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1.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1380539, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38952738

RESUMO

Objectives: To date there is no universally accepted model that describes the development of substance related addictive behavior. In order to address this gap, the study sought to examine whether the association between primary emotions and the inclination toward addictive behavior is mediated by an anxious attachment style. Methods: The total sample consisted of 900 German speaking non-clinical adults (age: M = 27; SD = 9.60; 71.6% female). Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was applied to examine the connection between the primary emotions (SADNESS and ANGER), and the latent variables attachment anxiety and symptoms of addictive behavior. Results: Substance use symptomatology was correlated with higher attachment anxiety (r = 0.15), SADNESS (r = 0.15), and ANGER (r = 0.11). The effect of SADNESS on addictive behavior is mediated by attachment anxiety (p < 0.01) whereas ANGER had a direct effect on addictive behavior (p < 0.01). The final SEM explains 4% of the variance of addictive behaviors and 22% of attachment anxiety. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that both SADNESS and ANGER, along with attachment anxiety, are dispositions that contribute to the risk of engaging in addictive behavior. However, while ANGER directly influences addictive behavior, SADNESS acts through its impact on attachment anxiety.


Assuntos
Ira , Ansiedade , Comportamento Aditivo , Apego ao Objeto , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Alemanha , Emoções , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem , Tristeza/psicologia , Adolescente
2.
Int J Equity Health ; 23(1): 136, 2024 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38982412

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mental health inequality between migrants and non-migrants was exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. Identifying key determinants of this inequality is essential in promoting health equity. METHODS: This cross-sectional study recruited Shanghai residents by purposive sampling during the city-wide lockdown (from April 29 to June 1, 2022) using an online questionnaire. Migration statuses (non-migrants, permanent migrants, and temporary migrants) were identified by migration experience and by household registration in Shanghai. Mental health symptoms (depression, anxiety, loneliness, and problematic anger) were assessed by self-report scales. The nonlinear Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition was used to quantify mental health inequality (i.e., differences in predicted probabilities between migration groups) and the contribution of expected correlates (i.e., change in predicted probability associated with variation in the correlate divided by the group difference). RESULTS: The study included 2738 participants (771 [28.2%] non-migrants; 389 [14.2%] permanent migrants; 1578 [57.6%] temporary migrants). We found inequalities in depression (7.1%) and problematic anger (7.8%) between permanent migrants and non-migrants, and inequalities in anxiety (7.3%) and loneliness (11.3%) between temporary migrants and non-migrants. When comparing permanent migrants and non-migrants, age and social capital explained 12.7% and 17.1% of the inequality in depression, and 13.3% and 21.4% of the inequality in problematic anger. Between temporary migrants and non-migrants, age and social capital also significantly contributed to anxiety inequality (23.0% and 18.2%) and loneliness inequality (26.5% and 16.3%), while monthly household income (20.4%) and loss of monthly household income (34.0%) contributed the most to anxiety inequality. CONCLUSIONS: Significant inequalities in depression and problematic anger among permanent migrants and inequalities in anxiety and loneliness among temporary migrants were observed. Strengthening social capital and economic security can aid in public health emergency preparedness and promote mental health equity among migrant populations.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Depressão , Solidão , Saúde Mental , Migrantes , Humanos , China , Masculino , Migrantes/psicologia , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , COVID-19/psicologia , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Depressão/psicologia , Solidão/psicologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , SARS-CoV-2 , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem , Ira , População do Leste Asiático
3.
BMC Psychol ; 12(1): 387, 2024 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38987815

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The mainstream view in trait aggression research has regarded the structure as representing the latent cause of the cognitions, emotions, and behaviors that supposedly reflect its nature. Under network perspective, trait aggression is not a latent cause of its features but a dynamic system of interacting elements. The current study uses network theory to explain the structure of relationships between trait aggression features in juvenile offenders and their peers. METHODS: Network analysis was applied to investigate the dynamic system of trait aggression operationalized by the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire in a sample of community youths (Mage = 17.46, N = 715) and juvenile offenders (Mage = 18.36, N = 834). RESULTS: The facet level networks showed that anger is a particularly effective mechanism for activating all other traits. In addition, anger was more strongly associated with physical aggression and the overall network strength was greater in juvenile delinquency networks than in their peers. The item level networks revealed that A4 and A6 exhibited the highest predictability and strength centrality in both samples. Also, the Bayesian network indicated that these two items were positioned at the highest level in the model. There are similarities and differences between juvenile delinquents and community adolescents in trait aggression. CONCLUSION: Trait aggression was primarily activated by difficulty controlling one's temper and feeling like a powder keg.


Assuntos
Agressão , Delinquência Juvenil , Humanos , Agressão/psicologia , Adolescente , Masculino , Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia , Feminino , Criminosos/psicologia , Ira , Grupo Associado , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem , Teorema de Bayes
4.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1496, 2024 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38835010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has been the most widespread and threatening health crisis experienced by the Korean society. Faced with an unprecedented threat to survival, society has been gripped by social fear and anger, questioning the culpability of this pandemic. This study explored the correlation between social cognitions and negative emotions and their changes in response to the severe events stemming from the COVID-19 pandemic in South Korea. METHODS: The analysis was based on a cognitive-emotional model that links fear and anger to the social causes that trigger them and used discursive content from comments posted on YouTube's COVID-19-related videos. A total of 182,915 comments from 1,200 videos were collected between January and December 2020. We performed data analyses and visualizations using R, Netminer 4.0, and Gephi software and calculated Pearson's correlation coefficients between emotions. RESULTS: YouTube videos were analyzed for keywords indicating cognitive assessments of major events related to COVID-19 and keywords indicating negative emotions. Eight topics were identified through topic modeling: causes and risks, perceptions of China, media and information, infection prevention rules, economic activity, school and infection, political leaders, and religion, politics, and infection. The correlation coefficient between fear and anger was 0.462 (p < .001), indicating a moderate linear relationship between the two emotions. Fear was the highest from January to March in the first year of the COVID-19 outbreak, while anger occurred before and after the outbreak, with fluctuations in both emotions during this period. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirmed that social cognitions and negative emotions are intertwined in response to major events related to the COVID-19 pandemic, with each emotion varying individually rather than being ambiguously mixed. These findings could aid in developing social cognition-emotion-based public health strategies through education and communication during future pandemic outbreaks.


Assuntos
Ira , COVID-19 , Medo , Mídias Sociais , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Medo/psicologia , Surtos de Doenças , Gravação em Vídeo , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemias
5.
J Pers Soc Psychol ; 126(4): 602, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38869873

RESUMO

Reports an error in "Anger has benefits for attaining goals" by Heather C. Lench, Noah T. Reed, Tiffany George, Kaitlyn A. Kaiser and Sophia G. North (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Advanced Online Publication, Oct 30, 2023, np). In the article (https://doi.org/10.1037/pspa 0000350), the first paragraph in the Method section of Study 4 has been revised. All paragraphs in the Results section of Study 4 have been revised. Table 1 and Figure 5 have been updated. All versions of this article have been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2024-17814-001.) Functional accounts of emotion have guided research for decades, with the core assumption that emotions are functional-they improve outcomes for people. Based on functional accounts of emotion, we theorized that anger should improve goal attainment in the presence of challenges. In seven studies, goal attainment was assessed in situations that involved varying levels of challenges to goal attainment. Across studies, anger compared to a neutral condition resulted in behavior that facilitated greater goal attainment on tasks that involved challenges. With a goal to solve difficult puzzles, anger resulted in more puzzles correctly solved (Study 1). With a goal to attain prizes, anger increased cheating rates and numbers of unearned prizes (Study 2). With a goal to do well in a video game, anger increased scores on a game with challenges to be avoided, but not other scores (Study 3). In two studies, examining the consequences of anger in response to the challenging task that was the focus of that anger, anger decreased reaction time with goals to win trials (Study 4), and predicted making the effort to vote in two contentious elections (Study 5). With a goal to protect financial resources, anger increased action taken to prevent loss compared to a physiological arousal condition (Study 6). (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Ira , Objetivos , Humanos , Ira/fisiologia , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Feminino , Masculino
6.
Accid Anal Prev ; 205: 107686, 2024 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38909484

RESUMO

Partially automated systems are expected to reduce road crashes related to human error, even amongst professional drivers. Consequently, the applications of these systems into the taxi industry would potentially improve transportation safety. However, taxi drivers are prone to experiencing driving anger, which may subsequently affect their takeover performance. In this research, we explored how driving anger emotion affects taxi drivers' driving performance in various takeover scenarios, namely Mandatory Automation-Initiated transition (MAIT), Mandatory Driver-Initiated transition (MDIT), and Optional Driver-Initiated transition (ODIT). Forty-seven taxi drivers participated in this 2·3 mixed design simulator experiment (between-subjects: anger vs. calmness; within-subjects: MAIT vs. MDIT vs. ODIT). Compared to calmness, driving anger emotion led to a narrower field of attention (e.g., smaller standard deviations of horizontal fixation points position) and worse hazard perception (e.g., longer saccade latency, smaller amplitude of skin conductance responses), which resulted in longer takeover time and inferior vehicle control stability (e.g., higher standard deviations of lateral position) in MAIT and MDIT scenarios. Angry taxi drivers were more likely to deactivate vehicle automation and take over the vehicle in a more aggressive manner (e.g., higher maximal resulting acceleration, refusing to yield to other road users) in ODIT scenarios. The findings will contribute to addressing the safety concerns related to driving anger among professional taxi drivers and promote the widespread acceptance and integration of partially automated systems within the taxi industry.


Assuntos
Ira , Automação , Condução de Veículo , Humanos , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Masculino , Adulto , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Simulação por Computador , Atenção , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle
7.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0297650, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38865311

RESUMO

This paper uses data from the American Voices Project, an interview study based on a random population sample, to explore the relationship between assault experiences and how people narrate their lives. Using quantitative sentiment analysis, we find that survivors of assault express significantly greater negative sentiment when asked to tell their life stories. These negative sentiments are observable throughout the entire interview, including before questions of assault are asked. Survivors of assault narrate their experiences with more anger, disgust, fear, and sadness, and less anticipation, joy, and trust than those who do not report assault experiences. We provide evidence that the negative sentiment associated with sexual violence is greater than having lost a parent and less than having experienced a significant financial hardship within the last month. We contextualize these findings with a qualitative evaluation of the interview transcripts, further substantiating our finding. Overall, this paper suggests that sexual violence is part of what we have called, drawing inspiration from the work of Beth Richie, a "matrix of harm" that structures people's lives. While our finding is consistent with what we might expect given the negative life experiences and sequalae associated with sexual assault, it has important implications. Sentimental differences in narrating life experience are an important yet relatively understudied phenomenon, and experiences of assault are rarely asked about yet may be consequential to both quantitative and qualitative accounts of social processes.


Assuntos
Delitos Sexuais , Sobreviventes , Humanos , Feminino , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Masculino , Adulto , Narração , Adulto Jovem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Ira , Adolescente , Emoções
8.
Aggress Behav ; 50(4): e22162, 2024 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38940213

RESUMO

Aggressive behaviors have been related to approach/avoidance tendencies. In our current study, we investigated whether approach/avoidance tendencies for angry versus fearful emotional expressions were differentially predictive of children's reactive and proactive aggression. A total of 116 children (58 girls, Mage = 10.90, standard deviation SDage = 0.98) completed an approach/avoidance task (AAT) and a stimulus-response compatibility task (SRCT), both measuring the extent to which they tended to approach or avoid angry and fearful facial expressions relative to neutral facial expressions. Children also completed a self-report scale of reactive and proactive aggression. Although none of the approach/avoidance tendency scores correlated significantly with either of the aggression scores, stronger approach tendencies for angry faces and stronger avoidance tendencies for fearful faces in the AAT predicted more reactive aggression. Similar yet nonsignificant results were found for proactive aggression, but no effects were replicated in the SRCT. Our results thus invite the conclusion that reactive aggression is characterized by a tendency to approach angry faces and a tendency to avoid fearful faces. However, the poor discrimination between both types of aggression as well as the lack of convergence between the results of our two measures of approach/avoidance tendencies indicates that further research is needed to establish the role of approach/avoidance tendencies for emotional faces as markers for childhood aggression.


Assuntos
Agressão , Ira , Expressão Facial , Humanos , Agressão/psicologia , Feminino , Masculino , Criança , Ira/fisiologia , Medo/psicologia , Aprendizagem da Esquiva/fisiologia , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia
9.
Int Emerg Nurs ; 75: 101475, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38896916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Effective communication plays a crucial role in establishing strong relationships and providing essential support in clinical situations. This study was conducted to investigate the mediator role of mindfulness in the relationship between the listening skills and anger management skills of healthcare professionals working in the emergency department (ED). METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study, which was conducted with 230 emergency department healthcare professionals (EHCPs) working in adult EDs in Turkey. Sociodemographic Characteristics Data Collection Form, Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS), Listening Skills Assessment Scale (LSAS), and Anger Management Scale (AMS) were used for data collection. Descriptive statistics included frequency and percentage; t test and ANOVA test were used for statistical analyses, as was "Process Macro 3.5 Model 4", which was used to study the effect of mediator variables. RESULTS: The participants had a mean MAAS score of 57.71 ± 12.38, a mean LSAS score of 45.36 ± 6.23, and a mean AMS score of 17.93 ± 3.39. There were significant positive correlations between LSAS and MAAS (r = 0.197, p < 0.001), between AMS and MAAS (r = 0.233p < 0.001), and between AMS and LSAS r = 0.24p < 0.001). In addition, the process model analysis results supported that MAAS had a partial mediator role in the correlation between LSAS and AMS, and that its indirect effects were predicted by LSAS and AMS. It was determined that 5.75 % of total change on AMS was predicted by LSAS (F = 13.918; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate that as the mindfulness level of EHCPs increases, their listening and anger management skills increased. Therefore, reinforcing mindfulness by integrating mindfulness interventions into in-service training and applying strategies that promote EHCPs' listening skills and anger management skills would make it possible to provide quality health care with employees who are more efficient in conflict management and enjoy a higher level of satisfaction.


Assuntos
Ira , Pessoal de Saúde , Atenção Plena , Humanos , Atenção Plena/métodos , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Turquia , Estudos Transversais , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
Compr Psychiatry ; 133: 152495, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728844

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Recent technology has enabled researchers to collect ecological momentary assessments (EMA) to examine within-person correlates of suicidal thoughts. Prior studies examined generalized temporal dynamics of emotions and suicidal thinking over brief periods, but it is not yet known how variable these processes are across people. METHOD: We use data EMA data delivered over two weeks with youth/young adults (N = 60) who reported past year self-injurious thoughts/behaviors. We used group iterative multiple model estimation (GIMME) to model group- and person-specific associations of negative emotions (i.e., fear, sadness, shame, guilt, and anger) and suicidal thoughts. RESULTS: 29 participants (48.33%) reported at least one instance of a suicidal thought and were included in GIMME models. In group level models, we consistently observed autoregressive effects for suicidal thoughts (e.g., earlier thoughts predicting later thoughts), although the magnitude and direction of this link varied from person-to-person. Among emotions, sadness was most frequently associated with contemporaneous suicidal thoughts, but this was evident for less than half of the sample, while other emotional correlates of suicidal thoughts broadly differed across people. No emotion variable was linked to future suicidal thoughts in >14% of the sample, CONCLUSIONS: Emotion-based correlates of suicidal thoughts are heterogeneous across people. Better understanding of the individual-level pathways maintaining suicidal thoughts/behaviors may lead to more effective, personalized interventions.


Assuntos
Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica , Emoções , Ideação Suicida , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Adulto , Tristeza/psicologia , Ira , Vergonha , Medo/psicologia , Culpa
11.
J Vis ; 24(5): 14, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38814935

RESUMO

Facial color influences the perception of facial expressions, and emotional expressions bias how facial color is remembered. However, it remains unclear whether facial expressions affect daily facial color memory. The memory color effect demonstrates that knowledge about typical colors affects the perception of the actual color of given objects. To investigate the effect of facial color memory, we examined whether the memory color effect for faces varies depending on facial expression. We calculated the subjective achromatic point of the facial expression image stimulus and compared the degree to which it was shifted from the actual achromatic point between facial expression conditions. We hypothesized that if the memory of facial color is influenced by the facial expression color (e.g., anger is a warm color, fear is a cold color), then the subjective achromatic point would vary with facial expression. In Experiment 1, we recruited 13 participants who adjusted the color of facial expression stimuli (anger, neutral, and fear) and a banana stimulus to be achromatic. No significant differences in the subjective achromatic point between facial expressions were observed. Subsequently, we conducted Experiment 2 with 23 participants because Experiment 1 did not account for the sensitivity to color changes on the face; humans perceive greater color differences in faces than in non-faces. Participants selected which facial color they believed the expression stimulus appeared to be, choosing one of two options provided to them. The results indicated that the subjective achromatic points of anger and fear faces significantly shifted toward the opposite color direction compared with neutral faces in the brief presentation condition. This research suggests that the memory color of faces differs depending on facial expressions and supports the idea that the perception of emotional expressions can bias facial color memory.


Assuntos
Percepção de Cores , Expressão Facial , Memória , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Percepção de Cores/fisiologia , Adulto , Memória/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Emoções/fisiologia , Ira/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia
13.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 13(9): e032698, 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38690710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Provoked anger is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease events. The underlying mechanism linking provoked anger as well as other core negative emotions including anxiety and sadness to cardiovascular disease remain unknown. The study objective was to examine the acute effects of provoked anger, and secondarily, anxiety and sadness on endothelial cell health. METHODS AND RESULTS: Apparently healthy adult participants (n=280) were randomized to an 8-minute anger recall task, a depressed mood recall task, an anxiety recall task, or an emotionally neutral condition. Pre-/post-assessments of endothelial health including endothelium-dependent vasodilation (reactive hyperemia index), circulating endothelial cell-derived microparticles (CD62E+, CD31+/CD42-, and CD31+/Annexin V+) and circulating bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (CD34+/CD133+/kinase insert domain receptor+ endothelial progenitor cells and CD34+/kinase insert domain receptor+ endothelial progenitor cells) were measured. There was a group×time interaction for the anger versus neutral condition on the change in reactive hyperemia index score from baseline to 40 minutes (P=0.007) with a mean±SD change in reactive hyperemia index score of 0.20±0.67 and 0.50±0.60 in the anger and neutral conditions, respectively. For the change in reactive hyperemia index score, the anxiety versus neutral condition group by time interaction approached but did not reach statistical significance (P=0.054), and the sadness versus neutral condition group by time interaction was not statistically significant (P=0.160). There were no consistent statistically significant group×time interactions for the anger, anxiety, and sadness versus neutral condition on endothelial cell-derived microparticles and endothelial progenitor cells from baseline to 40 minutes. CONCLUSIONS: In this randomized controlled experimental study, a brief provocation of anger adversely affected endothelial cell health by impairing endothelium-dependent vasodilation.


Assuntos
Ira , Ansiedade , Endotélio Vascular , Vasodilatação , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Células Progenitoras Endoteliais/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tristeza , Micropartículas Derivadas de Células/metabolismo , Hiperemia/fisiopatologia , Emoções , Adulto Jovem , Fatores de Tempo , Células Endoteliais
14.
Aggress Behav ; 50(3): e22157, 2024 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38770707

RESUMO

This study examined the mediating role of anger rumination in the relationship between anger and reactive aggression and the potential of adaptive anger rumination in reducing reactive aggression. Study 1, a two-wave longitudinal survey of 177 Chinese adolescents, showed that anger rumination mediated the relationship between anger and reactive aggression. Study 2, an experimental study with 160 university students, showed that the self-distanced group had lower aggression than the self-immersed group, and anger rumination mediated the impact of anger on reactive aggression in only the self-immersed group. These findings clarify the role of anger rumination concerning the relationship between anger and reactive-aggression and highlight the importance of self-distanced anger rumination in preventing reactive aggression among adolescents and young adults.


Assuntos
Agressão , Ira , Ruminação Cognitiva , Humanos , Ira/fisiologia , Agressão/psicologia , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Ruminação Cognitiva/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem , Estudos Longitudinais , Adulto , China , Estudantes/psicologia
15.
Int J Law Psychiatry ; 94: 101986, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38768526

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the double mediation effect of entrapment and anger, as well as the moderated mediation effect of psychological flexibility and self-compassion on the relationship between the forensic psychiatric hospital ward climate and reactive aggression perceived by patients. A self-reporting method was used to measure ward climate, entrapment, anger, reactive aggression, psychological flexibility, and self-compassion in a sample of 246 participants being treated at the National Forensic Psychiatric Hospital. The relational model was verified according to the structural equation model analysis, and the double mediation effect of the conditional process model was verified using a Process macro. The results showed that both the simple mediation effect and the double mediation effect of entrapment and anger were statistically significant. Psychological flexibility significantly moderated the relationship between ward climate and entrapment, ward climate and anger-in, and significantly influenced the reduction of reactive aggression. When psychological flexibility was higher, ward climate did not cause entrapment, and the intensity of anger-in and reactive aggression was reduced. Self-compassion significantly reduced entrapment, and the higher the self-compassion, the lesser the entrapment. Finally, psychological flexibility and self-compassion moderated the indirect effect through entrapment and the indirect effect through anger-in on the relationship between the ward climate and reactive aggression. Hence, the moderated mediation effect by psychological flexibility and self-compassion was confirmed. To conclude our study, its limitations are outlined, and practical therapeutic intervention for preventing reactive aggression in forensic hospital patients is discussed.


Assuntos
Agressão , Ira , Empatia , Hospitais Psiquiátricos , Humanos , Agressão/psicologia , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Psiquiatria Legal , Cultura Organizacional , Autoimagem , Pacientes Internados/psicologia
16.
Accid Anal Prev ; 203: 107642, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38788434

RESUMO

Mindfulness is a state of being fully attentive to the current moment and is an experiential way of living in daily life. As a personal trait, mindfulness has been proven to enhance various negative emotions and behaviors. However, in the field of driving, there is still a lack of research on the mechanisms of mindfulness on anger expression behavior, specifically aggressive driving. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to reveal the impact of mindfulness on drivers' aggressive driving behaviors and the mediating effect of driving anger and anger rumination. A total of 350 (208 males and 142 females) participants in China voluntarily completed a series of questionnaires, including the Mindful Attention and Awareness Scale (MAAS), the Driving Anger Scale (DAS), the Anger Rumination Scale (ARS) and the Driving Anger Expression Inventory (DAX). The hierarchical multiple regression analysis and pathway analysis results showed that mindfulness negatively predicted driving anger, anger rumination and driving anger expression. Moreover, driving anger and anger rumination mediated the relationship between mindfulness and driving anger expression, accounting for 9.51% and 18.74% of the total effect, respectively. The chain-mediated effect of driving anger and anger rumination accounted for 8.00% of the total effect. This study has revealed some of the internal mechanisms through which mindfulness reduces aggressive driving. It fills a part of the gap in understanding the protective role of mindfulness in the driving domain. Furthermore, it suggests mindfulness interventions for drivers, which may have the potential to enhance overall road safety.


Assuntos
Ira , Condução de Veículo , Atenção Plena , Ruminação Cognitiva , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , China , Inquéritos e Questionários , Agressão/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adolescente , Análise de Regressão
17.
Accid Anal Prev ; 204: 107634, 2024 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38795421

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite increased prevalence of methamphetamine in road trauma, it remains unclear how its use translates to an increased risk of traffic-related harm. Exploration of psychosocial factors may thus help identify relevant predictors of dangerous driving behaviour among people who regularly consume methamphetamine. METHODS: Licenced individuals who report predominant and sustained methamphetamine use (at least 1-time/month for 6 months at heaviest use) were recruited from the Australian community and via targeted campaign (Eastern Health). Psychosocial, substance use and driving behaviour data (Dula Dangerous Driving Index, DDDI) were collected via a secure anonymous online forced-entry survey platform (Qualtrics). RESULTS: Seventy-seven individuals (65.5 % male) aged between 20-50 years [mean = 29.7, ± Standard Deviation (SD) 6.1] were included. Most (90 %) respondents met criteria for problematic methamphetamine use [Severity of Dependency Scale (SDS) score ≥ 5], and 75 % were high-risk alcohol consumers [Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C) score ≥ 4 for men and ≥ 3 for women]. On average, age of first methamphetamine use occurred at 23.3 years (±5.2). A best-possible subset's regression selection method with dangerous driving behaviour as the dependent variable determined the model with three predictors (alcohol use, substance dependence severity and trait anger) as most parsimonious. After controlling for substance use, trait anger strongly and positively predicted dangerous driving behaviour as measured by the DDDI ([F(3,74) = 26.06, p < .001, adjusted R2 = 0.50, Cohens f2 = 0.42). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Trait anger is a strong predictor of risky driving among road users who use methamphetamine. Interactions between stable negative-emotional and situational traffic and driving-related factors may increase risk of harm through greater engagement in risk-taking behaviour.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Anfetaminas , Ira , Comportamento Perigoso , Metanfetamina , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Metanfetamina/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Anfetaminas/psicologia , Austrália , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Dirigir sob a Influência/estatística & dados numéricos , Dirigir sob a Influência/psicologia , Assunção de Riscos
18.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11686, 2024 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38777852

RESUMO

Pain is rarely communicated alone, as it is often accompanied by emotions such as anger or sadness. Communicating these affective states involves shared representations. However, how an individual conceptually represents these combined states must first be tested. The objective of this study was to measure the interaction between pain and negative emotions on two types of facial representations of these states, namely visual (i.e., interactive virtual agents; VAs) and sensorimotor (i.e., one's production of facial configurations). Twenty-eight participants (15 women) read short written scenarios involving only pain or a combined experience of pain and a negative emotion (anger, disgust, fear, or sadness). They produced facial configurations representing these experiences on the faces of the VAs and on their face (own production or imitation of VAs). The results suggest that affective states related to a direct threat to the body (i.e., anger, disgust, and pain) share a similar facial representation, while those that present no immediate danger (i.e., fear and sadness) differ. Although visual and sensorimotor representations of these states provide congruent affective information, they are differently influenced by factors associated with the communication cycle. These findings contribute to our understanding of pain communication in different affective contexts.


Assuntos
Emoções , Expressão Facial , Dor , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Dor/psicologia , Dor/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Emoções/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem , Ira/fisiologia , Afeto/fisiologia , Medo/psicologia , Tristeza/psicologia
19.
BMC Psychol ; 12(1): 265, 2024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38741161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: the AMORAL model emphasizes the close connection of individuals' belief system and malevolent creativity. Belief in a just world theory (BJW) states that people have a basic need to believe that the world they live in is just, and everyone gets what they deserve. Therefore, justice matters to all people. Justice sensitivity, as one of individual trait, has been found associated with negative goals. However, relevant studies have not tested whether justice sensitivity can affect malevolent creativity and its psychological mechanisms. Additionally, researchers have found that both anger and emotion regulation linked with justice sensitivity and malevolent creativity, but their contribution to the relationship between justice sensitivity and malevolent creativity remained unclear. The current study aims to explore the influence of justice sensitivity on malevolent creativity, the mediating effect of trait anger/state anger on the relationship between justice sensitivity and malevolent creativity, and the moderating effect of emotion regulation on this mediating effect. METHODS: A moderated mediating model was constructed to test the relationship between justice sensitivity and malevolent creativity. A sample of 395 Chinese college students were enrolled to complete the questionnaire survey. RESULTS: Justice sensitivity positively correlated with malevolent creativity, both trait anger and state anger partly mediated the connection between justice sensitivity and malevolent creativity. Moreover, emotion regulation moderated the indirect effect of the mediation model. The indirect effect of justice sensitivity on malevolent creativity through trait anger/state anger increased as the level of emotion regulation increased. The results indicated that justice sensitivity can affect malevolent creativity directly and indirectly through the anger. The level of emotion regulation differentiated the indirect paths of justice sensitivity on malevolent creativity. CONCLUSIONS: Justice sensitivity and malevolent creativity was mediated by trait anger/state anger. The higher sensitivity to justice, the higher level of trait anger/state anger, which in turn boosted the tendency of malevolent creativity. This indirect connection was moderated by emotion regulation, individuals with high emotion regulation are better able to buffer anger from justice sensitivity.


Assuntos
Ira , Criatividade , Regulação Emocional , Justiça Social , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Justiça Social/psicologia , Adolescente , Estudantes/psicologia
20.
Autism Res ; 17(5): 934-946, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38716802

RESUMO

Autistic people exhibit atypical use of prior information when processing simple perceptual stimuli; yet, it remains unclear whether and how these difficulties in using priors extend to complex social stimuli. Here, we compared autistic people without accompanying intellectual disability and nonautistic people in their ability to acquire an "emotional prior" of a facial expression and update this prior to a different facial expression of the same identity. Participants performed a two-interval same/different discrimination task between two facial expressions. To study the acquisition of the prior, we examined how discrimination was modified by the contraction of the perceived facial expressions toward the average of presented stimuli (i.e., regression to the mean). At first, facial expressions surrounded one average emotional prior (mostly sad or angry), and then the average switched (to mostly angry or sad, accordingly). Autistic people exhibited challenges in facial discrimination, and yet acquired the first prior, demonstrating typical regression-to-the-mean effects. However, unlike nonautistic people, autistic people did not update their perception to the second prior, suggesting they are less flexible in updating an acquired prior of emotional expressions. Our findings shed light on the perception of emotional expressions, one of the most pressing challenges in autism.


Assuntos
Ira , Transtorno Autístico , Expressão Facial , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Ira/fisiologia , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Adulto Jovem , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Percepção Social , Adolescente , Emoções/fisiologia , Discriminação Psicológica/fisiologia
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