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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 583, 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies showed that type 2 short bowel syndrome (SBS) rats were accompanied by severe intestinal bacterial dysbiosis. Limited data are available for intestinal fungal dysbiosis. Moreover, no effective therapeutic drugs are available for these microbiota dysbiosis. The aims of our study were to investigate the therapeutic potential of glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) for these microbiota dysbiosis in type 2 SBS rats. METHODS: 8-week-old male SD rats which underwent 80% small bowel resection, ileocecum resection, partial colon resection and jejunocolostomy, were treated with saline (SBS group, n = 5) or GLP-2 (GLP2.SBS group, n = 5). The Sham group rats which underwent transection and re-anastomosis were given a saline placebo (Sham group, n = 5). 16S rRNA and ITS sequencing were applied to evaluate the colonic bacterial and fungal composition at 22 days after surgery, respectively. RESULTS: The relative abundance of Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and proinflammatory Proteobacteria increased significantly in SBS group rats, while the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia and Tenericutes decreased remarkably. GLP-2 treatment significantly decreased Proteus and increased Clostridium relative to the saline treated SBS rats. The diversity of intestinal fungi was significantly increased in SBS rats, accompanied with some fungi abnormally increased and some resident fungi (e.g., Penicillium) significantly decreased. GLP-2 treatment significantly decreased Debaryomyces and Meyerozyma, and increased Penicillium. Moreover, GLP-2 partially restored the bacteria-fungi interkingdom interaction network of SBS rats. CONCLUSION: Our study confirms the bacterial and fungal dysbiosis in type 2 SBS rats, and GLP-2 partially ameliorated these microbiota dysbiosis.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeo 2 Semelhante ao Glucagon/farmacologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Síndrome do Intestino Curto/patologia , Actinobacteria/genética , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Colo/cirurgia , Colostomia , Análise Discriminante , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Disbiose , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Peptídeo 2 Semelhante ao Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Masculino , Análise de Componente Principal , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Síndrome do Intestino Curto/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome do Intestino Curto/microbiologia
2.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 147(8): 2177-2186, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34018055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide (Ferlay et al., Int J Cancer 136:E359-386, 2015). In addition, lung cancer is associated with the highest mortality among all cancer types (Wu et al., Exp Ther Med 16:3004-3010, 2018). Previous studies report that microbiota play an important role in lung cancer. Notably, changes in lung and gut microbiota, are associated with progression of lung cancer. Several studies report that lung and gut microbiome promote lung cancer initiation and development by modulating metabolic pathways, inhibiting the function of immune cells, and producing pro-inflammatory factors. In addition, some factors such as microbiota dysbiosis, affect production of bacteriotoxins, genotoxicity and virulence effect, therefore, they play a key role in cancer progression. These findings imply that lung and gut microbiome are potential markers and targets for lung cancer. However, the role of microbiota in development and progression of lung cancer has not been fully explored. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to systemically review recent research findings on relationship of lung and gut microbiota with lung cancer. In addition, we explored gut-lung axis and potential mechanisms of lung and gut microbiota in modulating lung cancer progression. CONCLUSION: Pulmonary and intestinal flora influence the occurrence, development, treatment and prognosis of lung cancer, and will provide novel strategies for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of lung cancer.


Assuntos
Intestinos/microbiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/microbiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Pulmão/microbiologia , Microbiota/fisiologia , Progressão da Doença , Disbiose/complicações , Disbiose/imunologia , Disbiose/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia
3.
Food Funct ; 12(9): 4152-4164, 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977942

RESUMO

The human gut is a highly diverse microbial ecosystem. Although showing a well-defined core of dominant taxa, an interindividual variability exists in microbiome arrangement patterns, and the presence and proportion of specific species, determining individual metabolic features-metabotypes-which govern the health effects of dietary interventions (i.e. polyphenol consumption). Starting with a 19-volunteer human intervention study, divided into low, medium, and high wine-polyphenol-metabolizers, we detected interindividual discrepancies on the effect of wine consumption in gut bacterial alpha-diversity, but a significant homogenization of beta-diversity among moderate wine consumers, independently of their metabotype. In addition, the abundance of key health-related taxa such as Akkermansia sp. increased after moderate wine intake in the group of high polyphenol-metabolizers. Regarding the metabolic activity, significant (p < 0.05) positive correlations in the production of SCFAs were observed after wine intake. Finally, we were able to correlate the microbiome and the metabolome of the three metabotypes, and to identify some metabolites-biomarker species, highlighting the genera Phascolarctobacterium, Pelotomaculum and Prevotella, as positively correlated with polyphenol concentration, and Prevotella, Zymophilus and Eubacterium as positively correlated with SCFAs concentration in faeces. Our results contribute to the evidence of the need of including the microbiome variable in personalized nutrition programs, as different metabotyes respond differently to dietary interventions.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Intestinos/fisiologia , Metaboloma , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Vinho , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/metabolismo , Variação Biológica da População , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Masculino , Metabolômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
4.
Toxins (Basel) ; 13(4)2021 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807343

RESUMO

Numerous studies have indicated that the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is strictly associated with the accumulation of toxic metabolites in blood and other metabolic compartments. This accumulation was suggested to be related to enhanced generation of toxins from the dysbiotic microbiome accompanied by their reduced elimination by impaired kidneys. Intestinal microbiota play a key role in the accumulation of uremic toxins due to the fact that numerous uremic solutes are generated in the process of protein fermentation by colonic microbiota. Some disease states, including CKD, are associated with the presence of dysbiosis, which can be defined as an "imbalanced intestinal microbial community with quantitative and qualitative changes in the composition and metabolic activities of the gut microbiota". The results of studies have confirmed the altered composition and functions of gut microbial community in chronic kidney disease. In the course of CKD protein-bound uremic toxins, including indoxyl sulfate, p-cresyl glucuronide, p-cresyl sulfate and indole-3-acetic acid are progressively accumulated. The presence of chronic kidney disease may be accompanied by the development of intestinal inflammation and epithelial barrier impairment leading to hastened systemic translocation of bacterial-derived uremic toxins and consequent oxidative stress injury to the kidney, cardiovascular and endocrine systems. These findings offer new therapeutic possibilities for the management of uremia, inflammation and kidney disease progression and the prevention of adverse outcomes in CKD patients. It seems that dietary interventions comprising prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics could pose a promising strategy in the management of uremic toxins in CKD.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Intestinos/microbiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Toxinas Biológicas/sangue , Uremia/sangue , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Progressão da Doença , Disbiose , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Diálise Renal , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/microbiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Uremia/diagnóstico , Uremia/microbiologia , Uremia/terapia
5.
Toxins (Basel) ; 13(4)2021 04 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33920096

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects more than 10% of the world population and leads to excess morbidity and mortality (with cardiovascular disease as a leading cause of death). Vascular calcification (VC) is a phenomenon of disseminated deposition of mineral content within the media layer of arteries preceded by phenotypic changes in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) and/or accumulation of mineral content within the atherosclerotic lesions. Medial VC results in vascular stiffness and significantly contributes to increased cardio-vascular (CV) morbidity, whereas VC of plaques may rather increase their stability. Mineral and bone disorders of CKD (CKD-MBD) contribute to VC, which is further aggravated by accumulation of uremic toxins. Both CKD-MBD and uremic toxin accumulation affect not only patients with advanced CKD (glomerular filtration rate (GFR) less than 15 mL/min./1.72 m2, end-stage kidney disease) but also those on earlier stages of a disease. The key uremic toxins that contribute to VC, i.e., p-cresyl sulphate (PCS), indoxyl sulphate (IS) and trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) originate from bacterial metabolism of gut microbiota. All mentioned toxins promote VC by several mechanisms, including: Transdifferentiation and apoptosis of VSMC, dysfunction of endothelial cells, oxidative stress, interaction with local renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system or miRNA profile modification. Several attractive methods of gut microbiota manipulations have been proposed in order to modify their metabolism and to limit vascular damage (and VC) triggered by uremic toxins. Unfortunately, to date no such method was demonstrated to be effective at the level of "hard" patient-oriented or even clinically relevant surrogate endpoints.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Vasos Sanguíneos/metabolismo , Distúrbio Mineral e Ósseo na Doença Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Intestinos/microbiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Toxinas Biológicas/metabolismo , Uremia/metabolismo , Calcificação Vascular/metabolismo , Animais , Vasos Sanguíneos/patologia , Distúrbio Mineral e Ósseo na Doença Renal Crônica/microbiologia , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Prognóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/microbiologia , Uremia/microbiologia , Calcificação Vascular/microbiologia , Calcificação Vascular/patologia
6.
Toxins (Basel) ; 13(3)2021 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803899

RESUMO

Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at an increased risk of thromboembolic complications, including myocardial infarction, stroke, deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism. These complications lead to increased mortality. Evidence points to the key role of CKD-associated dysbiosis and its effect via the generation of gut microbial metabolites in inducing the prothrombotic phenotype. This phenomenon is known as thrombolome, a panel of intestinal bacteria-derived uremic toxins that enhance thrombosis via increased tissue factor expression, platelet hyperactivity, microparticles release, and endothelial dysfunction. This review discusses the role of uremic toxins derived from gut-microbiota metabolism of dietary tryptophan (indoxyl sulfate (IS), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), kynurenine (KYN)), phenylalanine/tyrosine (p-cresol sulfate (PCS), p-cresol glucuronide (PCG), phenylacetylglutamine (PAGln)) and choline/phosphatidylcholine (trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO)) in spontaneously induced thrombosis. The increase in the generation of gut microbial uremic toxins, the activation of aryl hydrocarbon (AhRs) and platelet adrenergic (ARs) receptors, and the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway can serve as potential targets during the prevention of thromboembolic events. They can also help create a new therapeutic approach in the CKD population.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Coagulação Sanguínea , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Intestinos/microbiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Tromboembolia/etiologia , Toxinas Biológicas/sangue , Uremia/complicações , Animais , Disbiose , Humanos , Prognóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/microbiologia , Fatores de Risco , Tromboembolia/sangue , Tromboembolia/microbiologia , Uremia/sangue , Uremia/microbiologia
7.
Toxins (Basel) ; 13(3)2021 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808581

RESUMO

Imbalanced colonic microbial metabolism plays a pivotal role in generating protein-bound uraemic toxins (PBUTs), which accumulate with deteriorating kidney function and contribute to the uraemic burden of children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Dietary choices impact the gut microbiome and metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between dietary fibre and gut-derived PBUTs in paediatric CKD. Sixty-one (44 male) CKD children (9 ± 5 years) were prospectively followed for two years. Dietary fibre intake was evaluated by either 24-h recalls (73%) or 3-day food records (27%) at the same time of blood sampling for assessment of total and free serum levels of different PBUTs using liquid chromatography. We used linear mixed models to assess associations between fibre intake and PBUT levels. We found an inverse association between increase in fibre consumption (g/day) and serum concentrations of free indoxyl sulfate (-3.1% (-5.9%; -0.3%) (p = 0.035)), free p-cresyl sulfate (-2.5% (-4.7%; -0.3%) (p = 0.034)), total indole acetic acid (IAA) (-1.6% (-3.0%; -0.3%) (p = 0.020)), free IAA (-6.6% (-9.3%; -3.7%) (p < 0.001)), total serum p-cresyl glucuronide (pCG) (-3.0% (-5.6%; -0.5%) (p = 0.021)) and free pCG levels (-3.3% (-5.8%; -0.8%) (p = 0.010)). The observed associations between dietary fibre intake and the investigated PBUTs highlight potential benefits of fibre intake for the paediatric CKD population. The present observational findings should inform and guide adaptations of dietary prescriptions in children with CKD.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Intestinos/microbiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/dietoterapia , Toxinas Biológicas/sangue , Uremia/dietoterapia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Bélgica , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Disbiose , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/microbiologia , Uremia/sangue , Uremia/diagnóstico , Uremia/microbiologia
8.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806771

RESUMO

Environmental factors, including nutritional habits or birth mode, are known key determinants for intestinal microbial composition. Investigations of the intestinal microbiome in different species in a multiplicity of studies during recent decades have revealed differential microbial patterns and quantities along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Characterization of the microbial pattern in various aspects is a prerequisite for nutritional interventions. In this 16S rRNA amplicon-based approach, we present a characterization of the mucosa-associated microbiome in comparison with the luminal community of four infants at the time of the closure of ileostomies and perform a systematic characterization of the corresponding luminal and mucosal microbiome from jejunal, ileal and colonic regions, as well as collected feces in mice. The most dominant taxa in infant-derived samples altered due to individual differences, and in the mucosa, Enterococcus, Clostridiumsensustricto1, Veillonella, Streptococcus and Staphylococcus were the most abundant. Two less abundant taxa differed significantly between the mucosa and lumen. In murine samples, relative abundances differed significantly, mainly between the intestinal regions. Significant differences between mouse mucosa- and lumen-derived samples could be found in the observed species with a trend to lower estimated diversity in mucosa-derived samples, as well as in the relative abundance of individual taxa. In this study, we examined the difference between the mucosal and luminal bacterial colonization of the gastrointestinal tract in a small sample cohort of preterm infants. Individual differences were characterized and statistical significance was reached in two taxa (Cupriavidus, Ralstonia). The corresponding study on the different murine intestinal regions along the GI tract showed differences all over the intestinal region.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Intestinos/microbiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , RNA Ribossômico 16S
9.
Mar Drugs ; 19(3)2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808737

RESUMO

In recent decades, several neuroprotective agents have been provided in combating neuronal dysfunctions; however, no effective treatment has been found towards the complete eradication of neurodegenerative diseases. From the pathophysiological point of view, growing studies are indicating a bidirectional relationship between gut and brain termed gut-brain axis in the context of health/disease. Revealing the gut-brain axis has survived new hopes in the prevention, management, and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Accordingly, introducing novel alternative therapies in regulating the gut-brain axis seems to be an emerging concept to pave the road in fighting neurodegenerative diseases. Growing studies have developed marine-derived natural products as hopeful candidates in a simultaneous targeting of gut-brain dysregulated mediators towards neuroprotection. Of marine natural products, carotenoids (e.g., fucoxanthin, and astaxanthin), phytosterols (e.g., fucosterol), polysaccharides (e.g., fucoidan, chitosan, alginate, and laminarin), macrolactins (e.g., macrolactin A), diterpenes (e.g., lobocrasol, excavatolide B, and crassumol E) and sesquiterpenes (e.g., zonarol) have shown to be promising candidates in modulating gut-brain axis. The aforementioned marine natural products are potential regulators of inflammatory, apoptotic, and oxidative stress mediators towards a bidirectional regulation of the gut-brain axis. The present study aims at describing the gut-brain axis, the importance of gut microbiota in neurological diseases, as well as the modulatory role of marine natural products towards neuroprotection.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Animais , Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Disbiose , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/metabolismo , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/microbiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/fisiopatologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/isolamento & purificação
10.
Mar Drugs ; 19(4)2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810463

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to examine the effects of feeding laminarin (LAM) and fucoidan (FUC) enriched seaweed extracts up to d35 post-weaning on measures of animal performance, intestinal microbial and transcriptome profiles. 75 pigs were assigned to one of three groups: (1) basal diet; (2) basal diet + 250 ppm fucoidan; (3) basal diet + 300 ppm laminarin with 7 replicates per treatment group. Measures of performance were collected weekly and animals sacrificed on d35 post-weaning for the sampling of gastrointestinal tissue and digesta. Animal performance was similar between the basal group and the groups supplemented with FUC and LAM (P > 0.05). Pigs fed the basal diet had higher alpha diversity compared to both the LAM and FUC supplemented pigs (P < 0.05). Supplementation with LAM and FUC increased the production of butyric acid compared to basal fed pigs (P < 0.05). At genus level pigs fed the LAM supplemented diet had the greatest abundance of Faecalbacterium, Roseburia and the lowest Campylobacter of the three experimental treatments (P< 0.05). While neither extract had beneficial effects on animal performance, LAM supplementation had a positive influence on intestinal health through alterations in the gastrointestinal microbiome and increased butyrate production.


Assuntos
Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suplementos Nutricionais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Glucanos/administração & dosagem , Intestinos/microbiologia , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Alga Marinha/metabolismo , Sus scrofa/microbiologia , Fatores Etários , Ração Animal , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Butiratos/metabolismo , Glucanos/isolamento & purificação , Valor Nutritivo , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Sus scrofa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sus scrofa/metabolismo , Desmame
11.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803197

RESUMO

Fibrosis is a severe complication of chronic inflammatory disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Current strategies are not fully effective in treating fibrosis; therefore, innovative anti-fibrotic approaches are urgently needed. TGF-ß1 plays a central role in the fibrotic process by inducing myofibroblast differentiation and excessive extracellular matrix (ECM) protein deposition. Here, we explored the potential anti-fibrotic impact of two high concentration multi-strain probiotic formulations on TGF-ß1-activated human intestinal colonic myofibroblast CCD-18Co. Human colonic fibroblast CCD-18Co cells were cultured in the presence of TGF-ß1 to develop a fibrotic phenotype. Cell viability and growth were measured using the Trypan Blue dye exclusion test. The collagen-I, α-SMA, and pSmad2/3 expression levels were evaluated by Western blot analysis. Fibrosis markers were also analyzed by immunofluorescence and microscopy. The levels of TGF-ß1 in the culture medium were assessed by ELISA. The effects of commercially available probiotic products VSL#3® and Vivomixx® were evaluated as the soluble fraction of bacterial lysates. The results suggested that the soluble fraction of Vivomixx® formulation, but not VSL#3®, was able to antagonize the pro-fibrotic effects of TGF-ß1 on CCD-18Co cells, being able to prevent all of the cellular and molecular parameters that are related to the fibrotic phenotype. The mechanism underlying the observed effect appeared to be associated with inhibition of the TGF-ß1/Smad signaling pathway. To our knowledge, this study provides the first experimental evidence that Vivomixx® could be considered to be a promising candidate against intestinal fibrosis, being able to antagonize TGF-ß1 pro-fibrotic effects. The differences that were observed in our fibrosis model between the two probiotics used could be attributable to the different number of strains in different proportions.


Assuntos
Extratos Celulares/farmacologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/microbiologia , Enteropatias/prevenção & controle , Intestinos/patologia , Probióticos/química , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Processos de Crescimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Fibrose , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/complicações , Enteropatias/microbiologia , Enteropatias/patologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Miofibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenótipo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo
12.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(5): 1454-1466, 2021 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Host-microbiota interactions involving metabolic pathways have been linked to the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic disease and type 2 diabetes. As stable coronary artery disease (SCAD) patients combined with type 2 diabetes have significantly increased risk for cardiac event, we focused on elucidating the role of microbiota affecting cardiometabolic disease development. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used multi-omics analyses (metagenomics and metabolomics) of fecal and serum samples from a prospective cohort including stable coronary artery disease combined with diabetes mellitus (SCAD + T2DM, n = 38), SCAD (n = 71), and healthy control (HC, n = 55). We linked microbiome features to disease severity in a three-pronged association analysis and identified prognostic bacterial biomarkers. We identified that bacterial and metabolic signatures varied significantly between SCAD and SCAD + T2DM groups. SCAD + T2DM individuals were characterized by increased levels of aromatic amino acids and carbohydrates, which correlate with a gut microbiome with enriched biosynthetic potential. Our study also addressed how metformin may confound gut dysbiosis and increase the potential for nitrogen metabolism. In addition, we found that specific bacterial taxa Ruminococcus torques [HR: 2.363 (08-4.56), P = 0.03] was predictive of cardiac survival outcomes. CONCLUSION: Overall, our study identified relationships between features of the gut microbiota (GM) and circulating metabolites, providing a new direction for future studies aiming to understand the host-GM interplay in atherosclerotic cardiovascular pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/microbiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Intestinos/microbiologia , Idoso , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Clostridiales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clostridiales/metabolismo , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Disbiose , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Metabolômica , Metagenômica , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802883

RESUMO

The importance of the gut microbiota in human health is currently well established. It contributes to many vital functions such as development of the host immune system, digestion and metabolism, barrier against pathogens or brain-gut communication. Microbial colonization occurs during infancy in parallel with maturation of the host immune system; therefore, an adequate cross-talk between these processes is essential to generating tolerance to gut microbiota early in life, which is crucial to prevent allergic and immune-mediated diseases. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by an exacerbated immune reaction against intestinal microbiota. Changes in abundance in the gut of certain microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, and archaea have been associated with IBD. Microbes that are commonly found in high abundance in healthy gut microbiomes, such as F. prausnitzii or R. hominis, are reduced in IBD patients. E. coli, which is usually present in a healthy gut in very low concentrations, is increased in the gut of IBD patients. Microbial taxa influence the immune system, hence affecting the inflammatory status of the host. This review examines the IBD microbiome profile and presents IBD as a model of dysbiosis.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Sistema Imunitário/microbiologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/imunologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/microbiologia , Animais , Disbiose/microbiologia , Humanos , Hipótese da Higiene , Sistema Imunitário/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Intestinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Intestinos/microbiologia , Intestinos/patologia
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886445

RESUMO

A polyphasic taxonomic approach was used to characterize two novel bacterial strains, designated as HDW11T and HDW19T, isolated from intestine samples of the dark diving beetle Hydrophilus acuminatus and the diving beetle Cybister lewisianus, respectively. Both isolates were Gram-stain-positive, facultatively anaerobic and non-motile. Strain HDW11T grew optimally at 30 °C, pH 8 and in the presence of 1% (w/v) NaCl. Strain HDW19T grew optimally at 25 °C, pH 7 and in the presence of 0.3% (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and genome sequences revealed that strain HDW11T is a member of the genus Brevilactibacter and is closely related to Brevilactibacter flavus VG341T [with 97.9% 16S rRNA sequence identity and 79.1% average nucleotide identity (ANI)], and that strain HDW19T belongs to the genus Weissella and is closely related to W. koreensis KCTC 3621T (with 98.9% 16S rRNA sequence identity and 79.5% ANI). The major cellular fatty acids of strains HDW11T and HDW19T were C18:1 ω9c and anteiso-C15:0, respectively. The sole respiratory quinone of strain HDW11T was MK-9 (H4). The major polar lipid components of strain HDW11T were diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol, and the major polar lipid component of strain HDW19T was diphosphatidylglycerol. The genomic DNA G+C content of strains HDW11T and HDW19T were 72.1 and 37.2 mol%, respectively. The results of phylogenetic, phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic analyses suggest that strain HDW11T represents a novel species within the genus Brevilactibacter, and that strain HDW19T represents a novel species within the genus Weissella. We propose the name Brevilactibacter coleopterorum sp. nov. for strain HDW11T (=KACC 21335T=KCTC 49320T=JCM 33680T) and the name Weissella coleopterorum for strain HDW19T (=KACC 21347T=KCTC 43114T=JCM 33684T).


Assuntos
Besouros/microbiologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Filogenia , Propionibacteriaceae/classificação , Weissella/classificação , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Besouros/classificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , Propionibacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , República da Coreia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Weissella/isolamento & purificação
15.
Mar Drugs ; 19(3)2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809116

RESUMO

With the widespread occurrence of aquaculture diseases and the broad application of antibiotics, drug-resistant pathogens have increasingly affected aquatic animals' health. Marine probiotics, which live under high pressure in a saltwater environment, show high potential as a substitute for antibiotics in the field of aquatic disease control. In this study, twenty strains of non-hemolytic bacteria were isolated from the intestine of wild oysters and perch, and a model of Caenorhabditis elegans infected by Vibrio anguillarum was established. Based on the model, ML1206, which showed a 99% similarity of 16S rRNA sequence to Planococcus maritimus, was selected as a potential marine probiotic, with strong antibacterial capabilities and great acid and bile salt tolerance, to protect Caenorhabditis elegans from being damaged by Vibrio anguillarum. Combined with plate counting and transmission electron microscopy, it was found that strain ML1206 could significantly inhibit Vibrio anguillarum colonization in the intestinal tract of Caenorhabditis elegans. Acute oral toxicity tests in mice showed that ML1206 was safe and non-toxic. The real-time qPCR results showed a higher expression level of genes related to the antibacterial peptide (ilys-3) and detoxification (ugt-22, cyp-35A3, and cyp-14A3) in the group of Caenorhabditis elegans protected by ML1206 compared to the control group. It is speculated that ML1206, as a potential probiotic, may inhibit the infection caused by Vibrio anguillarum through stimulating Caenorhabditis elegans to secrete antibacterial effectors and detoxification proteins. This paper provides a new direction for screening marine probiotics and an experimental basis to support the potential application of ML1206 as a marine probiotic in aquaculture.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans/microbiologia , Planococáceas , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Vibrioses/prevenção & controle , Animais , Aquicultura , Feminino , Intestinos/microbiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Ostreidae/microbiologia , Planococáceas/genética , Planococáceas/isolamento & purificação , Probióticos/toxicidade , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Sobrevida , Vibrio/isolamento & purificação
16.
Front Immunol ; 12: 579140, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33746942

RESUMO

Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) is the most common autoimmune disease worldwide, characterized by chronic inflammation and circulating autoantibodies against thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin. Patients require hormone replacement with oral levothyroxine, and if untreated, they can develop serious adverse health effects and ultimately death. There is a lot of evidence that the intestinal dysbiosis, bacterial overgrowth, and increased intestinal permeability favor the HT development, and a thyroid-gut axis has been proposed, which seems to impact our entire metabolism. Here, we evaluated alterations in the gut microbiota in Brazilian patients with HT and correlated this data with dietary habits, clinical data, and systemic cytokines and zonulin concentrations. Stool samples from 40 patients with HT and 53 controls were analyzed using real-time PCR, the serum cytokine levels were evaluated by flow cytometry, zonulin concentrations by ELISA, and the dietary habits were recorded by a food frequency questionnaire. We observed a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the Bacteroides species and a decrease in Bifidobacterium in samples of patients with HT. In addition, Lactobacillus species were higher in patients without thyroid hormone replacement, compared with those who use oral levothyroxine. Regarding dietary habits, we demonstrated that there are significant differences in the consumption of vegetables, fruits, animal-derived proteins, dairy products, saturated fats, and carbohydrates between patients and control group, and an inverse correlation between animal-derived protein and Bacteroides genus was detected. The microbiota modulation by diet directly influences the inflammatory profile due to the generated microbiota metabolites and their direct or indirect action on immune cells in the gut mucosa. Although there are no differences in systemic cytokines in our patients with HT, we detected increased zonulin concentrations, suggesting a leaky gut in patients with HT. These findings could help understand the development and progression of HT, while further investigations to clarify the underlying mechanisms of the diet-microbiota-immune system axis are still needed.


Assuntos
Disbiose/imunologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Doença de Hashimoto/imunologia , Intestinos/imunologia , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Citocinas/sangue , Citocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Disbiose/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Haptoglobinas/imunologia , Haptoglobinas/metabolismo , Doença de Hashimoto/sangue , Doença de Hashimoto/microbiologia , Humanos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Intestinos/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Permeabilidade , Precursores de Proteínas/sangue , Precursores de Proteínas/imunologia , Precursores de Proteínas/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
17.
Front Immunol ; 12: 635471, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1133914

RESUMO

COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), and according to the World Health Organization (WHO), to date, SARS-CoV-2 has already infected more than 91.8 million people worldwide with 1,986,871 deaths. This virus affects mainly the respiratory system, but the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is also a target, meanwhile SARS-CoV-2 was already detected in oesophagus, stomach, duodenum, rectum, and in fecal samples from COVID-19 patients. Prolonged GIT manifestations in COVID-19, mainly the diarrhea, were correlated with decreased richness and diversity of the gut microbiota, immune deregulation and delayed SARS-CoV-2 clearance. So, the bidirectional interactions between the respiratory mucosa and the gut microbiota, known as gut-lung axis, are supposed to be involved in the healthy or pathologic immune responses to SARS-CoV-2. In accordance, the intestinal dysbiosis is associated with increased mortality in other respiratory infections, due to an exacerbated inflammation and decreased regulatory or anti-inflammatory mechanisms in the lungs and in the gut, pointing to this important relationship between both mucosal compartments. Therefore, since the mucous membranes from the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts are affected, in addition to dysbiosis and inflammation, it is plausible to assume that adjunctive therapies based on the modulation of the gut microbiota and re-establishment of eubiosis conditions could be an important therapeutic approach for constraining the harmful consequences of COVID-19. Then, in this review, we summarized studies showing the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 in the gastrointestinal system and the related digestive COVID-19 manifestations, in addition to the literature demonstrating nasopharyngeal, pulmonary and intestinal dysbiosis in COVID-19 patients. Lastly, we showed the potential beneficial role of probiotic administration in other respiratory infections, and discuss the possible role of probiotics as an adjunctive therapy in SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19/microbiologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Pulmão/microbiologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , COVID-19/terapia , Disbiose , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Intestinos/virologia , Pulmão/virologia , Probióticos
18.
Front Immunol ; 12: 635471, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33717181

RESUMO

COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), and according to the World Health Organization (WHO), to date, SARS-CoV-2 has already infected more than 91.8 million people worldwide with 1,986,871 deaths. This virus affects mainly the respiratory system, but the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is also a target, meanwhile SARS-CoV-2 was already detected in oesophagus, stomach, duodenum, rectum, and in fecal samples from COVID-19 patients. Prolonged GIT manifestations in COVID-19, mainly the diarrhea, were correlated with decreased richness and diversity of the gut microbiota, immune deregulation and delayed SARS-CoV-2 clearance. So, the bidirectional interactions between the respiratory mucosa and the gut microbiota, known as gut-lung axis, are supposed to be involved in the healthy or pathologic immune responses to SARS-CoV-2. In accordance, the intestinal dysbiosis is associated with increased mortality in other respiratory infections, due to an exacerbated inflammation and decreased regulatory or anti-inflammatory mechanisms in the lungs and in the gut, pointing to this important relationship between both mucosal compartments. Therefore, since the mucous membranes from the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts are affected, in addition to dysbiosis and inflammation, it is plausible to assume that adjunctive therapies based on the modulation of the gut microbiota and re-establishment of eubiosis conditions could be an important therapeutic approach for constraining the harmful consequences of COVID-19. Then, in this review, we summarized studies showing the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 in the gastrointestinal system and the related digestive COVID-19 manifestations, in addition to the literature demonstrating nasopharyngeal, pulmonary and intestinal dysbiosis in COVID-19 patients. Lastly, we showed the potential beneficial role of probiotic administration in other respiratory infections, and discuss the possible role of probiotics as an adjunctive therapy in SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19/microbiologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Pulmão/microbiologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , COVID-19/terapia , Disbiose , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Intestinos/virologia , Pulmão/virologia , Probióticos
19.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 320(5): R663-R674, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33655759

RESUMO

Exposure to early life stress (ELS) is associated with a greater risk of chronic disease development including depression and cardiovascular disease. Altered gut microbiota has been linked to both depression and cardiovascular disease in mice and humans. Rodent models of early life neglect are used to characterize the mechanistic links between early life stress (ELS) and the risk of disease later in life. However, little is understood about ELS exposure and the gut microbiota in the young mice and the influence of the maternal inheritance of the gut microbiota. We used a mouse model of ELS, maternal separation with early weaning (MSEW), and normally reared mice to determine whether the neonate microbiota is altered, and if so, are the differences attributable to changes in dam microbiota that are then transmitted to their offspring. Individual amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) displayed differential abundance in the microbiota of MSEW compared with normally reared pups at postnatal day (PD) 28. Additionally, ELS exposure reduced the alpha diversity and altered microbial community composition at PD28. The composition, levels of alpha diversity, and abundance of individual ASVs in the microbiota of dams were similar from MSEW or normally reared cohorts. Thus, the observed shifts in the abundance of individual bacterial ASVs in the neonates and young pups are likely driven by endogenous effects of MSEW in the offspring host and are not due to inherited differences from the dam. This knowledge suggests that exposure to ELS has a direct effect on microbial factors on the risk of chronic disease development.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Intestinos/microbiologia , Privação Materna , Herança Materna , Estresse Psicológico/microbiologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Comportamento Animal , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Disbiose , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Gravidez , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Desmame
20.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 898: 173984, 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647256

RESUMO

Intestinal ischemia is a vascular emergency that arises when blood flow to the intestine is compromised. Reperfusion is necessary to restore intestinal function but might lead to local and systemic inflammatory responses and bacterial translocation, with consequent multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). During reperfusion occurs production of reactive oxygen species. These species contribute to intestinal injury through direct toxicity or activation of inflammatory pathways. Fullerol is a nanacomposite which has been shown to act as reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) scavengers. Thus, our aim was to evaluate whether Fullerol confer anti-inflammatory activity during intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (IIR). Intestinal ischemia was induced by total occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery. Groups were treated with vehicle or Fullerol 10 min before reperfusion. Mice were euthanized after 6 h of reperfusion, and small intestines were collected for evaluation of plasma extravasation, leukocyte influx, cytokine production and histological damage. Bacterial translocation to the peritoneal cavity and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species production by lamina propria cells were also evaluated. Our results showed that treatment with Fullerol inhibited bacterial translocation to the peritoneal cavity, delayed and decreased the lethality rates and diminished neutrophil influx and intestinal injury induced by IIR. Reduced severity of reperfusion injury in Fullerol-treated mice was associated with blunted reactive oxygen and nitrogen species production in leukocytes isolated from gut lamina propria and decreased production of pro-inflammatory mediators. Thus, the present study shows that Fullerol is a potential therapy to treat inflammatory bowel disorders associated with bacterial translocation, such as IIR.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fulerenos/farmacologia , Intestinos/irrigação sanguínea , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Isquemia Mesentérica/tratamento farmacológico , Nanocompostos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle , Animais , Translocação Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Intestinos/microbiologia , Intestinos/patologia , Masculino , Isquemia Mesentérica/metabolismo , Isquemia Mesentérica/microbiologia , Isquemia Mesentérica/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Infiltração de Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Permeabilidade , Espécies Reativas de Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/microbiologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
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