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1.
J Med Life ; 17(1): 99-108, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38737659

RESUMO

Neuro-ophthalmic disorders are often documented individually for each illness, with little data available on their overall incidence and pattern. The overall incidence of neuro-ophthalmic illnesses in Iraq is still not recorded. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical, demographic, and etiological features of patients seeking consultation at an Iraqi neuro-ophthalmology clinic. A prospective cross-sectional observational research was conducted at the Janna Ophthalmic Center in Baghdad, Iraq. The center serves a diverse patient population from various governorates. All newly diagnosed patients with neuro-ophthalmic disorders who visited the neuro-ophthalmological clinic, regardless of gender or age group, were included. The neuro-ophthalmologist established a diagnosis for each case by reviewing the patient's medical history, doing physical examinations, administering specific tests, and, in certain cases, using neuroimaging methods. The duration of the study was extended from March 2021 to November 2022. Among the 6440 patients evaluated, 613 cases were confirmed at the neuro-ophthalmology clinic. Ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION, AION, and PION) was the most prevalent diagnosis, accounting for 17.61% of newly reported cases in the field of neuro-ophthalmology. This was followed by sixth nerve palsy. Diabetes mellitus affected 42.7% of the cases, followed by hypertension, which affected 39.3% of the participants. The incidence of neuro-ophthalmic diseases tended to be high. Ischemic optic neuropathy and sixth nerve palsy, traumatic/compressive optic neuropathy, and papilledema were the most common neuro-ophthalmic disorders reported.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatias , Humanos , Iraque/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Prospectivos , Oftalmopatias/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Criança , Idoso , Oftalmologia , Incidência , Pré-Escolar
2.
Hemoglobin ; 48(1): 56-59, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38565325

RESUMO

Thalassemia major is one of the health problems in Iraq, especially in Kurdistan. Pre-marriage mandatory preventive screening program was established in Kurdistan in 2008, which allowed us to study the prevalence of different hemoglobinopathies among newly married young adults in this region. A total of 1154 subjects (577 couples) attending the Koya district, premarital Health center, were screened using red cell indices. Those who had mean corpuscular volume (MCV)<80 fl and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH)<27 pg had high-performance liquid chromatography and iron studies. Out of 1154 individuals that were evaluated, 183 (11.9%) had low MCV and MCH. Of the former 183 subjects, 69 (5.97%) had ß-thalassemia trait, 10 (0.86%) had δß-thalassemia trait, and no other hemoglobinopathies were recorded in our study. There was second-degree consanguinity in 4.7% of all 577 couples. In two couples, both partners had ß-thalassemia trait and both were consanguineous. Both couples decided to separate after counseling. Based on the current study, the role of the premarital screening program in decreasing the number of new thalassemia major cases among the Kurdish population is laudable. Therefore, mandatory premarital screening is advised in all parts of Iraq.


Assuntos
Hemoglobinopatias , Talassemia beta , Adulto Jovem , Humanos , Talassemia beta/diagnóstico , Talassemia beta/epidemiologia , Talassemia beta/genética , Iraque/epidemiologia , Hemoglobinopatias/diagnóstico , Hemoglobinopatias/epidemiologia , Hemoglobinopatias/genética , Índices de Eritrócitos , Programas de Rastreamento , Exames Pré-Nupciais
3.
Open Vet J ; 14(3): 779-786, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38682148

RESUMO

Background: Milk-borne bacteria cause degradation of milk products and constitute a significant risk to public health. Aim: The objectives of the present study are to determine the microbiological quality of dairy products and to investigate pathogenic microorganisms. Methods: A total of 60 samples of raw milk, homemade cheese, and yogurt were randomly selected from different retail marketplaces in Basrah. The bacteriological and biochemical tests were utilized to identify the pathogens in dairy samples, as well as the molecular technique was used as an accurate diagnostic test. Results: The prevalence of contamination of milk products with various isolates was estimated as 50% (95% Cl: 36.8-63.2). The mean of total bacteria count for cheese was 7.29 ± 2.70, raw milk 4.62 ± 2.86, and yogurt 2.87 ± 1.05, with a significant p-value (p = 0.001). The mean count of aerobic spore-forming (ASF) contaminated raw milk was analyzed as 3.77 ± 1.18 and less contamination detected in the yogurt samples with mean of ASF was estimated as 2.52 ± 1.47 SD log 10 CFU/ml. A range of important microorganisms to human health were identified by employing the VITEK_2 system and sequencing 16S rDNA gene, including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aerogenosa, and Bacillus cereus. Conclusion: The study indicates that there is a high level of bacterial contamination in dairy products with different bacteria species, which is medically important. Therefore, food safety management must be implemented to reduce biological risks carried by dairy products and ensure healthy food for consumers.


Assuntos
Laticínios , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Leite , Animais , Laticínios/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Leite/microbiologia , Medição de Risco , Iraque/epidemiologia , Queijo/microbiologia , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/classificação , Iogurte/microbiologia
4.
Mol Biol Rep ; 51(1): 585, 2024 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38683464

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bovine besnoitiosis (elephant skin disease) caused by Besnoitia besnoiti is a costly endemic disease in the Middle East, Asia, and tropical and subtropical Africa and is also emerging as a significant problem in Europe. This study is aimed at determining the prevalence of B. besnoiti in blood and skin biopsies of cattle as well as evaluating the risk factors associated with the infection among cattle in Mosul, Iraq. METHODS AND RESULTS: To achieve this aim, four hundred and sixty apparently healthy cattle of different breeds, ages, and sexes were sampled from seven different locations in Mosul, Iraq. Blood and skin biopsies were carefully collected from each cattle, and these samples were subjected to molecular analysis. The detection of B. besnoiti was molecularly confirmed by the presence of 231 bp of ITS-1 in the rDNA gene of the protozoan. Besnoitia besnoiti DNA was present in 74 (16.09%; 95% CI = 13.01-19.72) and 49 (10.65%; 95% CI = 8.15-13.80) of the blood and skin biopsies, respectively, that were analyzed. Age, breed, and sex were significantly (p < 0.05) associated with the occurrence of B. besnoiti among cattle in the study area. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this study will serve as baseline data in the epidemiology, prevention, and control of the protozoan among cattle in Iraq.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Coccidiose , Sarcocystidae , Animais , Bovinos , Iraque/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Sarcocystidae/genética , Sarcocystidae/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Masculino , Feminino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Pele/parasitologia , Pele/patologia
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38541373

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated health and social inequities among migrant groups more than others. Higher rates of poverty, unemployment, living in crowded households, and language barriers have placed resettled refugees at a higher risk of facing disparities during the COVID-19 pandemic. To understand how this most vulnerable population has been impacted by the ongoing pandemic, this study reports on the responses of 128 Iraqi refugees in the city of London, Ontario, to a survey on the economic, social, and health-related impacts that they have faced for almost two years since the beginning the pandemic. The analysis of the survey indicated that 90.4% of the study population reported having health concerns during the pandemic while 80.3% expressed facing financial distress. The results also show that 58.4% of respondents experienced some form of social isolation. These all suggest that refugees are faced with several barriers which can have a compounding effect on their resettlement experience. These findings provide resettlement and healthcare providers with some information that may assist in reducing the impact of COVID-19 and other possible health security emergencies on resettled refugees and their communities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Refugiados , Humanos , Pandemias , Iraque/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Canadá , Ontário
6.
Mol Biol Rep ; 51(1): 462, 2024 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38551779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic and systemic seronegative inflammatory spondyloarthropathy, an autoimmune disease that has been associated with impaired Endoplasmic Reticulum Aminopeptidase (ERAP)-1 activity, which is involved in priming antigenic peptides. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association of 3-UTR of ERAP1 gene polymorphism (rs13167972) with the AS occurrence susceptibility in a sample of Iraqi male patients. METHODS: The AS patients were diagnosed clinically and by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and other clinical and laboratory criteria like symptoms, increased C-reactive protein (CRP), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). The blood grouping and Body Mass Index (BMI) were also investigated to be associated with AS occurrence. The genotyping of the 3-UTR region of the ERAP1 gene (rs13167972) was done by Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: The results revealed that the AS occurred significantly in the age group of 20-35 years (p = 0.013). The BMI shows that the AS patients were overweighted males (p = 0.013) and the most predominant blood group in AS patients was O- (p = 0.002). The ESR and serum level of CRP were significantly raised in AS patient sera (< 0.001). The results of the receiver-operating characteristics curve analysis (ROC) revealed that the CRP (AUC: 0.995, cut-off: 2.48 mg/L, had 95% %sensitivity, 100% specificity, p < 0.001) is more discriminative than BMI (AUC: 0.300, cut-off: 46.91 kg, had 0% sensitivity, 100% specificity, p = 0.001), and ESR (AUC: 0.808, cut-off: 7.50 mm/hr, had 60% sensitivity, 88% specificity, p < 0.001) in distinguishing between AS patients and control group. The genotyping of the 3-UTR region of ERAP1 gene (rs13167972) result shows that the AG and GG genotypes are significantly occurring in AS patients (70%, OR: 2.33, 95%CI: 1.02-5.36, p = 0.04). The G allele is significantly occurring in AS patients (47%, OR: 2.07, 95CI%: 1.15-3.71, p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: The AS occurred in young overweight males with blood group O-. The AG and GG genotypes are risk factors for AS development while the G allele is a risk factor that increases the chances for disease incidence.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Grupos Sanguíneos , Espondilite Anquilosante , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Espondilite Anquilosante/diagnóstico , Iraque/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Aminopeptidases/genética , Retículo Endoplasmático , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/genética
7.
Georgian Med News ; (346): 33-37, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38501618

RESUMO

This study conducted in Baghdad focused on patients with coronary heart disease admitted to three hospitals. The study included 60 Iraqi patients with coronary heart disease and a control group of 30 healthy individuals. Blood samples were collected from both groups after fasting. The study analyzed the demographic characteristics of the patients and control group, including age groups, sex distribution, and BMI. The majority of patients had hypertension, while 58.33% had diabetes. The study found that IHD patients had significantly higher T3 and T4 levels compared to the control group. However, there was no significant difference in TSH levels. The study also examined thyroid function parameters among different age groups and found no significant differences in individuals with hypothyroidism. The highest prevalence of hyperthyroidism was among individuals with hypertension, while the highest spread of hypothyroidism was among individuals with diabetes. The study observed significant differences in mean HbA1c levels among the three groups, with the highest levels in patients with hypothyroidism. In conclusion, this study suggests potential alterations in thyroid function associated with ischemic heart disease and emphasizes the need for further research on the clinical implications and underlying mechanisms involved.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias , Diabetes Mellitus , Hipertensão , Hipertireoidismo , Hipotireoidismo , Isquemia Miocárdica , Humanos , Iraque/epidemiologia , Hipotireoidismo/complicações , Hipotireoidismo/epidemiologia , Hipertireoidismo/complicações , Hipertireoidismo/epidemiologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/complicações , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Tireotropina , Tiroxina
8.
Pol J Microbiol ; 73(1): 99-105, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38437467

RESUMO

Entamoeba histolytica infects the large intestine of humans, causing a spectrum of clinical appearances ranging from asymptomatic colonization to severe intestinal and extra-intestinal disease. The parasite is identical microscopically to commensal nonpathogenic amoeba. To detect the pathogenic Entamoeba and estimate the precise prevalence of the parasite among the symptomatic pediatric population using molecular techniques. 323 fecal samples were collected from symptomatic children admitted to Sulaimani Pediatric Teaching Hospital, Sulaimaniyah Province, Iraq, from June to October 2021. A structured, validated questionnaire was prepared and used to report participants' gender, residency, and drinking water source. Then, stool samples were microscopically examined, and the positive samples were submitted to molecular analysis by amplifying the 18s rRNA gene using nested PCR to differentiate E. histolytica from other nonpathogenic Entamoeba. Finally, gene sequences were done to confirm the species. Microscopically, 58 positive samples represented Entamoeba species infection rate of 18% among symptomatic patients. However, only 18 samples were positive for E. histolytica based on molecular methods, which accounts for 31% of the positive by microscopy and 5.6% among the 323 symptomatic populations. NCBI, available in their database, gives the gene sequence and accession number. Patients' sociodemographic data and water sources were directly related to the infection rate. Classical microscopic examination provides a misleading profile about the prevalence of E. histolytica in an endemic region that might lead to unnecessary treatments and a lack of appropriate management for patients.


Assuntos
Entamoeba , Entamebíase , Humanos , Criança , Entamoeba/genética , Iraque/epidemiologia , Entamebíase/epidemiologia , Fezes , Hospitalização
9.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 48: 100978, 2024 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38316507

RESUMO

This study was aimed at investigating the prevalence of Taenia ovis (sheep measles) in sheep and goats among the unlicensed butcher's settings in Bagdad, Iraq. A total of 1194 sheep comprising 798 males and 396 females were inspected and out of these 41 and 17 (5.1 and 4.2%) were positive of T. ovis respectively. In goat a total of 162 comprising 122 males and 40 females were inspected out of which 39 and 19 (31.9 and 47.5%) were positive for T. ovis for male and female respectively. In this study, the prevalence of T. ovis in sheep of <18 months of age (5.3%) was higher as compared to those in sheep of over 18 months of age (4.9%), the prevalence of T. ovis was higher in male sheep (5.1%) as compared to the female sheep (4.2%). The trend of the prevalence of this parasite in goats was different from what was obtained in sheep, in this case the prevalence was higher in female goats as compared to male goats. Also the prevalence of T. ovis was significantly higher in older goats as compared to younger goats. For the breed the trend was similar to that of sheep where the local breed harbored more of T. ovis as compared to the imported breeds. Our results suggest that the high prevalence of the T. ovis infestations in the unlicensed butcher's settings is of great concern for public health, therefore authorities are to design a preventive program to curtail this problem.


Assuntos
Taenia , Animais , Ovinos , Masculino , Feminino , Prevalência , Iraque/epidemiologia , Cabras , Saúde Pública
10.
Vaccine ; 42(8): 2036-2043, 2024 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38418341

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 seriously impacted routine immunization (RI) in Iraq. Coverage declined to a 6-year low in 2021, and COVID-19 vaccination uptake was slow. In response, government implemented intensification of integrated immunization services (3IS), a nationwide approach comprising regular outreach sessions of COVID-19 vaccination and RI for children who had either missed doses or never commenced scheduled vaccination (zero-dose children). We describe the 3IS and its impact on vaccination coverage in Iraq. METHODS: 3IS comprised new outreach sessions for urban and rural communities where administrative data suggested there were gaps in coverage. Groups of six personnel from each of 1,321 primary healthcare centres implemented six outreach sessions per month during February-November 2022. Community engagement was an integral component. We compared RI administrative data (2019-2022) and data reported during 3IS activities to assess its impact. RESULTS: In total 4,189,859 vaccine doses were administered during 72,495 3IS outreach sessions, over one-fifth of 19,106,849 vaccine doses administered in Iraq over these 10 months. Among them, 957,874 (22.9 %) were COVID-19 vaccines, adding slightly to national coverage, and 3,231,985 (77.1 %) were RI vaccines, dramatically reducing zero-dose children, adding 18 %, 25 %, 21 %, and 31 % to 2022 penta1, penta3, measles first-dose and MMR1 vaccine coverage, and contributing to national coverage of 102.2 %, 94.5 %, 91.8 % and 96.3 % for these vaccines during February-November, respectively. Moreover, 3IS sessions delivered 133,528 doses of tetanus toxoid, 16,353 doses of adult HepB vaccine, and 315,032 vitamin A doses to eligible individuals. CONCLUSION: In the context of global encouragement to integrate vaccination services, Iraq's 3IS approach enabled dramatic improvements in RI coverage, virtual elimination of zero-dose status among children born during the pandemic, and small improvements in COVID-19 and adult vaccination. Our findings provide lessons for future integrated primary care towards universal health coverage in Iraq, and for other countries yet to undertake integration.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Criança , Adulto , Humanos , Lactente , Cobertura Vacinal , Iraque/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinação , Imunização , Programas de Imunização , Toxoide Tetânico
11.
J Affect Disord ; 351: 790-798, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38341151

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The suicide rate has increased in Iraq in recent years, making it a major public health concern. This systematic review examines the prevalence of suicidal behaviours in the Iraq and Kurdistan region. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study adhered to the PRISMA guidelines, conducting searches on PubMed, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Out of 153 initially identified publications, only 18 full articles met the inclusion criteria, with 135 articles excluded due to reasons such as eligibility criteria, duplication, predatory publications and lack of relevance and lack of quality data. RESULTS: The suicide crude rate in Iraq (excluding Kurdistan) rose from 1.09 to 1.31 per 100,000 between 2015 and 2016, while Kurdistan had an estimated rate of 3.83 per 100,000 during the same period. Limited data on reference group sizes and population figures make specific rate calculations challenging. Suicide is more prevalent among women, those aged 15-40, and individuals with mental disorders. Contributing factors include domestic violence, mental health issues, and traditional norms. Urban residents generally have higher suicide rates than rural residents. Common suicide behaviours include self-immolation, hanging, firearms, jumping from heights, and self-poisoning with pesticides. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of suicide in Iraq, as indicated by this systematic review, requires urgent attention and effective public health initiatives. The interplay of social, economic, cultural, and psychological factors emphasizes the need for comprehensive prevention programs. Additionally, a crucial requirement is the implementation of a standardised method for collecting suicide data to improve epidemiological understanding.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Suicídio , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores Etários , Iraque/epidemiologia , Ideação Suicida , Suicídio/psicologia , Masculino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto
12.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0297895, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38412174

RESUMO

From the beginning of the Iraq war, in March of 2003, to the present day, controversy has swirled around the death toll of the war. This paper narrows down the range of uncertainty for the numbers and trends in violent deaths in the war. I assemble and appraise all primary sources that cover the period from March of 2003 onwards-six sample surveys plus a casualty recording project (Iraq Body Count [IBC]). Data permitting, I present cumulative monthly figures with, for the surveys, 95% bootstrapped uncertainty intervals. The analysis uncovers a core of high-quality mainstream sources that are highly consistent with each another. In addition, there are three outlier surveys that are compromised by serious flaws and produce estimates far outside the mainstream. Discarding the outlying and flawed surveys reveals a clear picture of the violent death toll from the Iraq war. IBC figures, extended to include combatants, occupy a central position within the mainstream range of estimates. The strong consistency across the high-quality sources provides a rare validation of three war-death-measurement methodologies-household-based surveys, sibling-based surveys, and casualty recording. Methodological success notwithstanding, we must transcend the numbers to truly comprehend the human costs of the war.


Assuntos
Licenciamento , Inclusão Escolar , Humanos , Iraque/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Custos e Análise de Custo
13.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 18(1): 82-92, 2024 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38377094

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: this study aimed to isolate P. aeruginosa and S. aureus, investigate the antimicrobial resistance of collected isolates, and investigate the distribution of exoU and mecA genes in P. aeruginosa and S. aureus isolates. METHODOLOGY: Out of 150 samples, 32 isolates were identified as P. aeruginosa, 48 isolates were identified as S. aureus. All isolates were checked for AST. Then, a PCR was applied to detect exoU and mecA genes in P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. RESULTS: 12.0% and 29.3% of the samples showed co-isolates and single isolates of studied pathogens, respectively. Regarding burn samples, S. aureus was the most prevalent pathogen (38.0%, 38/100) among males (41.8%, 23/55), followed by P. aeruginosa (27.0%, 27/100) among females (28.9%, 13/45). The highest burn infection rates of S. aureus (50.0%) and P. aeruginosa (32.7%) were recorded among age groups (≥ 50) and (18-49), respectively. Comparatively, wound samples were less infected with these pathogens. P. aeruginosa isolates usually exhibited high resistance to gentamicin, tobramycin, and netilmicin, whereas, imipenem showed low resistance at 46.87%. S. aureus isolates were susceptible to trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole and rifampin. 56.25% of P. aeruginosa isolates were exoU positive and 37.5% of S. aureus isolates were mecA positive. Results of the cefoxitin inhibition zone with mecA gene amplification, 33.3% isolates were MRSA, 4.2% isolates were nmrMRSA, and 62.5% isolates were MSSA. Most of the resistant isolates of P. aeruginosa carried the exoU gene, 80% resistant isolates to imipenem were exoU positive. CONCLUSIONS: S. aureus was more predominant than P. aeruginosa in burns and wounds infections.


Assuntos
Queimaduras , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Infecções por Pseudomonas , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Prevalência , Iraque/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Infecções por Pseudomonas/tratamento farmacológico , Imipenem
14.
Inhal Toxicol ; 36(1): 26-30, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38190328

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In 1988, the Iraqi government used a range of chemical weapons (CWs) against the Iraqi Kurds of Halabja. Here, we aim to investigate the long-term health consequences in exposed survivors as they are not sufficiently studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study conducted from November 2019 to May 2020 assessing the health status of all exposed Halabja chemical attack survivors compared to non-exposed people from the same area. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Two hundred thirty survivors and 240 non-exposed participants were enrolled in this study, with control participants matched to age, gender, and occupation. Among the survivors, females were more prevalent. The respiratory system was the most common single exposure route (83, 36.1%), with 138 (60%) of the survivors being exposed by multiple routes. The vast majority (88.7%) of survivors had activities of daily living (ADL) impairment. There was female predominance in mild and moderate cases, with more males in severe cases (p < 0.01). Respiratory and cardiac diseases were significantly more common in the survivors compared to the controls (p < 0.001). Survivors with multiple CW exposure routes had significantly higher rates of ADL impairment (p < 0.001) and cardiac disease, respiratory diseases, and miscarriage (p < 0.01), than those with a single exposure route. CONCLUSION: In this study comparing CW survivors with a local control population, a single, high-dose exposure to CWs was associated with significant increases in chronic respiratory and cardiac conditions, in addition to high rates of ADL impairment. Similar studies are needed in other, more recent CW survivor cohorts.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Doenças Respiratórias , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Iraque/epidemiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Sobreviventes
15.
PLoS One ; 19(1): e0296952, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38241233

RESUMO

Since December 2019, the World Health Organization (WHO) has encouraged National Tuberculosis Programs to deprioritize the use of injectable-containing regimens and roll-out all-oral bedaquiline-containing regimens for rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (RR-TB) treatment. Consequently, Iraq gradually replaced the injectable-containing regimen with an all-oral regimen, including bedaquiline. To assess treatment enrolment and outcomes of both regimens during a transitioning phase in Iraq, where health system services are recovering from decades of war, we conducted a nationwide retrospective cohort study using routinely collected programmatic data for patients enrolled between 2019-2021. We describe treatment enrolment and use logistic regression to identify predictors of unfavorable treatment outcomes (failure, death, or lost to follow-up), including regimen type. Nationwide, a total of 301 RR-TB patients started treatment, of whom 167 concluded treatment. The proportion of patients enrolled on the all-oral regimen increased from 53.2% (50/94) in 2020, to 75.5% (80/106) in 2021. Successful treatment was achieved in 82.1% (32/39) and 63.3% (81/128), for all-oral and injectable-containing regimens respectively. Moreover, the proportion of lost to follow-up was lower among those treated with the all-oral versus the long injectable-containing regimen; respectively 2.6% (1/39) versus 17.9% (23/128: p = 0.02). Unfavorable treatment outcome was associated with male gender (aOR 2.12, 95%CI:1.02-4.43) and age <15 years (vs 30-49 years, aOR 5.80, 95%CI:1.30-25.86). Regimen type (aOR 2.37, 95%CI: 0.91-6.13) was not significantly associated with having an unfavorable treatment outcome. In Iraq, the use of bedaquiline-containing all-oral regimen resulted in a high treatment success and reduced lost to follow-up.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Iraque/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Med J Malaysia ; 79(1): 74-79, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38287761

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Salmonella typhi could infect the intestinal tract and the bloodstream or invade body organs and secrete endotoxins. It is endemic in developing countries. It is increasingly evolving antimicrobial resistance to several commonly used antimicrobial agents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was done at Iraqi Communicable Disease Control Center, where all confirmed cases of Salmonella typhi are reported, for a period 2019-2021. All demographic, epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients, comorbidities, type of samples, distribution of S. typhi by age and gender, time distribution in each year and profile of bacterial resistance and sensitivity to antibiotics were gathered and analysed. RESULTS: Most samples were taken from blood. The mean age of cases during 2019, 2020 and 2021 was 18.7 ± 6.5, 17.7 ± 14.1 and 17.3 ± 12.8. Males constituted 56.7%, 58.5% and 39.8%, respectively. Some cases had comorbidities. Most cases had headache and fever. Some of them had nausea, diarrhoea, vomiting and epigastric pain. The age and sex were significantly associated with years of reporting. The most months of case reporting were June-July (2019 and 2021), Jan. -Feb. (2020). There was an obvious increase in S. typhi resistance to ceftriaxone (92.2%, 86.1%, 88.8%) and ampicillin (77.1%, 76.9%, 81.27%). There was a gradual increase in sensitivity to tetracycline (83.1%, 88.1%, 94%), cotrimoxazole (86.7%, 86.1%, 92.2%), ciprofloxacin (78.3%, 90.1%, 87.8%) and cefixime (77.7%, 72.3%, 72.7%). CONCLUSIONS: There was a sharp rise in resistance rates of the S. typhi in Iraq (during 2019-2021) to ceftriaxone and ampicillin, while there were highest sensitivity rates to imipenem, aztreonam and chloramphenicol. The following recommendations were made: (1) Improvement of general hygiene and food safety measures. (2) Emphasis on vaccination and surveillance of Salmonella infection. (3) Rational use of appropriate antibiotics through implementation of treatment guidelines. (5) Educate communities and travelers about the risks of S. typhi and its preventive measures.


Assuntos
Febre Tifoide , Masculino , Humanos , Febre Tifoide/tratamento farmacológico , Febre Tifoide/epidemiologia , Febre Tifoide/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Ceftriaxona/uso terapêutico , Iraque/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Prevalência , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Salmonella typhi , Ampicilina/uso terapêutico
17.
PLoS One ; 19(1): e0296521, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38180994

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evaluating immune responses following COVID-19 vaccination is paramount to understanding vaccine effectiveness and optimizing public health interventions. This study seeks to elucidate individuals' immune status after administering a second dose of diverse COVID-19 vaccines. By analyzing immune responses through serological markers, we aim to contribute valuable insights into the uniformity of vaccine performance. METHODS: A total of 80 participants were enrolled in this study, with demographic and COVID-19 infection-related data collected for categorization. Serum samples were acquired within a specified timeframe, and SARS-CoV-2 IgM/IgG rapid tests were conducted. Moreover, CTLA-4 levels were measured through ELISA assays, allowing us to assess the immune responses comprehensively. The participants were divided into eight groups based on various factors, facilitating a multifaceted analysis. RESULTS: The outcomes of our investigation demonstrated consistent immune responses across the diverse types of COVID-19 vaccines administered in Iraq. Statistical analysis revealed no significant distinctions among the vaccine categories. In contrast, significant differences were observed in CTLA-4 among the control group (non-infected/non-vaccinated, infected/non-vaccinated) and infected/Pfizer, non-infected/Pfizer, and infected/Sinopharm, non-infected/sinopharm (P = 0.001, < 0.001, 0.023, respectively). This suggests that these vaccines exhibit comparable effectiveness in eliciting an immune response among the study participants. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our study's results underscore the lack of discriminatory variations between different COVID-19 vaccine types utilized in Iraq. The uniform immune responses observed signify the equitable efficacy and performance of these vaccines. Despite minor quantitative discrepancies, these variations do not hold statistical significance, reaffirming the notion that the various vaccines serve a similar purpose in conferring protection against COVID-19.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Imunidade Humoral , Humanos , Anticorpos Antivirais , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Antígeno CTLA-4 , Imunidade , Imunoglobulina G , Iraque/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Braz J Microbiol ; 55(1): 375-382, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38091237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The increasing incidence of Klebsiella pneumoniae infections, both in the community and in hospitals, is a huge health problem. This is due to the increasing resistance of the bacteria to antibiotics and biofilm formation, as well as the presence of a capsule. This study focuses on two main objectives: to survey the most common capsular types in local isolates for the first time in Anbar, Iraq, on molecular level and to distinguish between infectious pathogen strains using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) for more efficient epidemiological and surveillance analysis, in order to determine the source of these strains (invasive or purebred). METHODOLOGY: Multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates adapted to genomic extraction and molecular screening of capsular type and MLST, and then to data processing by Pasteur Institut. RESULTS: For the first time, one isolate was registered as a new strain in the world with ST 6434; the other strains demonstrated as preregistered with ST16, ST218, and ST283. 33% of MDR isolates belonged to the capsular K2 type. CONCLUSION: The study's findings were not aligned with the global knowledge base about the distribution of capsular type in Asia. To prevent the spread of highly resistant strains, careful monitoring of virulence determinants is necessary in addition to the observation of antibiotic resistance.


Assuntos
Interleucinas , Infecções por Klebsiella , beta-Lactamases , Humanos , beta-Lactamases/genética , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Iraque/epidemiologia , Infecções por Klebsiella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Klebsiella/microbiologia , Virulência/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Antibacterianos/farmacologia
19.
Curr Drug Saf ; 19(2): 248-254, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37231751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vaccination against COVID-19 virus is the most valuable tool available for protection during the pandemic of coronavirus. The clinical manifestation post-vaccination is a barrier to vaccination for many people in Iraq and worldwide. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is identifying various clinical manifestations occurring after receiving vaccines among individuals in Basrah Governorate. Moreover, we examine its association with respondents' demographics and the type of vaccine they received. METHODS: A cross-section study was conducted in Basrah, southern Iraq. Research data were collected through an online questionnaire. The data were analyzed using both descriptive and analytic statistical tools using the SPSS program. RESULTS: Most of the participants (86.68%) received the vaccine. The side effects were reported in 71.61% of vaccinated individuals. Fever and muscle pain were the two most experienced clinical manifestations, while lymph node enlargement and disturbances in taste and/or smell sensations were reported infrequently. Adverse effects were mostly reported with the Pfizer BioNTech vaccine receiver. Females and those in the younger age group also reported a significantly higher incidence of side effects. CONCLUSION: Most adverse effects related to the COVID-19 vaccine were minor and could be tolerated without the need for hospital admission.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Feminino , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , Febre , Iraque/epidemiologia , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Masculino
20.
Parasitology ; 151(2): 220-246, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38116665

RESUMO

The freshwaters of Iraq harbour a high diversity of endemic and phylogenetically unique species. One of the most diversified fish groups in this region is cyprinoids, and although their distribution is relatively well known, their monogenean parasites have only rarely been investigated. Herein, we applied an integrative approach, combining morphology with molecular data, to assess the diversity and phylogeny of cyprinoid-associated monogenean parasites. A total of 33 monogenean species were collected and identified from 13 endemic cyprinoid species. The highest species diversity was recorded for Dactylogyrus (Dactylogyridae, 16 species) and Gyrodactylus (Gyrodactylidae, 12 species). Four species of Dactylogyrus and 12 species of Gyrodactylus were identified as new to science and described. Two other genera, Dogielius (Dactylogyridae) and Paradiplozoon (Diplozoidae), were represented only by 4 and 1 species, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses of the Dactylogyrus and Gyrodactylus species revealed that the local congeners do not form a monophyletic group and are phylogenetically closely related to species from other regions (i.e. Europe, North Africa and Eastern Asia). These findings support the assumption that the Middle East served as an important historical crossroads for the interchange of fauna between these 3 geographic regions.


Assuntos
Trematódeos , Animais , Iraque/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Oriente Médio , Trematódeos/genética , África do Norte , Peixes
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