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1.
BMC Vet Res ; 20(1): 192, 2024 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38734600

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Natural antimicrobial agents such as nisin were used to control the growth of foodborne pathogens in dairy products. The current study aimed to examine the inhibitory effect of pure nisin and nisin nanoparticles (nisin NPs) against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and E.coli O157:H7 during the manufacturing and storage of yoghurt. Nisin NPs were prepared using new, natural, and safe nano-precipitation method by acetic acid. The prepared NPs were characterized using zeta-sizer and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In addition, the cytotoxicity of nisin NPs on vero cells was assessed using the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of nisin and its nanoparticles were determined using agar well-diffusion method. Further, fresh buffalo's milk was inoculated with MRSA or E.coli O157:H7 (1 × 106 CFU/ml) with the addition of either nisin or nisin NPs, and then the inoculated milk was used for yoghurt making. The organoleptic properties, pH and bacterial load of the obtained yoghurt were evaluated during storage in comparison to control group. RESULTS: The obtained results showed a strong antibacterial activity of nisin NPs (0.125 mg/mL) against MRSA and E.coli O157:H7 in comparison with control and pure nisin groups. Notably, complete eradication of MRSA and E.coli O157:H7 was observed in yoghurt formulated with nisin NPs after 24 h and 5th day of storage, respectively. The shelf life of yoghurt inoculated with nisin nanoparticles was extended than those manufactured without addition of such nanoparticles. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the present study indicated that the addition of nisin NPs during processing of yoghurt could be a useful tool for food preservation against MRSA and E.coli O157:H7 in dairy industry.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Escherichia coli O157 , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nanopartículas , Nisina , Iogurte , Nisina/farmacologia , Nisina/química , Iogurte/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli O157/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/química , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Conservantes de Alimentos/farmacologia , Células Vero , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Chlorocebus aethiops , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos
2.
Nutrients ; 16(9)2024 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38732617

RESUMO

Cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) are contaminants of food of animal origin. Increased levels of these compounds in the human body are associated with an increased risk of many non-communicable diseases. Dairy products are mentioned among the main sources of these compounds in the diet. The objective of this study was to evaluate the contents of cholesterol and its oxidized derivatives in eleven groups of dairy products, willingly consumed in European countries. The levels of COPs were determined by applying the GC-TOF/MS method. In the tested products, cholesterol and its oxidation derivatives, such as 7-ketocholesterol, 7α-hydroxycholesterol, 7ß-hydroxycholesterol, 5,6ß-epoxycholesterol and 5,6α-epoxycholesterol, were determined. The studied dairy products differed in their contents and profiles of oxysterols. The highest contents of COPs were found in cheese with internal mold (13.8 ± 2.5 mg kg-1) and Cheddar (11.7 ± 3.5 mg kg-1), while the lowest levels were detected in yoghurt (0.94 ± 0.30 mg kg-1) and kefir (0.57 ± 0.11 mg kg-1). 7-ketocholesterol and 5,6ß-epoxycholesterol were the dominant oxysterols. The ratio of oxidized derivatives to total cholesterol was on average 1.7%. Our results confirmed that dairy products are an important dietary source of COPs. Their levels should be monitored in dairy products to provide the best health quality.


Assuntos
Colesterol , Laticínios , Oxirredução , Laticínios/análise , Colesterol/análise , Colesterol/análogos & derivados , Cetocolesteróis/análise , Humanos , Oxisteróis/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Iogurte/análise , Europa (Continente) , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise
3.
Nutrients ; 16(9)2024 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38732641

RESUMO

Numerous studies have investigated the immunomodulatory effects of yogurt, but the underlying mechanism remained elusive. This study aimed to elucidate the alleviating properties of yogurt on immunosuppression and proposed the underlying mechanism was related to the metabolite D-lactate. In the healthy mice, we validated the safety of daily yogurt consumption (600 µL) or D-lactate (300 mg/kg). In immunosuppressed mice induced by cyclophosphamide (CTX), we evaluated the immune regulation of yogurt and D-lactate. The result showed that yogurt restored body weight, boosted immune organ index, repaired splenic tissue, recovered the severity of delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions and increased serum cytokines (IgA, IgG, IL-6, IFN-γ). Additionally, yogurt enhanced intestinal immune function by restoring the intestinal barrier and upregulating the abundance of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. Further studies showed that D-lactate alleviated immunosuppression in mice mainly by promoting cellular immunity. D-lactate recovered body weight and organ development, elevated serum cytokines (IgA, IgG, IL-6, IFN-γ), enhanced splenic lymphocyte proliferation and increased the mRNA level of T-bet in splenic lymphocyte to bolster Th1 differentiation. Finally, CTX is a chemotherapeutic drug, thus, the application of yogurt and D-lactate in the tumor-bearing mouse model was initially explored. The results showed that both yogurt (600 µL) and D-lactate (300 mg/kg) reduced cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression without promoting tumor growth. Overall, this study evaluated the safety, immune efficacy and applicability of yogurt and D-lactate in regulating immunosuppression. It emphasized the potential of yogurt as a functional food for immune regulation, with D-lactate playing a crucial role in its immunomodulatory effects.


Assuntos
Ciclofosfamida , Citocinas , Ácido Láctico , Iogurte , Animais , Camundongos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Citocinas/metabolismo , Masculino , Terapia de Imunossupressão , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/metabolismo , Baço/imunologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Hipersensibilidade Tardia/imunologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactobacillus , Bifidobacterium
4.
Food Funct ; 15(8): 4475-4489, 2024 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38563737

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the anti-obesity effects and underlying mechanism of Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus HF01 fermented yogurt (HF01-Y). Herein, obesity was induced in mice through a high-fat diet and the changes in the gut microbiota were evaluated using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, combined with the expression levels of the liver AMPK signaling pathway to analyze the potential relationship between HF01-Y-mediated gut microbiota and obesity. The results showed that supplementation with HF01-Y improved obesity-related phenotypes in mice, including reduced body weight, improved serum lipid profiles, and decreased hepatic lipid droplet formation. In addition, HF01-Y altered the composition of the gut microbiota in obese mice, significantly upregulated norank_f__Muribaculaceae, unclassified_c__Clostridia, Blautia, unclassified_o__Bacteroidales, and Rikenellaceae_RC9_gut_group, while downregulating unclassified_f__Desulfovibrionaceae, Colidextribacter, and unclassified_f__Oscillospiraceae. These alterations led to an increase of the cecum butyric acid content, which in turn indirectly promoted the activation of the AMPK signaling pathway, subsequently, inhibited fat synthesis, and promoted fatty acid oxidation related gene expression. Therefore, HF01-Y was likely to alleviate hepatic fat and relieve obesity by modulating the gut microbiota-butyric acid-hepatic lipid metabolism axis, ultimately promoting host health.


Assuntos
Ácido Butírico , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade , Iogurte , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Camundongos , Masculino , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Iogurte/microbiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/microbiologia , Ácido Butírico/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Fermentação , Humanos , Probióticos/farmacologia
5.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek ; 117(1): 63, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561518

RESUMO

Phage resistance is crucial for lactic acid bacteria in the dairy industry. However, identifying all phages affecting these bacteria is challenging. CRISPR-Cas systems offer a resistance mechanism developed by bacteria and archaea against phages and plasmids. In this study, 11 S. thermophilus strains from traditional yogurts underwent analysis using next-generation sequencing (NGS) and bioinformatics tools. Initial characterization involved molecular ribotyping. Bioinformatics analysis of the NGS raw data revealed that all 11 strains possessed at least one CRISPR type. A total of 21 CRISPR loci were identified, belonging to CRISPR types II-A, II-C, and III-A, including 13 Type II-A, 1 Type III-C, and 7 Type III-A CRISPR types. By analyzing spacer sequences in S. thermophilus bacterial genomes and matching them with phage/plasmid genomes, notable strains emerged. SY9 showed prominence with 132 phage matches and 30 plasmid matches, followed by SY12 with 35 phage matches and 25 plasmid matches, and SY18 with 49 phage matches and 13 plasmid matches. These findings indicate the potential of S. thermophilus strains in phage/plasmid resistance for selecting starter cultures, ultimately improving the quality and quantity of dairy products. Nevertheless, further research is required to validate these results and explore the practical applications of this approach.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos , Streptococcus thermophilus , Streptococcus thermophilus/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Iogurte , Bacteriófagos/genética , Plasmídeos/genética
6.
Open Vet J ; 14(3): 779-786, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38682148

RESUMO

Background: Milk-borne bacteria cause degradation of milk products and constitute a significant risk to public health. Aim: The objectives of the present study are to determine the microbiological quality of dairy products and to investigate pathogenic microorganisms. Methods: A total of 60 samples of raw milk, homemade cheese, and yogurt were randomly selected from different retail marketplaces in Basrah. The bacteriological and biochemical tests were utilized to identify the pathogens in dairy samples, as well as the molecular technique was used as an accurate diagnostic test. Results: The prevalence of contamination of milk products with various isolates was estimated as 50% (95% Cl: 36.8-63.2). The mean of total bacteria count for cheese was 7.29 ± 2.70, raw milk 4.62 ± 2.86, and yogurt 2.87 ± 1.05, with a significant p-value (p = 0.001). The mean count of aerobic spore-forming (ASF) contaminated raw milk was analyzed as 3.77 ± 1.18 and less contamination detected in the yogurt samples with mean of ASF was estimated as 2.52 ± 1.47 SD log 10 CFU/ml. A range of important microorganisms to human health were identified by employing the VITEK_2 system and sequencing 16S rDNA gene, including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aerogenosa, and Bacillus cereus. Conclusion: The study indicates that there is a high level of bacterial contamination in dairy products with different bacteria species, which is medically important. Therefore, food safety management must be implemented to reduce biological risks carried by dairy products and ensure healthy food for consumers.


Assuntos
Laticínios , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Leite , Animais , Laticínios/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Leite/microbiologia , Medição de Risco , Iraque/epidemiologia , Queijo/microbiologia , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/classificação , Iogurte/microbiologia
7.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 29(4): 159, 2024 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38682205

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The effect of the daily consumption of a low-fat yogurt (150 g) enriched with Platelet-Activating Factor receptor (PAF-R) antagonists, or the plain one, on gut microbiota and faecal metabolites was investigated in healthy overweight subjects. METHODS: A randomized, three-arm, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study was performed that lasted 8 weeks. Blood and stools were collected and analyzed before and after the intervention. RESULTS: Our findings revealed that the intake of the enriched yogurt resulted in a significant increase in the levels of Bifidobacterium spp., Clostridium perfringens group and Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes (F/B) ratio. On the other hand, a significant increase in the levels of Lactobacillus and C. perfringens group was detected after the intake of the plain yogurt. The increase in the levels of C. perfringens group was inversely associated with the plasma catabolic enzyme of PAF, namely LpPLA2 (lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2), a cardiovascular risk marker that has been linked with inflammation and atherosclerosis. Moreover, in the enriched with PAF-R antagonists yogurt group, the increased levels of C. perfringens group were also associated with lower PAF action assessed as ex vivo human platelet-rich plasma (PRP) aggregation. Additionally, a higher % increase in molar ratio of Branched Short Chain Fatty Acids (BSCFAs) was detected for both yogurt groups after the 8 week-intervention compared to control. The consumption of the enriched yogurt also resulted in a significant drop in faecal caproic levels and a trend for lower ratio of butyrate to total volatile fatty acids (VFAs) compared to baseline levels. CONCLUSION: Yogurt consumption seems to favorably affect gut microbiota while its enrichment with PAF-R antagonists from olive oil by-products, may provide further benefits in healthy overweight subjects. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02259205).


Assuntos
Fezes , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Azeite de Oliva , Sobrepeso , Fator de Ativação de Plaquetas , Iogurte , Humanos , Iogurte/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrepeso/metabolismo , Sobrepeso/microbiologia , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/química , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fator de Ativação de Plaquetas/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas da Membrana de Plaquetas/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas da Membrana de Plaquetas/antagonistas & inibidores
8.
Food Res Int ; 184: 114259, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609239

RESUMO

The potential to produce protein-structured vegan yogurts with legumes was explored to offer an alternative to conventional polysaccharide-based varieties. Glucono-δ-lactone (GDL) was employed as a slow acidifying agent and was investigated for its ability to generate cold-set, yogurt-like gels using soy and lentil milks made using minimal processing steps. Soy (5.3 % protein) and lentil (6.1 % protein) milks were successfully gelled by GDL at concentrations of 0.5 % and 1 % w/w. Soy and lentil milks experienced similar acidification profiles and demonstrated good fits with double-exponential decay models. The physical properties of these legume gels were evaluated and compared to a commercial stirred dairy yogurt. Penetration tests were carried out on intact gels, then repeated after stirring. All intact soy samples demonstrated significantly stronger gel structures compared to the commercial yogurt, and most experienced greater amounts of brittleness. Results showed that the stirring of gels caused a notable decrease in firmness and brittleness in the soy gels, making them more similar to the control. Power-law modelling of viscosity curves demonstrated that all samples experienced non-Newtonian flow behavior (n < 0.29). Susceptibility to syneresis was measured by the degree of liquid loss following centrifugation. The optimization of protein type and GDL concentration to replicate the physical properties of dairy-based yogurts can enhance their consumer acceptance and provide a more customizable and controlled approach alternative to traditional fermentation methods.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Gluconatos , Lactonas , Lens (Planta) , Animais , Leite , Iogurte , Verduras , Géis
9.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 36(1): 75, 2024 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38502263

RESUMO

Mediterranean diet includes fermented dairy products like yogurt and cheese. These foods provide calcium, phosphorus, fat, carbohydrates and protein, all nutrients influencing various systems including bone, cardiovascular system, intermediary metabolism, cancer, central nervous system, and inflammation. In addition, they contain prebiotics and provide probiotics which are capable of modifiying microbiota composition and metabolism, potentially acting also indirectly on the various systems. A large body of evidence indicates that fermented dairy products consumption significantly contributes to the beneficial effects of a Mediterranean diet on various systems' health.


Assuntos
Produtos Fermentados do Leite , Dieta Mediterrânea , Probióticos , Humanos , Iogurte , Cálcio da Dieta , Dieta
11.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 105: 106857, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38552299

RESUMO

This work investigated the effects of the combined use of thermosonication-preconditioned lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with the addition of ultrasound-assisted pineapple peel extracts (UU group) on the post-acidification potential, physicochemical and functional qualities of yogurt products, aimed at achieving prolonged preservation and enhancing functional attributes. Accordingly, the physical-chemical features, adhesion properties, and sensory profiles, acidification kinetics, the contents of major organic acids, and antioxidant activities of the differentially processed yogurts during refrigeration were characterized. Following a 14-day chilled storage process, UU group exhibited acidity levels of 0.5-2 oT lower than the control group and a higher lactose content of 0.07 mg/ml as well as unmodified adhesion potential, indicating that the proposed combination method efficiently inhibited post-acidification and delayed lactose metabolism without leading to significant impairment of the probiotic properties. The results of physicochemical analysis showed no significant changes in viscosity, hardness, and color of yogurt. Furthermore, the total phenolic content of UU-treated samples was 98 µg/mL, 1.78 times higher than that of the control, corresponding with the significantly lower IC50 values of DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities of the UU group than those of the control group. Observations by fluorescence inverted microscopy demonstrated the obvious adhesion phenomenon with no significant difference found among differentially prepared yogurts. The results of targeted metabolomics indicated the proposed combination strategy significantly modified the microbial metabolism, leading to the delayed utilization of lactose and the inhibited conversion into glucose during post-fermentation, as well as the decreased lactic acid production and a notable shift towards the formation of relatively weak acids such as succinic acid and citric acid. This study confirmed the feasibility of thermosonication-preconditioned LAB inocula, in combination with the use of natural active components from fruit processing byproducts, to alleviate post-acidification in yogurt and to enhance its antioxidant activities as well as simultaneously maintaining sensory features.


Assuntos
Ananas , Antioxidantes , Fermentação , Extratos Vegetais , Iogurte , Iogurte/microbiologia , Iogurte/análise , Ananas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Sonicação , Temperatura , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Qualidade dos Alimentos
12.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 265(Pt 2): 131087, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38521311

RESUMO

Extrusion is typically employed to prepare resistant starch (RS). However, the process is complicated. In this study, the effects of twin-screw extrusion on the crystallinity, thermal properties, and functional properties of starch formed in different extrusion zones were investigated. The effects of this process on the rheological properties and microstructure of RS-added skimmed yogurt were also studied. According to the results, the RS content increased from 7.40 % in the raw material to 33.79 % in the extrudate. The A-type crystal structure of the starch was not observed. The dissociation temperature of the extruded starch ranged from 87.76 °C to 100.94 °C. The glycemic index (GI) of skimmed yogurt fortified with 0.4 % RS was 48.7, and the viscosity was also improved. The microstructure exhibited a uniform network of the starch-protein structure. The findings may serve as a theoretical basis for the application of RS in the food industry.


Assuntos
Oryza , Amido Resistente , Oryza/química , Iogurte , Amido/química , Temperatura
13.
Food Funct ; 15(7): 3824-3837, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38511617

RESUMO

In this study, the effects of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum M11 (Lb. plantarum M11) in conjunction with sodium caseinate on the characteristics and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of yogurt were investigated. ACE inhibitory peptides (ACEIPs) in yogurt were identified by nano-LC-MS/MS and potential ACEIPs were predicted by in silico and molecular docking methods. The results showed that the ACE-inhibitory activity of yogurt was significantly enhanced (p < 0.05), while maintaining the quality characteristics of the yogurt. Thirteen ACEIPs in the improved yogurt (883 + M11-CS group) were identified, which were more abundant than the other yogurt groups (control 883 group, 883 + M11 group and 883-CS group). Two novel peptides with potential ACE inhibitory activity, YPFPGPIH and NILRFF, were screened. The two peptides showed PeptideRanker scores above 0.8, small molecular weight and strong hydrophobicity, and were non-toxic after prediction. Molecular docking results showed that binding energies with ACE were -9.4 kcal mol-1 and -10.7 kcal mol-1, respectively, and could bind to the active site of ACE. These results indicated that yogurt with Lb. plantarum M11 and sodium caseinate has the potential to be utilized as a functional food with antihypertensive properties. The combination of ACEIP-producing strains and casein fortification could be an effective method to promote the release of ACEIPs from yogurt.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina , Lactobacillus plantarum , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/química , Caseínas/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Iogurte , Peptídeos/química
14.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6398, 2024 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38493249

RESUMO

This study investigates the probiotic and anti-cancer effects of 21 isolated Lactobacillus strains from cheese, milk, and yogurt in Kermanshah, Iran, on oral cancer cell lines KB and OSCC. Four selected isolates (Y33, M45, C5, and C28) displayed good viability and resistance to specific antibiotics. Notably, strains C28 and Y33 exhibited the best results, showing susceptibility or semi-susceptibility to five antibiotics. Y33, with high cell surface hydrophobicity (62%), demonstrated significant anti-pathogenic activity, inhibiting the growth of tested pathogens and displaying strong adhesion to human intestinal Caco-2 cells (52%). Further assessments, including acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining and mRNA expression analysis, revealed four isolates (C5, C28, M45, and Y33) with promising probiotic properties. Particularly, Y33's protein-based extract metabolites showed dose- and time-dependent inhibition of KB and OSCC cancer cell lines, inducing apoptosis without significant cytotoxic effects on normal cells. Y33 (Lactiplantibacillus plantarum) exhibited the strongest probiotic potential, surpassing conventional anti-cancer drugs, suggesting its therapeutic potential for preventing oral cancer cell proliferation and improving survival rates in oral cancer patients.


Assuntos
Queijo , Neoplasias Bucais , Probióticos , Humanos , Animais , Lactobacillus , Leite , Células CACO-2 , Iogurte , Probióticos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia
15.
Food Res Int ; 181: 114112, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38448111

RESUMO

The incorporation of nanostructures loaded with bioactive compounds into food matrices is a promising approach to develop new functional foods with improved nutritional, health profiles and good sensorial properties. The rheological and tribological properties of yogurt enriched with curcumin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) were evaluated. Also, the TCA solubility index, the bioaccessibility of curcumin and cell viability were assessed after dynamic in vitro digestion. The presence of SLN in yogurt did not affect its rheological properties; however, SLN addition increased the lubrication capability of yogurt. After in vitro digestion, yogurt with added SLN (yogurt_SLN) presented a lower TCA solubility index (22 %) than the plain yogurt (39 %). The bioaccessibility and stability of curcumin were statistically similar for yogurt_SLN (30 % and 42 %, respectively) and SLN alone (20 % and 39 %, respectively). Regarding cell viability results, the intestinal digesta filtrates of both controls (i.e., SLN alone and plain yogurt) did not affect significantly the cell viability, while the yogurt_SLN presented a possible cytotoxic effect at the concentrations tested. In general, the incorporation of SLN into yogurt seemed to promote the mouthfeel of the yogurt and did not adversely affect the bioaccessibility of curcumin. However, the interaction of SLN and yogurt matrix seemed to have a cytotoxic effect after in vitro digestion, which should be further investigated. Despite that, SLN has a high potential to be used as nanostructure in a functional food as a strategy to increase the bioactive compounds' bioaccessibility.


Assuntos
Curcumina , Lipossomos , Nanopartículas , Curcumina/farmacologia , Iogurte , Alimento Funcional , Digestão
16.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 26(6): 2239-2247, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38454743

RESUMO

AIM: The ingestion of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum OLL2712 (OLL2712) cells has been shown to improve glucose metabolism by suppressing chronic inflammation in murine models and clinical studies. This study aimed to clarify the effect of OLL2712 on glycaemic control in healthy adults with prediabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group design. Adult participants with prediabetes [n = 148, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) range: 5.6%-6.4%, age range: 20-64 years] were assigned randomly to placebo or OLL2712 groups (n = 74/group) and administered daily for 12 weeks either conventional yogurt or yogurt containing >5 × 109 heat-treated OLL2712 cells, respectively. In addition, the participants were followed for 8 weeks after the discontinuation of either yogurt. The primary outcome was the changes in HbA1c levels at weeks 12 and 16 by analysis of covariance. RESULTS: The levels of HbA1c and glycoalbumin decreased significantly in both groups at week 12 in comparison with those at week 0, but only in the OLL2712 group at week 16. HbA1c levels decreased significantly at weeks 12 and 16 in the OLL2712 group in comparison with the placebo group (p = .014 and p = .006, respectively). No significant inter- and intragroup differences in HbA1c levels were observed at week 20. CONCLUSIONS: The ingestion of OLL2712 prevents the deterioration of glycaemic control and maintains the HbA1c levels within the normal range in adults with prediabetes; yogurt probably exhibits similar effects, which may contribute to reducing the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Hemoglobinas Glicadas , Controle Glicêmico , Estado Pré-Diabético , Probióticos , Iogurte , Humanos , Método Duplo-Cego , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Estado Pré-Diabético/dietoterapia , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue , Estado Pré-Diabético/terapia , Adulto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , Hemoglobinas Glicadas/análise , Hemoglobinas Glicadas/metabolismo , Controle Glicêmico/métodos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem , Lactobacillus plantarum
17.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 90(3): e0193623, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38376234

RESUMO

In the context of sustainable diet, the development of soy-based yogurt fermented with lactic acid bacteria is an attractive alternative to dairy yogurts. To decipher the metabolism of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii during soy juice (SJ) fermentation, the whole genome of the strain CIRM-BIA865 (Ld865) was sequenced and annotated. Then Ld865 was used to ferment SJ. Samples were analyzed throughout fermentation for their cell number, carbohydrate, organic acid, free amino acid, and volatile compound contents. Despite acidification, the number of Ld865 cells did not rise, and microscopic observations revealed the elongation of cells from 3.6 µm (inoculation) to 36.9 µm (end of fermentation). This elongation was observed in SJ but not in laboratory-rich medium MRS. Using transcriptomic analysis, we showed that the biosynthesis genes of peptidoglycan and membrane lipids were stably expressed, in line with the cell elongation observed, whereas no genes implicated in cell division were upregulated. Among the main sugars available in SJ (sucrose, raffinose, and stachyose), Ld865 only used sucrose. The transcriptomic analysis showed that Ld865 implemented the two transport systems that it contains to import sucrose: a PTS system and an ABC transporter. To fulfill its nitrogen needs, Ld865 probably first consumed the free amino acids of the SJ and then implemented different oligopeptide transporters and proteolytic/peptidase enzymes. In conclusion, this study showed that Ld865 enables fast acidification of SJ, despite the absence of cell division, leads to a product rich in free amino acids, and also leads to the production of aromatic compounds of interest. IMPORTANCE: To reduce the environmental and health concerns related to food, an alternative diet is recommended, containing 50% of plant-based proteins. Soy juice, which is protein rich, is a relevant alternative to animal milk, for the production of yogurt-like products. However, soy "beany" and "green" off-flavors limit the consumption of such products. The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) used for fermentation can help to improve the organoleptic properties of soy products. But metabolic data concerning LAB adapted to soy juice are lacking. The aim of this study was, thus, to decipher the metabolism of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii during fermentation of a soy juice, based on a multidisciplinary approach. This result will contribute to give tracks for a relevant selection of starter. Indeed, the improvement of the organoleptic properties of these types of products could help to promote plant-based proteins in our diet.


Assuntos
Lactobacillales , Lactobacillus delbrueckii , Animais , Fermentação , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Lactobacillales/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Glycine max , Sacarose/metabolismo , Lactobacillus delbrueckii/genética , Iogurte/microbiologia
18.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 263(Pt 1): 130303, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38382785

RESUMO

Aqueous lupine seeds (Lupinus albus L.) extracts were evaluated as a natural fat substitute in low-fat yogurt production. Thus, the chemical composition, particle size, molecular weight, total phenolic (TPC), and total flavonoids (TFC) of the selected extract were estimated. Also, the antimicrobial activity and antioxidant capacity of selected extract were investigated. Yogurt with neutral lupine extract (NeLP) had the highest all sensorial attributes compared to other extracts. Also, the incorporation of NeLP during low-fat yogurt processing increased the solid content, and viscosity, as well as improved the textural profile and sensorial attributes without any negative effect on the yogurt's color. SEM micrographs of NeLP-yogurt microstructure showed a matrix characterized by large fused casein micelles clusters with comparatively lower porosity compared to control yogurt (without NeLP). The chemical composition of NeLP indicated that the major sugar constituents are glucose and galactose with different molar fractions. The molecular weight of NeLP is 460.5 kDa with a particle size of 1519.9 nm. Also, IC50 of NeLP is 0.589 mg/ml, while TPC and TFC are 7.17, and 0.0137 g/100 g sample, respectively. Hence, lupine neutral extract (0.25%) could be used as a fat replacer or texture improver ingredient in such low-fat yogurt which led to improved its characteristics without any negative defect during 7 days at 5 °C.


Assuntos
Lupinus , Iogurte/análise , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Verduras , Extratos Vegetais , Sementes/metabolismo
19.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 263(Pt 2): 130428, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38403217

RESUMO

The oral processing of yogurt is a dynamic process involving a series of deformation processes. Rheological knowledge is essential to understand the structure and flow properties of yogurt in the mouth and to explore its relationship with sensory perception. Yogurt is rheologically characterized as a non-Newtonian viscoelastic material. The rheological properties of yogurt are affected by many factors, from production to consumption. Therefore, rheological measurements are widely used to predict and control the final quality and structure of yogurts. Recent studies focus on the elucidation of the effects of cultures and processes used in production, as well as the design of different formulations to improve the rheological properties of yogurts. Moreover, the science of tribology, which dominates the surface properties of interacting substances in relative motion to evaluate the structural sensation in the later stages of eating in addition to the rheological properties that give the feeling of structure in the early stages of eating, has also become the focus of recent studies. For a detailed comprehension of the rheological properties of yogurt, this review deals with the factors affecting the rheology of yogurt, analytical methods used to determine rheological properties, microstructural and rheological characterization of yogurt, and tribological evaluations.


Assuntos
Sensação , Iogurte , Viscosidade , Reologia , Propriedades de Superfície
20.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 262(Pt 1): 129952, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38320635

RESUMO

Yoghurt fermented by Leuconostoc mesenteroides XR1 from Kefir grains was found to produce a unique silk drawing phenomenon. This property was found to be associated with the exopolysaccharides (EPS), X-EPS, produced by strain XR1. In order to better understand the mechanism that produced this phenomenon, the X-EPS was extracted, purified and characterized. The molecular weight and monosaccharide composition were determined by size exclusion chromatography coupled with multi-angle laser light scattering (SEC-MALLS) and ion chromatography (IC) analysis, respectively. The results showed that its molecular weight was 4.183 × 106 g/mol and its monosaccharide composition was glucose, and glucuronic acid, with the contents of 567.6148 and 0.2096 µg/mg, respectively. FT-IR and NMR analyses showed that X-EPS was an α-pyranose polysaccharide and was composed of 92.22 % α-(1 â†’ 6) linked d-glucopyranose units and 7.77 % α-(1 â†’ 3) branching. Furthermore, it showed a chain-like microstructure with branches in atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) experiments. These results suggested that the unique structure of X-EPS, gave the yoghurt a strong viscosity and cohesiveness, which resulted in the silk drawing phenomenon. This work suggested that X-EPS holds the potential for food and industrial applications.


Assuntos
Leuconostoc mesenteroides , Leuconostoc/química , Iogurte , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/química , Monossacarídeos
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