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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1045, 2021 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum are the most common soil-transmitted helminths of humans and pigs, respectively. The zoonotic potential of A. suum has been a matter of debate for decades. This study was aimed to present a case of human ascariasis caused by A. suum in southern Italy. CASE PRESENTATION: A 75-year-old man presented to the department of surgery in Avellino (southern Italy) complaining of abdominal pain and vomiting. Physical examination revealed bloating and abdominal tenderness. A computed tomography scan showed air-fluid levels and small bowel distension. During exploratory laparotomy a small bowel volvulus with mesenteritis was evident and surprisingly an intraluminal worm was detected. The worm was removed with a small enterotomy and identified as an adult female of A. suum based on morphological and molecular analysis. Faecal examination revealed the presence of unfertilized Ascaris eggs with an intensity of 16 eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces. The patient was treated with mebendanzole 100 mg twice a day for 3 days. The post-operative course was regular with re-alimentation after 3 days and discharge after 12 days. CONCLUSIONS: This report shows as A. suum can function as a relevant agent of human zoonosis. Therefore, in patients with bowel obstruction with no evident aetiology a helminthic infestation should be considered for an accurate diagnosis, especially in patients living in rural areas.


Assuntos
Ascaríase , Ascaris suum , Volvo Intestinal , Animais , Ascaríase/diagnóstico , Ascaris lumbricoides , Feminino , Humanos , Volvo Intestinal/diagnóstico , Intestinos , Suínos
2.
Emerg Med Clin North Am ; 39(4): 769-780, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600636

RESUMO

Abdominal vascular emergencies are an uncommon entity in emergency medicine, but when they present, they are often catastrophic. These time-sensitive and life-threatening diagnoses are often hidden in nonspecific complaints such as nausea, vomiting, or flank pain, so the emergency physician must remain diligent and consider these in the differential diagnoses. The following is an overview of the more common of these abdominal vascular emergencies, in the hope that they help the Emergency Physician avoid the misdiagnosis and subsequent vascular catastrophe that would follow.


Assuntos
Abdome/irrigação sanguínea , Erros de Diagnóstico/prevenção & controle , Traumatismos Abdominais/diagnóstico , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Diagnóstico do Sistema Digestório , Medicina de Emergência , Humanos , Intestinos/irrigação sanguínea , Isquemia/diagnóstico , Isquemia/terapia , Isquemia Mesentérica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Mesentérica/terapia , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/diagnóstico
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639103

RESUMO

Various pathogens, such as Ebola virus, Marburg virus, Nipah virus, Hendra virus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and SARS-CoV-2, are threatening human health worldwide. The natural hosts of these pathogens are thought to be bats. The rousette bat, a megabat, is thought to be a natural reservoir of filoviruses, including Ebola and Marburg viruses. Additionally, the rousette bat showed a transient infection in the experimental inoculation of SARS-CoV-2. In the current study, we established and characterized intestinal organoids from Leschenault's rousette, Rousettus leschenaultii. The established organoids successfully recapitulated the characteristics of intestinal epithelial structure and morphology, and the appropriate supplements necessary for long-term stable culture were identified. The organoid showed susceptibility to Pteropine orthoreovirus (PRV) but not to SARS-CoV-2 in experimental inoculation. This is the first report of the establishment of an expandable organoid culture system of the rousette bat intestinal organoid and its sensitivity to bat-associated viruses, PRV and SARS-CoV-2. This organoid is a useful tool for the elucidation of tolerance mechanisms of the emerging rousette bat-associated viruses such as Ebola and Marburg virus.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Organoides/virologia , Orthoreovirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Reoviridae/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Animais , COVID-19/veterinária , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Células Cultivadas , Quirópteros/fisiologia , Humanos , Intestinos/citologia , Intestinos/virologia , Organoides/citologia , Infecções por Reoviridae/veterinária
4.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 62(8): 900-908, 2021.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497229

RESUMO

A huge number of indigenous commensal bacteria reside in the intestines of humans and animals. However, the host animals do not unconditionally accept gut microbiota. In order to contain gut microbiota by secreting immunoglobulin A, the intestine is equipped with the intestinal immune system, literally the largest peripheral lymphoid tissue in the body where 60 to 70% of peripheral immune cells are accumulated. On the other hand, the gut microbiota greatly impact the host physiology and pathology. Normal development of the host immune system relies on interaction with the gut microbiota. In addition, abnormal gut microbiota, or dysbiosis, is known to be associated with various disease statuses including autoimmune diseases. Understanding of the causal relationship between the pathophysiology of these diseases and dysbiosis is still limited, but verification experiments using animal models have been clarifying that gut microbiota is an important regulatory factor the pathogenesis and progression of these diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Disbiose , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário , Intestinos
5.
BMC Surg ; 21(1): 339, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Management of bowel traumatic injuries is a challenge. Although anastomotic or suture leak remains a feared complication, preserving bowel continuity is increasingly the preferred strategy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of such a strategy. METHODS: All included patients underwent surgery for bowel traumatic injuries at a high volume trauma center between 2007 and 2017. Postoperative course was analyzed for abdominal complications, morbidity and mortality. RESULTS: Among 133 patients, 78% had small bowel injuries and 47% had colon injuries. 87% of small bowel injuries and 81% of colon injuries were treated with primary repair or anastomosis, with no difference in treatment according to injury site (p = 0.381). Mortality was 8%. Severe overall morbidity was 32%, and abdominal complications occurred in 32% of patients. Risk factors for severe overall morbidity were stoma creation (p = 0.036), heavy vascular expansion (p = 0.005) and a long delay before surgery (p = 0.023). Fistula rate was 2.2%; all leaks occurred after repairing small bowel wounds. CONCLUSION: Primary repair of bowel injuries should be the preferred option in trauma patient, regardless of the site-small bowel or colon-of the injury. Stoma creation is an important factor for postoperative morbidity, which should be weighed against the risk of an intestinal suture or anastomosis.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Abdominais , Intestinos , Anastomose Cirúrgica , Colo/cirurgia , Humanos , Intestinos/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Rev Med Suisse ; 17(748): 1448-1452, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468095

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) comprise Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). IBD develops in patients with genetic susceptibility due to an aberrant response of the intestinal immune system toward gut microbiota. The prevalence of IBD is on the rise in Switzerland, with currently 1/250 persons affected, which corresponds to approximately 35,000 patients. Given the complexity of IBD, patients should be managed by a multidisciplinary team. This article focuses on IBD diagnosis and long-term follow-up.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Doença de Crohn , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/diagnóstico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/epidemiologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/terapia , Intestinos
7.
Chem Biol Interact ; 348: 109640, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506767

RESUMO

Intestinal stem cell (ISC)-driven intestinal homeostasis is subjected to dual regulation by dietary nutrients and toxins. Our study investigated the use of lauric acid (LA) to alleviate deoxynivalenol (DON)-induced intestinal epithelial damage. C57BL/6 mice in the control, LA, DON, and LA + DON groups were orally administered PBS, 10 mg/kg BW LA, 2 mg/kg BW DON, and 10 mg/kg BW LA + 2 mg/kg BW DON for 10 days. The results showed that LA increased the average daily gain and average daily feed intake of the mice exposed to DON. Moreover, the DON-triggered impairment of jejunal morphology and barrier function was significantly improved after LA supplementation. Moreover, LA rescued ISC proliferation, inhibited intestinal cell apoptosis, and promoted ISC differentiation into absorptive cells, goblet cells, and Paneth cells. The jejunum crypt cells from the mice in the LA group expanded into enteroids, resulting in a significantly greater enteroid area than that in the DON group. Furthermore, LA reversed the DON-mediated inhibition of the Akt/mTORC1/S6K1 signaling axis in the jejunum. Our results indicated that LA accelerates ISC regeneration to repair intestinal epithelial damage after DON insult by reactivating the Akt/mTORC1/S6K1 signaling pathway, which provides new implications for the function of LA in ISCs.


Assuntos
Intestinos/citologia , Ácidos Láuricos/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco/citologia , Tricotecenos/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 90-kDa/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco/metabolismo
8.
J Comput Assist Tomogr ; 45(5): 678-683, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546677

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the image quality, image artifacts, radiologist confidence, and ability to provide definitive diagnosis for all patients with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed after an abdominal fluoroscopic examination and to determine the utility of MRI in this setting. METHODS: Thirty-one MRI examinations performed a median of 2 days after fluoroscopic bowel evaluation (barium, n = 13; iodine, n = 18), 20 within 3 days of MRI, were retrospectively reviewed. The image quality, artifact emanating from bowel, inhomogeneity artifact, radiologist confidence, ability to render a definitive diagnosis, and identification of emergent or important findings for all MRI examinations were assessed. These same features were evaluated on 5 computed tomographies performed after fluoroscopy (before the MRI) in the same cohort. RESULTS: All 31 MRI examinations performed after fluoroscopic studies with concentrated barium or iodine solutions were diagnostic for answering the clinical question according to radiologist and report review, regardless of magnet strength and type of fluoroscopic contrast ingested. Magnetic resonance imaging after fluoroscopy had excellent overall image quality (mean score, 4.74/5), minimal to no artifact emanating from bowel (mean, 4.63/5), minimal inhomogeneity artifact (mean, 4.38/5), and excellent diagnostic confidence (mean, 4.98/5). No additional imaging was necessary for diagnosis after MRI. Computed tomography after fluoroscopy had lower overall image quality, more image artifacts, and lower diagnostic confidence (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Magnetic resonance imaging is a useful tool for evaluating patients with retained concentrated enteric contrast from recent fluoroscopic examinations. In the absence of contraindication, MRI should be considered in the evaluation of urgent clinical problems in patients who recently underwent a fluoroscopic bowel evaluation.


Assuntos
Meios de Contraste/farmacocinética , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Enteropatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Intensificação de Imagem Radiográfica/métodos , Abdome/diagnóstico por imagem , Artefatos , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Fluoroscopia , Humanos , Intestinos/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(32): 5404-5423, 2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34539141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intestinal barrier breakdown, a frequent complication of intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) including dysfunction and the structure changes of the intestine, is characterized by a loss of tight junction and enhanced permeability of the intestinal barrier and increased mortality. To develop effective and novel therapeutics is important for the improvement of outcome of patients with intestinal barrier deterioration. Recombinant human angiopoietin-like protein 4 (rhANGPTL4) is reported to protect the blood-brain barrier when administered exogenously, and endogenous ANGPTL4 deficiency deteriorates radiation-induced intestinal injury. AIM: To identify whether rhANGPTL4 may protect intestinal barrier breakdown induced by I/R. METHODS: Intestinal I/R injury was elicited through clamping the superior mesenteric artery for 60 min followed by 240 min reperfusion. Intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells were challenged by hypoxia/ reoxygenation to mimic I/R in vitro. RESULTS: Indicators including fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated dextran (4 kilodaltons; FD-4) clearance, ratio of phosphorylated myosin light chain/total myosin light chain, myosin light chain kinase and loss of zonula occludens-1, claudin-2 and VE-cadherin were significantly increased after intestinal I/R or cell hypoxia/reoxygenation. rhANGPTL4 treatment significantly reversed these indicators, which were associated with inhibiting the inflammatory and oxidative cascade, excessive activation of cellular autophagy and apoptosis and improvement of survival rate. Similar results were observed in vitro when cells were challenged by hypoxia/reoxygenation, whereas rhANGPTL4 reversed the indicators close to normal level in Caco-2 cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells significantly. CONCLUSION: rhANGPTL4 can function as a protective agent against intestinal injury induced by intestinal I/R and improve survival via maintenance of intestinal barrier structure and functions.


Assuntos
Proteína 4 Semelhante a Angiopoietina/farmacologia , Intestinos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão , Células CACO-2 , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle
10.
Nature ; 597(7875): 250-255, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497389

RESUMO

The cellular landscape of the human intestinal tract is dynamic throughout life, developing in utero and changing in response to functional requirements and environmental exposures. Here, to comprehensively map cell lineages, we use single-cell RNA sequencing and antigen receptor analysis of almost half a million cells from up to 5 anatomical regions in the developing and up to 11 distinct anatomical regions in the healthy paediatric and adult human gut. This reveals the existence of transcriptionally distinct BEST4 epithelial cells throughout the human intestinal tract. Furthermore, we implicate IgG sensing as a function of intestinal tuft cells. We describe neural cell populations in the developing enteric nervous system, and predict cell-type-specific expression of genes associated with Hirschsprung's disease. Finally, using a systems approach, we identify key cell players that drive the formation of secondary lymphoid tissue in early human development. We show that these programs are adopted in inflammatory bowel disease to recruit and retain immune cells at the site of inflammation. This catalogue of intestinal cells will provide new insights into cellular programs in development, homeostasis and disease.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Sistema Nervoso Entérico/citologia , Feto/citologia , Saúde , Intestinos/citologia , Intestinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Linfonodos/citologia , Linfonodos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Doença de Crohn/patologia , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Sistema Nervoso Entérico/anatomia & histologia , Sistema Nervoso Entérico/embriologia , Sistema Nervoso Entérico/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Feminino , Feto/anatomia & histologia , Feto/embriologia , Humanos , Intestinos/embriologia , Intestinos/inervação , Linfonodos/embriologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Organogênese , Receptores de IgG/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Life Sci ; 284: 119920, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478760

RESUMO

AIMS: The sustained activation of intestinal mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) brought about by repeated mucosal insult or injury has been linked to escalation of gut inflammatory response, which may progress to damage the epithelium if not controlled. This study investigated the role of mTORC1 in the response of macrophage and enterocyte to inflammatory stimuli. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We genetically manipulated human THP-1 monocytes and epithelial intestinal Caco-2 cells to generate stable cell lines with baseline, low or high mTORC1 kinase activity. The effects of THP-1 macrophage secretions onto Caco-2 cells were investigated by means of conditioned media transfer experiments. KEY FINDINGS: The priming of mTORC1 for activation promoted lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated THP-1 macrophage immune response as evidenced by the stimulation of inflammatory mediators (TNFα, IL-6, IL-8, IL-1ß and IL-10). The treatment of THP-1 macrophages with LPS more than the manipulated level of mTORC1 activity of macrophages determined whether cytokine gene expression was induced in Caco-2 cells. LPS carry over was not responsible for the stimulation of Caco-2 cells' cytokine response. Knocking down Raptor in Caco-2 cells or treating Caco-2 cells with rapamycin enhanced Caco-2 TNFα gene expression revealing the anti-inflammatory role of a functional mTORC1 in intestinal epithelial cells exposed to macrophage-derived pro-inflammatory stimuli. SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, mTORC1 differentially impacts the immune responses of THP-1-derived macrophages and Caco-2 epithelial cells when placed in a pro-inflammatory microenvironment.


Assuntos
Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Intestinos/citologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Células CACO-2 , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/farmacologia , Citocinas/genética , Citoproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Ativação de Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Biológicos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células THP-1 , Proteína 2 do Complexo Esclerose Tuberosa/metabolismo
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(40): 12002-12011, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590865

RESUMO

Xylitol is a widely used natural sweetener for the reduction of excessive sugar consumption. However, concerns of xylitol consumption existed as it is a highly permeable substance in the colon that could cause diarrhea and other adverse symptoms. To assess the relationship between xylitol dosage and diarrhea, especially the influences of diarrhea on physiological characteristics, the immune system, and gut microbiota in rats, the control, low-dose (L), medium-dose (M), and high-dose (H) groups were fed with 0, 1, 3, and 10% of xylitol, respectively, correspondingly for 15 days, followed by a 7-day recovery. Only medium- and high-dose xylitol would cause diarrhea in rats. Quantitative imaging of colonic tissue and the expression levels of proinflammatory factors revealed a higher degree of immune responses in the rats from H groups but statistically stable in M groups, despite that light diarrhea was observed. A shift of the gut microbiota composition was observed in the rats from H groups, including significant decreases of genera Ruminococcaceae and Prevotella and a notable increase and colonization of Bacteroides, accompanied with changes of short-chain fatty acid production. Tolerance and adaptation to xylitol consumption were observed in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings demonstrate that diarrhea caused by the high dosage of xylitol can exert distinctive changes on gut microbiota and lay the foundation to explore the mechanism underlying the shift in gut microbiota composition.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Diarreia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Intestinos , Ratos , Xilitol
13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 223: 112551, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358931

RESUMO

Food dyes, or color additives, are often added into foods, cosmetics and beverages during processing to improve the sensory attributes of the final products. However, the toxicity of tartrazine (TZ), one of the most common azo-dyes, is still unclear, and needs to be ascertained by further study. Hence, in the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of TZ consumption on health by using a teleost, crucian carp (Carassius auratus) as the experimental fish. TZ consumption (1.4, 5.5 and 10 mg/kg bwt/day) could cause severe histopathological and cellular alterations in intestine and liver. The height of intestinal villus, thickness of intestinal muscle, and microvilli density were also affected. With the increasing of TZ concentrations, the activities of antioxidant enzymes (CAT, SOD and GSH-Px), exhibited a decreasing trend, while the contents of MDA elevated. Upregulations of pro-inflammatory cytokines (il6 and tnfα), anti-inflammatory cytokines (il8, and il10) and other immune related genes (complement component 3 (c3), lysozymes (lyz), ß-defensin 3 (defb3)), were observed after TZ uptake. In addition, TZ consumption also affected the community structure of the microbiota in the intestine of crucian carp. The amount of some probiotic bacteria (Roseomonas, Rhodococcus and Bacillus) and the bacteria (Bacteroides and Clostridium), producing short chain fatty acids, were significantly reduced, and some pathogenetic microorganisms (e.g. Bdellovibrio and Shewanella) were significantly increased after TZ uptake. In summary, the data in the present study indicate that TZ consumption, even at a low concentration, may lead to adverse effects on fish health. Therefore, in aquaculture, it is necessary to be informed about the hazardous effects of TZ, and more attentions should be focused on using natural substitutes.


Assuntos
Carpas , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Compostos Azo/toxicidade , Carpa Dourada , Intestinos , Estresse Oxidativo , Tartrazina/toxicidade
14.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371948

RESUMO

Patients suffering from critical illness have host inflammatory responses against injuries, such as infection and trauma, that can lead to tissue damage, organ failure, and death. Modulation of host immune response as well as infection and damage control are detrimental factors in the management of systemic inflammation. The gut is the motor of multiple organ failure following injury, and it is recognized that gut dysfunction is one of the causative factors of disease progression. The gut microbiota has a role in maintaining host immunity, and disruption of the gut microbiota might induce an immunosuppressive condition in critically ill patients. Treatment with probiotics and synbiotics has been reported to attenuate systemic inflammation by maintaining gut microbiota and to reduce postoperative infectious complications and ventilator-associated pneumonia. The administration of prophylactic probiotics/synbiotics could be an important treatment option for preventing infectious complications and modulating immunity. Further basic and clinical research is needed to promote intestinal therapies for critically ill patients.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Imunidade , Imunomodulação , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Simbióticos , Estado Terminal/terapia , Motilidade Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Inflamação/terapia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/microbiologia
15.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(8)2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426428

RESUMO

Enterocolic lymphocytic phlebitis (ELP) is a rare pathology, usually seen in the adult population. The condition affects the venous vasculature of the intestine sparing the arteries and lymphatics. It is commonly identified histologically after surgical resection making the preoperative diagnosis a clinical challenge. As the condition can lead to intestinal ischaemia and necrosis, surgical resection of the affected segment is the treatment of choice. We report the case of a 9-year-old girl who presented with a 2-day history of lower abdominal pain and anorexia. The initial diagnosis of appendicitis was made clinically and the patient underwent a diagnostic laparoscopy . The appendix was macroscopically normal and there were no other obvious intra-abdominal pathologies to account for her presenting complaints . The appendix was removed, as per the preoperative discussion and consent from parents. She recovered well and was discharged home the following day. The histological examination of the appendix demonstrated ELP. We describe this rare clinical entity in a child especially in view of the scarce published literature in the paediatric population.


Assuntos
Apendicite , Apêndice , Flebite , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Intestinos , Linfócitos , Flebite/etiologia
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(35): 10174-10183, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449209

RESUMO

The intestinal tight junction (TJ) barrier plays a pivotal role in the regulation of intestinal homeostasis. This study investigated the effects of 3,5,7,3',4'-pentamethoxyflavone (PMF), a major polymethoxyflavone found in black ginger, on TJ barrier regulation using intestinal Caco-2 cells. PMF treatment enhanced the TJ barrier integrity in Caco-2 cells, indicated by increased transepithelial electrical resistance (control, 1261 ± 36 Ω·cm2; 100 µM PMF, 1383 ± 55 Ω·cm2 at 48 h, p < 0.05) and decreased permeability to fluorescein-conjugated dextran (control, 24.2 ± 1.8 pmol/(cm2 × h); 100 µM PMF, 18.6 ± 1.0 pmol/(cm2 × h), p < 0.05). Immunoblot analysis revealed that PMF increased the cytoskeletal association and cellular expression of the TJ proteins, zonula occludens-1, claudin-3, and claudin-4 (e.g., occludin; control, 1.00 ± 0.2; 100 µM PMF, 3.69 ± 0.86 at 48 h, p < 0.05). Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis and a luciferase promoter assay showed that PMF enhanced the transcription of occludin, claudin-3, and claudin-4. The promoter assay with site-directed mutagenesis indicated that PMF-induced occludin and claudin-3 transcription was mediated by transcription factors, KLF5 and EGR1, respectively, while PMF activated claudin-4 transcription through GATA1 and AP1. Taken together, the transcriptional regulation of TJ proteins is involved in PMF-mediated promotion of the intestinal barrier in vitro.


Assuntos
Mucosa Intestinal , Junções Íntimas , Células CACO-2 , Flavonas , Humanos , Intestinos , Ocludina/genética , Permeabilidade
17.
MMW Fortschr Med ; 163(Suppl 5): 17-20, 2021 09.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383283

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a bidirectional interaction between the intestines and lungs, the so-called lung-intestinal axis. METHOD: The review article reports on studies that deal with a possible influence of the intestinal microbiota on the immune response to a SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Studies have shown that COVID-19 is accompanied by dysbiosis that persists even after successful virus conversion (negative PCR). One study found that the severity of COVID-19 is associated with the intestinal microbiota. A dysbiosis could thus favor the so-called cytokine storm. There is indication that pre- and probiotics could boost the immune response in both the guts and lungs.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Disbiose , Humanos , Intestinos , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360687

RESUMO

In the intestine, the innate immune system excludes harmful substances and invading microorganisms. Tuft cells are taste-like chemosensory cells found in the intestinal epithelium involved in the activation of group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2). Although tuft cells in other tissues secrete the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh), their function in the gut remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated changes in the expression of genes and cell differentiation of the intestinal epithelium by stimulation with interleukin-4 (IL-4) or IL-13 in macaque intestinal organoids. Transcriptome analysis showed that tuft cell marker genes were highly expressed in the IL-4- and IL-13-treated groups compared with the control, and the gene expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), a synthesis enzyme of ACh, was upregulated in IL-4- and IL-13-treated groups. ACh accumulation was observed in IL-4-induced organoids using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS), and ACh strongly released granules from Paneth cells. This study is the first to demonstrate ACh upregulation by IL-4 induction in primates, suggesting that IL-4 plays a role in Paneth cell granule secretion via paracrine stimulation.


Assuntos
Acetilcolina/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Interleucina-4/farmacologia , Intestinos/fisiologia , Organoides/metabolismo , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macaca fuscata/fisiologia , Macaca mulatta/metabolismo , Macaca mulatta/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Organoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Organoides/fisiologia
19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 223: 112610, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365207

RESUMO

Previous studies provide comprehensive evidence of the environmental hazards and intestinal toxicity of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) exposure. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the injury of intestine exposed to MC-LR. Juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to MC-LR (0 and 10 µg/L) for 15 days. The results suggest that organic anion-transporting polypeptides 3a1, 4a1, 2b1, and 1d1 mediate MC-LR entry into intestinal tissues. Lesion morphological features (vacuolization, deformation and dilation of the endoplasmic reticulum [ER], absence of mitochondrial cristae in mid-intestine), up-regulated mRNA expressions of ER stress (eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha kinase 3, endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus signaling 1, activating transcription factor [ATF] 6, ATF4, DNA damage-inducible transcript 3), iron accumulation, and down-regulated activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione (GSH) content were all typical characteristics of ferroptosis in intestinal tissue following MC-LR exposure. GSH levels in intestinal tissue corroborated as the most influential GSH/GPx 4- related metabolic pathway in response to MC-LR exposure. Verrucomicrobiota, Planctomycetes, Bdellovibrionota, Firmicutes and Cyanobacteria were correlated with the ferroptosis-related GSH following MC-LR exposure. These findings provide new perspectives of the ferroptosis mechanism of MC-LR-induced intestinal injury in the common carp.


Assuntos
Carpas , Ferroptose , Animais , Intestinos , Fígado , Toxinas Marinhas , Microcistinas/toxicidade
20.
Environ Pollut ; 286: 117685, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438504

RESUMO

Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and glyphosate (GLY) have been classified as a Group 2B and Group 2A carcinogens for humans, respectively, and frequently found in aquatic ecosystems. However, data on the potential hazard of MC-LR and GLY exposure to the fish gut are relatively scarce. In the current study, a subacute toxicity test of zebrafish exposed to MC-LR (35 µg L-1) and GLY (3.5 mg L-1), either alone or in combination was performed for 21 d. The results showed that MC-LR or/and GLY treatment reduced the mRNA levels of tight junction genes (claudin-5, occludin, and zonula occludens-1) and altered the levels of diamine oxidase and D-lactic, indicating increased intestinal permeability in zebrafish. Furthermore, MC-LR and/or GLY treatment remarkably increased the levels of intestinal IL-1ß and IL-8 but decreased the levels of IL-10 and TGF-ß, indicating that MC-LR and/or GLY exposure induced an inflammatory response in the fish gut. MC-LR and/or GLY exposure also activated superoxide dismutase and catalase, generally upregulated the levels of p53, bax, bcl-2, caspase-3, and caspase-9, downregulated the levels of caspase-8 and caused notable histological injury in the fish gut. Moreover, MC-LR and/or GLY exposure also significantly altered the microbial community in the zebrafish gut and the expression of miRNAs (miR-146a, miR-155, miR-16, miR-21, and miR-223). Chronic exposure to MC-LR and/or GLY can induce intestinal damage in zebrafish, and this study is the first to demonstrate an altered gut microbiome and miRNAs in the zebrafish gut after MC-LR and GLY exposure.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , MicroRNAs , Microbiota , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Intestinos , Toxinas Marinhas , Microcistinas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra
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