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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2559: 41-49, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36180625

RESUMO

Elucidation of the symbiotic relationship between the host and its gut microbiota is critically important for understanding host pathophysiology. Peripherally derived regulatory T cells (pTregs) are recognized as central to immune homeostasis in the intestine. Moreover, the gut microbiota nourishes the intestinal and systemic immune systems, including pTreg, via their metabolites and other components. Therefore, methods to detect pTreg as well as to analyze the interactions between the gut microbiota and pTreg are important for better understanding of the symbiotic relationship with these microorganisms. Here, we describe a protocol to isolate colonic lamina propria cells and analyze pTregs in mice.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Linfócitos T Reguladores , Animais , Colo , Mucosa Intestinal , Intestinos , Camundongos
2.
Life Sci Alliance ; 6(1)2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36375841

RESUMO

Individuals with mutations in CHD8 present with gastrointestinal complaints, yet the underlying mechanisms are understudied. Here, using a stable constitutive chd8 mutant zebrafish model, we found that the loss of chd8 leads to a reduced number of vagal neural crest cells (NCCs), enteric neural and glial progenitors, emigrating from the neural tube, and that their early migration capability was altered. At later stages, although the intestinal colonization by NCCs was complete, we found the decreased numbers of both serotonin-producing enterochromaffin cells and NCC-derived serotonergic neurons, suggesting an intestinal hyposerotonemia in the absence of chd8 Furthermore, transcriptomic analyses revealed an altered expression of key receptors and enzymes in serotonin and acetylcholine signaling pathways. The tissue examination of chd8 mutants revealed a thinner intestinal epithelium accompanied by an accumulation of neutrophils and the decreased numbers of goblet cells and eosinophils. Last, single-cell sequencing of whole intestines showed a global disruption of the immune balance with a perturbed expression of inflammatory interleukins and changes in immune cell clusters. Our findings propose a causal developmental link between chd8, NCC development, intestinal homeostasis, and autism-associated gastrointestinal complaints.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico , Crista Neural , Animais , Crista Neural/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra , Serotonina/metabolismo , Movimento Celular/genética , Intestinos , Homeostase
3.
J Sci Food Agric ; 103(1): 380-388, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35894931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have found that the addition of plant essential oils to feed had a positive effect on intestinal microflora and immunity in mice. However, the effect of different ways of ingestion of orange essential oil on mice has seldom been reported. In the present study, we investigated the effects of ingestion of orange essential oil by gavage, sniffing and feeding on intestinal microflora and immunity in mice. RESULTS: The results obtained showed that a low concentration of essential oil feeding significantly increased the spleen index of mice (P < 0.05). The effect of different ways of ingestion on the thymus index, immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M of mice was not significant (P > 0.05). High and medium concentrations of essential oil feeding increased the level of interleukin-2 in mice (P < 0.05). H+ K+ -ATPase activity was significantly increased in mice fed with gavage and different concentrations of essential oil feed compared to the control group (P < 0.05). The analysis of the results of the microflora in the cecum and colon of mice indicated that the medium concentration of essential oil feeding group and the sniffing group significantly changed the structure of the flora and increased the diversity of the intestinal microflora. All three essential oil ingestion methods increased the abundance of Bacteroidetes and Lactobacillus in the intestine of mice. CONCLUSION: Compared with gavage and feeding, sniffing had a significant effect on immunoglobulins in mice. All the three ingestion methods could affect the intestinal microflora of mice and increase the abundance of Lactobacillus. © 2022 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Óleos Voláteis , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Lactobacillus , Intestinos , Ceco
4.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 138: 104524, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36067905

RESUMO

Intestinal inflammation in poultry is a complex response that involves immune and intestinal cells which is still not fully understood. Thus, to better understand the mechanisms that drive the chronic intestinal inflammation in fowl we conducted an experiment applying a previously established nutritional model of low-grade chronic intestinal inflammation to evaluate cytokine and chemokine profiles in the chicken intestine. For this, we placed 90 one-day chickens into two treatments: (1) a control group (CNT) fed a corn-soybean diet, and (2) a group fed a diet high in non-starch polysaccharides (NSP). At days 14, 22, 28 and 36 of age, 6 birds from each treatment were euthanized, jejunal and ileal samples were collected for histological examination and cytokine measurements. The cytokines interferon-alpha (IFN-α), IFN-γ, interleukin-16 (IL-16), IL-10, IL-21, IL-6, macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), chemokine C-C motif ligand 20 (CCL20), CCL4, CCL5 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were quantified in the intestinal tissue. Histologically, both jejunum and ileum of broilers fed NSP diet showed marked infiltration of mononuclear immune cells into the villi. Further, these birds exhibited a significant (P < 0.05) increase in CCL20 concentration in the jejunum at 14d, but a dramatic reduction of M-CSF at 14 and 21d. Later at 28d and 36d, birds fed the NSP diet exhibited increased IL-16 concentration in the jejunum. Since M-CSF is a monocyte stimulatory cytokine and CCL20 a chemokine of T-cells, the reduced M-CSF and increased production of CCL20 may indicate the involvement of the adaptive immune response, specifically driven by T-cells, occurring around the third week of age in the NSP model. Lastly, as a result of the mononuclear cell infiltration and activation of T-cells, IL-16, a pro-inflammatory T-cell cytokine, increased. Therefore, the current work indicates the importance of adaptive immune cells, especially T-cells, in the chronic intestinal inflammation in broiler chicken.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Interleucina-10 , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Quimiocinas , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Inflamação , Interferon-alfa , Interleucina-16 , Interleucina-6 , Intestinos , Ligantes , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Macrófagos , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular
5.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 138: 104553, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36122732

RESUMO

The intensification and diversification of production systems have increased the incidence of diseases, which are usually treated with antibiotics. However, its use should be restricted due to the increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Probiotics represent therefore an alternative environmentally friendly strategy for improving growth and disease resistance in aquaculture. Considering that host-derived probiotics may offer greater advantages than those from other environments in terms of safety and efficacy, two potential host-associated probiotic strains (Bacillus mojavensis B191 and Bacillus subtilis MRS11) were used in the present study, which were previously isolated from intestinal mucus of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). This study was conducted to assess the effects of dietary administration of two Bacillus strains on growth performance, intestinal morphology, immunity, and disease resistance of Nile tilapia. A total of 375 fish were randomly divided into five groups in triplicate. Nile tilapia were fed a basal diet (control group) or a basal diet supplemented with Bacillus mojavensis B191 (BM) or Bacillus subtilis MRS11 (BS) spores at different concentrations of 1 × 106 (BM6 and BS6, respectively) and 1 × 108 (BM8 and BS8, respectively) CFU/g of feed for 60 days. Moreover, the survival rate of tilapia upon challenge with Streptococcus iniae was determined following the feeding trial. After the feeding trial, the growth performances were significantly improved in all probiotic-fed groups, with the BS8 group being the highest. Light and electron microscopy observations revealed elevated goblet cells, intestinal villus length (except BM8), microvilli length, microvilli density, and perimeter ratio increase in the intestine of all probiotic-fed groups compared with the control group. Regarding the expression analysis, HSP70 gene was only up-regulated in the BM8 group and a general trend of up-regulation of some immune-related cytokines (TGF-ß, IL-10, TNF-α and IL-1ß) was observed in all probiotic-fed groups. Likewise, the best protection against Streptococcus iniae was observed in the BS8 group, followed by BS6, BM6 and BM8 groups. Altogether, dietary probiotic supplementation with BS8 and BM6 may improve growth performance, intestinal morphology, immunity, and disease resistance in Nile tilapia.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Ciclídeos , Doenças dos Peixes , Probióticos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacillus subtilis , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Resistência à Doença , Interleucina-10 , Intestinos , Streptococcus iniae/fisiologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
6.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2603: 151-161, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36370277

RESUMO

Stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) is a strategic quantitative mass spectrometry method to analyze multiple protein samples in different conditions simultaneously. In recent years, 3D cell growth culture conditions have been developed to establish intestinal organoids from isolated crypts, which mimic the intestine's cell composition and organization. Organoids, isolated from normal or diseased tissues, can be used to compare cell distribution and differentiation, signaling pathways, and cell responses to pharmacological agents, therapeutic drugs, endogenous or exogenous metabolites, and environmental stresses, among others. Here, we describe the process of generating SILAC organoids from the mouse small intestine.


Assuntos
Organoides , Proteômica , Camundongos , Animais , Proteômica/métodos , Marcação por Isótopo/métodos , Organoides/metabolismo , Fluxo de Trabalho , Aminoácidos/química , Intestinos
7.
Chemosphere ; 311(Pt 1): 137046, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36419272

RESUMO

Potential adverse effects of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) on soil invertebrates have not been studied. Here we investigated the mechanism of MC-LR toxicity to earthworm (Eisenia fetida) intestine at the individual level and at the cellular level. The results showed an inverse relationship between the bodyweight and survival rate of earthworms over exposure time- and MC-LR doses in soil. Dose-dependent intestinal lesions and disturbances of enzymatic activities (e.g., cellulase, Na+/K+-ATPase, and AChE) were observed, which resulted in intestinal dysfunction. Excessive reactive oxygen species generation led to DNA damage and lipid peroxidation of intestinal cells. The oxidative damage to DNA prolonged cell cycle arrest at the G2/M-phase transition in mitosis, thus stimulating and accelerating apoptosis in earthworm intestine. MC-LR target earthworm intestine tissue. MC-LR at low concentrations can damage earthworm intestine regardless of exposure routes (oral or contact). High toxicity of MC-LR to earthworms delineates its ecological risks to terrestrial ecosystems.


Assuntos
Oligoquetos , Animais , Ecossistema , Intestinos , Solo
8.
Clin Perinatol ; 49(4): 943-953, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36328609

RESUMO

The 2 most common congenital abdominal wall defects are gastroschisis and omphalocele. Gastroschisis is a defect in the abdominal wall with exposed abdominal contents. Mortality rates are low but lengths of stay are often prolonged by bowel dysmotility and other intestinal abnormalities in complicated cases. Omphalocele is a defect through the umbilical cord with herniated abdominal contents covered by a sac. It is associated with other genetic abnormalities and other anomalies that can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Prenatal diagnosis in both conditions allows for improved prenatal consultation and coordinated perinatal care to improve clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Parede Abdominal , Gastrosquise , Hérnia Umbilical , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Gastrosquise/diagnóstico , Gastrosquise/cirurgia , Hérnia Umbilical/diagnóstico , Hérnia Umbilical/cirurgia , Parede Abdominal/anormalidades , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Intestinos
9.
BMC Surg ; 22(1): 375, 2022 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36329426

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a severe intestinal disease that causes malabsorption. Long-term parental nutrition therapy induces infection and liver failure. For the surgical management of intestinal rehabilitation, the intestinal loop lengthening method and serial transverse enteroplasty (STEP) method have been reported, although their effects have proven limited. We herein report a new surgical technique, Saeki-Spiral-Shark (3S) method for SBS using biomimetics of shark intestine. METHODS: In the 3S method, a spiral valve is formed inside the intestine by external sutures. Using a 25 cm length intestinal organ model, we performed both the 3S method and STEP procedure. We then compared the length and fluid passage times of the subsequently formed intestine. RESULTS: After the 3S method was performed, the length of the intestinal model changed to 22 cm, and after the STEP procedure, that was elongated to 30 cm. Although the water passage times did not change markedly, the semi-digestive nutritional supplement passage time slowed down in the model with the 3S method. There was slight leakage in the STEP procedure model. CONCLUSIONS: The 3S method is a unique method of treating SBS based on biomimetics. This procedure does not require an incision of the intestine, which thereby enabling clean and less-invasive surgery. We plan to conduct animal experiments in the future.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório , Síndrome do Intestino Curto , Animais , Síndrome do Intestino Curto/cirurgia , Síndrome do Intestino Curto/etiologia , Intestinos/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório/efeitos adversos
10.
Sci Immunol ; 7(77): eabl9925, 2022 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36332012

RESUMO

Tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells remain poised in the tissue and mediate robust protection from secondary infection. TRM cells within the intestine and other tissues are heterogeneous in their phenotype and function; however, the contributions of these TRM subsets to secondary infection remain poorly defined. To address the plasticity of intestinal TRM subsets and their role in local and systemic immunity, we generated mice to fate map intestinal CD103+ TRM cells and track their location and function during secondary infection with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. We found that CD103+ TRM cells remained lodged in the tissue and were poorly reactivated during secondary challenge. CD103- TRM cells were the primary responders to secondary infection and expanded within the tissue, with limited contribution from circulating memory T cells. The transcriptional profile of CD103- TRM cells demonstrated maintenance of a gene signature similar to circulating T cells along with increased cytokine production and migratory potential. CD103- TRM cells also expressed genes associated with T cell receptor (TCR) activation and displayed enhanced TCR-mediated reactivation both in vitro and in vivo compared with their CD103+ counterparts. These studies reveal the limited recall potential of CD103+ TRM subsets and the role of CD103- TRM cells as central memory-like T cells within peripheral tissues.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Memória Imunológica , Camundongos , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Células T de Memória , Intestinos , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T
11.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 27(10): 281, 2022 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36336854

RESUMO

Anti-tumor antibiotics are chemical substances produced by micro-organisms to control cancer development. Some of the currently used cancer treatment regimens are anti-tumor antibiotics. However, many studies have demonstrated that anti-tumor antibiotics may have adverse effects on normal cells. This calls for development of strategies to alleviate these negative effects and improve cancer treatment. Recent studies have suggested that the efficacy of anti-tumor antibiotics may be affected by intestinal microbiota. For instance, intestinal microbiota can alleviate the negative effects of antibiotic treatment and regulate the tumor immune micro-environment. In this way, anti-tumor antibiotics can improve tumor control. However, the specific mechanisms need to be further explored. This review discusses the effect of intestinal flora on anti-tumor antibiotic therapy and summarizes the specific mechanisms by which antibiotics inhibit harmful intestinal micro-organisms and promote efficacy of probiotics, which may improve the control of neoplasm development and growth.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Neoplasias , Probióticos , Humanos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Intestinos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Microambiente Tumoral
12.
Nutrients ; 14(21)2022 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364770

RESUMO

The early life period is considered an essential period for gut microbial colonization. Manipulating gut microbiota interventions during early life periods has been proven to be a promising method to boost healthy growth. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary fucoidan (Fuc) on the growth, digestive tract maturation, and gut microbiota of large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea) larvae. Four diets were formulated with different levels of Fuc (0.00%, 0.50%, 1.00%, and 2.00%). Results showed that dietary Fuc significantly improved the growth performance of larvae. Meanwhile, dietary Fuc promoted digestive tract maturation. Dietary 1.00% Fuc significantly improved intestinal morphology. Dietary Fuc upregulated the expression of intestinal cell proliferation and differentiation related-genes and intestinal barrier related-genes. Dietary 2.00% Fuc significantly increased the activities of brush border membranes enzymes and lipase while inhibiting α-amylase. Furthermore, dietary Fuc maintained healthy intestinal micro-ecology. In detail, dietary 1.00% and 2.00% Fuc altered the overall structure of the gut microbiota and increased the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes while decreasing the relative abundance of opportunistic pathogens and facultative anaerobe. In conclusion, appropriate dietary Fuc (1.00-2.00%) could improve the growth of large yellow croaker larvae by promoting digestive tract maturation and maintaining an ideal intestinal micro-ecology.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Perciformes , Animais , Larva , Perciformes/metabolismo , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia
13.
Nutrients ; 14(21)2022 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364873

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown that a resistant dextrin soluble fibre has prebiotic properties with related health benefits on blood glucose management and satiety. Our aim was to demonstrate the effects of continuous administration of resistant dextrin on intestinal gas production, digestive sensations, and gut microbiota metabolism and composition. Healthy subjects (n = 20) were given resistant dextrin (14 g/d NUTRIOSE®, Roquette Frères, Lestrem, France) for four weeks. Outcomes were measured before, at the beginning, end, and two weeks after administration: anal evacuations of gas during daytime; digestive perception, girth, and gas production in response to a standard meal; sensory and digestive responses to a comfort meal; volume of colonic biomass by magnetic resonance; taxonomy and metabolic functions of fecal microbiota by shotgun sequencing; metabolomics in urine. Dextrin administration produced an initial increase in intestinal gas production and gas-related sensations, followed by a subsequent decrease, which magnified after discontinuation. Dextrin enlarged the volume of colonic biomass, inducing changes in microbial metabolism and composition with an increase in short chain fatty acids-producing species and modulation of bile acids and biotin metabolism. These data indicate that consumption of a soluble fibre induces an adaptative response of gut microbiota towards fermentative pathways with lower gas production.


Assuntos
Dextrinas , Microbiota , Humanos , Dextrinas/farmacologia , Intestinos , Prebióticos , Fezes , Homeostase
14.
Nutrients ; 14(21)2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364929

RESUMO

Obesity is associated with metabolic and physiological effects in the gut. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of trypsin inhibitor isolated from tamarind seeds (TTI) in vitro (interaction with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and inhibitory activity against human neutrophil elastase (HNE)), and using intestinal co-cultures of Caco-2:HT29-MTX cell lines inflamed with TNF-α (50 ng/mL) and a Wistar rat model of diet-induced obesity (n = 15). TTI was administered to animals by gavage (10 days), and the treated group (25 mg/kg/day) was compared to animals without treatment or treated with a nutritionally adequate diet. In the in vitro study, it showed inhibitory activity against HNE (93%). In co-cultures, there was no protection or recovery of the integrity of inflamed cell monolayers treated with TTI (1.0 mg/mL). In animals, TTI led to lower plasma concentrations of TNF-α and IL-6, total leukocytes, fasting glucose, and LDL-c (p < 0.05). The intestines demonstrated a lower degree of chronic enteritis, greater preservation of the submucosa, and greater intestinal wall thickness than the other groups (p = 0.042). Therefore, the better appearance of the intestine not reflected in the intestinal permeability added to the in vitro activity against HNE point to possibilities for new studies and applications related to this activity.


Assuntos
Tamarindus , Ratos , Animais , Humanos , Células CACO-2 , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Permeabilidade , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Dieta , Intestinos , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/metabolismo
15.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277502, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36367886

RESUMO

The human gut ecosystem starts developing at birth and is influenced by many factors during early life. In this study we make use of a Belgian cohort of 64 children, followed until the age of 6 years, to analyze different phases of microbiota development. We analyzed fecal samples taken before weaning (age 1 month), shortly after weaning (age 6 months), when milk feeding has been discontinued completely (age 1 year), and at the age of 6 years. We performed 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing on the collected fecal samples and analyzed the compositional data in relation to dietary metadata and birth mode. Human and formula milk feeding promotes a microbiota dominated by either Bacteroides or Bifidobacterium, respectively. Into later life stages, the microbiota composition follows distinct microbiota clusters, related to abundance dynamics of certain bacterial groups. Furthermore, it becomes apparent that a formula diet leads to early maturation of the infant gut microbiota. Despite other clinical variables within the infant cohort, they did not significantly contribute to the microbiota patterns we observed. Our data provide a proof of principle study of the importance of diet to the development of the microbiota in early life that replicates earlier findings in other cohorts.


Assuntos
Dieta , Microbiota , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Intestinos
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 247: 114250, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36334341

RESUMO

With the growing diversity and complexity of diet, animals and humans are at risk of exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), which is a well-known contaminant in the food chain that causes various toxicological effects. The intestine acts as the first barrier against external contaminants, but the effect of AFB1 on intestinal barrier has not been determined. This study aimed to evaluate AFB1 on the intestinal barrier function in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, porcine jejunal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) were treated with increasing concentrations of AFB1 (10-60 mg/L). In vivo, Kunming (KM) mice were used as controls or gavaged with 1% dimethyl sulfoxide (110 mg/kg b.w.) and AFB1 (0.3 mg/kg b.w.) for 28 days. In IPEC-J2 cells, the cell viability decreased with increasing mycotoxin concentrations, and the viability of IPEC-J2 cells decreased significantly (P < 0.05) when the AFB1 concentrations were greater than 30 mg/L. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunofluorescence results show that AFB1 can downregulate the tight junction proteins and increase the expression levels of Caspase-3 and the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, suggesting that AFB1 was cytotoxic to IPEC-J2. In vivo, the ratio of villus height to crypt depth, the intestinal wall thickness, the number of intestinal villus per 1000 µm in the jejunum, the expression levels of ZO-1, Claudin-3, Occludin, MUC2, and Caspase-3, and the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 were significantly affected in mice exposed to AFB1. In vitro and in vivo results showed that the effects of exposure to AFB1 on the intestinal function in the jejunum of KM mice and in the IPEC-J2 was similar, suggesting that AFB1 may adversely affect animal intestine.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1 , Intestinos , Humanos , Suínos , Camundongos , Animais , Aflatoxina B1/toxicidade , Caspase 3/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2 , Apoptose , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19965, 2022 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36402874

RESUMO

Dromaeosaurids were bird-like dinosaurs with a predatory ecology known to forage on fish, mammals and other dinosaurs. We describe Daurlong wangi gen. et sp. nov., a dromaeosaurid from the Lower Cretaceous Jehol Biota of Inner Mongolia, China. Exceptional preservation in this specimen includes a large bluish layer in the abdomen which represents one of the few occurrences of intestinal remnants among non-avian dinosaurs. Phylogenetically, Daurlong nests among a lineage of short-armed Jehol Biota species closer to eudromaeosaurs than microraptorines. The topographic correspondence between the exceptionally preserved intestine in the more stem-ward Scipionyx and the remnants in the more birdlike Daurlong provides a phylogenetic framework for inferring intestine tract extent in other theropods lacking fossilized visceral tissues. Gastrointestinal organization results conservative among faunivorous dinosaurs, with the evolution of a bird-like alimentary canal restricted to avialan theropods.


Assuntos
Dinossauros , Animais , Dinossauros/anatomia & histologia , Filogenia , Fósseis , Evolução Biológica , Aves , Intestinos , Mamíferos
18.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (11): 61-67, 2022.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36398957

RESUMO

Most often, Ladd's syndrome clinically manifests within the first month after birth. There are few reports devoted to diagnosis of this syndrome in patients aged 6-10 years. We present 2 children with Ladd's syndrome. The disease manifested at the age of 14 years in both patients. One child was diagnosed before complications that made it possible to carry out successful surgical treatment with subsequent recovery. The second child had necrosis of rotated small bowel. This child died in long-term postoperative period due to short bowel syndrome despite adequate treatment. In some cases, Ladd's syndrome manifests in puberty. Contrast-enhanced X-ray examination of gastrointestinal tract is indicated in children for periodic abdominal pain associated or not associated with vomiting.


Assuntos
Intestinos , Síndrome do Intestino Curto , Humanos , Criança , Intestinos/cirurgia , Dor Abdominal , Radiografia , Vômito
19.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 413, 2022 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36345042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schistosoma japonicum infection is an important public health problem, imposing heavy social and economic burdens in 78 countries worldwide. However, the mechanism of transition from chronic to advanced S. japonicum infection remains largely unknown. Evidences suggested that gut microbiota plays a role in the pathogenesis of S. japonicum infection. However, the composition of the gut microbiota in patients with chronic and advanced S. japonicum infection is not well defined. In this study, we compared the composition of the intestinal flora in patients with chronic and advanced S. japonicum infection. METHODS: The feces of 24 patients with chronic S. japonicum infection and five patients with advanced S. japonicum infection from the same area were collected according to standard procedures, and 16S rRNA sequencing technology was used to analyze the intestinal microbial composition of the two groups of patients. RESULTS: We found that alteration occurs in the gut microbiota between the groups of patients with chronic and advanced S. japonicum infections. Analysis of alpha and beta diversity indicated that the diversity and abundance of intestinal flora in patients with advanced S. japonicum infection were lower than those in patients with chronic S. japonicum infection. Furthermore, Prevotella 9, Subdoligranulum, Ruminococcus torques, Megamonas and Fusicatenibacter seemed to have potential to discriminate different stages of S. japonicum infection and to act as biomarkers for diagnosis. Function prediction analysis revealed that microbiota function in the chronic group was focused on translation and cell growth and death, while that in the advanced group was concentrated on elevating metabolism-related functions. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated that alteration in gut microbiota in different stages of S. japonicum infection plays a potential role in the pathogenesis of transition from chronic to advanced S. japonicum infection. However, further validation in the clinic is needed, and the underlying mechanism requires further study.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Schistosoma japonicum , Esquistossomose Japônica , Humanos , Animais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Fezes , Intestinos , Schistosoma japonicum/genética
20.
Front Immunol ; 13: 952994, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36341403

RESUMO

Although diet has long been associated with susceptibility to infection, the dietary components that regulate host defense remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that consuming rice bran decreases susceptibility to intestinal infection with Citrobacter rodentium, a murine pathogen that is similar to enteropathogenic E. coli infection in humans. Rice bran naturally contains high levels of the substance phytate. Interestingly, phytate supplementation also protected against intestinal infection, and enzymatic metabolism of phytate by commensal bacteria was necessary for phytate-induced host defense. Mechanistically, phytate consumption induced mammalian intestinal epithelial expression of STAT3-regulated antimicrobial pathways and increased phosphorylated STAT3, suggesting that dietary phytate promotes innate defense through epithelial STAT3 activation. Further, phytate regulation of epithelial STAT3 was mediated by the microbiota-sensitive enzyme histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3). Collectively, these data demonstrate that metabolism of dietary phytate by microbiota decreases intestinal infection and suggests that consuming bran and other phytate-enriched foods may represent an effective dietary strategy for priming host immunity.


Assuntos
Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae , Ácido Fítico , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Escherichia coli , Intestinos/microbiologia , Antibacterianos , Dieta , Mamíferos
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