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1.
J Insect Sci ; 24(1)2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38366859

RESUMO

A study was conducted to investigate the population genetic structure and breeding pattern of 140 tropical bed bugs, Cimex hemipterus (F.) (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), collected from 14 infested sites in major cities in Iraq. The samples were genotyped using a set of 7 polymorphic microsatellite markers. High genetic variety was seen among populations, with an average of 2-9 alleles per locus. The number of alleles across 7 microsatellite loci was between 6 and 18. There was a notable disparity in the alleles per loci when comparing the overall population to those within it. The overall population exhibited an average observed heterozygosity of 0.175 and an average expected heterozygosity of 0.730. Among the population, the average observed heterozygosity was 0.173, while the average expected heterozygosity was 0.673. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that 93% of the genetic variability was within the populations, and 7% was among them. The genetic differentiation coefficient (FST = 0.045), indicates a low degree of genetic differentiation and a high degree of inbreeding (FIS = 0.761), as indicated by notably significant positive inbreeding coefficients. Admixed individuals were revealed using STRUCTURE and neighbor-joining phylogenetic trees, demonstrating moderate gene flow between populations and a lack of genetic structure in the regional groups. Thus, both active dispersion and human-mediated dispersion possess the potential to influence the low population genetic structure of tropical bed bug C. hemipterus populations in Iraq, which can have implications toward tropical bed bug and management strategies.


Assuntos
Percevejos-de-Cama , Humanos , Animais , Percevejos-de-Cama/genética , Filogenia , Iraque , Cruzamento , Genética Populacional
2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(2): e2354588, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38358743

RESUMO

Importance: While brain cancer is rare, it has a very poor prognosis and few established risk factors. To date, epidemiologic work examining the potential association of traumatic brain injury (TBI) with the subsequent risk of brain cancer is conflicting. Further data may be useful. Objective: To examine whether a history of TBI exposure is associated with the subsequent development of brain cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective cohort study was conducted from October 1, 2004, to September 20, 2019, and data analysis was performed between January 1 and June 26, 2023. The median follow-up for the cohort was 7.2 (IQR, 4.1-10.1) years. Veterans Affairs (VA) and Department of Defense (DoD) administrative data on 1 919 740 veterans from the Long-Term Impact of Military-Relevant Brain Injury Consortium-Chronic Effects of Neurotrauma Consortium were included. Exposure: The main exposure of interest was TBI severity (categorized as mild, moderate or severe [moderate/severe], and penetrating). Main Outcomes and Measures: The outcome of interest was the development of brain cancer based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) or International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) diagnostic codes in either the DoD/VA medical records or from the National Death Index. Results: After 611 107 exclusions (predominately for no encounter during the study period), a cohort including 1 919 740 veterans was included, most of whom were male (80.25%) and non-Hispanic White (63.11%). Median age at index date was 31 (IQR, 25-42) years. The cohort included 449 880 individuals with TBI (mild, 385 848; moderate/severe, 46 859; and penetrating, 17 173). Brain cancer occurred in 318 individuals without TBI (0.02%), 80 with mild TBI (0.02%), 17 with moderate/severe TBI (0.04%), and 10 or fewer with penetrating TBI (≤0.06%). After adjustment, moderate/severe TBI (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 1.90; 95% CI, 1.16-3.12) and penetrating TBI (AHR, 3.33; 95% CI, 1.71-6.49), but not mild TBI (AHR, 1.14; 95% CI, 0.88-1.47), were associated with the subsequent development of brain cancer. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of veterans of the Iraq and Afghanistan wars, moderate/severe TBI and penetrating TBI, but not mild TBI, were associated with the subsequent development of brain cancer.


Assuntos
Concussão Encefálica , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Neoplasias Encefálicas , Veteranos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Masculino , Humanos , Adulto , Feminino , Iraque , Afeganistão , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/epidemiologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/etiologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/etiologia
3.
Molecules ; 29(3)2024 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338414

RESUMO

Our study aimed to analyze five monovarietal honeys from the Salah Eddine region in Iraq, focusing on physicochemical, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties and polyphenolic compounds. Our objective was to evaluate the strengths and qualities of Iraqi honeys, ensuring compliance with the Codex Alimentarius standard for honey. The spectrophotometric analysis included assessments of reduced sugar (75.8-77.7%), fructose-to-glucose ratio (0.7-0.9%), sucrose (2.2-2.9%), HMF (17.23-18.87 mg/kg), and melanoidin content (0.25-0.44), which were all determined. The electrical conductivity (0.39-0.46 mS/cm) using a conductivity meter, pH (4.02-4.31), and mineral composition were determined in all samples using atomic absorption spectrometry. Antioxidant activities were spectrophotometrically determined, through DPPH free radical scavenging (7.87-95.62 mg/mL), as was the total antioxidant activity (14.26-22.15 mg AAE/g), with correlations established with biochemical constituents such as the total phenol content, highlighting the significant presence of Coumaric acid (0.38-2.34 µg/mL), Catechin (1.80-2.68 µg/mL), and Quercetin (0.30 µg/mL) using HPLC. The study also observed notable antimicrobial activities using Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans on Mueller-Hinton agar as well as through diffusion technique. In conclusion, our findings, including the antioxidant and antimicrobial strengths, underscore the substantial potential of Iraqi honeys in mitigating damage and preventing the onset of various diseases, affirming their good quality and adherence to international honey standards.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Mel , Mel/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Iraque , Minerais/análise
4.
BMC Urol ; 24(1): 35, 2024 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38336732

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although prostate cancer is a prevalent malignancy worldwide, its clinical presentation and management in the Middle East are not well-documented. This study aims to provide insights into the initial clinical presentation and management of prostate cancer in this region. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted on seven institutional databases from six Middle Eastern countries, including Türkiye, Lebanon, Iraq, Syria, Bahrain, and Jordan, to identify patients diagnosed with prostate cancer in 2021. Descriptive analysis was performed on the collected data to provide an overview of the demographic, clinical, and treatment variables. RESULTS: A total of 1,136 patients were identified with a median age of 70 (range, 50-84). Most patients (78%) received their prostate cancer diagnosis after presenting with symptoms, as opposed to routine PSA screening. At the time of diagnosis, 35% of men had clinical T3 or T4 disease, 54% with Stage IV disease and 50% with Gleason score ≥ 8. Regarding treatment, 20% of non-metastatic and 22% of metastatic patients received no treatment. CONCLUSION: Most men in this study sought prostate cancer evaluation due to symptoms and were subsequently diagnosed with advanced-stage disease, providing a foundation for future research aimed at understanding the underlying factors behind the observed trends and enabling informed interventions.


Assuntos
Antígeno Prostático Específico , Neoplasias da Próstata , Masculino , Humanos , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Iraque , Líbano/epidemiologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias
5.
J Vet Sci ; 25(1): e7, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38311322

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infections of cats with Echinococcus granulosus is uncommon because the cat is not part of the parasite life cycle that a carnivorous and another herbivore represent. Nevertheless, it occurs incidentally when eating food or drinking water contaminated with the worm's larva, especially with the presence of the definitive host (dogs), in this case, the infections are concentrated in stray or outside cats. For this reason, this study examined the possibility of cat infection with E. granulosus and diagnosed the common genotype of this infection. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the possibility of cat infection with E. granulosus and diagnosed the common genotype of this infection. METHODS: Four of the 37 cats that had died in different accidents developed cystic echinococcosis (CE). The cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COX1) gene was initially amplified and sequenced to determine if these cysts belonged to E. granulosus, in beginning. The DNA fragments resulting from sequencing were then compared and aligned with other sequences using the Gene Bank database. Finally, a phylogenetic tree was drawn according to the sequence data obtained from cox1 genes sequencing, and the MEGA 7.0 phylogenetic analysis program was utilized. RESULTS: Four different sequences were deposited in the Gen Bank with accession numbers (ON795961 to ON795964), all of which belong to the G1 genotype. Approximately 84% and 100% of these sequences aligned with G1 (AB622277.1) and G1 (MG722980.1), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: G1 is the dominant genotype that causes cat infections, even though the cat's EC infection was incidental.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Equinococose , Echinococcus granulosus , Gatos , Animais , Cães , Echinococcus granulosus/genética , Iraque , Filogenia , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Equinococose/diagnóstico , Genótipo , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia
6.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 48: 100978, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38316507

RESUMO

This study was aimed at investigating the prevalence of Taenia ovis (sheep measles) in sheep and goats among the unlicensed butcher's settings in Bagdad, Iraq. A total of 1194 sheep comprising 798 males and 396 females were inspected and out of these 41 and 17 (5.1 and 4.2%) were positive of T. ovis respectively. In goat a total of 162 comprising 122 males and 40 females were inspected out of which 39 and 19 (31.9 and 47.5%) were positive for T. ovis for male and female respectively. In this study, the prevalence of T. ovis in sheep of <18 months of age (5.3%) was higher as compared to those in sheep of over 18 months of age (4.9%), the prevalence of T. ovis was higher in male sheep (5.1%) as compared to the female sheep (4.2%). The trend of the prevalence of this parasite in goats was different from what was obtained in sheep, in this case the prevalence was higher in female goats as compared to male goats. Also the prevalence of T. ovis was significantly higher in older goats as compared to younger goats. For the breed the trend was similar to that of sheep where the local breed harbored more of T. ovis as compared to the imported breeds. Our results suggest that the high prevalence of the T. ovis infestations in the unlicensed butcher's settings is of great concern for public health, therefore authorities are to design a preventive program to curtail this problem.


Assuntos
Taenia , Animais , Ovinos , Masculino , Feminino , Prevalência , Iraque/epidemiologia , Cabras , Saúde Pública
7.
PLoS One ; 19(1): e0296521, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38180994

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evaluating immune responses following COVID-19 vaccination is paramount to understanding vaccine effectiveness and optimizing public health interventions. This study seeks to elucidate individuals' immune status after administering a second dose of diverse COVID-19 vaccines. By analyzing immune responses through serological markers, we aim to contribute valuable insights into the uniformity of vaccine performance. METHODS: A total of 80 participants were enrolled in this study, with demographic and COVID-19 infection-related data collected for categorization. Serum samples were acquired within a specified timeframe, and SARS-CoV-2 IgM/IgG rapid tests were conducted. Moreover, CTLA-4 levels were measured through ELISA assays, allowing us to assess the immune responses comprehensively. The participants were divided into eight groups based on various factors, facilitating a multifaceted analysis. RESULTS: The outcomes of our investigation demonstrated consistent immune responses across the diverse types of COVID-19 vaccines administered in Iraq. Statistical analysis revealed no significant distinctions among the vaccine categories. In contrast, significant differences were observed in CTLA-4 among the control group (non-infected/non-vaccinated, infected/non-vaccinated) and infected/Pfizer, non-infected/Pfizer, and infected/Sinopharm, non-infected/sinopharm (P = 0.001, < 0.001, 0.023, respectively). This suggests that these vaccines exhibit comparable effectiveness in eliciting an immune response among the study participants. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our study's results underscore the lack of discriminatory variations between different COVID-19 vaccine types utilized in Iraq. The uniform immune responses observed signify the equitable efficacy and performance of these vaccines. Despite minor quantitative discrepancies, these variations do not hold statistical significance, reaffirming the notion that the various vaccines serve a similar purpose in conferring protection against COVID-19.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Imunidade Humoral , Humanos , Anticorpos Antivirais , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Antígeno CTLA-4 , Imunidade , Imunoglobulina G , Iraque/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(2): 216, 2024 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38286979

RESUMO

Analyzing the geochemical changes in stream sediments can reveal important surface processes on Earth, like weathering, transportation, and cation exchange. The study area is located on the eastern side of Mosul, where valleys named Al-Rashediya, Al-Kharrazi, Al-Khosar, Al-Danffilli, and Al-Shor flow towards the Tigris River. These valleys' sediments contain diverse components like clay minerals, organic matter, iron oxides, carbonates, and heavy metals (H.M.s), either as part of these substances or adsorbed onto them. In this study, 36 sediment samples were gathered from these valleys. They underwent chemical analysis through X-ray fluorescence to ascertain their chemical constituents of major oxides. To understand the distribution of H.M.s in these sediments, correlation coefficient analysis and factor analysis were utilized. The study employed the geoaccumulation index (Igeo) and enrichment factor (E.F.) to evaluate sediment contamination. The results of Igeo ranged from Cr = 0.24 to 1.83, Ni = -0.92 to 0.77, Cu = -2.41 to 0.05, Zn = -1.83 to 0.89, Pb = -1.54 to 0.36, and As = -2.84 to 0.80. These findings suggest that the valley sediments are generally in the range of deficiency to minimal enrichment and moderate enrichment. However, Al-Danffilli Valley shows strong contamination levels for Cu, Zn, and Pb. The E.F. values for Cr = 3.63-12.50, Ni = 1.95-4.19, Cu = 0.69-12.36, Zn = 1.08-16.19, Pb = 1.25-62.16, and As = 0.60-1.79 indicate levels ranging from deficiency to minimal and moderate enrichment. Al-Danffilli Valley, in particular, was identified as ranging from moderate to extremely high enrichment, attributed to its location near industrial areas and its tributaries.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Iraque , Chumbo/análise , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Rios/química , Óxidos/análise , Medição de Risco
9.
J Health Popul Nutr ; 43(1): 15, 2024 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38287412

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The misperception of body weight can significantly affect individuals' health behaviors, such as physical activity, diet, and weight management. This study aimed to examine the association between body weight perception and actual body mass index (BMI) among adult women and explore the factors influencing this relationship. METHODS: Five hundred forty female individuals aged 18-65 participated in this cross-sectional study. The validated Global Physical Activity Questionnaire was used for data collection. The BMI of the participants was calculated from measured body weight and height. Body weight perception was assessed using a single questionnaire item. The association of BMI and body weight perception was assessed, and the result was categorized as underestimation, consistency, and overestimation. The Chi-square test was used to assess the association between the consistency of BMI and body weight perception by different sociodemographic factors. The kappa test was used to analyze the consistency of BMI and body weight perception. RESULTS: Of the 540 participants, 13.3% underestimated their body weight status, 79.1% accurately perceived their body weight status, and 7.6% overestimated their body weight status. Unmarried women (11.7%) were more likely than ever married (4.3%) to overestimate their body weight (p = 0.005). On multiple logistic regression, being unmarried (OR = 1.68 (95%CI 1.01-2.80)) was significantly associated with body weight misperception. Body weight perception and BMI categories showed a significantly good consistency (kappa = 0.612, p < 0.001). Correct perception of body weight was highest among the overweight, followed by normal weight and underweight individuals (82.1%, 75.8%, and 72.2%, respectively). CONCLUSION: Body weight perception was well associated with actual body weight status. Unmarried women are more likely to misperceive body weight, particularly overestimating it. Underestimation of body weight was relatively high and much higher than the overestimation, which might keep obese individuals from weight loss activities. Preventing obesity should include awareness about body weight misperceptions.


Assuntos
Percepção de Peso , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Iraque , Imagem Corporal , Peso Corporal , Obesidade , Sobrepeso , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Med J Malaysia ; 79(1): 74-79, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38287761

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Salmonella typhi could infect the intestinal tract and the bloodstream or invade body organs and secrete endotoxins. It is endemic in developing countries. It is increasingly evolving antimicrobial resistance to several commonly used antimicrobial agents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was done at Iraqi Communicable Disease Control Center, where all confirmed cases of Salmonella typhi are reported, for a period 2019-2021. All demographic, epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients, comorbidities, type of samples, distribution of S. typhi by age and gender, time distribution in each year and profile of bacterial resistance and sensitivity to antibiotics were gathered and analysed. RESULTS: Most samples were taken from blood. The mean age of cases during 2019, 2020 and 2021 was 18.7 ± 6.5, 17.7 ± 14.1 and 17.3 ± 12.8. Males constituted 56.7%, 58.5% and 39.8%, respectively. Some cases had comorbidities. Most cases had headache and fever. Some of them had nausea, diarrhoea, vomiting and epigastric pain. The age and sex were significantly associated with years of reporting. The most months of case reporting were June-July (2019 and 2021), Jan. -Feb. (2020). There was an obvious increase in S. typhi resistance to ceftriaxone (92.2%, 86.1%, 88.8%) and ampicillin (77.1%, 76.9%, 81.27%). There was a gradual increase in sensitivity to tetracycline (83.1%, 88.1%, 94%), cotrimoxazole (86.7%, 86.1%, 92.2%), ciprofloxacin (78.3%, 90.1%, 87.8%) and cefixime (77.7%, 72.3%, 72.7%). CONCLUSIONS: There was a sharp rise in resistance rates of the S. typhi in Iraq (during 2019-2021) to ceftriaxone and ampicillin, while there were highest sensitivity rates to imipenem, aztreonam and chloramphenicol. The following recommendations were made: (1) Improvement of general hygiene and food safety measures. (2) Emphasis on vaccination and surveillance of Salmonella infection. (3) Rational use of appropriate antibiotics through implementation of treatment guidelines. (5) Educate communities and travelers about the risks of S. typhi and its preventive measures.


Assuntos
Febre Tifoide , Masculino , Humanos , Febre Tifoide/tratamento farmacológico , Febre Tifoide/epidemiologia , Febre Tifoide/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Ceftriaxona/uso terapêutico , Iraque/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Prevalência , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Salmonella typhi , Ampicilina/uso terapêutico
11.
PLoS One ; 19(1): e0296952, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38241233

RESUMO

Since December 2019, the World Health Organization (WHO) has encouraged National Tuberculosis Programs to deprioritize the use of injectable-containing regimens and roll-out all-oral bedaquiline-containing regimens for rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (RR-TB) treatment. Consequently, Iraq gradually replaced the injectable-containing regimen with an all-oral regimen, including bedaquiline. To assess treatment enrolment and outcomes of both regimens during a transitioning phase in Iraq, where health system services are recovering from decades of war, we conducted a nationwide retrospective cohort study using routinely collected programmatic data for patients enrolled between 2019-2021. We describe treatment enrolment and use logistic regression to identify predictors of unfavorable treatment outcomes (failure, death, or lost to follow-up), including regimen type. Nationwide, a total of 301 RR-TB patients started treatment, of whom 167 concluded treatment. The proportion of patients enrolled on the all-oral regimen increased from 53.2% (50/94) in 2020, to 75.5% (80/106) in 2021. Successful treatment was achieved in 82.1% (32/39) and 63.3% (81/128), for all-oral and injectable-containing regimens respectively. Moreover, the proportion of lost to follow-up was lower among those treated with the all-oral versus the long injectable-containing regimen; respectively 2.6% (1/39) versus 17.9% (23/128: p = 0.02). Unfavorable treatment outcome was associated with male gender (aOR 2.12, 95%CI:1.02-4.43) and age <15 years (vs 30-49 years, aOR 5.80, 95%CI:1.30-25.86). Regimen type (aOR 2.37, 95%CI: 0.91-6.13) was not significantly associated with having an unfavorable treatment outcome. In Iraq, the use of bedaquiline-containing all-oral regimen resulted in a high treatment success and reduced lost to follow-up.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Iraque/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Public Health ; 227: 86-94, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38141270

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Sulphur mustard (SM) is a chemical weapon agent that was extensively used by Iraqi troops during the Iran-Iraq war (1980-1988), resulting in exposure among Iranian military personnel and civilians. However, there is limited and conflicting information about the long-term mortality effects of SM exposure. This study aimed to determine the standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) in individuals exposed to SM gas during the Iran-Iraq war. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective follow-up study. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Veterans and Martyr Affair Foundation of Iran (VMAF) regarding all confirmed individuals who were exposed to SM during the Iran-Iraq war (1980-1988) up to 30 March 2019. The mortality rate, cumulative mortality and SMR with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to assess mortality in chemical warfare survivors (CWS), and results were compared with the general Iranian population. Overall survival was analysed using the Kaplan-Meier curve, and the log-rank test was employed to compare survival probability across different categories. RESULTS: Among the 48,067 confirmed CWS, a total of 4358 (9.1 %) individuals had died by the end of the study period (30 March 2019), with a mean age of 55.5 ± 14.4 years at the time of death. Overall, at the 39-year follow-up, the mortality rate due to all causes of death for people who were exposed to SM was lower than the general Iranian population (SMR: 0.70, 95 % CI: 0.68-0.72). However, cause-specific SMR analysis showed that the mortality rate due to liver cancer (SMR: 1.98, 95 % CI: 1.59-2.45), poisonings (SMR: 1.92, 95 % CI: 1.52-2.38), respiratory disorders (SMR: 1.59, 95 % CI: 1.46-1.73) and multiple myeloma (SMR: 1.72, 95 % CI: 1.06-2.62) were approximately twofold higher in CWS than the general population. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides valuable insights into the mortality effects of SM exposure among the Iranian population affected by the Iran-Iraq war. The results emphasise the importance of continued monitoring and support for individuals exposed to SM, particularly in the context of managing and addressing the heightened risks associated with liver cancer, poisonings, respiratory disorders and multiple myeloma. Further research and interventions may be necessary to mitigate these specific health challenges in the affected population.


Assuntos
Substâncias para a Guerra Química , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Mieloma Múltiplo , Gás de Mostarda , Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Estudos Retrospectivos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , Iraque/epidemiologia
13.
Appl Radiat Isot ; 205: 111154, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38142543

RESUMO

Children spend considerable time at home and school, so school is likely to be a second source of natural radionuclide exposure after home. This study evaluates the radiological risk associated with thoron gas in the air within the building of one hundred primary schools in Al-Najaf City, Iraq, using a CR-39 detector. The results of the average value of thoron concentration detector, the annual effective dose (AED), Excessive Lifetime Cancer Risk (ELCR) × 10-3, and Lung Cancer Case (LCC) × 10-9 measured in the building of the schools were 7.47 ± 2.85 Bq/m3, 0.03 ± 0.01 mSv/y, 0.11 ± 0.04, and 0.54 ± 0.20, respectively. All the results of indoor thoron were below the global average limit. The results of the radiological survey due to thoron concentrations for studied primary schools suggest that the radionuclides and their radiological hazard indexes in all studied schools in AL Najaf city, Iraq, do not impose a health hazard.


Assuntos
Poluentes Radioativos do Ar , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Monitoramento de Radiação , Radônio , Criança , Humanos , Poluentes Radioativos do Ar/análise , Iraque , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Monitoramento de Radiação/métodos , Radônio/efeitos adversos , Radônio/análise , Instituições Acadêmicas , Habitação
14.
Appl Radiat Isot ; 205: 111170, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38160568

RESUMO

The levels of naturally occurring radionuclides in soil, grass, and milk were measured in this study in order to calculate the transfer factor of radionuclides from soil to grass and grass to milk obtained from Erbil governorate in Iraq. High efficiency gamma spectrometry used for the measurement. It has been determined that the mean activity concentrations of 232Th, 226Ra, and 40K are 3.08, 8.37, and 253 BqKg-1 in soil, 0.5, 0.39, and 203.05 BqKg-1, in grass, and 0.29, 0.084, and 29.69 BqL-1, in milk, respectively. For soil to grass, the transfer factor values for 232Th, 226Ra, and 40K were found to be 0.18, 0.052, and 0.84, respectively, for soil to grass. For grass to milk, the transfer factor values for 232Th, 226Ra, and 40K were found to be 0.45, 0.166, and 0.11 dayL-1, respectively. The average transfer factor for 232Th, 226Ra, and 40K in all samples were lower than the world average value.


Assuntos
Monitoramento de Radiação , Radioatividade , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo , Animais , Solo/química , Poaceae/química , Fator de Transferência/análise , Leite/química , Iraque , Monitoramento de Radiação/métodos , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo/análise , Radioisótopos/análise
15.
Diabetologia ; 67(1): 113-123, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37897565

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Monogenic diabetes is estimated to account for 1-6% of paediatric diabetes cases in primarily non-consanguineous populations, while the incidence and genetic spectrum in consanguineous regions are insufficiently defined. In this single-centre study we aimed to evaluate diabetes subtypes, obtain the consanguinity rate and study the genetic background of individuals with syndromic and neonatal diabetes in a population with a high rate of consanguinity. METHODS: Data collection was carried out cross-sectionally in November 2021 at the paediatric diabetic clinic, Dr Jamal Ahmad Rashed Hospital, in Sulaimani, Kurdistan, Iraq. At the time of data collection, 754 individuals with diabetes (381 boys) aged up to 16 years were registered. Relevant participant data was obtained from patient files. Consanguinity status was known in 735 (97.5%) participants. Furthermore, 12 families of children with neonatal diabetes and seven families of children with syndromic diabetes consented to genetic testing by next-generation sequencing. Prioritised variants were evaluated using the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics guidelines and confirmed by Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: A total of 269 of 735 participants (36.5%) with known consanguinity status were offspring of consanguineous families. An overwhelming majority of participants (714/754, 94.7%) had clinically defined type 1 diabetes (35% of them were born to consanguineous parents), whereas only eight (1.1%) had type 2 diabetes (38% consanguineous). Fourteen (1.9%) had neonatal diabetes (50% consanguineous), seven (0.9%) had syndromic diabetes (100% consanguineous) and 11 (1.5%) had clinically defined MODY (18% consanguineous). We found that consanguinity was significantly associated with syndromic diabetes (p=0.0023) but not with any other diabetes subtype. The genetic cause was elucidated in ten of 12 participants with neonatal diabetes who consented to genetic testing (homozygous variants in GLIS3 [sibling pair], PTF1A and ZNF808 and heterozygous variants in ABCC8 and INS) and four of seven participants with syndromic diabetes (homozygous variants in INSR, SLC29A3 and WFS1 [sibling pair]). In addition, a participant referred as syndromic diabetes was diagnosed with mucolipidosis gamma and probably has type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: This unique single-centre study confirms that, even in a highly consanguineous population, clinically defined type 1 diabetes is the prevailing paediatric diabetes subtype. Furthermore, a pathogenic cause of monogenic diabetes was identified in 83% of tested participants with neonatal diabetes and 57% of participants with syndromic diabetes, with most variants being homozygous. Causative genes in our consanguineous participants were markedly different from genes reported from non-consanguineous populations and also from those reported in other consanguineous populations. To correctly diagnose syndromic diabetes in consanguineous populations, it may be necessary to re-evaluate diagnostic criteria and include additional phenotypic features such as short stature and hepatosplenomegaly.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Doenças do Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Criança , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Consanguinidade , Estudos de Coortes , Iraque/epidemiologia , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/genética , Mutação/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Nucleosídeos/genética
16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 31(4): 5762-5783, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38133762

RESUMO

Greenhouse gas emissions and global warming are recent issues of upward trend. This study sought to underline the causal relationships between engagement modes with green technology, environmental, social, and governance (ESG) ratio, and circular economy. Our investigation also captured benchmarking of energy companies' circular economy behaviors. A hybrid-stage partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) and multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) analysis have been adopted. This study collected 713 questionnaires from heads of departments and managers of energy companies. The findings of this study claimed that engagement modes with green technology affect the circular economy and sustainability. The findings revealed that ESG ratings have a mediating role in the nexus among engagement modes with green technology and circular economy. The results of the MCDM application revealed the identification of the best and worst energy companies of circular economy behaviours. This study is exceptional because it is among the first to address the issues of greenhouse gas emissions by providing decisive evidence about the level of circular economy behaviors in energy companies.


Assuntos
Benchmarking , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Iraque , Aquecimento Global , Tecnologia
17.
Clín. investig. ginecol. obstet. (Ed. impr.) ; 50(4): [100903], Oct-Dic, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-226526

RESUMO

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy affecting approximately 5–10% of women of reproductive age and it is also a major cause of anovulatory infertility. PCOS is associated with obesity and conditions like hirsutism, acne, diabetes, and irregular periods. Aim: The present study aimed to evaluate the serum-free testosterone (FT) levels of women afflicted with hirsutism, one of the main physical manifestations of PCOS versus healthy women and determine whether their serum testosterone levels correlate with polycystic ovaries, glucose levels, menstrual abnormalities, and obesity. Methods: This study assessed 180 women; this included 140 females who suffered from excessive and unwanted hair growth on the chin and 40 healthy women as a control group. Free testosterone levels and fasting blood glucose levels were taken. Prior to the study, ultrasonographic (US) tests were performed for all patients to diagnose polycystic ovaries. Results: Patients with hirsutism exhibited a significant elevation in free testosterone (FT) compared to the control group. Approximately half of these women were confirmed to have a polycystic ovary, and 42.8% of them were overweight and obese. Additionally, women between 18 and 20 years old (G1) present with the highest level of FT. Conclusion: Serum FT levels were significantly increased in hirsute women, and this positively correlated with BMI and glucose levels in women with PCOS. Glucose levels may serve as a potentially effective biomarker in evaluating the severity of hirsutism in women suspected of having PCOS.(AU)


Antecedentes: El síndrome de ovario poliquístico (SOP) es la endocrinopatía más común que afecta aproximadamente al 5-10% de las mujeres en edad reproductiva y también es una de las principales causas de infertilidad anovulatoria. El SOP está asociado con la obesidad y condiciones como hirsutismo, acné, diabetes y períodos irregulares. Objetivo: El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar los niveles séricos de testosterona libre (FT, del inglés) de mujeres con hirsutismo, una de las principales manifestaciones físicas del síndrome de ovario poliquístico, en comparación con mujeres sanas y determinar si los niveles séricos de testosterona se correlacionan con ovarios poliquísticos, niveles de glucosa, anomalías menstruales y obesidad. Métodos: Este estudio evaluó a 180 mujeres; esto incluyó a 140 mujeres que sufrían de un crecimiento de vello excesivo e indeseado en la barbilla y 40 mujeres sanas como grupo de control. Se midieron el nivel de FT y el nivel de azúcar en sangre en ayunas. Antes del estudio, se realizaron pruebas ultrasonográficas a todas las pacientes para diagnosticar ovarios poliquísticos. Resultados: Los pacientes con hirsutismo exhibieron una elevación significativa en la FT en comparación con el grupo de control. Se confirmó que aproximadamente la mitad de estas mujeres tenían un ovario poliquístico y el 42,8% de ellas tenían sobrepeso y obesidad. Adicionalmente, las mujeres entre 18 y 20 años (G1) presentan el mayor nivel de FT. Conclusión: Los niveles séricos de FT aumentaron significativamente en mujeres hirsutas, y esto se correlacionó positivamente con el IMC y los niveles de glucosa en mujeres con SOP. Los niveles de glucosa pueden servir como un biomarcador potencialmente eficaz para evaluar la gravedad del hirsutismo en mujeres con sospecha de SOP.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Testosterona , Ovário , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico , Glucose , Hirsutismo , Obesidade , Iraque , Ginecologia
18.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 69(13): 142-148, 2023 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38158674

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common chronic immune-mediated inflammatory arthritis, impacting 0.5-1% of the global population, and leading to progressive deterioration of the musculoskeletal and joint systems. This study aims to analyze the serum levels of soluble triggering receptors expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1) in Iraqi patients with RA and healthy individuals. It also intends to assess the diagnostic significance of these receptors, investigate their association with disease activity and examine their correlation with the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of the patients. From December 2020 to June 2021, 117 RA patients with a mean age of 50 years participated in the study. The patients were categorized into inactive and active disease groups based on their DAS28 score and CDAI, as determined by a Rheumatologist. The serum levels of a specific triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) (Pg/mL) were measured. The results showed that the active RA patients had significantly higher levels of the receptor (270.17±187) compared to both the inactive RA patients (112.81±37.48) and the healthy controls (43.89±29.53) (P < 0.001). The sTREM-1 demonstrated a high discriminatory ability (AUC ≥ 0.936) between RA and control groups. Moreover, a direct association was observed between the DAS-28ESR and sTREM-1 levels.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , Receptores Imunológicos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptor Gatilho 1 Expresso em Células Mieloides , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Iraque , Biomarcadores
19.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 69(13): 65-69, 2023 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38158687

RESUMO

Disorders of Sexual Development (DSD) encompass all types of intersex cases and have been reported globally. However, in Iraq, studies related to DSD are scanty.  The current single-center prospective study was carried out to find out the frequency, genetic and clinical presentation of different types of DSDs in the sample population of Duhok, Iraq. The sample comprises 40 DSD patients who have been referred to Hivi Pediatric Teaching Hospital in Duhok, Kurdistan region, Iraq, from June 2017 to June 2022. We conducted karyotype-based classification, laparoscopic-based internal organ diagnosis and abdominal ultrasound to diagnose DSDs in the target population. Of the total 40 cases, 19 (47.5%) were males, and 21 (52.5%) were females. Among them, 85 % were diagnosed as peno- scrotal hypospadias, 10% had clitoromegaly and the remaining were diagnosed as under-developed female-like genitalia. The majority of the patients were diagnosed with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) (55%), 37.5% were Testicular Feminization Syndrome (TFS) and the remaining were rare categories that we did not reach final diagnosis. Laparoscopy was done for 77.5 % of the participants of whom 30% had small uterus and ovaries, 25% had Intra-abdominal testes and the remaining had testes &ovaries, Mullerian Inhibitory Factor (MIF) deficiency and TFS. The study found different types of DSDs in the target population that requires both physical and psychological intervention. Future studies should focus on evaluating DSDs in larger populations and at multi-centers to understand the condition's trajectory in the Iraqi population.


Assuntos
Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento Sexual , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Criança , Estudos Prospectivos , Iraque/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento Sexual/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento Sexual/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento Sexual/genética , Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita/complicações , Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita/diagnóstico , Testículo
20.
Trials ; 24(1): 814, 2023 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38110997

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Violence against health care workers (HCWs) is a multifaceted issue entwined with broader social, cultural, and economic contexts. While it is a global phenomenon, in crisis settings, HCWs are exposed to exceptionally high rates of violence. We hypothesize that the implementation of a training on de-escalation of violence and of a code of conduct informed through participatory citizen science research would reduce the incidence and severity of episodes of violence in primary healthcare settings of rural Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and large hospitals in Baghdad, Iraq. METHODS: In an initial formative research phase, the study will use a transdisciplinary citizen science approach to inform the re-adaptation of a violence de-escalation training for HCWs and the content of a code of conduct for both HCWs and clients. Qualitative and citizen science methods will explore motivations, causes, and contributing factors that lead to violence against HCWs. Preliminary findings will inform participatory meetings aimed at co-developing local rules of conduct through in-depth discussion and input from various stakeholders, followed by a validation and legitimization process. The effectiveness of the two interventions will be evaluated through a stepped-wedge randomized-cluster trial (SW-RCT) design with 11 arms, measuring the frequency and severity of violence, as well as secondary outcomes such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), job burnout, empathy, or HCWs' quality of life at various points in time, alongside a cost-effectiveness study comparing the two strategies. DISCUSSION: Violence against HCWs is a global issue, and it can be particularly severe in humanitarian contexts. However, there is limited evidence on effective and affordable approaches to address this problem. Understanding the context of community distrust and motivation for violence against HCWs will be critical for developing effective, tailored, and culturally appropriate responses, including a training on violence de-escalation and a community behavioral change approach to increase public trust in HCWs. This study aims therefore to compare the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of different interventions to reduce violence against HCWs in two post-crisis settings, providing valuable evidence for future efforts to address this issue. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrial.gov Identifier NCT05419687. Prospectively registered on June 15, 2022.


Assuntos
Ciência do Cidadão , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , República Democrática do Congo , Iraque , Atenção à Saúde , Violência/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
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