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1.
Mol Med ; 30(1): 17, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38302880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In sepsis, intestinal barrier dysfunction is often caused by the uncontrolled death of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). CD4CD8αα intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs), a subtype of CD4+ T cells residing within the intestinal epithelium, exert cytotoxicity by producing granzyme B (GrB) and perforin (Prf). Extracellular cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (eCIRP) is a recently identified alarmin which stimulates TLR4 on immune cells to induce proinflammatory responses. Here, we hypothesized that eCIRP enhances CD4CD8αα IEL cytotoxicity and induces IEC death in sepsis. METHODS: We subjected wild-type (WT) and CIRP-/- mice to sepsis by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) and collected the small intestines to isolate IELs. The expression of GrB and Prf in CD4CD8αα IELs was assessed by flow cytometry. IELs isolated from WT and TLR4-/- mice were challenged with recombinant mouse CIRP (eCIRP) and assessed the expression of GrB and Prf in CD4CD8αα by flow cytometry. Organoid-derived IECs were co-cultured with eCIRP-treated CD4CD8αα cells in the presence/absence of GrB and Prf inhibitors and assessed IEC death by flow cytometry. RESULTS: We found a significant increase in the expression of GrB and Prf in CD4CD8αα IELs of septic mice compared to sham mice. We found that GrB and Prf levels in CD4CD8αα IELs were increased in the small intestines of WT septic mice, while CD4CD8αα IELs of CIRP-/- mice did not show an increase in those cytotoxic granules after sepsis. We found that eCIRP upregulated GrB and Prf in CD4CD8αα IELs isolated from WT mice but not from TLR4-/- mice. Furthermore, we also revealed that eCIRP-treated CD4CD8αα cells induced organoid-derived IEC death, which was mitigated by GrB and Prf inhibitors. Finally, histological analysis of septic mice revealed that CIRP-/- mice were protected from tissue injury and cell death in the small intestines compared to WT mice. CONCLUSION: In sepsis, the cytotoxicity initiated by the eCIRP/TLR4 axis in CD4CD8αα IELs is associated with intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) death, which could lead to gut injury.


Assuntos
Linfócitos Intraepiteliais , Sepse , Animais , Camundongos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Intestinos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Sepse/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
2.
FASEB J ; 38(3): e23455, 2024 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38308636

RESUMO

Recent evidence suggests the anti-inflammatory effect of carrageenan oligosaccharides (COS). The effects of COS on intestinal injury induced by 0.6% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and the molecular mechanisms involved were investigated in this study. 0.625, 1.25, and 2.5 mg/mL COS in diet had no toxic effect in flies, and they could all prolong SDS-treated female flies' survival rate. 1.25 mg/mL COS prevented the development of inflammation by improving the intestinal barrier integrity and maintaining the intestinal morphology stability, inhibited the proliferation of intestine stem cells (ISCs), and the production of lysosomes induced by SDS, accompanied by a decrease in the expression of autophagy-related genes. Moreover, COS decreased the active oxygen species (ROS) content in gut and increased the antioxidant activity in SDS-induced female flies, while COS still played a role in increasing survival rate and decreasing intestinal leakage in CncC-RNAi flies. The improvement of anti-inflammation capacity may be associated with the regulation of intestinal microflora with COS supplementation for Drosophila melanogaster. COS changed the gut microbiota composition, and COS had no effect on germ-free (GF) flies. It is highlighted that COS could not work in Relish-RNAi flies, indicating relish is required for COS to perform beneficial effects. These results provide insights into the study of gut microbiota interacting with COS to modulate intestinal inflammation in specific hosts.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Feminino , Carragenina/farmacologia , Inflamação , Intestinos , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia
4.
J Vis Exp ; (203)2024 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38314824

RESUMO

Calcium signaling is an integral regulator of nearly every tissue. Within the intestinal epithelium, calcium is involved in the regulation of secretory activity, actin dynamics, inflammatory responses, stem cell proliferation, and many other uncharacterized cellular functions. As such, mapping calcium signaling dynamics within the intestinal epithelium can provide insight into homeostatic cellular processes and unveil unique responses to various stimuli. Human intestinal organoids (HIOs) are a high-throughput, human-derived model to study the intestinal epithelium and thus represent a useful system to investigate calcium dynamics. This paper describes a protocol to stably transduce HIOs with genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECIs), perform live fluorescence microscopy, and analyze imaging data to meaningfully characterize calcium signals. As a representative example, 3-dimensional HIOs were transduced with lentivirus to stably express GCaMP6s, a green fluorescent protein-based cytosolic GECI. The engineered HIOs were then dispersed into a single-cell suspension and seeded as monolayers. After differentiation, the HIO monolayers were infected with rotavirus and/or treated with drugs known to stimulate a calcium response. An epifluorescence microscope fitted with a temperature-controlled, humidified live-imaging chamber allowed for long-term imaging of infected or drug-treated monolayers. Following imaging, acquired images were analyzed using the freely available analysis software, ImageJ. Overall, this work establishes an adaptable pipeline for characterizing cellular signaling in HIOs.


Assuntos
Cálcio , Intestinos , Humanos , Cálcio/análise , Mucosa Intestinal/química , Organoides/química , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos
5.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1342210, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38318186

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess the impact of dietary selenoprotein extracts from Cardamine hupingshanensis (SePCH) on the growth, hematological parameters, selenium metabolism, immune responses, antioxidant capacities, inflammatory reactions and intestinal barrier functions in juvenile largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). The base diet was supplemented with four different concentrations of SePCH: 0.00, 0.30, 0.60 and 1.20 g/Kg (actual selenium contents: 0.37, 0.59, 0.84 and 1.30 mg/kg). These concentrations were used to formulate four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets for juvenile largemouth bass during a 60-day culture period. Adequate dietary SePCH (0.60 and 1.20 g/Kg) significantly increased weight gain and daily growth rate compared to the control groups (0.00 g/Kg). Furthermore, 0.60 and 1.20 g/Kg SePCH significantly enhanced amounts of white blood cells, red blood cells, platelets, lymphocytes and monocytes, and levels of hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin in the hemocytes. In addition, 0.60 and 1.20 g/Kg SePCH increased the mRNA expression levels of selenocysteine lyase, selenophosphate synthase 1, 15 kDa selenoprotein, selenoprotein T2, selenoprotein H, selenoprotein P and selenoprotein K in the fish liver and intestine compared to the controls. Adequate SePCH not only significantly elevated the activities of antioxidant enzymes (Total superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase), the levels of total antioxidant capacity and glutathione, while increased mRNA transcription levels of NF-E2-related factor 2, Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase. However, adequate SePCH significantly decreased levels of malondialdehyde and H2O2 and the mRNA expression levels of kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1a and kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1b in the fish liver and intestine compared to the controls. Meanwhile, adequate SePCH markedly enhanced the levels of immune factors (alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, lysozyme, complement component 3, complement component 4 and immunoglobulin M) and innate immune-related genes (lysozyme, hepcidin, liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 2, complement component 3 and complement component 4) in the fish liver and intestine compared to the controls. Adequate SePCH reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin 8, interleukin 1ß and interferon γ), while increasing transforming growth factor ß1 levels at both transcriptional and protein levels in the liver and intestine. The mRNA expression levels of mitogen-activated protein kinase 13 (MAPK 13), MAPK14 and nuclear factor kappa B p65 were significantly reduced in the liver and intestine of fish fed with 0.60 and 1.20 g/Kg SePCH compared to the controls. Histological sections also demonstrated that 0.60 and 1.20 g/Kg SePCH significantly increased intestinal villus height and villus width compared to the controls. Furthermore, the mRNA expression levels of tight junction proteins (zonula occludens-1, zonula occludens-3, Claudin-1, Claudin-3, Claudin-5, Claudin-11, Claudin-23 and Claudin-34) and Mucin-17 were significantly upregulated in the intestinal epithelial cells of 0.60 and 1.20 g/Kg SePCH groups compared to the controls. In conclusion, these results found that 0.60 and 1.20 g/Kg dietary SePCH can not only improve growth, hematological parameters, selenium metabolism, antioxidant capacities, enhance immune responses and intestinal functions, but also alleviate inflammatory responses. This information can serve as a useful reference for formulating feeds for largemouth bass.


Assuntos
Bass , Cardamine , Selênio , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Catalase , Bass/genética , Muramidase/metabolismo , Selênio/farmacologia , Cardamine/genética , Cardamine/metabolismo , Glutationa Redutase/genética , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Intestinos , Selenoproteínas , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Glutationa Peroxidase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Claudinas
6.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 955, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38302463

RESUMO

Ageing exhibits common and distinct features in various tissues, making it critical to decipher the tissue-specific ageing mechanisms. MiRNAs are essential regulators in ageing and are recently highlighted as a class of intercellular messengers. However, little is known about the tissue-specific transcriptomic changes of miRNAs during ageing. C. elegans is a well-established model organism in ageing research. Here, we profile the age-dependent miRNAomic changes in five isolated worm tissues. Besides the diverse ageing-regulated miRNA expression across tissues, we discover numerous miRNAs in the tissues without their transcription. We further profile miRNAs in the extracellular vesicles and find that worm miRNAs undergo inter-tissue trafficking via these vesicles in an age-dependent manner. Using these datasets, we uncover the interaction between body wall muscle-derived mir-1 and DAF-16/FOXO in the intestine, suggesting mir-1 as a messenger in inter-tissue signalling. Taken together, we systematically investigate worm miRNAs in the somatic tissues and extracellular vesicles during ageing, providing a valuable resource to study tissue-autonomous and nonautonomous functions of miRNAs in ageing.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans , MicroRNAs , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Envelhecimento/genética , Intestinos , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Longevidade/genética
7.
Mol Biol Rep ; 51(1): 265, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38302841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The gut microbiota has become one of the main risk factors for the formation and development of colorectal cancer (CRC). CRC intensification may be due to the microbial pathogens' colonization and their released metabolites. Here, we analyzed Bacteroidetes and Clostridia bacteria in CRC patients and studied bacterial metabolome in cancerous tissues compared to their adjacent normal tissues. METHODS AND RESULTS: The population of selected bacteria in biopsy specimens of 30 patients with CRC was studied by RT-qPCR. The mutagenicity and cytotoxicity effects of microbiota metabolites were evaluated by Ames test and MTT Assay, respectively. Moreover, gene expression in carcinogenic pathways was studied by RT-qPCR, and genes with different expressions in tumor and non-tumor tissues were diagnosed. Based on microbiota analysis, the relative abundance of Clostridia and C. difficile was significantly higher in CRC tissue, whereas C. perfringens showed higher relative abundance in normal tissue. AIMES test confirmed the proliferation and mutagenicity effects of the bacterial metabolites in CRC patients. Significant upregulation of C-Myc, GRB2, IL-8, EGFR, PI3K, and AKT and downregulation of ATM were observed in CRC samples compared to the control. CONCLUSIONS: The influence of bacterial metabolites on inflammation and altered expression of genes in the cell signaling pathways was observed. The findings confirm the role gut microbiota composition and bacterial metabolites as key players in CRC onset and development.


Assuntos
Clostridioides difficile , Neoplasias Colorretais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Intestinos/patologia , Bactérias/genética , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo
8.
BMC Microbiol ; 24(1): 48, 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38302874

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pediatric chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (PIPO) is a rare disease characterized by symptoms and radiological signs suggestive of intestinal obstruction, in the absence of lumen-occluding lesions. It results from an extremely severe impairment of propulsive motility. The intestinal endocrine system (IES) jointly with the enteric nervous system (ENS) regulates secreto-motor functions via different hormones and bioactive messengers/neurotransmitters. The neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) (or serotonin) is linked to intestinal peristalsis and secretory reflexes. Gut microbiota and its interplay with ENS affect 5-HT synthesis, release, and the subsequent serotonin receptor activation. To date, the interplay between 5-HT and gut microbiota in PIPO remains largely unclear. This study aimed to assess correlations between mucosa associated microbiota (MAM), intestinal serotonin-related genes expression in PIPO. To this purpose, biopsies of the colon, ileum and duodenum have been collected from 7 PIPO patients, and 7 age-/sex-matched healthy controls. After DNA extraction, the MAM was assessed by next generation sequencing (NGS) of the V3-V4 region of the bacterial RNA 16 S, on an Illumina Miseq platform. The expression of genes implicated in serotoninergic pathway (TPH1, SLC6A4, 5-HTR3 and 5-HTR4) was established by qPCR, and correlations with MAM and clinical parameters of PIPO have been evaluated. RESULTS: Our results revealed that PIPO patients exhibit a MAM with a different composition and with dysbiosis, i.e. with a lower biodiversity and fewer less connected species with a greater number of non-synergistic relationships, compared to controls. qPCR results revealed modifications in the expression of serotonin-related intestinal genes in PIPO patients, when compared to controls. Correlation analysis do not reveal any kind of connection. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, we report in PIPO patients a specific MAM associated to underlying pathology and an altered intestinal serotonin pathway. A possible dysfunction of the serotonin pathway, possibly related to or triggered by an altered microbiota, may contribute to dysmotility in PIPO patients. The results of our pilot study provide the basis for new biomarkers and innovative therapies targeting the microbiota or serotonin pathways in PIPO patients.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Pseudo-Obstrução Intestinal , Humanos , Criança , Serotonina/metabolismo , Projetos Piloto , Intestinos , Pseudo-Obstrução Intestinal/genética , Pseudo-Obstrução Intestinal/diagnóstico , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina
9.
J Exp Med ; 221(3)2024 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38305765

RESUMO

The intestinal epithelium is the first line of defense against enteric pathogens. Removal of infected cells by exfoliation prevents mucosal translocation and systemic infection in the adult host, but is less commonly observed in the neonatal intestine. Instead, here, we describe non-professional efferocytosis of Salmonella-infected enterocytes by neighboring epithelial cells in the neonatal intestine. Intestinal epithelial stem cell organoid cocultures of neonatal and adult cell monolayers with damaged enterocytes replicated this observation, confirmed the age-dependent ability of intestinal epithelial cells for efferocytosis, and identified the involvement of the "eat-me" signals and adaptors phosphatidylserine and C1q as well as the "eat-me" receptors integrin-αv (CD51) and CD36 in cellular uptake. Consistent with this, massive epithelial cell membrane protrusions and CD36 accumulation at the contact site with apoptotic cells were observed in the infected neonatal host in vivo. Efferocytosis of infected small intestinal enterocytes by neighboring epithelial cells may represent a previously unrecognized mechanism of neonatal antimicrobial host defense to maintain barrier integrity.


Assuntos
Intestinos , Células Epiteliais , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Salmonella
10.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 24(1): 60, 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38308210

RESUMO

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disease that targets the colon and has seen an increasing prevalence worldwide. In our pursuit of new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for UC, we undertook a sequencing of colons from UC mouse models. We focused on analyzing their differentially expressed genes (DEGs), enriching pathways, and constructing protein-protein interaction (PPI) and Competing Endogenous RNA (ceRNA) networks. Our analysis highlighted novel DEGs such as Tppp3, Saa3, Cemip, Pappa, and Nr1d1. These DEGs predominantly play roles in pathways like cytokine-mediated signaling, extracellular matrix organization, extracellular structure organization, and external encapsulating structure organization. This suggests that the UC pathogenesis is intricately linked to the interactions between immune and non-immune cells with the extracellular matrix (ECM). To corroborate our findings, we also verified certain DEGs through quantitative real-time PCR. Within the PPI network, nodes like Stat3, Il1b, Mmp3, and Lgals3 emerged as significant and were identified to be involved in the crucial cytokine-mediated signaling pathway, which is central to inflammation. Our ceRNA network analysis further brought to light the role of the Smad7 Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA). Key MicroRNA (miRNAs) in the ceRNA network were pinpointed as mmu-miR-17-5p, mmu-miR-93-5p, mmu-miR-20b-5p, mmu-miR-16-5p, and mmu-miR-106a-5p, while central mRNAs included Egln3, Plagl2, Sema7a, Arrdc3, and Stat3. These insights imply that ceRNA networks are influential in UC progression and could provide further clarity on its pathogenesis. In conclusion, this research deepens our understanding of UC pathogenesis and paves the way for potential new diagnostic and therapeutic methods. Nevertheless, to solidify our findings, additional experiments are essential to confirm the roles and molecular interplay of the identified DEGs in UC.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , MicroRNAs , Animais , Camundongos , Colite Ulcerativa/genética , Intestinos , Inflamação/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças
11.
Ugeskr Laeger ; 186(6)2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Dinamarquês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38327204

RESUMO

Intestinal ultrasound (IUS) is non-invasive, fast, cheap, and well-tolerated and requires no preparation and is thus applicable as a point-of-care monitoring tool of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Evidence suggests that IUS is comparable to other standard monitoring modalities, i.e., endoscopy, MRI, calprotectin, and C-reactive protein and might be more accurate in predicting response to treatment at an early stage consequently allowing for timely optimised treatment. This review finds that integrating IUS as the standard of care in every IBD outpatient clinic and as the primary outcome in future medical trials seems inevitable.


Assuntos
Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Intestinos , Humanos , Intestinos/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/terapia , Proteína C-Reativa , Endoscopia Gastrointestinal , Ultrassonografia
12.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 146: 109422, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38307300

RESUMO

The intestine is a barrier organ that plays an important role in the immune system of Atlantic salmon. The immune functions are distributed among the diffuse gut lymphoid tissue containing diverse immune cells, and other cell types. Comparison of intestinal transcriptomes with those of other organs and tissues offers an opportunity to elucidate the specific roles of the intestine and its relationship with other parts of the body. In this work, a meta-analysis was performed on a large volume of data obtained using a genome-wide DNA oligonucleotide microarray. The intestine ranks third by the expression level of immune genes after the spleen and head kidney. The activity of antigen presentation and innate antiviral immunity is higher in the intestine than in any other tissue. By comparing transcriptome profiles, intestine shows the greatest similarity with the gill, head kidney, spleen, epidermis, and olfactory rosette (descending order), which emphasizes the integrity of the peripheral mucosal system and its strong connections with the major lymphoid organs. T cells-specific genes dominate among the genes co-expressed in these tissues. The transcription signature of CD8+ (86 genes, r > 0.9) includes a master gene of immune tolerance foxp3 and other negative regulators. Different segments of the intestine were compared in a separate experiment, in which expression gradients along the intestine were found across several functional groups of genes. The expression of luminal and intracellular (lysosome) proteases is markedly higher in pyloric caeca and distal intestine respectively. Steroid metabolism and cytochromes P450 are highly expressed in pyloric caeca and mid intestine while the distal intestine harbors genes related to vitamin and iron metabolism. The expression of genes for antigen presenting proteins and immunoglobulins shows a gradual increase towards the distal intestine.


Assuntos
Salmo salar , Animais , Salmo salar/genética , Transcriptoma , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Baço/metabolismo , Intestinos
13.
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 100(3)2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38308517

RESUMO

Maternal transmission of microbes occurs across the animal kingdom and is vital for offspring development and long-term health. The mechanisms of this transfer are most well-studied in humans and other mammals but are less well-understood in egg-laying animals, especially those with no parental care. Here, we investigate the transfer of maternal microbes in the oviparous phrynosomatid lizard, Sceloporus virgatus. We compared the microbiota of three maternal tissues-oviduct, cloaca, and intestine-to three offspring sample types: egg contents and eggshells on the day of oviposition, and hatchling intestinal tissue on the day of hatching. We found that maternal identity is an important factor in hatchling microbiome composition, indicating that maternal transmission is occurring. The maternal cloacal and oviductal communities contribute to offspring microbiota in all three sample types, with minimal microbes sourced from maternal intestines. This indicates that the maternal reproductive microbiome is more important for microbial inheritance than the gut microbiome, and the tissue-level variation of the adult S. virgatus microbiota must develop as the hatchling matures. Despite differences between adult and hatchling communities, offspring microbiota were primarily members of the Enterobacteriaceae and Yersiniaceae families (Phylum Proteobacteria), consistent with this and past studies of adult S. virgatus microbiomes.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Lagartos , Microbiota , Humanos , Animais , Feminino , Reprodução , Intestinos/microbiologia , Mamíferos
14.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 701: 149612, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38316091

RESUMO

Intestinal ischaemia‒reperfusion (I/R) injury is a surgical emergency. This condition is associated with a high mortality rate. At present, there are limited number of efficient therapeutic measures for this injury, and the prognosis is poor. Therefore, the pathophysiological mechanisms of intestinal I/R injury must be elucidated to develop a rapid and specific diagnostic and treatment protocol. Numerous studies have indicated the involvement of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the development of intestinal I/R injury. Specifically, the levels of unfolded and misfolded proteins in the ER lumen are increased due to unfolded protein response. However, persistent ER stress promotes apoptosis of intestinal mucosal epithelial cells through three signalling pathways in the ER, impairing intestinal mucosal barrier function and leading to the dysfunction of intestinal tissues and distant organ compartments. This review summarises the mechanisms of ER stress in intestinal I/R injury, diagnostic indicators, and related treatment strategies with the objective of providing novel insights into future therapies for this condition.


Assuntos
Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Traumatismo por Reperfusão , Humanos , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas , Intestinos , Apoptose
15.
Nutrients ; 16(3)2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38337742

RESUMO

Different protein sources can impact gut microbiota composition and abundance, and also participate in health regulation. In this study, mice were gavaged with yeast protein (YP), soybean protein isolate (SPI), and whey protein isolate (WPI) for 28 days. Body weights showed similar patterns across different protein administration groups. The ileum in YP-supplemented mice exhibited good morphology, and tight-junction (TJ) proteins were slightly upregulated. Immunoglobulin (Ig)A, IgM, and IgG levels in the ileum of different protein groups were significantly increased (p < 0.05). Interleukin (IL)-10 levels were significantly increased, whereas IL-6 levels were significantly reduced in the YP group when compared with the control (C) (p < 0.05). Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) levels in the ileum were significantly increased in the YP group (p < 0.05). These results indicate that YP potentially improved intestinal immunity and inflammatory profiles. The relative abundances of Parabacteroides, Prevotella, and Pseudobutyrivibrio in the YP group were more enriched when compared with the C and SPI groups, and Parabacteroides was significantly upregulated when compared with the WPI group (p < 0.05). Overall, the results indicate that YP upregulates the beneficial bacteria and improves ileal immunity and anti-inflammatory capabilities.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Camundongos , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/farmacologia , Proteínas de Soja/farmacologia , Intestinos , Proteínas Fúngicas/farmacologia
16.
Microbiome ; 12(1): 31, 2024 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38383483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People living with HIV (PLWH), even when viral replication is controlled through antiretroviral therapy (ART), experience persistent inflammation. This inflammation is partly attributed to intestinal microbial dysbiosis and translocation, which may lead to non-AIDS-related aging-associated comorbidities. The extent to which living with HIV - influenced by the infection itself, ART usage, sexual orientation, or other associated factors - affects the biological age of the intestines is unclear. Furthermore, the role of microbial dysbiosis and translocation in the biological aging of PLWH remains to be elucidated. To investigate these uncertainties, we used a systems biology approach, analyzing colon and ileal biopsies, blood samples, and stool specimens from PLWH on ART and people living without HIV (PLWoH) as controls. RESULTS: PLWH exhibit accelerated biological aging in the colon, ileum, and blood, as measured by various epigenetic aging clocks, compared to PLWoH. Investigating the relationship between microbial translocation and biological aging, PLWH had decreased levels of tight junction proteins in the intestines, along with increased microbial translocation. This intestinal permeability correlated with faster biological aging and increased inflammation. When investigating the relationship between microbial dysbiosis and biological aging, the intestines of PLWH had higher abundance of specific pro-inflammatory bacteria, such as Catenibacterium and Prevotella. These bacteria correlated with accelerated biological aging. Conversely, the intestines of PLWH had lower abundance of bacteria known for producing the anti-inflammatory short-chain fatty acids, such as Subdoligranulum and Erysipelotrichaceae, and these bacteria were associated with slower biological aging. Correlation networks revealed significant links between specific microbial genera in the colon and ileum (but not in feces), increased aging, a rise in pro-inflammatory microbe-related metabolites (e.g., those in the tryptophan metabolism pathway), and a decrease in anti-inflammatory metabolites like hippuric acid. CONCLUSIONS: We identified specific microbial compositions and microbiota-related metabolic pathways that are intertwined with intestinal and systemic biological aging. This microbial signature of biological aging is likely reflecting various factors including the HIV infection itself, ART usage, sexual orientation, and other aspects associated with living with HIV. A deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying these connections could offer potential strategies to mitigate accelerated aging and its associated health complications. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Infecções por HIV , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Disbiose/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Intestinos/microbiologia , Envelhecimento , Bactérias/genética , Inflamação/microbiologia , Anti-Inflamatórios
17.
Clin Exp Med ; 24(1): 38, 2024 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38367035

RESUMO

This review provides a concise overview of the cellular and clinical aspects of the role of zinc, an essential micronutrient, in human physiology and discusses zinc-related pathological states. Zinc cannot be stored in significant amounts, so regular dietary intake is essential. ZIP4 and/or ZnT5B transport dietary zinc ions from the duodenum into the enterocyte, ZnT1 transports zinc ions from the enterocyte into the circulation, and ZnT5B (bidirectional zinc transporter) facilitates endogenous zinc secretion into the intestinal lumen. Putative promoters of zinc absorption that increase its bioavailability include amino acids released from protein digestion and citrate, whereas dietary phytates, casein and calcium can reduce zinc bioavailability. In circulation, 70% of zinc is bound to albumin, and the majority in the body is found in skeletal muscle and bone. Zinc excretion is via faeces (predominantly), urine, sweat, menstrual flow and semen. Excessive zinc intake can inhibit the absorption of copper and iron, leading to copper deficiency and anaemia, respectively. Zinc toxicity can adversely affect the lipid profile and immune system, and its treatment depends on the mode of zinc acquisition. Acquired zinc deficiency usually presents later in life alongside risk factors like malabsorption syndromes, but medications like diuretics and angiotensin-receptor blockers can also cause zinc deficiency. Inherited zinc deficiency condition acrodermatitis enteropathica, which occurs due to mutation in the SLC39A4 gene (encoding ZIP4), presents from birth. Treatment involves zinc supplementation via zinc gluconate, zinc sulphate or zinc chloride. Notably, oral zinc supplementation may decrease the absorption of drugs like ciprofloxacin, doxycycline and risedronate.


Assuntos
Acrodermatite , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions , Cobre , Zinco/deficiência , Humanos , Cobre/metabolismo , Zinco/uso terapêutico , Intestinos/patologia , Íons/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/química , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo
18.
Biotechnol J ; 19(2): e2300390, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38375564

RESUMO

Organ-on-a-chip technology has shown great potential in disease modeling and drug evaluation. However, traditional organ-on-a-chip devices are mostly pump-dependent with low throughput, which makes it difficult to leverage their advantages. In this study, we have developed a generic, pump-free organ-on-a-chip platform consisting of a 32-unit chip and an adjustable rocker, facilitating high-throughput dynamic cell culture with straightforward operation. By utilizing the rocker to induce periodic fluid forces, we can achieve fluidic conditions similar to those obtained with traditional pump-based systems. Through constructing a gut-on-a-chip model, we observed remarkable enhancements in the expression of barrier-associated proteins and the spatial distribution of differentiated intestinal cells compared to static culture. Furthermore, RNA sequencing analysis unveiled enriched pathways associated with cell proliferation, lipid transport, and drug metabolism, indicating the ability of the platform to mimic critical physiological processes. Additionally, we tested seven drugs that represent a range of high, medium, and low in vivo permeability using this model and found a strong correlation between their Papp values and human Fa, demonstrating the capability of this model for drug absorption evaluation. Our findings highlight the potential of this pump-free organ-on-a-chip platform as a valuable tool for advancing drug development and enabling personalized medicine.


Assuntos
Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Sistemas Microfisiológicos , Humanos , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Intestinos , Transporte Biológico
19.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 173, 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38350904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is increasing interest in using intestinal organoids to study complex traits like feed efficiency (FE) and host-microbe interactions. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in the molecular phenotype of organoids derived from pigs divergent for FE as well as their responses to challenge with adherent and invasive Escherichia coli (E. coli). RESULTS: Colon and ileum tissue from low and high FE pigs was used to generate 3D organoids and two dimensional (2D) monolayers of organoid cells for E. coli challenge. Genome-wide gene expression was used to investigate molecular differences between pigs that were phenotypically divergent for FE and to study the difference in gene expression after challenge with E. coli. We showed, (1) minor differences in gene expression of colon organoids from pigs with low and high FE phenotypes, (2) that an E. coli challenge results in a strong innate immune gene response in both colon and ileum organoids, (3) that the immune response seems to be less pronounced in the colon organoids of high FE pigs and (4) a slightly stronger immune response was observed in ileum than in colon organoids. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate the potential for using organoids to gain insights into complex biological mechanisms such as FE.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Intestinos , Animais , Suínos , Escherichia coli/genética , Imunidade Inata , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Organoides
20.
Benef Microbes ; 15(1): 83-96, 2024 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38350488

RESUMO

Metabolic disorders are a major global health problem. Gut microbiota not only affect host metabolism through metabolites, inflammatory processes, and microbial-derived extracellular vesicles, but they also modulate the host microRNA, which may impact the host metabolism. Hence, the underlying mechanisms between gut microbiota-microRNA interaction can potentially be a novel alternative strategy for treating metabolic disorders. This review aims to give an update on the latest evidence and current knowledge of the underlying mechanisms of gut microbiota-miRNA interaction, focusing on metabolic homeostasis. Gut microbiota mainly communicate with host microRNA through lipopolysaccharide and secondary microbial metabolites. These signalling messengers circulate around the metabolic organs and modify gene expression through microRNA interference. Interestingly, while intestinal microRNAs play a vital role in both intestinal barrier and gut microbiota homeostasis, the presence of gut microbiota is also required for the proper functioning of intestinal microRNAs, suggesting a cooperative mechanism in intestinal health. Although the correlations between gut microbiota and microRNA have been observed in both mice and humans, a causal relationship should be confirmed. Moreover, further investigation is needed to provide more evidence of a gut microbiota-microRNA interaction to support the possibility of using that axis as a novel therapeutic target to treat metabolic disorders.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Doenças Metabólicas , MicroRNAs , Probióticos , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Intestinos , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo
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