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1.
J Int Med Res ; 50(11): 3000605221133147, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36329597

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The primary goals of this research were to analyze the relationship between ABO blood types and the severity of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and investigate the effect of vaccination in Iraq. METHODS: Data and outcomes were gathered from the medical records of 200 patients. Patients were categorized by blood group and vaccination status in the analysis. RESULTS: In total, 200 hospitalized patients (125 men and 75 women) with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and blood group (ABO) and clinical data were enrolled. Of the 200 patients, 155 (77.5%) were vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2. The results illustrated that 25 patients died, which might have been attributable to a lack of vaccination or older age. Our analysis revealed that blood group O individuals were much less likely to be infected by SARS-CoV-2 than non-O subjects, whereas blood group A individuals carried a higher risk of infection. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings illustrated that immunization significantly reduces COVID-19 risk across all age groups, but there has been an increase in the number of cases because of decreased vaccine efficacy in older patients and persons with comorbidities. However, 45% vaccination coverage lowered the outbreak's peak.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Sistema ABO de Grupos Sanguíneos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Iraque/epidemiologia , Vacinação
2.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e064293, 2022 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36418142

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of undiagnosed type 2 diabetes (UT2D) among adults (aged 18 years and older) in Iraq. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, population-based study. SETTING: Nationally representative sample of general community-dwelling adult population in Iraq from the 2015 Iraq STEPS survey. PARTICIPANTS: The sample included 3853 adults (mean age 41.8 years, SD=15.8), with complete fasting blood glucose values, from the 2015 Iraq STEPS survey. OUTCOME MEASURES: Data collection included: (1) social and behavioural information, (2) physical parameters and blood pressure measurements and (3) biochemical measurements. UT2D was classified as not being diagnosed with T2D and fasting plasma glucose level ≥126 mg/dL. Multivariable multinomial and logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with UT2D. RESULTS: The prevalence of UT2D was 8.1% and the prevalence of diagnosed T2D (DT2D) was 8.9%. Participants aged 50 years and older (adjusted relative risk ratio (ARRR): 2.11, 95% CI 1.30 to 3.43) and those with high cholesterol (ARRR: 1.54, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.24) had a higher risk of UT2D. Older age (≥50 years) (ARRR: 17.90, 95% CI 8.42 to 38.06), receipt of healthcare advice (ARRR: 2.15, 95% CI 1.56 to 2.96), history of cholesterol testing (ARRR: 2.17, 95% CI 1.58 to 2.99), stroke or heart attack (ARRR: 1.81, 95% CI 1.13 to 2.92), and high cholesterol (ARRR: 1.55, 95% CI 1.17 to 2.06) were positively associated with DT2D, and high physical activity (ARRR: 0.57, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.84) was negatively associated with DT2D. Higher than primary education (adjusted OR (AOR): 2.02, 95% CI 1.21 to 3.37) was positively associated with UT2D versus DT2D, while older age (≥50 years) (AOR: 0.12, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.25), healthcare advice (AOR: 0.45, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.70), and history of cholesterol screening (AOR: 0.37, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.58) were inversely associated with UT2D versus DT2D. CONCLUSION: Almost one in ten adults in Iraq had UT2D, and various associated factors were identified that could be useful in planning interventions.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Adulto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Iraque/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Colesterol
3.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 763, 2022 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36414939

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Kurds as an ethnic group are believed to be a combination of earlier Indo-European tribes who migrated and inhabited a mountainous area thousands of years ago. However, as it is difficult to describe the precise history of their origin, it is necessary to investigate their population relationship with other geographical and ethnic groups. RESULTS: Seventeen Short Tandem Repeat markers on the Y chromosome (Y-STR) included in the AmpFLSTR™ Yfiler™ PCR Amplification Kit (Thermo Fisher Scientific, USA) were used to type DNA samples from the Sorani (Central) Kurdish population in Sulaymaniyah province. One hundred fifty-seven haplotypes were obtained from 162 unrelated male individuals. The highest and lowest gene diversities were DYS385a/b (GD = 0.848) and DYS392 (GD = 0.392), respectively. The haplotypes were used to predict the most likely haplogroups in the Sulaymaniyah population. CONCLUSION: Haplogroup prediction indicated predominance (28%) of subclade J2 (44/157) in the Sorani Kurds, northeast of Iraq. The pairwise genetic distance results showed that the Kurdish group clustered along with Asian populations, whereas the furthest countries were Europeans and Africans.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Y , Polimorfismo Genético , Masculino , Humanos , Cromossomos Humanos Y/genética , Frequência do Gene , Iraque , Genética Populacional
4.
Environ Monit Assess ; 195(1): 140, 2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36417000

RESUMO

Radiometric monitoring of construction materials is required for estimating the interior and exterior exposure to ionizing radiation emitted by terrestrial radioactive elements in building materials. Using gamma-ray spectroscopy, the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40 K in fifty-two samples from eighteen different building materials commonly used in Erbil city, Kurdistan region, Iraq, were evaluated to assess possible radioactive dangers to human health. The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40 K ranged from 1 ± 0.1 (gypsum board) to 130 ± 11 (granite), 1.3 ± 0.2 (gypsum) to 66 ± 8 (ceramic sample), and 18.74 ± 4 (gypsum) to 1061.708 ± 40 (granite) with an average of 28 ± 5, 20.7 ± 4, and 340.8 ± 18 (average ± standard deviation), respectively. Radiological indicators (activity concentration index, alpha and gamma index, hazard indices, interior absorbed gamma dose rate and the corresponding yearly effective dosage rate, and excess lifetime cancer risk) were computed to assess the health risks associated with these building materials. Consideration was given to the indoor annual effective dosage for common construction materials, the radon surface expiration rate, and the indoor radon concentration. The mean values of activity concentration were then inputted into the RESRAD-BUILD computer software to calculate a resident's long-term radiation exposure. The dosages were measured over a range of 0 to 70 years. From 0 to 30 years, there was a significant change in dosages; however, from 30 to 70 years, the dosages were reasonably consistent. This research demonstrates that granite samples are not safe for dwellings with poor ventilation (especially those without windows). In general, other investigated construction materials in the buildings are deemed safe for the population, since the computed values for these parameters fall within the well-being restrictions or criterion values.


Assuntos
Monitoramento de Radiação , Radioatividade , Rádio (Elemento) , Radônio , Humanos , Radioisótopos de Potássio/análise , Tório/análise , Espectrometria gama , Rádio (Elemento)/análise , Sulfato de Cálcio/análise , Iraque , Monitoramento de Radiação/métodos , Materiais de Construção , Medição de Risco
5.
BMC Microbiol ; 22(1): 279, 2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36418940

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food-borne infections mainly due to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) are major concerns worldwide. S. Enteritidis isolates may serve as reservoirs for spreading antimicrobial drug resistance genes including carbapenemases. This study aimed to screen the occurrence of virulence factors, carbapenemases, and antibiotic resistance genes in S. Enteritidis isolated from chicken meat and eggs in Iraq. RESULTS: In total, 1000 non-duplicated chicken meat and 1000 egg samples were collected during 2019-2020. Presumptive S. Enteritidis isolates were initially identified by standard bacteriology tests and then were confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Carbapenem resistance was detected using the disk diffusion method. Virulence and carbapenemase genes were screened using the PCR method. In total, 100 (5.0%) S. Enteritidis isolates were identified from 2000 samples collected using phenotypic and molecular methods. These isolates were identified from 4.9% chicken meat (n = 49/1000) and 5.1% egg (n = 51/1000) samples, respectively. The most and the least susceptibility was found to gentamicin and ceftazidime antibiotics, respectively. The prevalence of different virulence factors were as follows: phoP/Q (40.0%), traT (30.0%), stn (22.0%), slyA (11.0%), and sopB (9.0%). Among 20 carbapenem-resistant S. Enteritidis isolates, the most predominant carbapenemase gene was blaIMP (35.0%, n = 7), followed by blaOXA-48-like (25.0%, n = 5), and blaNDM (10.0%, n = 2), while the blaKPC and blaVIM genes were not detected. The coexistence of blaIMP, blaOXA-48-like, and blaNDM genes was determined in two isolates. The prevalence of different antibiotic resistance genes were as follows: tetA (87.1%), tetB (87.1%), dfrA1 (77.6%), and sul1 (83.6%). CONCLUSION: Considering the existence of carbapenem-resistant S. Enteritidis harboring different virulence and antibiotic resistance genes in chicken meat and egg samples, adherence to proper hygienic conditions should be considered.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Salmonella enteritidis , Animais , Salmonella enteritidis/genética , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Inosina Monofosfato , Iraque , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Carbapenêmicos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Carne/microbiologia
6.
J Med Life ; 15(10): 1252-1256, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36420291

RESUMO

Preeclampsia (PE) is a major obstetric syndrome and represents a pregnancy hypertensive disease affecting about 2-8% of pregnancies. Typically, it occurs after 20 weeks of pregnancy, being classified as early or late in accordance with the gestational age at diagnosis or delivery. An imbalance between angiogenic and antiangiogenic factors has an important role in the pathophysiology of PE. It was hypothesized that the dysfunctional endothelium contributes to the pathogenesis of PE. A change in the production of Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGR), a biomarker of endothelial dysfunction, is associated with this disease, whether presenting an increase, decrease, or being at a normal level. This study examined the associations between VEGF and preeclampsia and the importance of this VEGF as a predictor of its severity. This case-control study included 50 patients with preeclampsia and 50 normotensive pregnant women in the control group. Venous blood was aspirated from each patient, and VEGF levels were measured from sera. The mean VEGF for patients with mild PE was 29.410±18.976 pg/ml, for those with severe PE it was 36.188±36.98 pg/ml, and for normotensive women it was 92.104±154.715 pg/ml. There were significant differences in VEGF levels between the studied groups (P=0.024). This study showed that serum VEGF levels were significantly reduced in patients with preeclampsia compared with normotensive pregnant women, suggesting marked endothelial dysfunction. This led to widespread vasoconstriction and, in turn, caused hypertension and proteinuria.


Assuntos
Pré-Eclâmpsia , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Iraque , Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular
7.
J Med Life ; 15(10): 1318-1321, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36420288

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the primary type of cancer affecting women. Patients with hormone receptor-positive cells have lower mortality rates. Both chemotherapy and hormone therapy can improve the survival rate. This study aimed to evaluate the hormonal receptor status in female breast cancer and assess the relationship with the patient's age and family history in Najaf, Iraq. A prospective study of two-hundred and fifty-one women with mastectomies (for cancers) was performed at AL Sader Medical City from January 2019 to January 2021. We collected and analyzed data regarding the age of patients, site and size of the tumor, number of pregnancies, family history, weight, smoking, and hormone receptor status. The average age of patients was 48 years, and the peak incidence was in the 40-49 age group (30.27% of patients). Of all age groups, 48.6% (122 patients) were negative for all hormone receptors (triple negative), and only 22.70% had a positive family history. The peak incidence of cancer in our study was in the 40-49 years group. A high proportion of the hormone receptors for patients were negative (triple-negative), and most patients had a negative family history.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Incidência , Estudos Prospectivos , Iraque/epidemiologia , Hormônios
8.
J Med Life ; 15(10): 1283-1293, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36420298

RESUMO

Endoscopic thyroid surgery has gained popularity with the advances in laparoscopic and endoscopic instruments and techniques. Of all endoscopic approaches for thyroidectomy, the transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy vestibular approach (TOETVA) is the most promising procedure as it avoids neck scars and has less tissue dissection than other endoscopic techniques. This study aimed to present our first impression and initial experience with TOETVA in Erbil city. Twelve patients underwent surgery between November 2020 and April 2021, including eleven females and one male. Eleven total thyroidectomies and one lobectomy were performed. We found no significant postoperative complications. TOETVA is a safe and effective procedure, but it is challenging, needs good skills, and is a promising technique.


Assuntos
Laparoscopia , Tireoidectomia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tireoidectomia/efeitos adversos , Tireoidectomia/métodos , Iraque , Glândula Tireoide/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia
9.
J Med Life ; 15(10): 1234-1239, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36420297

RESUMO

Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune illness defined as insulin insufficiency resulting from the autoimmune breakdown of pancreatic beta cells producing insulin in the islets of Langerhans. Biomarkers are markers of physiological or pathological processes that are normal or abnormal, playing a crucial function in clinical evaluation, prognosis, and therapy response monitoring. This study aimed to investigate some biomarkers associated with T1D and examine the association between glutamic acid carboxylase (GADA) antibody and islet antigen-2 autoantibody (IA-2A) for ß-cell stress and death in patients with T1D. The current study included 60 patients with T1D, 32 (53.33%) males and 28 (46.67%) females between 9 to 18 years old, and 30 healthy individuals as control. Glutamic acid carboxylase, islet antigen-2 autoantibody and connecting peptide levels in the blood were evaluated. Positive results for IA-2A and GADA were shown in 89.04% and 38% of T1D patients, respectively. The normal level frequency and C-peptide titer mean were significantly lower between T1D and healthy control. However, no statistically significant changes were observed in the C-peptide level among GADA positive and negative patients. Finally, the C-peptide concentrations were significantly lower for positive IA-2A compared to negative IA-2A persons. The combination of IA-2A, GADA, and C-peptide could indicate stronger diagnostic measures at a low cost for patients with T1D.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Criança , Adolescente , Peptídeo C , Glutamato Descarboxilase , Ácido Glutâmico , Iraque , Biomarcadores
10.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e064301, 2022 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36410839

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to first assess the knowledge and perception of first-year university students in Iraq about COVID-19 in general and SARS-CoV-2 latest variant of concern, and to evaluate the attitudes towards protection measures including vaccination. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted among newly enrolled students at the American University of Iraq-Baghdad. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to test an association between the outcomes measured on a 5-point Likert scale and the binary and the categorical independent variables, respectively. χ2 test was used to test the association between nominal categorical variables, while Kendall's τ-b was used for ordinal variables. PARTICIPANTS: Students (n=432) were invited to fill out a survey specifically tailored to assess their knowledge, perception and attitude towards Omicron variant and COVID-19 vaccines acceptance. 363 students enrolled in various majors participated in this study. RESULTS: Assessment of COVID-19 knowledge and perception revealed that students still lack reliable info and data about FDA-approved treatment options (70.5%), SARS-CoV-2 variants (96.5%) and approved vaccines. Students' attitude and practices towards recommended safety measures should be reassessed to better manage the pandemic. Adherence level was shown to be associated with the belief in its capacity to effectively manage the new variant. Interestingly, 85% of the students have received at least one dose of approved vaccine. A significant positive correlation was detected between the level of adherence to recommended precautions and the intention to take a third booster shot if proven effective. CONCLUSIONS: Students' reliable knowledge about COVID-19 pandemic including the various strains and approved vaccines should be improved to better manage the pandemic and set foundations for a more appropriate approach when another pandemic occurs. Special workshops should be organised to ensure that students and the public have a more trusted source of information about COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Vacinas contra COVID-19/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudos Transversais , Universidades , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Iraque , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estudantes , Percepção
11.
J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol ; 29(4): e55-e68, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36414572

RESUMO

The aim of this research is to identify the strengths and weaknesses of organizational health in the Iraqi Central Handball Federation from the point of view of those who manage the implementation of the annual curriculum, and adopt a descriptive approach in the method of studying the case. This is based on a sample of administrators of the Iraqi Handball Federation curriculum [trainers, governors, members, president, the 138 members of the Central Federation's Administrative Authority, the President, members of the sub-federations of the sports market (2021/2022) selected deliberately by 100% and then divided into statistical analysis sample (30), reconnaissance sample (10), and application sample (98)]. The regulatory health questionnaire in its Italian version was prepared to suit the specificity of the research and the type of sample it was assigned in accordance with systematic sequential steps for its acceptance of the main measurement cad actor in this research. This was then applied to address the problem researched, and its data were processed by the system (SPSS) to make conclusions and applications that help regulatory health in support of the efforts of the Central Handball Federation to implement the annual curriculum from the point of view of those who manage its implementation, and help activate the role of sponsors to manage the implementation of the annual curriculum in the Central Handball Federation effectively, and was then applied to address the research problem. It has complementary factors that need to be available at a high level in the Central Handball Federation to help manage the implementation of the annual curriculum in full, and its specificity in managing the implementation of the annual curriculum in the Central Handball Federation requires comprehensiveness and the need for its elements to achieve a high level of it. It is necessary to support them in the formation of the Central Handball Federation to further activate the role of the worlds and determine their role and avoid feeling the loss of efforts, a careful and periodic review of the level of organizational health must be conducted before planning the annual curriculum in the Central Handball Federation, modifying the paths of weakness, supporting its strengths and taking into account its suitability in order to achieve the goals when implemented later.


Assuntos
Futebol Americano , Humanos , Iraque , Currículo , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 63(3): E429-E434, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36415302

RESUMO

Introduction: It is important to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) related to visceral leishmaniasis (VL) to implement an effective control program. Hence, this study aimed to highlight KAP among residents of Al-Suwaira city in Wasit Governorate, Middle East of Iraq. Methods: During March to May 2021, a cross-sectional study was done on 121 randomly selected residents. A normal self-administered questionnaire was used to measure KAP. Descriptive analysis was used to present the results. Results: Overall, participants indicated average knowledge towards VL. However, the incubation period of VL (23.9%), the symptoms of VL (57.9%), and the diseases' transmission ways (54.5%) were recognized as knowledge gaps. Participants had a positive attitude towards VL, as the majority of them (more than 70.0%) agreed that VL causes health problems in local populations and local communities should be actively involved in the fight against VL. Also, the majority of participants agreed that VL is a treatable disease. Regarding the practice towards VL, 110 (90.9%) participants had taken preventive measures against sand fly bites. The majority of respondents (44.6%) chose cleanliness as a preventive measure. The main sources of information that participants used to learn about the disease were the Internet (57.0%) and television (19.8%). Conclusion: Overall, participants had good knowledge, positive attitudes, and good practice when it came to VL prevention. However, there were also some gaps. Hence, it is recommended that knowledge-based strategies be strengthened and implemented consistently to raise awareness among residents in the region.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Visceral , Humanos , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/prevenção & controle , Iraque , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Oriente Médio
13.
J Med Life ; 15(9): 1129-1135, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36415511

RESUMO

Electrolyte disturbances are common in ill patients. Several conditions in the intensive care unit (ICU) might be responsible for developing electrolyte disorders, and medications may also contribute to these disturbances. The current study aimed to determine the frequency of electrolyte disturbances and assess the pattern of electrolyte imbalance in hospitalized patients, determining the possible effects of these electrolyte disorders. This cross-sectional study included patients admitted to the intensive care unit, respiratory care unit (RCU), and coronary care unit (CCU) at the Al-Sadar teaching hospital, Najaf, Iraq, from November 2020 to April 2021. The study collected data from two hundred patients regarding demographics, categories of ICUs at admission, comorbidities, and laboratory values at admission. Also, electrolyte levels at ICU admission and during hospitalization were collected from the medical database record. In addition, the patient's age, sex, fasting blood sugar (FBS), body mass index (BMI), B.urea, and creatinine were matched. Na+, K+, ionized Ca++, and Cl serum levels were significantly different during hospitalization. Comorbidities with predominant hypokalemia were found in 80.5%, hypochloremia in 73%, hypocalcaemia in 72%, and hyponatremia in 56.7% of hospitalized patients. Studying the effect of co-morbidities indicated a higher percentage (44%) of admitted patients with ischemic heart diseases, 38 (19%) with digestive diseases, 21 (10.5%) with orthopedic surgery in an emergency, 14 (7%) with pneumonia and lung diseases, 12 (6%) with diabetics, 18 (9%) with sepsis, and 9(4.5%) with seizure. Hospitalized patients may be at higher risk of developing combined electrolytes disorder associated with decreased serum levels of K+, Na+, Ca++, and Cl-. Thus, doctors and clinicians are recommended to observe electrolyte changes and correct them as they seem to negatively impact the outcome and prognosis.


Assuntos
Hiponatremia , Desequilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Iraque/epidemiologia , Desequilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/epidemiologia , Hiponatremia/epidemiologia , Hiponatremia/etiologia , Eletrólitos
14.
J Med Life ; 15(9): 1115-1118, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36415521

RESUMO

Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) caused by high blood pressure is linked to increased mortality and arrhythmia risk. This study aimed to evaluate arrhythmia in hypertensive patients due to left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). A cross-sectional study was performed, assessing participants' blood pressure, echocardiography and electrocardiography, and Holter monitoring in certain cases. There were 300 hypertensive patients >18 years attending the cardiology unit of Baghdad medical city. The study was conducted between January-June 2022. The electrocardiograms at rest for 300 adults with hypertension were investigated. 130 (43.5%) were females, and 170 (56.5%) were males. The mean age of participants was 58 years. Forty-nine (16.3%) patients had arrhythmia. As compared to those without arrhythmia, participants with arrhythmia were older (62.3 vs. 56.1, p=0.03), had a greater prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy (24.5% vs. 12.7%, p=0.026), and more prone to experience cardiac failure (32.7% vs. 8.5%, p<0.011). Atrial fibrillation was found in 6 (27.2%) female patients and 5 (18.5%) males. In addition, two (7.4%) male patients and one female patient (4.5%) had atrial flutter, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) were noted in 10 (37%) and 11 (50%) patients. Left ventricular mass index (LVMI) was 103 gm/m2 in female patients and 119.2 gm/m2 in males. Palpitation was present in 22 (44.9%) female patients and 27 (55.1%) males. The study revealed that hypertensives with LVH have an arrhythmia frequency of 16.3%. The most common arrhythmias were atrial fibrillation and premature ventricular complex.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Hipertensão , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/complicações , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/epidemiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Estudos Transversais , Iraque/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/epidemiologia
15.
J Med Life ; 15(9): 1096-1099, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36415524

RESUMO

Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidium, and Blastocystis are some parasites primarily responsible for human infections. Giardia lamblia, also known as Giardia intestinalis or Giardia duodenalis, is a common pathogenic protozoan found in the human duodenum and jejunum that causes giardiasis. This study collected stool and blood samples from patients with diarrhea aged less than 1 month to 15 years, from September 2020 to December 2020, in Thi-Qar province. Our study aimed to reveal the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia using direct microscopy examination and detect some immunological parameters such as IL-17 and IL-35 in patients infected with giardiasis.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Giardia lamblia , Giardíase , Humanos , Giardíase/diagnóstico , Giardíase/parasitologia , Interleucina-17 , Iraque/epidemiologia
16.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e259855, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36350948

RESUMO

The study was conducted to compare the distribution and composition of the Molluscs community in 4 ecosystems (4 sites) in southern of Iraq, namely: (Site 1)- in Euphrates River at Al-Madinah city, (Site 2)- in Shatt Al-Arab at Al-Sharsh area, (Site 3)- in the Garmat Ali River at Al-Mashib area and Site 4- in the Al-seba area. Samples were collected from study sites during a period of January to August 2019. (11) species from the class Gastropoda and (4) species from the class Bivalves, species were predominated in most of the study months which are species: Melenodies nodosa, Bellamya bengalensis and Melanopsis turbculata from Gastropoda and two of the species are bivalve: Corbicula fluminalis and Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857), and the last species, L. fortunei, was recorded in the current study for the first time in freshwater of Iraq. The total biodiversity values of Molluscs at the Euphrates River at Al-Madinah area (Site. 1), Al-Sharsh area (Site 2), Al-Mashib area (Site 3) and Al-seba area (Site 4) were 3.1, 2.9, 2.4, 1.8, respectively, and It was noted that the highest seasonal densities of the species in the current study were recorded in the winter season, reaching 1013, 905, 762 and 639 individuals / m2 in four sites, respectively.


Assuntos
Gastrópodes , Mytilidae , Humanos , Animais , Ecossistema , Iraque , Rios , Água Doce
17.
Educ Health (Abingdon) ; 35(1): 9-15, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36367023

RESUMO

Background: The mandate of medical schools is to enrich the health system through education, research, and service to satisfy the health needs of the societies they serve. The social accountability (SA) movement aims to intensify the medical school's mission. Although the context of every school is unique, one of the increasingly significant roles of medical education is to develop the indicators that promote SA. The aim of this study is to define the determinants of SA in Iraq using AlKindy College of Medicine/University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq as a case study. Methods: This is a qualitative research using open-ended questions through an online mode; data were analyzed using the content analysis technique. Results: Different themes related to the roles of medical schools, stakeholders, medical schools' mission, curriculum content, research characteristics, service characteristics, enhancers of SA, and accreditation role were identified. The themes are meant to characterize a socially accountable medical school within the context of Iraq. Discussion: The study needs to be replicated in different medical schools to successfully build the national determinants of SA.


Assuntos
Educação Médica , Faculdades de Medicina , Humanos , Iraque , Responsabilidade Social , Pesquisa Qualitativa
18.
Saudi Med J ; 43(11): 1240-1247, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36379542

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its related risk factors in a group of healthy subjects. METHODS: This cross-sectional analytic investigation used a convenient sample of 300 apparently healthy university students from Wasit, Iraq, between October 2021 and February 2022. The data was collected using a structured direct interview with a self-administered questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements (waist circumference [WC], body mass index [BMI], height, weight, and the blood pressure), total cholesterol level, triglyceride level, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C), and fasting blood glucose (FBG) were all measured. IDF/AHA/NHLBI criteria were used to diagnose metabolic syndrome. RESULTS: Overall, 41.3% of students had MetS, with female (66.9%) students having the highest frequency. The most common component of MetS was elevated FBG (98.3%), followed by increased WC (87.9%), and finally a low HDL-C level (85.4%). The following factors were found to be predisposing to MetS: being female (OR=2.32), over the age of 20 (OR=1.96), obese (OR=9.46), high consumption of fast food (OR=2.35), and physically inactive. CONCLUSION: Metabolic syndrome prevalence and defining criteria are significantly high among Iraqi university students. Fasting blood glucose was the most common component followed by increased WC. The significant risk factors for MetS were older age, females, high BMI (≥25), low physical-activity, and eating of fast foods, and can remedy the risk if the components of the disease are reported at a younger age.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Prevalência , Iraque/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Universidades , Glicemia , Circunferência da Cintura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Fatores de Risco , Estudantes
19.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 2177, 2022 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36434617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some groups of migrants have increased vulnerability to Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) transmission partly due to a lower uptake of disease preventive activities targeting the general population in receiving country. Limited access to economic and social resources and poor language skills may exacerbate exposure to sexual risks and utilization of health services. AIM: To explore general and migrant specific predictors for STI/HIV-testing among Syrian and Iraqi migrants in Sweden and to investigate potential pathways that link predisposing, enabling and need- factors to STI/HIV-testing. METHOD: Cross-sectional study design based on a migration specific framework for health care utilization. Directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) were used to model assumptions about factors associated with the uptake of STI/HIV-testing services. Bi-variable and multivariable logistic regression analyses assessed individual predictors while adjusting for covariates. The magnitude of the indirect effect of mediating variables were estimated with bootstrap analyses and a method for decomposing the total effect. RESULT: The pathways between younger age, unmarried, and self-identifying as bi- or homosexual and testing were mainly indirect, mediated by experiences of sexual coercion and other risk behaviours. One third of the indirect mediating effect of the pathway between higher education and testing could be attributed to Swedish language skills. CONCLUSION: Utilization of STI/HIV-testing services among Syrian and Iraqi migrants seemed to be motivated by sexual risk exposure and risk awareness. Interventions should focus on language-adapted information about available screening services and where to go for advice on sexual wellbeing and sexual rights. Such activities should be implemented within an integration promoting framework, addressing structures that increase STI/HIV risk exposure, specifically targeting vulnerable subgroups of migrants.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Migrantes , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Suécia , Iraque , Síria , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36429629

RESUMO

The findings of longitudinal studies on traumatized refugees have shown that factors related to premigration, migration, and post-migration experiences determine changes in mental health over time. The primary aim of this follow-up study was to examine the potential change in the prevalence rates of probable PTSD and depression among Syrian refugees in Iraq. An unselected group of N = 92 Syrian adult refugees was recruited from Arbat camps in Sulaymaniyah Governorate in Iraq's Kurdistan Region, and then interviewed at two different time points between July 2017 and January 2019. Locally validated instruments were used to assess traumatic events and mental health symptoms. The primary results showed no significant change in the mean scores of PTSD and depression symptoms from the first measurement to the second measurement over the course of 18 months. On the individual level, no reliable change was found for either PTSD or depression symptoms in more than three-quarters of the participants (78.3% and 77.2%, respectively). New adversities and traumatic events that occurred over the 18 months between the interviews were a significant predictor of increasing trauma-related symptoms. After the flight from conflict settings, trauma-related disorders seem to be chronic for the majority of Syrian refugees. Further longitudinal studies are needed in order to identify specific risk factors that lead to maintaining or worsening mental health symptoms over time, and to explore effective therapeutic intervention methods for this traumatized population.


Assuntos
Refugiados , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Adulto , Humanos , Refugiados/psicologia , Síria/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , Seguimentos , Iraque/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia
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