Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.036
Filtrar
1.
J Int Med Res ; 50(11): 3000605221133147, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36329597

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The primary goals of this research were to analyze the relationship between ABO blood types and the severity of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and investigate the effect of vaccination in Iraq. METHODS: Data and outcomes were gathered from the medical records of 200 patients. Patients were categorized by blood group and vaccination status in the analysis. RESULTS: In total, 200 hospitalized patients (125 men and 75 women) with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and blood group (ABO) and clinical data were enrolled. Of the 200 patients, 155 (77.5%) were vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2. The results illustrated that 25 patients died, which might have been attributable to a lack of vaccination or older age. Our analysis revealed that blood group O individuals were much less likely to be infected by SARS-CoV-2 than non-O subjects, whereas blood group A individuals carried a higher risk of infection. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings illustrated that immunization significantly reduces COVID-19 risk across all age groups, but there has been an increase in the number of cases because of decreased vaccine efficacy in older patients and persons with comorbidities. However, 45% vaccination coverage lowered the outbreak's peak.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Sistema ABO de Grupos Sanguíneos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Iraque/epidemiologia , Vacinação
2.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e064293, 2022 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36418142

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of undiagnosed type 2 diabetes (UT2D) among adults (aged 18 years and older) in Iraq. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, population-based study. SETTING: Nationally representative sample of general community-dwelling adult population in Iraq from the 2015 Iraq STEPS survey. PARTICIPANTS: The sample included 3853 adults (mean age 41.8 years, SD=15.8), with complete fasting blood glucose values, from the 2015 Iraq STEPS survey. OUTCOME MEASURES: Data collection included: (1) social and behavioural information, (2) physical parameters and blood pressure measurements and (3) biochemical measurements. UT2D was classified as not being diagnosed with T2D and fasting plasma glucose level ≥126 mg/dL. Multivariable multinomial and logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with UT2D. RESULTS: The prevalence of UT2D was 8.1% and the prevalence of diagnosed T2D (DT2D) was 8.9%. Participants aged 50 years and older (adjusted relative risk ratio (ARRR): 2.11, 95% CI 1.30 to 3.43) and those with high cholesterol (ARRR: 1.54, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.24) had a higher risk of UT2D. Older age (≥50 years) (ARRR: 17.90, 95% CI 8.42 to 38.06), receipt of healthcare advice (ARRR: 2.15, 95% CI 1.56 to 2.96), history of cholesterol testing (ARRR: 2.17, 95% CI 1.58 to 2.99), stroke or heart attack (ARRR: 1.81, 95% CI 1.13 to 2.92), and high cholesterol (ARRR: 1.55, 95% CI 1.17 to 2.06) were positively associated with DT2D, and high physical activity (ARRR: 0.57, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.84) was negatively associated with DT2D. Higher than primary education (adjusted OR (AOR): 2.02, 95% CI 1.21 to 3.37) was positively associated with UT2D versus DT2D, while older age (≥50 years) (AOR: 0.12, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.25), healthcare advice (AOR: 0.45, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.70), and history of cholesterol screening (AOR: 0.37, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.58) were inversely associated with UT2D versus DT2D. CONCLUSION: Almost one in ten adults in Iraq had UT2D, and various associated factors were identified that could be useful in planning interventions.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Adulto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Iraque/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Colesterol
3.
J Med Life ; 15(10): 1318-1321, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36420288

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the primary type of cancer affecting women. Patients with hormone receptor-positive cells have lower mortality rates. Both chemotherapy and hormone therapy can improve the survival rate. This study aimed to evaluate the hormonal receptor status in female breast cancer and assess the relationship with the patient's age and family history in Najaf, Iraq. A prospective study of two-hundred and fifty-one women with mastectomies (for cancers) was performed at AL Sader Medical City from January 2019 to January 2021. We collected and analyzed data regarding the age of patients, site and size of the tumor, number of pregnancies, family history, weight, smoking, and hormone receptor status. The average age of patients was 48 years, and the peak incidence was in the 40-49 age group (30.27% of patients). Of all age groups, 48.6% (122 patients) were negative for all hormone receptors (triple negative), and only 22.70% had a positive family history. The peak incidence of cancer in our study was in the 40-49 years group. A high proportion of the hormone receptors for patients were negative (triple-negative), and most patients had a negative family history.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Incidência , Estudos Prospectivos , Iraque/epidemiologia , Hormônios
4.
J Med Life ; 15(9): 1129-1135, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36415511

RESUMO

Electrolyte disturbances are common in ill patients. Several conditions in the intensive care unit (ICU) might be responsible for developing electrolyte disorders, and medications may also contribute to these disturbances. The current study aimed to determine the frequency of electrolyte disturbances and assess the pattern of electrolyte imbalance in hospitalized patients, determining the possible effects of these electrolyte disorders. This cross-sectional study included patients admitted to the intensive care unit, respiratory care unit (RCU), and coronary care unit (CCU) at the Al-Sadar teaching hospital, Najaf, Iraq, from November 2020 to April 2021. The study collected data from two hundred patients regarding demographics, categories of ICUs at admission, comorbidities, and laboratory values at admission. Also, electrolyte levels at ICU admission and during hospitalization were collected from the medical database record. In addition, the patient's age, sex, fasting blood sugar (FBS), body mass index (BMI), B.urea, and creatinine were matched. Na+, K+, ionized Ca++, and Cl serum levels were significantly different during hospitalization. Comorbidities with predominant hypokalemia were found in 80.5%, hypochloremia in 73%, hypocalcaemia in 72%, and hyponatremia in 56.7% of hospitalized patients. Studying the effect of co-morbidities indicated a higher percentage (44%) of admitted patients with ischemic heart diseases, 38 (19%) with digestive diseases, 21 (10.5%) with orthopedic surgery in an emergency, 14 (7%) with pneumonia and lung diseases, 12 (6%) with diabetics, 18 (9%) with sepsis, and 9(4.5%) with seizure. Hospitalized patients may be at higher risk of developing combined electrolytes disorder associated with decreased serum levels of K+, Na+, Ca++, and Cl-. Thus, doctors and clinicians are recommended to observe electrolyte changes and correct them as they seem to negatively impact the outcome and prognosis.


Assuntos
Hiponatremia , Desequilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Iraque/epidemiologia , Desequilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/epidemiologia , Hiponatremia/epidemiologia , Hiponatremia/etiologia , Eletrólitos
5.
J Med Life ; 15(9): 1115-1118, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36415521

RESUMO

Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) caused by high blood pressure is linked to increased mortality and arrhythmia risk. This study aimed to evaluate arrhythmia in hypertensive patients due to left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). A cross-sectional study was performed, assessing participants' blood pressure, echocardiography and electrocardiography, and Holter monitoring in certain cases. There were 300 hypertensive patients >18 years attending the cardiology unit of Baghdad medical city. The study was conducted between January-June 2022. The electrocardiograms at rest for 300 adults with hypertension were investigated. 130 (43.5%) were females, and 170 (56.5%) were males. The mean age of participants was 58 years. Forty-nine (16.3%) patients had arrhythmia. As compared to those without arrhythmia, participants with arrhythmia were older (62.3 vs. 56.1, p=0.03), had a greater prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy (24.5% vs. 12.7%, p=0.026), and more prone to experience cardiac failure (32.7% vs. 8.5%, p<0.011). Atrial fibrillation was found in 6 (27.2%) female patients and 5 (18.5%) males. In addition, two (7.4%) male patients and one female patient (4.5%) had atrial flutter, and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) were noted in 10 (37%) and 11 (50%) patients. Left ventricular mass index (LVMI) was 103 gm/m2 in female patients and 119.2 gm/m2 in males. Palpitation was present in 22 (44.9%) female patients and 27 (55.1%) males. The study revealed that hypertensives with LVH have an arrhythmia frequency of 16.3%. The most common arrhythmias were atrial fibrillation and premature ventricular complex.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Hipertensão , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/complicações , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/epidemiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Estudos Transversais , Iraque/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/epidemiologia
6.
J Med Life ; 15(9): 1096-1099, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36415524

RESUMO

Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidium, and Blastocystis are some parasites primarily responsible for human infections. Giardia lamblia, also known as Giardia intestinalis or Giardia duodenalis, is a common pathogenic protozoan found in the human duodenum and jejunum that causes giardiasis. This study collected stool and blood samples from patients with diarrhea aged less than 1 month to 15 years, from September 2020 to December 2020, in Thi-Qar province. Our study aimed to reveal the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia using direct microscopy examination and detect some immunological parameters such as IL-17 and IL-35 in patients infected with giardiasis.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Giardia lamblia , Giardíase , Humanos , Giardíase/diagnóstico , Giardíase/parasitologia , Interleucina-17 , Iraque/epidemiologia
7.
Saudi Med J ; 43(11): 1240-1247, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36379542

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its related risk factors in a group of healthy subjects. METHODS: This cross-sectional analytic investigation used a convenient sample of 300 apparently healthy university students from Wasit, Iraq, between October 2021 and February 2022. The data was collected using a structured direct interview with a self-administered questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements (waist circumference [WC], body mass index [BMI], height, weight, and the blood pressure), total cholesterol level, triglyceride level, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C), and fasting blood glucose (FBG) were all measured. IDF/AHA/NHLBI criteria were used to diagnose metabolic syndrome. RESULTS: Overall, 41.3% of students had MetS, with female (66.9%) students having the highest frequency. The most common component of MetS was elevated FBG (98.3%), followed by increased WC (87.9%), and finally a low HDL-C level (85.4%). The following factors were found to be predisposing to MetS: being female (OR=2.32), over the age of 20 (OR=1.96), obese (OR=9.46), high consumption of fast food (OR=2.35), and physically inactive. CONCLUSION: Metabolic syndrome prevalence and defining criteria are significantly high among Iraqi university students. Fasting blood glucose was the most common component followed by increased WC. The significant risk factors for MetS were older age, females, high BMI (≥25), low physical-activity, and eating of fast foods, and can remedy the risk if the components of the disease are reported at a younger age.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Prevalência , Iraque/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Universidades , Glicemia , Circunferência da Cintura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Fatores de Risco , Estudantes
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36429629

RESUMO

The findings of longitudinal studies on traumatized refugees have shown that factors related to premigration, migration, and post-migration experiences determine changes in mental health over time. The primary aim of this follow-up study was to examine the potential change in the prevalence rates of probable PTSD and depression among Syrian refugees in Iraq. An unselected group of N = 92 Syrian adult refugees was recruited from Arbat camps in Sulaymaniyah Governorate in Iraq's Kurdistan Region, and then interviewed at two different time points between July 2017 and January 2019. Locally validated instruments were used to assess traumatic events and mental health symptoms. The primary results showed no significant change in the mean scores of PTSD and depression symptoms from the first measurement to the second measurement over the course of 18 months. On the individual level, no reliable change was found for either PTSD or depression symptoms in more than three-quarters of the participants (78.3% and 77.2%, respectively). New adversities and traumatic events that occurred over the 18 months between the interviews were a significant predictor of increasing trauma-related symptoms. After the flight from conflict settings, trauma-related disorders seem to be chronic for the majority of Syrian refugees. Further longitudinal studies are needed in order to identify specific risk factors that lead to maintaining or worsening mental health symptoms over time, and to explore effective therapeutic intervention methods for this traumatized population.


Assuntos
Refugiados , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Adulto , Humanos , Refugiados/psicologia , Síria/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , Seguimentos , Iraque/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia
9.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0274526, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36399454

RESUMO

Several messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and inactivated COVID-19 vaccines are available to the global population as of 2022. The acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine will play a key role in combating the worldwide pandemic. Public confidence in this vaccine is largely based on its safety and effectiveness. This study was designed to provide independent evidence of the adverse effects associated with COVID-19 vaccines among healthcare workers in Iraq and to identify the attitudes of healthcare workers who rejected the vaccination. We conducted a cross-sectional study to collect data on the adverse effects of the Pfizer, AstraZeneca, and Sinopharm vaccines. Data were collected between October 2021 and February 2022. A total of 2,202 participants were enrolled in the study: (89.97%) received injections of the COVID-19 vaccines and (10.03%) were hesitant to receive the vaccination. Participants received either the Pfizer vaccine (62.9%), AstraZeneca vaccine (23.5%) or Sinopharm vaccine (13.6%). Most adverse effects were significantly less prevalent in the second dose than in the first dose. Notably, the adverse effects associated with the Pfizer vaccine were significantly more prevalent in females than in males. Following the first dose, the participants experienced more adverse effects with the AstraZeneca vaccine. Following the second dose, more adverse effects were associated with the Pfizer vaccine. Interestingly, the prevalence of COVID-19 infection in participants who received two doses of the Pfizer vaccine was significantly reduced compared to those who received two doses of either the AstraZeneca or Sinopharm vaccines. According to vaccine-hesitated participants, insufficient knowledge (29.9%), expeditious development (27.6%) and lack of trust in the vaccines (27.1%) were the three major reasons for refusing the vaccines. The results of our study indicated that these adverse effects do not present a significant problem and should not prevent successful control of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Vacinas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Iraque/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação/efeitos adversos
10.
Turk J Med Sci ; 52(4): 910-916, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36326391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a zoonotic viral disease transmitted from dromedaries to humans. To date, more than 1500 cases of MERS have been reported and 80% of all cases have occurred in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). This cross-sectional study was carried out to figure out the rate of infection among humans and dromedary camels and to explore the risk factors. METHODS: This study was conducted in Diyala Province, Iraq for the period from August 2017 to October 2018. Human subjects included 90 participants; 34 (37.8%) were females and 56 (62.2%) were males. Additionally, 90 dromedary camels were also included, 50 (55.6%) males and 40 (44.4%) females. Serum samples from subjects were collected and tested for the presence of anti-MERS-coronavirus (CoV) immunoglobulin g (IgG). RESULTS: The results revealed that 46 (51.1%) of human subjects were positive for anti-MERS-CoV IgG, (95% confidence interval (CI) for the prevalence rate 40.9-61.3) with a mean titer of anti-MERS-CoV IgG antibodies (Ab) of 81.2 U/mL. The anti-MERS-CoV IgG positivity rate was insignificantly higher, but the mean of anti-MERS-CoV IgG titer was significantly higher among females (p = 0.12 and p < 0.004, respectively). Furthermore, the anti-MERS-CoV IgG positivity rate and Ab titer were significantly higher among those people who visited KSA for Hajj or Umrah (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). In camels, 81 (90.0%) were positive for anti-MERS-CoV IgG, (95% CI for the prevalence rate 82.5-94.9), with a mean titer of 99.8 U/mL. DISCUSSION: The MERS-CoV infection rate was high among both Iraqi humans and dromedary camels. Further confirmatory studies are needed, and setting up of national precaution program is essential.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio , Masculino , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Camelus , Estudos Transversais , Iraque/epidemiologia , Anticorpos Antivirais , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Imunoglobulina G
11.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 262, 2022 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36369062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Insurgents of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant created a crisis that has had immediate and long-term consequences for the population in Iraq. Yazidis are among the most affected ethnos religious groups in the region. The current study focuses on investigating the level of psychological distress and its association with subjective resilience among the Yazidi minority 6 years after the attack by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. METHODS: The present study recruited four hundred and twenty-two Yazidi individuals (50.8% female) residing in two camps in the Iraqi Kurdistan region. In face-to-face interviews, each participant replied to different scales to measure psychological distress (i.e., depression, anxiety, and stress), perceived stress, and subjective resilience. In addition, they were asked questions about mental health and psychosocial service acquisition. RESULTS: The results indicate that levels of psychological distress were high among the target population; around 65% of respondents reported having some level of psychological distress. Moreover, women showed not only higher level of psychological distress but also revealed slightly lower subjective resilience as compared to male participants. Hierarchical regressions showed that subjective resilience significantly contributed to the predictive model of distress beyond demographics and having received or not mental health and psychosocial support. Subjective resilience was significantly associated to less anxiety (R2adj = .157, ΔR2 = .022, p = .010) and stress (R2adj = .083, ΔR2 = .026, p = .008) in Mam-Rashan camp; and to less depression (R2adj = .184, ΔR2 = .095, p < .001), anxiety (R2adj = .140, ΔR2 = .024, p = .034), stress (R2adj = .046, ΔR2 = .047, p = .005), and perceived stress (R2adj = .024, ΔR2 = .032, p = .022) in Shekhan camp. CONCLUSIONS: Conflict and displacement contribute to high level of psychological distress. Resilience, however, seem to have a negative association with psychological distress. Additionally, living conditions and sex also played an important role in both psychological distress and resilience. Consequently, Yazidi community residing in camps are in need of further support to alleviate the consequences of displacement. We critically discuss the differences in the results among participants per camp and by sex, and its implications.


Assuntos
Angústia Psicológica , Resiliência Psicológica , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Iraque/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Estresse Psicológico
12.
Arch Razi Inst ; 77(2): 727-731, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36284947

RESUMO

Opportunistic yeasts, such as Trichosporon and Candida species (spp.), are reported to cause high rates of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised and underlying patients. This study was conducted to investigate the phenotypic and genotypic identification of yeast spp. isolated from diabetic patients in Al-Najaf province, Iraq. Samples were collected from the depth of diabetic foot patients' wounds. They were then cultured on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) and incubated at 30°C to 35°C for 5 to 7 days for the growth of yeast spp. The colonies were identified based on their microscopic features. Afterward, these yeast samples were cultured in CHROMagar for the isolation and identification of yeast spp. All collected samples were cultured on the SDA through the use of CHROMagar, which is considered a differential agar since the colonies obtained from Candida intermedia and Trichosporon asahii appear in different colors on this media. The Polymerase Chain Reaction assay was performed to amplify the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and Internal transcribed spacer 4 (ITS4) sequences for the identification of the yeast spp. Furthermore, the products were sequenced by the Sanger method and compared to the reference global sequences in the national center for biotechnology information Gene Bank. The results showed different molecular sizes of the ITS regions of yeast spp. The primer pair was used for the same sample (i.e., ITS1-ITS4) and targeted the ITS regions. Yeast spp. can be considered the most common fungal agent of life-threatening invasive infections in patients with severe immunodeficiency or underlying diseases, and the treatment of these infections requires long stays in the intensive care units.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Pé Diabético , Animais , Ágar , Pé Diabético/epidemiologia , Pé Diabético/veterinária , Filogenia , Iraque/epidemiologia , Meios de Cultura , Glucose , Diabetes Mellitus/veterinária
13.
Arch Razi Inst ; 77(2): 821-825, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36284936

RESUMO

Protozoan parasites are very important in drinking water production systems because their cystic forms are stable in the environment and resistant to conventional disinfection methods. The present study aimed to investigate protozoan parasites in the drinking water of different places in Samarra, Iraq. To this end, 100 samples of tap drinking water were collected from 10 places in Samarra, Iraq (i.e., Al-Sekek, Al-Kadesia, Alzeraa, Al-Shuhdaa, Al-Muthana, Al-Shorta, Al-Mamal, Al-Khedraa, Al-Efraz, and Al-Jubereaa), from the beginning of December to the end of February. After sample collection, water samples were examined to detect oocysts or cysts of protozoan parasites by using Direct wet smear, Lugol's iodine, and Modified Ziehle Nelseen stain methods. The results indicate that 80% of the samples under investigation were infected with protozoan parasites, and the ratio of diagnostic parasites in the samples under investigation was determined at 36% with Entamoeba histolytica, 23% with Giardia lamblia, and 21% with Cryptosporidium parvum. The findings reveal the presence of protozoan parasites in the drinking water of the area under study and specify the need for a rapid improvement of the monitoring systems for the treatment of drinking water to control diseases caused by these pathogens, as well as to identify the sources of contamination.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Água Potável , Parasitos , Animais , Água Potável/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Iraque/epidemiologia
14.
Arch Razi Inst ; 77(2): 709-715, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36284957

RESUMO

Parasitic infections in pigeons are very important due to their adaptability to different environmental conditions, as well as their relationship with human society. In this study, 250 samples of domestic and wild pigeons (Columba livia) were collected from different areas in Samawah, Al-Muthanna province, Iraq, from March 2020 to January 2021. Clinical examination of external parasites was conducted by screening fecal samples for intestinal parasitic infections and preparing direct swabs from the beaks. Out of the 250 pigeon samples (125 domestic and 125 wild pigeons), 65 pigeons were found infected (26%), including 40 domestic (32%) and 25 wild pigeons (20%) (P≤0.05). The results showed that these parasitic infections belong to three major groups of bird parasites: 1) Protozoa, such as Eimeria species (spp.) oocyst, Cryptosporidium spp., and Trichomonas gallinae, with prevalence rates of 21 (16.8%), 14 (11.2%), 19 (15.2%), 11(8.8%), 7 (5.6%), and 2 (1.6%), 2) Helminths, such as cestodes (Raillietina tetragona) and nematodes (Ascaridia columbae) with prevalence rates of 5 (4%), 4 (3.2%), 4 (3.2%), and 2 (1.6%), as well as Arthropods, including lice (Menacanthus stramineus) with prevalence rates of 5 (4%) and 3 (2.4%) in domestic and wild pigeons, respectively. Additionally, no significant difference was found between male and female pigeons in their infection rate (P≤0.05). The findings also revealed that the highest percentage of infection in both genders of domestic and wild pigeons was caused by one spp. of parasites (62.5% and 64% in domestic and wild pigeons, respectively), followed by two spp. (24% and 27.5% in domestic and wild pigeons, respectively), and three spp. of parasites (10% and 12% in domestic and wild pigeons, respectively). However, there was no significant difference between domestic and wild pigeons regarding their infections with one, two, or three spp. of parasites (P≤0.05). It is thus concluded that differences in the prevalence of these parasites in different regions are partly due to differences in nutrition, feeding habits, and geographical environment.


Assuntos
Columbidae , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Columbidae/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Iraque/epidemiologia , Trichomonas , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia
15.
Arch Razi Inst ; 77(2): 537-544, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36284961

RESUMO

Although P. aeruginosa is an environmental organism, it is infrequently found on the skin, mucous membranes, and in the feces of some healthy animals (wild, companion, or farm animals). P. aeruginosa produces a variety of toxins and enzymes which promote tissue invasion and damage. P. aeruginosa demonstrated resistance to several antimicrobial agents. It is of significant importance in both animal and human medicine. The present study aimed to isolate and diagnose P. aeruginosa isolates from some ruminants, cow and sheep, from different regions of Basrah, Iraq. A total of 200 samples were taken from infected and healthy ruminants, as well as the environment surrounding the animal in Basrah, Iraq. The identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was performed by conventional and molecular methods using the 16S rRNA gene and aroE gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The recorded data pointed out that P. aeruginosa was successfully isolated from infected animals (cows and sheep) with total percentages of 46% and 22%, respectively. These percentages were obtained at 8% and 4% from healthy cows and sheep, respectively. The percentages of isolation of the environment surrounding cows and sheep were 40% and 32%, respectively. A higher percentage of infection was observed in the eye, skin, and wound swabs of cows. Healthy cows and sheep gave only three isolates of P. aeruginosa, while the environmental swabs recorded 18 isolates. Bacterial isolates were identified by culture methods and Vitek- 2. To confirm the diagnosis more accurately at the level of the species, the molecular confirmation was performed by PCR amplification of genus and species with 16S rRNA gene sequences. The results pointed out that all 10 selected isolates gave positive results, and the gene size was ≈ 1500 bp. New strains were recorded in GenBank/NCBI, and the phylogenetic tree was constructed. The isolates fall in three clads. Molecular confirmation of other isolates in this study (42 isolates) was carried out by PCR amplification of aroE gene. All PCR products of these isolates were amplified≈ 495 pb on agarose gel electrophoresis.


Assuntos
Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Ruminantes , Humanos , Feminino , Ovinos , Bovinos , Animais , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Iraque/epidemiologia , Ruminantes/genética
16.
Arch Razi Inst ; 77(2): 761-769, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36284967

RESUMO

It has been approved that the infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) is one of the major causes of infertility and adverse birth outcomes in populations. The C. trachomatis epidemiology among childbearing-age women in Iraq has not been recognized yet. This study aimed to detect the prevalence of C. trachomatis infection among pregnant and non-pregnant women using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay and phylogenetic analysis of local isolates. In total, 200 endocervical swabs were collected from adult married pregnant (n=100) and non-pregnant women (n=100) from June to July 2021. Targeting the omp1 gene, 9% of the total samples were positive for C. trachomatis, and significant increases were reported among non-pregnant compared to pregnant women. The PCR products of five positive local isolates were selected randomly, sequenced, and documented in the National Centre for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) with the accession numbers OK094104.1, OK094105.1, OK094106.1, OK094107.1, and OK094108.1. Analysis of the homology sequence of the local and NCBI-BLAST isolates revealed a significant association with the Russian (MF288585.1) isolate. Statistical analysis of reproductive data revealed a higher prevalence, odds ratio (OD), and risk in asymptomatic, compared to symptomatic cases. Although no significant variation was detected in prevalence rate among single and multiple symptomatic women, increases were observed in OD values and risk of multiple symptomatic women. Reportedly, chronic pelvic pain was more prevalent than pelvic inflammatory diseases, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility in single symptomatic women. Regarding the demographic characteristics (i.e., age, the place of residence, and occupation), prevalence and risk of infection were higher in women who were <30 years, lived in urban areas, and had a job, compared to women who were ≥30 years, lived in suburban and rural areas, and had a free job. In conclusion, the course of chlamydial infections is usually unpredictable, diverse, and asymptomatic and has remained almost unrecognized. Therefore, PCR-based methods can apply successfully to detect C. trachomatis in both pregnant and non-pregnant women.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia , Infertilidade , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Gravidez , Feminino , Animais , Chlamydia trachomatis/genética , Iraque/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Filogenia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/veterinária , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/veterinária , Infertilidade/veterinária
17.
Arch Razi Inst ; 77(2): 809-819, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36284985

RESUMO

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) which is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus from the genus Betacoronavirus causes COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019). According to daily reports issued by the Iraqi Ministry of Health, the SARS-COV-2 was firstly detected in Al-Najaf city in February 2020 and identified in the Central Public Health Laboratory (CPHL) in Baghdad, Iraq. The outcomes of this study were based on 100 nasopharyngeal swaps and venous blood samples from hospitalized patients in Al-Kindy and CPHL. Patients were assigned to five groups (Asymptomatic, Mild, Moderate, Severe, and Deceased) based on disease severity as indicated by World Health Organization (WHO). The positive samples were identified by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and subjected to some liver enzyme assays and interleukins measurements, and the correlation with the genetic sequence was determined by Illumina Miseq technology. Liver enzymes levels of Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) showed statistically significant differences, especially between the deceased groups. Interleukins (IL-10, IL-18, and TNF- α) significantly differed among groups. This study revealed that three isolates belonging to the original strain isolated from Wuhan (A19) and characterized by their virulence caused severe symptoms and led to admission to isolation hospitals and intensive care units, and the last two isolates of (UK alpha V1) appeared in Iraq in early 2021. These strains which were less virulent than the Wuhan strain spread faster and appear in moderate and asymptomatic patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Interleucina-10 , Animais , Interleucina-18 , Iraque/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/veterinária , Alanina Transaminase , Aspartato Aminotransferases , Fígado , Lactato Desidrogenases
18.
Arch Razi Inst ; 77(2): 733-737, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36284978

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a novel coronavirus (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2; SARS-CoV-2), which is related to the SARS-CoV-2 and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus, which caused serious outbreaks in 2003 and 2012. This study aimed to determine if there is an association between ABO blood types/renal failure and infection with COVID-19. Furthermore, the effects of COVID-19 infection on some blood parameters and electrolyte levels were investigated in this study. In the current study, 90 samples were obtained from males and females aged between 21-68 years old. The data were collected from September to February 2021 in a Kidney Center of Alsaader Teaching Hospital. The participants were divided into three groups (n=30) of A) kidney failure, B) kidney failure with COVID-19, and C) kidney failure with COVID-19 recovery after one month. The variables of this study included blood group types, blood electrolytes, and some blood biochemical parameters. According to the results, regarding the frequency of blood groups, in the control group, 34, 20, 14, and 36 participants belonged to the A , B, AB, and O blood groups, respectively. The recorded data showed that participants who had suffered from kidney failure and were infected with COVID-19 belonged to the A, B, AB, and O blood groups (25%, 10%, 27%, and 45%), respectively, while kidney failure patients who had recovered after one month from COVID-19 had blood groups of A, B, AB, and O (25%, 22%, 105%, and 45%, respectively). The recorded data showed a significant decrease (P<0.05) in the levels of Potassium (K), Sodium (Na), and Calcium (Ca) in the B group, compared to the A group, while the levels of K, Na, and Ca had significantly improved in group C (P<0.05), compared to group B. The Chloride level showed no significant differences among the groups. Furthermore, non-significant differences (P>0.05) were observed in the red blood cells (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), and white blood cell count (WBC) in the COVID-19 group (Group B), compared to group A; however, there was a significant raise (P<0.05) in WBC and platelet (PLT), as well as a significant decrease (P<0.05) in lymphocyte (LYM), RBC, Hb, and hematocrit (HCT) in group C, compared to groups A and B. In conclusion, blood group O obtained the lowest level of resistance to COVID-19, compared to blood group A which had the highest response to recovery. The COVID-19 patients with kidney failure showed a significant decrease in blood parameters, such as RBCs, Hb, LYM, PLT, HCT, and electrolytes.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Grupos Sanguíneos , COVID-19 , Insuficiência Renal , Masculino , Feminino , Animais , COVID-19/veterinária , SARS-CoV-2 , Cálcio , Iraque/epidemiologia , Cloretos , Hemoglobinas/análise , Insuficiência Renal/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal/veterinária , Sódio , Potássio
19.
J Antibiot (Tokyo) ; 75(12): 691-697, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36195749

RESUMO

The goal of this work was to systematically characterize and detect class 1, 2, and 3 integrons with many antibiotic resistance A. baumannii strains collected from a clinical environment in Iraq's Al-Muthanna hospitals. In this investigation, 24 non-replicated clinical strains of A. baumannii were evaluated using Chrome agar as a selective medium and PCR of the rplB gene. The clonal relatedness of the isolates to class 1 integron was evaluated using a PCR technique. The prevalence of class 1 integron was detected by PCR in only 12 clones of A. baumannii followed by HinfI digestion analysis showing three identical bands at 160 bp, 1350 bp, and 870 bp. In addition, PCR sequencing confirmed the presence of gene cassette arrays consisting of aacA4-catB8-aadA1 (100%) in class 1 integron. The sequence analysis of the integron shows 97.87 identity with A. baumannii isolates from Australia (GenBank accession number CP054302) among A. baumannii isolates. The blast analysis of this class I integron showed that the presence of the intI1, aacA4-catB8-aadA1 genes can considerably boost the acquisition of MDR phenotypes in A. baumannii isolates. We concluded that antibiotics of many types are widely used. The presence of integrons in A. baumannii is concerning for public health. In the clinical setting, it appears that the class 1 integron can be used as a predictive biomarker for the presence of MDR phenotypes. In these bacteria, however, the integron does not possess carbapenemases genes.


Assuntos
Infecções por Acinetobacter , Acinetobacter baumannii , Humanos , Integrons/genética , Infecções por Acinetobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Acinetobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Acinetobacter/microbiologia , Iraque/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia
20.
J Med Life ; 15(8): 967-978, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36188649

RESUMO

Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with a distinct profile of the expression of each tumor. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a molecular subtype of breast cancer characterized by an aggressive clinical behavior linked to loss or reduced expression of estrogen, progesterone, and Her2/neu receptors. The study's main objective was to investigate the clinical significance of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) overexpression in a series of Iraqi patients with TNBC. The sectional analytic study involved immunohistochemical analysis of EGFR expression in randomly selected 53 formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue blocks of TNBC cases out of 127 Iraqi patients with TNBC and correlated expression data with clinicopathological parameters including survival time. Machine learning (statistical tests and principal component analysis (PCA)) was used to predict the outcome of the patients using EGFR expression data together with clinicopathological parameters. EGFR was expressed in approximately 28% of TNBC cases. We estimated the risk of mortality and distant metastasis based on EGFR expression and clinicopathologic factors using the principal component analysis (PCA) model. We found a substantial positive correlation between clinical stage and distant metastasis, clinical stage and death, death and distant metastasis, and death and positive EGFR expression. Overall, EGFR expression was linked to a poor prognosis and increased mortality. A higher risk of distant metastasis and death was associated with an advanced clinical stage of the tumor. Furthermore, the existence of distant metastases increased the risk of death. These findings raise the possibility of using EGFR expression data with other clinicopathological parameters to predict the outcome of patients with TNBC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Receptores ErbB/genética , Estrogênios , Formaldeído , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Iraque/epidemiologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Progesterona , Prognóstico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...