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1.
Food Microbiol ; 109: 104150, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36309452

RESUMO

Routine monitoring of foodborne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes in food processing environments are time-consuming necessities to ensure food safety. Alternative rapid diagnostic methods for pathogen detection are increasingly used, but often demand specialized equipment, making them unsuitable for on-site testing. This short communication describes the successful demonstration of combining the sample preparation method Matrix-Lysis with a chemiluminescent based detection platform (AquaSpark™) for detection of L. monocytogenes in milk and yogurt. The proposed method was evaluated against qPCR resulting in 100% relative specificity for both foodstuffs and a relative sensitivity of 100% for milk as well as 96% for yogurt for bacterial levels >1 CFU/ml. Only at very low initial bacterial concentrations (<1 CFU/ml) diverging results were found highlighting the advantages and limitations of both methods. While being less susceptible to contamination and false positive results from non-growing or dead cells, qPCR had a slightly lower overall detection limit. However, it has to be pointed out that qPCR has an increased analytical cost and also requires an additional 24 h analysis time. This study demonstrates the first successful application of a chemilumonogenic detection approach for L. monocytogenes in food that has a high potential for on-site testing.


Assuntos
Listeria monocytogenes , Animais , Listeria monocytogenes/genética , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Laticínios/microbiologia , Leite/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Iogurte
2.
Nutrients ; 14(21)2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364843

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fermented foods are attracting increasing interest due to their nutritional and health benefits, including a positive impact on gut microbiota exerted by their associated microbes. However, information relative to traditional fermented dairy products, along with their autochthonous microbiota, is still fragmented and poorly standardized. Therefore, our aim was to collect and aggregate data useful for obtaining a comprehensive overview translated in a classical database interface that can be easily handled by users. METHODS: a preliminary inventory was built up by systematically collecting data from publicly available resources for the creation of a list of traditional dairy foods produced worldwide, including additional metadata useful for stratifying, and collapsing subgroups. RESULTS: we developed the Fermented Dairy Food Database (FDF-DB), a feasible resource comprising 1852 traditional dairy foods (cheeses, fermented milks, and yogurt) for which microbial content and other associated metadata such as geographical indication label, country/region of origin, technological aspects were gathered. CONCLUSIONS: FDF-DB is a useful and user-friendly resource where taxonomic information and processing production details converge. This resource will be of great aid for researchers, food industries, stakeholders and any user interested in the identification of technological and microbiological features characterizing traditional fermented dairy products.


Assuntos
Queijo , Produtos Fermentados do Leite , Alimentos Fermentados , Microbiota , Produtos Fermentados do Leite/microbiologia , Iogurte/análise , Queijo/microbiologia , Fermentação
3.
Nutrients ; 14(21)2022 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364884

RESUMO

Menopause is marked by a gradual and permanent decrease of estrogen from the ovaries, leading to metabolic and physiological changes in the body. Combined with increased body mass index, postmenopausal women have elevated systemic inflammation and metabolic disturbances leading to increased risk of developing chronic diseases. A bioactive coconut yoghurt containing curcumin and chlorogenic acid was developed with the potential to target inflammatory processes. In this randomized crossover study, healthy postmenopausal women with a BMI of 25-40 were recruited to consume 125 g of either the bioactive or placebo yoghurt. Blood samples were collected at baseline, 30 min, and 1, 2, 3 and 4 h postprandially. Plasma inflammatory markers (TNFα and IL6) and metabolic markers (triglycerides, insulin and glucose) were measured. Participants had significantly lower plasma TNFα Cmax after consumption of the bioactive yoghurt compared to placebo (mean difference = 0.3 pg/mL; p = 0.04). Additionally, plasma TNFα was significantly lower postprandially compared to baseline after consumption of the bioactive yogurt but not the placebo. No differences were observed in the metabolic markers measured. Conclusions: The bioactive yoghurt fortified with curcumin and chlorogenic acid has the potential to reduce inflammatory mediators; however, a larger and longer-term study is required to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Curcumina , Iogurte , Humanos , Feminino , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Ácido Clorogênico , Pós-Menopausa , Estudos Cross-Over , Inflamação/prevenção & controle
4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(21)2022 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36366047

RESUMO

The objectives of this study were to compare the properties of the yogurt-type bean-based beverages B and BG produced from the nongerminated and germinated beans, respectively, by high-pressure homogenization (HPH) and fermentation with three starter cultures. Optical techniques were used to evaluate the particle size distribution (PSD), color parameters, and instability during storage, while rheological tests were used to evaluate the shear viscosity, flow behavior, and viscoelastic properties. The BG compared to B, irrespective of the starter culture used, showed a higher mean diameter and Span of PSD (d4,3 ≈ 76.8-84.2, Span ≈ 2.24-2.35 for BG vs. d4,3 ≈ 38.2-47.0, Span ≈ 1.90-2.00 for B). The BG vs. B showed lower viscosity (0.47 Pa·s for BG vs. 0.81 Pa·s for B at shear rate 75 s-1) and slightly lower but satisfactory stability (after 21 days at 6 °C, the Turbiscan Stability Index TSI ≈ 1.3-2.0 for BG vs. TSI ≈ 0.6-0.9 for B). Both B and BG were characterized by light-yellow color and showed the characteristics of a viscoelastic fluid. The HPH and germination mainly affected the properties of the tested plant tissue, which has a direct impact on the properties of the final products.


Assuntos
Iogurte , Reologia , Viscosidade , Fermentação
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(45): 14439-14447, 2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36317964

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to determine the key odor-active compounds contributing to the off-flavor of aged pasteurized yogurt (APY) using sensory-directed flavor analysis. Additionally, different extraction methods were compared to determine their effects on the volatile compounds, including dynamic headspace sampling (DHS), solid-phase microextraction, and stir bar sorptive extraction, and DHS was found to be suitable for this study. The results showed that comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry analysis (GC × GC-O-MS) had more advantages in separating and identifying the volatile compounds than the traditional GC-O-MS. A total of 17 odor-active compounds were determined in the fresh pasteurized yogurt and APY samples by DHS coupled with GC × GC-O-MS. The dynamic headspace dilution analysis demonstrated that 2-heptanone and hexanal were the most vital components in APY with the highest flavor dilution factor. Furthermore, the spiking and omission experimental results revealed that the odor-active compounds, such as 2-heptanone, butanoic acid, pentanoic acid, hexanal, and (E)-2-heptenal, were the key odor-active off-flavor contributors in APY. Therefore, these compounds could be used as potential indicators to determine the freshness of pasteurized yogurt.


Assuntos
Odorantes , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Odorantes/análise , Iogurte/análise , Paladar , Olfatometria/métodos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
6.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 624, 2022 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36319988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously reported that 1-year-old infants born to mothers who regularly consumed fermented food during pregnancy had a lower risk of sleep deprivation. However, it is not known if these positive effects are enhanced when infants themselves eat fermented foods or the long-term effects of such consumption. In this study, we examined the association between the frequency of fermented food intake during the child's weaning period and sleep deprivation at age 1 and 3 years. METHODS: This birth cohort study used data from a nationwide, government-funded study called the Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS), covering 65,210 mother-child pairs. We examined the association between infants' consumption of fermented foods at 1 year of age and sleep deprivation at 1 and 3 years of age. RESULTS: There was no association between yogurt or cheese intake and sleep duration at age 1; at age 3, there was no group difference, although a trend test showed that yogurt intake at age 1 was significantly associated with sleep duration at age 3. There was also no association between the frequency of cheese intake and inadequate sleep duration at age 3. CONCLUSION: Frequency of children's yogurt and cheese intake at age 1 was not associated with sleep duration at age 1 or 3. However, a trend test showed a significant association between the frequency of yogurt intake at age 1 and sleep duration at age 3.


Assuntos
Queijo , Iogurte , Lactente , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Dieta , Estudos de Coortes , Privação do Sono , Japão , Ingestão de Alimentos
7.
Molecules ; 27(20)2022 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36296436

RESUMO

Yogurt is considered one of the most popular and healthy dairy products, and has been exploited as a delivery matrix for phenolic compounds. In this study, coffee powder was added to yogurt as a functional ingredient to produce coffee-fortified yogurt. Total phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and individual hydroxycinnamic acids have been identified and quantified through mass spectrometry. The results from coffee-fortified yogurt were compared with fermented coffee and plain yogurt. Coffee-fortified yogurt had higher total phenolic content and antioxidant activity compared to plain yogurt. However, the total phenolic compounds found in coffee-fortified yogurt represented only 38.9% of the original content in coffee. Caffeoylquinic acids were the most abundant phenolic compounds in coffee. Fermented coffee and coffee-fortified yogurt displayed lower amounts of individual phenolic compounds with respect to coffee (69.8% and 52.4% of recovery, respectively). A protective effect of the yogurt matrix on total and individual coffee phenolic compounds has been observed after in vitro digestion, resulting in a higher bioaccessibility in comparison with digested fermented coffee. Moreover, coffee-fortified yogurt showed the highest antioxidant values after digestion. These findings clearly demonstrate that coffee-fortified yogurt can be considered a significant source of bioaccessible hydroxycinnamic acids, besides its health benefits as a fermented dairy product.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Iogurte , Antioxidantes/análise , Iogurte/análise , Café/química , Ácidos Cumáricos/análise , Pós , Fenóis/análise
8.
Food Funct ; 13(21): 10937-10946, 2022 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36205641

RESUMO

In recent years, bioactive lipids particularly medium-chain triglycerides and conjugated linolenic fatty acids have obtained more attention due to their possible applicability in obesity metabolism modulation. These compounds are capable to increase thermogenesis and reduce weight gain through the modulation of key neurohormones such as leptin and adiponectin. The purpose of this work was to develop functional yogurts through the addition of coconut (rich in medium-chain fatty acids) or pomegranate oils (rich in conjugated linolenic acids). The presence of these oils led to a significant alteration in the nutritional value of yogurts, showing a capacity to reduce the accumulation of lipids in hepatocytes and increase the release of triglycerides in adipocytes. These results demonstrate that functional yogurts can be a valuable strategy for obesity prevention.


Assuntos
Ácidos Linolênicos , Iogurte , Humanos , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais , Obesidade
9.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 94(3): e20211274, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36259825

RESUMO

In this research, we aimed to evaluate the effects of various medicinal and aromatic plant aqueous extracts on physicochemical, rheological, sensorial properties of probiotic yogurts and the viability of yogurt bacteria and probiotic bacteria during the storage period. On the 28 day of storage, the maximum Bifidobacterium longum and Lacticaseibacillus casei counts were determined in thyme containing yogurt and mint and basil containing yogurt, respectively. On the 1st day of storage, the most favoured yogurt was garlic containing sample while on the 14th day, the control sample was the most favoured one. Hardness values were not showed statistically difference for all sample (p>0.05). Especially the garlic and mint yogurt samples were more liked in terms of sensory properties. Consequently, aqueous extracts of some plants such as garlic, basil and thyme have successfully used in probiotic yogurt production and all yogurt samples containing plants have the enough probiotic counts to show therapeutic effect on human health.


Assuntos
Lactobacillus casei , Ocimum basilicum , Probióticos , Humanos , Iogurte , Reologia
10.
J Dairy Sci ; 105(12): 9404-9416, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36307239

RESUMO

Low-fat, healthy yogurt is becoming increasingly favored by consumers. In the present study, whey protein emulsion gel microparticles were used to improve the quality of low-fat yogurt, and the effects of vegetable oil emulsion gel as a fat substitute on the qualities of low-fat yogurt were investigated, expecting to obtain healthier and even more excellent quality low-fat yogurt by applying a new method. First, emulsion gel microparticles were prepared, and then particle size distribution of emulsion gel and water holding capacity (WHC), textural properties, rheological properties, microstructure, storage stability, and sensory evaluation of yogurt were carried out. The results showed that yogurt with emulsion gel had significantly superior qualities than yogurt made with skim milk powder, with better WHC, textural properties, rheological properties, and storage stability. The average particle size of whey protein-vegetable oil emulsion gel microparticles was significantly larger than that of whey protein-milk fat emulsion gel microparticles, and the larger particle size affected the structural stability of yogurt. The WHC of yogurt made with whey protein-vegetable oil emulsion gel microparticles (V-EY) was lower (40.41%) than that of yogurt made with whey protein-milk fat emulsion gel microparticles (M-EY; 42.81%), and the texture results also showed that the hardness, consistency, and viscosity index of V-EY were inferior to these of M-EY, whereas no significant differences were found in the cohesiveness. Interestingly, the microstructure of V-EY was relatively flatter, with more and finer network branching. The whey separation between V-EY and M-EY also did not show significant differences during the 14 d of storage. Compared with yogurt made with whey protein, vegetable oil, and skim milk powder, the structure of V-EY remained relatively stable and had no cracks after 14 d of storage. The sensory evaluation results found that the total score of V-EY (62) was only lower than M-EY (65) and significantly higher than that of yogurt made with skim milk powder. The emulsion gel addition improved the sensory qualities of yogurt. Whey protein emulsion gel microparticles prepared from vegetable oil can be applied to low-fat yogurt to replace fat and improve texture and sensory defects associated with fat reduction.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Leite , Iogurte , Animais , Iogurte/análise , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/química , Emulsões , Proteínas do Leite/metabolismo , Pós , Óleos Vegetais , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos
11.
J Dairy Sci ; 105(12): 9488-9495, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36270874

RESUMO

The global market for plant-based products is increasing at a faster rate than the market for traditional dairy products. Current regulations provide standards for those traditional dairy products but lack the same regulations for similar plant-based products. Resulting from this difference in regulation is consumer confusion over the differences between the 2 types of products. The purpose of this review paper was to understand how the differences between traditional dairy and plant-based dairy-like products could affect litigation by consumer and dairy manufacturers against potential misleading labeling. A review of the available literature found 4 relevant articles for analysis. Consumers and manufacturers can pursue claims against potentially misleading product labeling but must provide sufficient evidence to prove deception or injury. Past litigation against plant-based products for being misleading has ruled in favor of the plant-based defendants. These rulings were based on the notion that reasonable consumers would not be misled. Consumer and manufacturing advocates for dairy products should focus more resources on the education of consumers rather than litigation if the goal is to promote dairy products. Long-term regulatory changes could be made through the Defending Against Imitations and Replacements of Yogurt, Milk, and Cheese to Promote Regular Intake of Dairy Everyday Act, which is currently under legislative review.


Assuntos
Queijo , Rotulagem de Produtos , Animais , Humanos , Laticínios , Leite , Iogurte , Estudantes
12.
Food Funct ; 13(20): 10769-10789, 2022 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36190456

RESUMO

As we know, milk and yogurt have good nutritional value and it is reported that some peptides can induce tolerance to alleviate or eliminate cow's milk allergy (CMA). However, there is a lack of detailed information on the peptides after digestion which could induce tolerance. In this study, the distribution pattern of digested proteins was detected during gastrointestinal digestion in infants and adults by Tricine-SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC, and the digestive products were transported by the model of Caco-2 cells and the sequence of peptides was identified by LC-MS/MS. Residual allergenicity was evaluated by indirect ELISA during gastrointestinal digestion and the released peptides were aligned with T cell/IgE epitopes and biological functions by prediction software and previous information. These results indicated that the major allergens in yogurt were more easily digested with stronger transport capacity and had lower IgE-binding capacity. We obtained 113 peptides from the major allergens in the digested products and 38 of these peptides existed in all the digested products, among which 13 peptides had specific biological functions, such as ACE-inhibitory, antimicrobial and DPP-IV inhibitory properties. Although there was no obvious difference in the number of epitopes between fresh milk and yogurt, the difference in the properties and content of specific peptides might be the key factor for the difference in allergenicity. Most importantly, 11 peptides that contained T cell epitopes but not IgE epitopes might induce immune tolerance in CMA, which should be confirmed further.


Assuntos
Alérgenos , Hipersensibilidade a Leite , Animais , Células CACO-2 , Bovinos , Cromatografia Líquida , Digestão , Epitopos de Linfócito T , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E , Proteínas do Leite , Peptídeos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Iogurte
13.
Food Res Int ; 161: 111822, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36192891

RESUMO

The Covid-19 pandemic has strongly impacted people's lives and the food industry. In this sense, food products claiming nutritional and health-promoting benefits due to the presence of bioactive peptides and probiotics, such as Greek-style yogurt, have been in demand. The objective of this work was to investigate, through word association, the perception of the consumers regarding the seven concepts related to Greek-style yogurt (traditional, ultra-creamy, zero fat, high content proteins, zero lactose, light and with no added sugars), in the context of social isolation due to Covid-19. In this online survey, 346 participants completed a questionnaire. The participants were divided according to health concerns (increased, not changed, or decreased) and eating habits (improved, not changed, or worsened) during the Covid-19 pandemic. Chi-square and prototypical analysis were used as statistical tests. During the Covid-19 pandemic, based on self-report, around 66% of the participants had their eating habits and their concerns about health changed. The general associations were related to the categories pleasure, health, creamy, pleasant texture, food restriction, and loss of sensory quality. 'Health' and 'pleasure' were negatively associated with the conceptualization of Greek-style yogurt. For the zero-fat, light, and sugar-free Greek-style yogurts, the terms creamy and ultra-creamy are sensory appealing to the consumers. In general, the price and concerns about health are factors that strongly influence the purchase intention of Greek-style yogurts. The yogurts were associated with sensory and non-sensory characteristics, which can be useful for marketing strategies for of different product concepts.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Iogurte , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactose , Pandemias , Tecnologia , Iogurte/análise
14.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 414(28): 8047-8062, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36117194

RESUMO

Currently, there are no available methods for accurate quantitation of gluten in fermented or hydrolyzed foods. In this study, gluten-incurred yogurt was used as a calibrant with a multiplex-competitive ELISA to quantitate gluten in fermented dairy products such as yogurt, kefir, and buttermilk, followed by a single-laboratory validation of the method. Four-parameter logistic calibration curves using five gluten-specific antibodies (R5, G12, 2D4, MIoBS, and Skerrit) were constructed, and averaging of the antibody responses was used as a strategy to get a single quantitative value. The lower limits of detection (LLOD) and quantitation (LLOQ) of the method were 1.9 and 5.5 µg/mL (ppm), respectively. Analysis of wheat gluten-incurred fermented dairy products (5, 8, 20, 100, and 500 µg/mL) prepared with multiple starter cultures and fermented for 24 or 48 h resulted in average gluten recoveries of 69-165%, 57-167%, and 54-148% for yogurt, kefir, and buttermilk, respectively. Only a few samples exceeded 150% recovery. The average coefficient of variation (CV) ranged from 10 to 34%, with the majority of the samples having a CV of < 30%. Experimental variations such as long-term refrigerated storage, spiking gluten after initial fermentation, using higher than recommended starter culture concentrations, or using wheat flour for contamination resulted in acceptable gluten recovery (50-150%) for the majority of the samples. Comparison of the performance of this method with a commercial competitive ELISA showed that the method has greater quantitative accuracy. This newly developed and validated method appears sufficiently sensitive and accurate to quantitate the amount of wheat gluten before fermentation, in select fermented dairy products.


Assuntos
Produtos Fermentados do Leite , Glutens , Triticum , Farinha/análise , Iogurte , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Fermentação , Laticínios
15.
J Food Sci ; 87(10): 4674-4687, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36101021

RESUMO

Fungal agents emerged as post-pasteurization contamination are responsible for the spoilage in yogurt drink. In this work, the antifungal effects of some lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on the spoilage yeasts isolated from yogurt drink (Doogh) were evaluated. First, the microbial growth in the yogurt drink samples during the storage time was investigated, and the isolated microorganisms were identified using biochemical methods and sequencing of the specific amplicons. Yeasts (3-7 log CFU ml-1 ) were found to be the most abundant microorganisms (specific spoilage organisms) in several samples. Using the amplification technique of rDNA by ITS1 and ITS4 primers, the dominant yeasts were identified as Pichia kudriavzevii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Candida parapsilosis. Then, the antimicrobial activity of 37 strains of LAB against the isolated yeasts was studied using broth microdilution. Eventually, the strains of Lacticplantibacillus plantarum (245, 24, P6, and P7), Lactiplantibacillus pentosus (20), and Levilactobacillus brevis (30) exhibited significant antifungal activity. In the most effective impacts, lag times of C. parapsilosis, K. marxianus, and P. kudriavzevii were increased by almost 12-19 h, 12-19 h, and 2-6 h, respectively, while the area under the growth curve for these yeasts was reduced to lower than 40%, near 16%, and approximately 67%, in the order given. Overall, these bacteria showed high potential as the substituents for chemical preservatives in yogurt drinks. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Spoilage yeasts were isolated from yogurt drink and identified by molecular method. Isolated yeasts belonged to Pichia, Kluyveromyces, and Candida genera. Inhibitory effects of 37 strains were evaluated against the spoilage yeasts. Cell-free supernatant was used against the isolated fungi in microdilution method. Several LAB strains showed a significant antimicrobial activity.


Assuntos
Lactobacillales , Iogurte , Iogurte/microbiologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Leveduras , Pichia/genética , DNA Ribossômico , Microbiologia de Alimentos
16.
Nutrition ; 103-104: 111802, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36063723

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Functional constipation is a gastrointestinal disorder that affects millions of people and is correlated with gut microbiome dysbiosis. The currently available treatments are ineffective; therefore, novel treatment schemes targeting the gut microbiome are desired. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of yogurt supplemented with seven probiotic strains and six types of dietary fibers on functional constipation. METHODS: In the mouse study, mice with induced constipation were administered the yogurt once a day for 1 wk, with fecal parameters and intestinal transit rate measured. In the clinical study, participants with constipation (N = 86) were given the yogurt once daily (200 g) for 4 wk. Fecal and blood samples along with Patient Assessment of Constipation-symptoms and Patient Assessment of Constipation-Quality of Life Scale questionnaires were collected to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the yogurt. Shotgun metagenomic sequencing was performed to analyze fecal samples of both mice and humans. RESULTS: We found that constipated mice had different gut microbiomes compared with those in healthy controls; yogurt treatment significantly relieved constipation-related symptoms and resulted in shifts in the microbiome. Yogurt also relieved symptoms of antibiotic-induced constipation in mice and restored the gut microbiome to a certain extent. In the clinical trial with 86 patients, yogurt administration significantly improved constipation symptoms and showed no serious adverse effects (was generally considered safe). However, subsequent metagenomic profiling of the gut microbiome did not reveal significant changes in the microbial composition, in contrast to the results in mice. We hypothesize that the differences in dosage between mice and humans may attribute to such discrepancies, and microbiome changes may not be necessary for improvements of constipation symptoms in humans. CONCLUSION: Results from this study showed that yogurt can potentially be used for the treatment of constipation.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Prebióticos , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Iogurte , Qualidade de Vida , Constipação Intestinal/terapia
17.
Nutrients ; 14(17)2022 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36079781

RESUMO

Previous studies on consumer yogurt preferences have mainly focused on added sugar, nutrient content, and health claims, leaving several knowledge gaps that should be filled through in-depth research. In this study, a more complete multi-attribute preference model was developed using the number of probiotic types, type of milk source, presence of edible gels (GEL), and usage of health food labels as the main yogurt attributes. A choice experiment (CE) was then conducted to investigate the relationship between multiple attribute preferences and willingness-to-pay (WTP). A total of 435 valid questionnaires were collected by the convenience sampling method. The results show that (1) respondents highly value the health food label (HEA), followed by the number of probiotic types (PRO); (2) the highest WTP in the conditional logit (CL) model was New Taiwan Dollar (NTD) (USD 10.5 for HEA, and the lowest was NTD 1.0 for 100% milk powder (MLK2); (3) in the random-parameter logit (RPL) model, the highest WTP was NTD 14.6 for HEA, and the lowest was NTD 2.8 for GEL; (4) the most preferred attribute combination of yogurt was "8 or more probiotic types", "a blend of raw milk and milk powder", "the absence of edible gels", "the presence of a health food label", and "a price premium of NTD 6-10"; (5) married respondents with children were more willing to pay extra for yogurt products with a higher number of probiotic types and a health food label. The results may help the food industry understand and pay attention to consumer needs, which will, in turn, provide a reference for future product development and marketing strategies.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Iogurte , Criança , Comportamento de Escolha , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Pós , Taiwan
18.
Food Res Int ; 160: 111398, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36076366

RESUMO

The effects of Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 (BC30) as supplementation on yogurt fermentation and storage were investigated in this study. Over 14 d of storage at 4 °C, we monitored changes in multiple parameters, including pH, titratable acidity, bacterial level, texture profiles, volatile flavor compounds, and sensory quality. BC30 supplementation improved fermented milk acidification and proteolysis. The bacterial level was significantly higher at the fermentation termination (5.59 log CFU/mL) than the fermentation initiation (6.86 log CFU/mL) (P < 0.05), indicating that BC30 own the potential to serve as an adjunct start culture. During the storage period, a high bacterial level of BC30 was detected. With prolonged storage, the yogurt samples supplemented with BC30 showed a decrease in firmness and an increase in viscosity. Furthermore, 12 discriminatory volatiles of BC30 fermented yogurt were detected during storage. Notably, the contents of some important diketones (2,3-butanedione and 3-hydroxy-2-butanone) increased continuously during storage, peaking at 14 d. The BC30-supplemented fermented milk had similar human sensory scores to the control group. Comparative genomic analysis between BC30 and B. coagulans-70 indicated that both these two strains showed the potentially to survive in the dairy environment. Our results will be of interest to the dairy industry to develop novel functional dairy products.


Assuntos
Bacillus coagulans , Probióticos , Animais , Fermentação , Humanos , Leite/química , Iogurte/microbiologia
19.
Food Res Int ; 160: 111751, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36076472

RESUMO

Yogurt is a fermented dairy product of high nutritional value, very popular in many parts of the world. Free fatty acids (FFAs), which are formed during fermentation, may cause changes in organoleptic properties of yogurt, and thus, the determination of FFAs is of importance. We present a liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) method, which allows the simultaneous determination of a large set of common and uncommon FFAs in yogurt samples, avoiding any derivatization step. Twenty-five common saturated and unsaturated FAs, together with 21 saturated hydroxy fatty acids (SHFAs) and 17 saturated oxo fatty acids (SOFAs), were analyzed in 26 cow and 7 sheep Greek yogurt samples. A detailed analysis of bioactive SHFAs and SOFAs was carried out in yogurt samples for the first time. Differences at the concentrations of six common FAs and five oxidized FAs between the cow and sheep samples were observed. Based on these FAs, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) allows the discrimination of cow from sheep yogurt samples.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados , Iogurte , Animais , Bovinos , Cromatografia Líquida , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/análise , Feminino , Espectrometria de Massas , Ovinos , Iogurte/análise
20.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0270306, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36112580

RESUMO

Obesity is a leading global health problem contributing to various chronic diseases, including type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of this study was to investigate whether blueberries, yoghurt, and their respective bioactive components, Cyanidin-3-O-ß-glucoside (C3G) and peptides alone or in combinations, alter the expression of genes related to glucose metabolism in skeletal muscles from diet-induced obese mice. In extensor digitorum longus (EDL), yoghurt up-regulated the expression of activation of 5'adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), and down-regulated the expression of angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AGTR-1). The combination of blueberries and yoghurt down-regulated the mRNA expression of AGTR-1 and Forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1) in the EDL. Whereas the combination of C3G and peptides down-regulated AGTR-1 and up-regulated GLUT4 mRNA expression in the EDL. In the soleus, blueberries and yoghurt alone, and their combination down-regulated AGTR-1 and up-regulated GLUT4 mRNA expression. In summary blueberries and yoghurt, regulated multiple genes associated with glucose metabolism in skeletal muscles, and therefore may play a role in the management and prevention of T2DM.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta) , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Glucose , Obesidade , Iogurte , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Monofosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Antocianinas/farmacologia , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/química , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Proteína Forkhead Box O1/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Glucose/metabolismo , Proteínas Facilitadoras de Transporte de Glucose/metabolismo , Proteínas Substratos do Receptor de Insulina/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Obesos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositóis/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Receptores de Angiotensina/metabolismo
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