markers Arg-1, TGF-ß, IL-10, and CD206. Strikingly, blockade of IL-4 signaling by siRNA and a neutralizing antibody in aOEC medium reverses the transition of M1 to M2, and the activated microglia stimulated with the aOEC medium lacking IL-4 significantly decreases neuronal survival and neurite outgrowth. In addition, transplantation of aOECs improved the neurological function deficits after SCI in rats. More importantly, the crosstalk between JAK1/STAT1/3/6-targeted downstream signals and NF-κB/SOCS1/3 signaling predominantly orchestrates IL-4-modulated microglial polarization event. These results provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of aOECs driving the M1-to-M2 shift of microglia and shed light on new therapies for SCI through the modulation of microglial polarization.


Assuntos
Curcumina , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal , Animais , Ratos , Microglia , Interleucina-4/farmacologia , Curcumina/farmacologia , Macrófagos , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/terapia , Anti-Inflamatórios
20.
Chem Biol Drug Des ; 103(3): e14475, 2024 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38433560

RESUMO

To explore the of Qufeng Tongqiao Prescription in the treatment of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (CIR) and associated molecular network mechanism. Venny diagram, gene ontology (GO) and kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) analysis, protein-protein interaction (PPI), hub genes mining, molecular docking, combined with animal experiments and Nissl stain were performed to determine the molecular network mechanism of Qufeng Tongqiao Prescription for CIR treatment. Fifty three intersecting genes between Qufeng Tongqiao Prescription and cerebral ischemia reperfusion were acquired from Venny analysis. GO analysis showed that the main biological process (BP) was response to lipopolysaccharide, and the main cell localization (CC) process was membrane raft, while the most important molecular function (MF) process is Cytokine receptor binding. Moreover, AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications is the most important signaling pathway in KEGG pathway. Through molecular docking, it was found that Astragalus membranaceus was docked with MAPK14, IL4, FOS, IL6, and JUN; pueraria membranaceus was directly docked with JUN and IL4; Acorus acorus was linked to JUN and MAPK14; Ganoderma ganoderma and human were involved in JUN docking, and Ligusticum chuanqi and pueraria could not be docked with MAPK14, respectively. The results of animal experiments showed that Qufeng Tongqiao Prescription significantly improved behavioral performance and reduced the number of neuronal deaths in rats subjected to CIR, and molecular mechanisms are associated with FOS, IL-6, IL4, JUN, and MAPK14, of there, IL-6, as a vital candidator, which has been confirmed by immunostaining detection. Together, Qufeng Tongqiao Prescription has positive therapeutic effect on CIR, and the underlying mechanism is involved MAPK14, FOS, IL4, and JUN network, while IL-6 may be as a vital target.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Proteína Quinase 14 Ativada por Mitógeno , Humanos , Animais , Ratos , Interleucina-4 , Interleucina-6 , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico
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