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1.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(9): 1035-1043, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051416

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) were involved in the development and regulation of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in premature infants. To investigate the changes of lncRNA expression profile in intestinal tissues of NEC for its possible mechanisms. METHODS: Intestinal samples were collected from 11 patients with NEC who needed surgery(the NEC group), and 7 from neonatal non-NEC patients with surgery (the Control group).LncRNA's changes in intestinal samples (3 in the Control group and 3 in the NEC group) were analyzed with high-throughput sequencing.Part of the remaining samples were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR), and the results were used to validate the results of high-throughput sequencing. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis and KEGG signaling pathway analysis were performed on differentially expressed genes. RESULTS: There were 5 257 different lncRNAs between the control group and the NEC group. The results of up-regulated lncRNAs (NONHSAG008675.3, NONHSAG020715.2, NONHSAG038187.2) and down-regulated lncRNA (NONHSAG028744.3) were confirmed to be consistent with the results of high-throughput sequencing. Expressions of DUOX2, IL-6, TNF, and SAA1 were up-regulated in intestinal tissues of NEC. GO analysis showed that the different lncRNAs were involved in regulation of stimulation, molecular junction and function, and signal transduction and transcription. KEGG analysis identified mainly biological pathways involved in inflammatory bowel disease, PI3K-Akt, NF-κB, etc. CONCLUSIONS: LncRNAs might be involved in the pathogenesis of NEC and the inflammation-related lncRNAs may be one of the key factors.


Assuntos
Enterocolite Necrosante , RNA Longo não Codificante , Animais , Oxidases Duais , Enterocolite Necrosante/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Intestinos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4950, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009377

RESUMO

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating disease of premature infants with high mortality rate, indicating the need for precision treatment. NEC is characterized by intestinal inflammation and ischemia, as well derangements in intestinal microcirculation. Remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) has emerged as a promising tool in protecting distant organs against ischemia-induced damage. However, the effectiveness of RIC against NEC is unknown. To address this gap, we aimed to determine the efficacy and mechanism of action of RIC in experimental NEC. NEC was induced in mouse pups between postnatal day (P) 5 and 9. RIC was applied through intermittent occlusion of hind limb blood flow. RIC, when administered in the early stages of disease progression, decreases intestinal injury and prolongs survival. The mechanism of action of RIC involves increasing intestinal perfusion through vasodilation mediated by nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide. RIC is a viable and non-invasive treatment strategy for NEC.


Assuntos
Enterocolite Necrosante/patologia , Intestinos/irrigação sanguínea , Intestinos/patologia , Isquemia/patologia , Microcirculação , Animais , Enterócitos/patologia , Humanos , Hipóxia , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microvilosidades/patologia , Microvilosidades/ultraestrutura
3.
Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo ; 62: e64, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901761

RESUMO

Intestinal mucins are the first line of defense against microorganisms. Although knowledge about the mechanisms involved in the establishment of intestinal protozoa is limited, there is evidence that these parasites produce lectin-like molecules and glycosidases, that exert both, constitutive and secretory functions, promoting the establishment of these microorganisms. In the present review, we analyse the main interactions between mucins of the host intestine and the four main protozoan parasites in humans and their implications in intestinal colonization. There are lectin-like molecules that contain complex oligosaccharide structures and N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), mannose and sialic acid as main components, which are excreted/secreted by Giardia intestinalis, and recognized by the host using mannose-binding lectins (MBL). Entamoeba histolytica and Cryptosporidium spp. express the lectin galactose/N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, which facilitates their adhesion to cells. In Cryptosporidium, the glycoproteins gp30, gp40/15 and gp900 and the glycoprotein lectin CpClec are involved in protozoan adhesion to intestinal cells, forming an adhesion-attack complex. G. intestinalis and E. histolytica can also produce glycosidases such as ß-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase, α-d-glucosidase, ß-d-galactosidase, ß-l-fucosidase, α-N-acetyl-d-galactosaminidase and ß-mannosidase. In Blastocystis, α-D-mannose, α-D-glucose, GlcNAc, α-D-fucose, chitin and sialic acid that have been identified on their surface. Fucosidases, hexosaminidases and polygalacturonases, which may be involved in the mucin degradation process, have also been described in the Blastocystis secretoma. Similarly, symbiotic coexistence with the intestinal microbiota promotes the survival of parasites facilitating cell invasion and nutrients obtention. Furthermore, it is necessary to identify and characterize more glycosidases, which have been only partially described by in silico analyses of the parasite genome.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Glicoproteínas , Mucinas , Parasitos , Animais , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/parasitologia , Entamoeba/patogenicidade , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Glicosídeo Hidrolases , Humanos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Lectinas , Parasitos/patogenicidade
4.
Lancet ; 396(10253): 755, 2020 09 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919507
5.
Intern Med ; 59(17): 2089-2094, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879200

RESUMO

Objective The relationship between gut microbiota and portal hypertension remains unclear. We investigated the characteristics of the gut microbiota in portal hypertension patients with esophago-gastric varices and liver cirrhosis. Methods Thirty-six patients (12 patients with portal hypertension, 12 healthy controls, and 12 non-cirrhosis patients) were enrolled in this university hospital study. Intestinal bacteria and statistical analyses were performed up to the genus level using the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism method targeting 16S ribosomal RNA genes, with diversified regions characterizing each bacterium. Results Levels of Lactobacillales were significantly higher (p=0.045) and those of Clostridium cluster IV significantly lower (p=0.014) in patients with portal hypertension than in other patients. This Clostridium cluster contains many butanoic acid-producing strains, including Ruminococcace and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Clostridium cluster IX levels were also significantly lower (p=0.045) in portal hypertension patients than in other patients. There are many strains of Clostridium that produce propionic acid, and the effects on the host and the function of these bacterial species in the human intestine remain unknown. Regarding the Bifidobacterium genus, which is supposed to decrease as a result of cirrhosis, no significant decrease was observed in this study. Conclusion In the present study, we provided information on the characteristics of the gut microbiota of portal hypertension patients with esophago-gastric varices due to liver cirrhosis. In the future, we aim to develop probiotic treatments following further analyses that include the species level, such as the intestinal flora analysis method and next-generation sequencers.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hipertensão Portal/microbiologia , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Adulto , Bactérias/genética , Bifidobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Clostridium/isolamento & purificação , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Portal/etiologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , RNA Bacteriano/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4791, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963229

RESUMO

The ability to absorb ingested nutrients is an essential function of all metazoans and utilizes a wide array of nutrient transporters found on the absorptive enterocytes of the small intestine. A unique population of patients has previously been identified with severe congenital malabsorptive diarrhea upon ingestion of any enteral nutrition. The intestines of these patients are macroscopically normal, but lack enteroendocrine cells (EECs), suggesting an essential role for this rare population of nutrient-sensing cells in regulating macronutrient absorption. Here, we use human and mouse models of EEC deficiency to identify an unappreciated role for the EEC hormone peptide YY in regulating ion-coupled absorption of glucose and dipeptides. We find that peptide YY is required in the small intestine to maintain normal electrophysiology in the presence of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, a potent stimulator of ion secretion classically produced by enteric neurons. Administration of peptide YY to EEC-deficient mice restores normal electrophysiology, improves glucose and peptide absorption, diminishes diarrhea and rescues postnatal survival. These data suggest that peptide YY is a key regulator of macronutrient absorption in the small intestine and may be a viable therapeutic option to treat patients with electrolyte imbalance and nutrient malabsorption.


Assuntos
Células Enteroendócrinas/metabolismo , Absorção Intestinal/fisiologia , Transporte de Íons/fisiologia , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Animais , Enterócitos , Glucose/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Humanas , Humanos , Intestino Delgado , Intestinos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Peptídeo YY , Receptores dos Hormônios Gastrointestinais/metabolismo , Receptores de Peptídeo Intestinal Vasoativo/metabolismo , Trocador 3 de Sódio-Hidrogênio , Água/metabolismo
7.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 40(4): 595-600, 2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895142

RESUMO

Gut microbiota constitute a complicated but manifold ecosystem, in which specific symbiotic relationships are formed among various bacteria. To maintain a steady state, the gastrointestinal tract and the liver form a close anatomical and functional two-way, interconnected network through the portal circulation. "Gut-liver axis" plays a key role in the pathogenesis of liver diseases. Accumulating evidence indicates that gut microbiota can influence the liver pathophysiology directly or indirectly via a variety of signal pathways. In a pathological state where an ecological imbalance occurs at the compositional and functional levels, gut microbes would interact with the host immune system and other type of cells to cause liver steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis, which in turn give rise to the development of such liver diseases as alcoholic liver disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and acute liver failure, to name a few. Studies have shown that microorganisms, such as prebiotics and probiotics, can improve the prognosis of certain diseases, which open a new era of treating liver diseases with bacteria. There are many unknowns and hidden values in the gut microbiome. To explore the pathophysiological mechanism of various complex diseases and develop scientific and effective clinical treatment strategies, efforts should be made to obtain insights into how certain intestinal microbiota participates in the occurrence and progression of liver diseases. As the connection between gut microbiota and liver diseases at both the acute and chronic phases was not elaborated in previously published review articles, herein we discuss the association between gut microbiota and both acute and chronic liver injury. The anatomical structure of the liver enables it to form a close network with the gut microbiota, which is an important mediator in the regulation of the hepatic physiological and pathological functions.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hepatopatias , Ecossistema , Humanos , Intestinos , Fígado , Probióticos
11.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(3): e009420, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785526

RESUMO

The broad-headed spiny rat, Clyomys laticeps, is an echimyid rodent found in open areas of Cerrado and Pantanal biomes in central Brazil and Paraguay. Little is known about the parasites associated with this semi-fossorial species, as no previous studies have been conducted on their helminth fauna. The aim of this study was to report the helminth community structure of C. laticeps inhabiting Serra de Caldas Novas State Park, a Cerrado area in central Brazil. Trappings were carried out in dry grasslands from January to October 2016, and the large and small intestines of 14 C. laticeps individuals were examined for the presence of helminths. Three nematode species were found: Fuellebornema almeidai, Pterygodermatites (Paucipectines) sp., and Subulura forcipata, and 85.7% of the studied species were infected with at least one of these helminths. F. almeidai was the most prevalent species among hosts, and S. forcipata was the most abundant. This study is the first report on helminth community structure in C. laticeps. We report a new host species and increase the known geographical range of F. almeidai, and provide the first record of Pterygodermatites (Paucipectines) sp. infecting echimyids. This is also the first report of S. forcipata in a mammal host.


Assuntos
Helmintíase Animal , Helmintos , Roedores , Animais , Brasil , Ecossistema , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Helmintos/classificação , Helmintos/fisiologia , Intestinos/parasitologia , Ratos , Roedores/parasitologia
12.
Vet Microbiol ; 247: 108785, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768229

RESUMO

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a novel swine enteropathogenic coronavirus that causes watery diarrhea, vomiting and mortality in nursing piglets. Type III interferons (IFN-λs) are the major antiviral cytokines in intestinal epithelial cells, the target cells in vivo for PDCoV. In this study, we found that PDCoV infection remarkably inhibited Sendai virus-induced IFN-λ1 production by suppressing transcription factors IRF and NF-κB in IPI-2I cells, a line of porcine intestinal mucosal epithelial cells. We also confirmed that PDCoV infection impeded the activation of IFN-λ1 promoter stimulated by RIG-I, MDA5 and MAVS, but not by TBK1 and IRF1. Although the expression levels of IRF1 and MAVS were not changed, PDCoV infection resulted in reduction of the number of peroxisomes, the platform for MAVS to activate IRF1, and subsequent type III IFN production. Taken together, our study demonstrates that PDCoV suppresses type III IFN responses to circumvent the host's antiviral immunity.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Interferons/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Fator Regulador 1 de Interferon/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator Regulador 1 de Interferon/imunologia , Interferons/imunologia , Intestinos/citologia , Intestinos/virologia , Rim/citologia , Rim/virologia , NF-kappa B/antagonistas & inibidores , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Vírus Sendai/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Suínos/virologia , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia
13.
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 23(8): 723-727, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810942

RESUMO

Radiation intestinal injury (RII) refers to the intestinal complication resulting from radiation therapy of pelvic, abdominal or retroperitoneal tumor, which involves the small intestine, colon and rectum. Although the advances in radiotherapy technology have decreased the injury of adjacent tissues, 90% of the patients receiving radiotherapy have acute symptoms, the quality of life is affected due to gastrointestinal symptoms in 50% of patients, and 20%-40% of patients have moderate to severe symptoms. Based on the pathological stage, characteristics and clinical manifestations, RII can be divided into acute and chronic types, generally 3 to 6 months as the cutoff in clinical history. The main preventions of RII include reducing the radiation doses and narrowing the exposure fields. Acute RII is characterized by mucosal inflammation and self-limitation, and its treatment includes symptomatic and nutritional management. As the chronic ischemia and fibrosis in chronic RII are irreversible, bowel resection is the ideal treatment. The surgical indications for chronic RII are grade 3 and 4 intestinal injuries, including obstruction, bleeding, intestinal necrosis, perforation, and fistula. The current surgical procedure is definitive intestinal resection with stage I or II gastrointestinal reconstruction. The optimal time for definitive surgery is still controversial. Based on our experiences, 1 year after the end of radiation therapy is optimal. Under the circumstances of emergency surgery, severe malnutrition, abdominal infection, extensive intestinal injury, and abdominal adhesions that cannot be mobilized, ostomy and abdominal drainage are recommended, and definitive surgery can be considered after the return to enteral nutrition and extinction of intestinal inflammation. Preoperative setting of ureteral catheter, imaging assessment of colorectal position and iliac vascular injury, and preoperative nutritional support can reduce the risk of systemic complications effectively.


Assuntos
Enteropatias , Lesões por Radiação , Humanos , Intestino Delgado , Intestinos , Qualidade de Vida
14.
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 23(8): 752-756, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810946

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the feasibility of near-infrared fluorescence imaging (NIRFI) to assist in determining the resection range of radiation intestinal injury (RII). Methods: A descriptive cohort study was conducted. Clinical data of 10 RII patients who presented intestinal obstruction and received operation with more than 100 cm of small intestine had been resected atGeneral Department of Jinling Hospital from October 2014 to January 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. The Novadaq SPY Intra-operative Imaging System was used in capturing and viewing fluorescent images. Firstly, the dense adhesion was mobilized and the obstructive intestine was fully freed under laparoscopy, then entering into abdomen from the corresponding incision. The surgeon determined the resection range according to the color of the intestinal serous layer of the diseased intestinal wall, the thickness of the intestinal wall, and the degree of swelling of the mesentery. Afterwards, intra-operative NIRFI was performed by intravenous injection of 2 ml indocyanine green (ICG) and the imaging results of the diseased intestinal arteriovenous phase were observed and recorded. The evaluation criteria for the final resection range were mainly based on the changes in mesenteric arterial phase imaging. In RII lesions, mesenteric vessels in mesenteric artery phase were disordered, and the comb-like distribution of normal mesenteric vessels completely disappeared. Only the clouded appearance in the intestinal wall was observed. Imaging results of the diseased intestinal tissue during the development phase and mesenteric vein phase were not significantly different from normal intestinal tissue. Intraoperative and postoperative conditions under NIRFI-assisted positioning, including the resection range, anastomosis site, operation-related complications, hospitalization time and cost were recorded. Data of abdominal contrast-enhanced CT and gastrointestinal angiography during 5 years of follow-up were collected to evaluate whether there was anastomotic stenosis or insufficient resection of diseased bowel. Results: Based on the imaging of mesenteric arterial phase of NIRFI, the median resection length of the small intestine was 185 (120-260) cm. After NIRFI imaging, only local lesion of ileum was excised in 6 patients, and jejunum-ileum anastomosis was performed to preserve ileocecal flap. No serious complications such as anastomotic leakage and anastomotic hemorrhage, or chronic intestinal failure such as short bowel syndrome occurred. The median hospitalization time was 32 (22-51) days, and the median hospitalization cost was 142 000 (90 000-175 000) RMB. The hospitalization time and cost were mainly used for the enteral and parenteral nutrition support treatment during the perioperative period. All the patients had normal oral diet and/or oral enteral nutrient. After 5 years of follow-up, no recurrence was found. Abdominal contrast-enhanced CT and gastrointestinal angiography showed no thickening of the intestinal wall or stenosis of the lumen. Conclusion: Mesenteric arterial phase imagingof NIRFI can help surgeons to determine the site and range of resection of RII lesions.


Assuntos
Intestinos , Lesões por Radiação , Anastomose Cirúrgica , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Intestinos/lesões , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110913, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800248

RESUMO

Soil is considered as a sink for heavy metals. Human health is severely affected by the continuous intake of toxic heavy metals even in a very low concentration. In the present experiment, we determined the influence of nutritional status including control (fasted condition), glucose (fed state), plant protein (fed state), animal protein (fed state) and calcium (fed state) on soil cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) bioaccessibility using physiologically-based extraction test (PBET) method together with simulator of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem (SHIME) model. The bioaccessibility of Cd was 1.06-73.58%, 0.44-54.79% and 0-17.78% and Cu was 3.81-67.32%, 4.98-71.14%, and 0-17.54% in the phase-I, phase-II and Phase-III respectively (in this study gastric phase, small intestinal phase and colon phase were considered as phase-I, phase-II and Phase-III respectively). The outcomes showed that, the average Cd bioaccessibility was higher with animal protein addition compared with other treatments in different phases. So, the effect of animal protein on Cd bioaccessibility was higher than other treatments in the phase-I, phase-II and phase-III. Due to the addition of plant protein, the higher average bioaccessibility of Cu was noticed in phase-I and phase-II in comparison to other treatments. However, in phase-III, the higher average bioaccessibility of Cu was found due to control treatment comparing with other treatments. Therefore, the influence of plant protein was higher than other nutrients on Cu bioaccessibility in the phase-I and phase-II. Moreover, other nutrients showed variable influence on Cd and Cu bioaccessibility. So, nutritional status has a significant effect on bioaccessibility as well as human health risk assessment.


Assuntos
Cádmio/análise , Cobre/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição Ambiental , Humanos , Intestinos/química , Metais Pesados , Nutrientes , Solo
16.
Orv Hetil ; 161(35): 1456-1465, 2020 08.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822324

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Fatty liver can develop as a result of diseases, surgical procedures, medicaments, malnutrition or excessive alcohol consumption, however, fat and poor fiber feeding can be attributed as the primary cause. Non-alcoholic fatty liver can be found in 20-30% of the population. Generally, alimentary-induced fatty liver in early state is described as uncomplicated liver injury. AIM: The aim of our research was to study the effect of fat rich nutrition on the gut-liver axis by routine laboratory, analytical and histological methods in rats. METHODS: We also examined the redox parameters of the liver and of the bowel. Fatty acid composition and element content of liver were measured. RESULTS: Significant changes were found in parameters of redox homeostasis as well as alterations in liver enzymes and metabolites. The changes could be detected in the liver, blood and bowel parts. The development of fatty liver is associated with the decrease of transmethylation capacity. Fatty acid composition and metal ion homeostasis were also altered in liver. Histological examinations showed that hepatocytes were swollen in the central part of the liver lobules, showed droplets and pycnotic nuclei, which were characterized by fatty degeneration. Small and large bowel enterocytes were damaged, sometimes pushed from the surface, and sometimes inflammatory reactions in the mucous membrane were observed. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that alimentary fatty liver in early state is not considered simply as a reversible alteration because it alters the entire body's redox homeostasis and establishes heart and serious metabolic diseases as well as hasten the development of gastrointestinal tumors. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(35): 1456-1465.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica , Inflamação/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Animais , Ácidos Graxos , Hepatócitos , Intestinos/patologia , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Ratos
17.
Wiad Lek ; 73(7): 1545-1553, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759453

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim:The article describes and summarizes the immunological pathomechanisms controlling the development of non-necrotizing granulomas in the course of non-specific inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) in lungs and intestines; it also reviews the possible clinical correlations between the processes in the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts based on the example of Crohn's disease (CD) and non-specific inflammatory bowel disease (IBC). While the dominant cell subpopulation in ulcerative colitis (UC) is Th2, which produces interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-13 and Th17 cells; CD characterized by the Th1 cell subpopulation and macrophages predominate, producing IL-23. These are considered to be the key factors crucial for the occurrence of chronic inflammation. Another important causative factor of non-specific inflammatory bowel diseases and granulation is the expression of CD40/CD40L proteins on activated T-cells, i.e. type 2 transmembrane proteins similar to TNF-alpha. However, the interactions between gastrointestinal neuroendocrine peptides/amines (NEPA) and the immune system are believed to have a significant influence on the pathophysiology of non-specific inflammatory bowel diseases and non-necrotizing granulation. The key functions of the immune response of the gastrointestinal tract are managed by the neuroendocrine regulatory system (NES) whose activities govern the production of various hormones including chromogranin/secretogranin, serotonin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), substance P, somatostatin or ghrelin.


Assuntos
Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Colite Ulcerativa , Granuloma , Humanos , Intestinos
18.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (7): 12-17, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736458

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the value of membrane protective effect in intestine and liver cells for the effectiveness of minimally invasive surgery for acute peritonitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients with acute peritonitis undergoing laparoscopic (n=60) and open (n=50) surgery are analyzed. Functional characteristics of liver and bowel, disorders of homeostasis were evaluated in early postoperative period. RESULTS: Reduced negative impact of surgical aggression on the state of liver and intestine is essential to improve treatment outcomes in patients with acute peritonitis undergoing minimally invasive surgery. Fast recovery of intestine inevitably results reduced release of endotoxins while restoration of liver function is associated with rapid elimination of these toxins. These processes prevent severe intoxication and facilitate accelerated recovery. Functional restoration of liver and bowel is associated with reduced oxidative stress during laparoscopic operations. It is also important because peritonitis causes activation of free-radical processes per se. Therefore, an additional source of oxidative phenomena is extremely undesirable in these cases. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic surgery for acute peritonitis minimizes surgical aggression and is associated with more favorable recovery of liver and bowel function. Undoubtedly, these findings should be considered to choose surgical approach in this severe category of patients.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/métodos , Peritonite/cirurgia , Doença Aguda , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/patologia , Membrana Celular/fisiologia , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Intestinos/patologia , Intestinos/fisiopatologia , Laparoscopia/efeitos adversos , Laparotomia/efeitos adversos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/fisiopatologia , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Peritonite/metabolismo , Peritonite/fisiopatologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Toxinas Biológicas/biossíntese , Toxinas Biológicas/metabolismo
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008536, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804926

RESUMO

Culture-independent diagnostics have revealed a larger burden of Shigella among children in low-resource settings than previously recognized. We further characterized the epidemiology of Shigella in the first two years of life in a multisite birth cohort. We tested 41,405 diarrheal and monthly non-diarrheal stools from 1,715 children for Shigella by quantitative PCR. To assess risk factors, clinical factors related to age and culture positivity, and associations with inflammatory biomarkers, we used log-binomial regression with generalized estimating equations. The prevalence of Shigella varied from 4.9%-17.8% in non-diarrheal stools across sites, and the incidence of Shigella-attributable diarrhea was 31.8 cases (95% CI: 29.6, 34.2) per 100 child-years. The sensitivity of culture compared to qPCR was 6.6% and increased to 27.8% in Shigella-attributable dysentery. Shigella diarrhea episodes were more likely to be severe and less likely to be culture positive in younger children. Older age (RR: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.70, 1.81 per 6-month increase in age), unimproved sanitation (RR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.29), low maternal education (<10 years, RR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.26), initiating complementary foods before 3 months (RR: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.20), and malnutrition (RR: 0.91, 95% CI: 0.88, 0.95 per unit increase in weight-for-age z-score) were risk factors for Shigella. There was a linear dose-response between Shigella quantity and myeloperoxidase concentrations. The burden of Shigella varied widely across sites, but uniformly increased through the second year of life and was associated with intestinal inflammation. Culture missed most clinically relevant cases of severe diarrhea and dysentery.


Assuntos
Diarreia/diagnóstico , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Disenteria Bacilar/diagnóstico , Disenteria Bacilar/epidemiologia , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Disenteria , Disenteria Bacilar/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Intestinos , Masculino , Nepal/epidemiologia , Paquistão , Peru/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Shigella/genética , Shigella/isolamento & purificação , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
20.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008600, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853225

RESUMO

Helminth infections are among the World Health Organization's top neglected diseases with significant impact in many Less Economically Developed Countries. Despite no longer being endemic in Europe, the widespread presence of helminth eggs in archaeological deposits indicates that helminths represented a considerable burden in past European populations. Prevalence of infection is a key epidemiological feature that would influence the elimination of endemic intestinal helminths, for example, low prevalence rates may have made it easier to eliminate these infections in Europe without the use of modern anthelminthic drugs. To determine historical prevalence rates we analysed 589 grave samples from 7 European sites dated between 680 and 1700 CE, identifying two soil transmitted nematodes (Ascaris spp. and Trichuris trichiura) at all locations, and two food derived cestodes (Diphyllobothrium latum and Taenia spp.) at 4 sites. The rates of nematode infection in the medieval populations (1.5 to 25.6% for T. trichiura; 9.3-42.9% for Ascaris spp.) were comparable to those reported within modern endemically infected populations. There was some evidence of higher levels of nematode infection in younger individuals but not at all sites. The genetic diversity of T. trichiura ITS-1 in single graves was variable but much lower than with communal medieval latrine deposits. The prevalence of food derived cestodes was much lower (1.0-9.9%) than the prevalence of nematodes. Interestingly, sites that contained Taenia spp. eggs also contained D. latum which may reflect local culinary practices. These data demonstrate the importance of helminth infections in Medieval Europe and provide a baseline for studies on the epidemiology of infection in historical and modern contexts. Since the prevalence of medieval STH infections mirror those in modern endemic countries the factors affecting STH decline in Europe may also inform modern intervention campaigns.


Assuntos
Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Intestinos/parasitologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Ascaríase/epidemiologia , Ascaríase/transmissão , Ascaris , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Variação Genética , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Helmintíase/transmissão , Helmintos/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Nematoides , Prevalência , Solo/parasitologia , Toaletes , Tricuríase/epidemiologia , Tricuríase/transmissão , Trichuris , Adulto Jovem
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