Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 16.328
Filtrar
1.
Zootaxa ; 4576(1): zootaxa.4576.1.3, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715774

RESUMO

Two new species of bathyal Primnoidae gorgonians (Octocorallia: Alcyonacea), Callogorgia europaea sp. nov., and Thouarella porcupinensis sp. nov., were collected during a research expedition of the Spanish Institute of Oceanography to the Porcupine Bank (off Ireland, northeastern Atlantic). In the present paper, both species are described, compared with their closest congeners, and their polyps and scleromes illustrated by scanning electron microphotographs.                                                                                                        Callogorgia europaea sp. nov. is the first species of the genus described from the northeastern Atlantic having abaxial scales with an external ornamentation of prominent longitudinal crests. Thouarella porcupinensis sp. nov. is the first one in the same area characterized by a planar ramification with isolated polyps, and marginal scales having several perpendicular ridges in their distal inner side instead of a pointed edge.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Animais , Expedições , Irlanda
2.
Drugs Today (Barc) ; 55(10): 653-659, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31720562

RESUMO

The Organization for Professionals in Regulatory Affairs (TOPRA) hosted its 2019 Annual Symposium in Dublin and gathered together professionals from regulatory agencies, pharmaceutical companies and associations worldwide. The key topics discussed were related to digital health, Brexit, expedited/facilitated regulatory pathways, European Medicines Agency (EMA) public hearings, medi-cal devices and health technology assessment (HTA).


Assuntos
Indústria Farmacêutica , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica , Congressos como Assunto , Equipamentos e Provisões , Regulamentação Governamental , Humanos , Irlanda , Telemedicina
3.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(22): 13449-13457, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702898

RESUMO

Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were measured in air and dust from cars, homes, offices, and school classrooms in Ireland, along with drinking water from homes and offices. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) dominated air and drinking water, while perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) dominated dust. This is the first report of PFOA, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), PFBS, and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) in air inside cars and school classrooms. PFOS concentrations in classroom air exceeded significantly (p ≤ 0.05) those in homes. Atmospheric concentrations of PFOA, PFNA, and methyl perfluorooctane sulfonamido ethanol (MeFOSE) (p ≤ 0.05) were significantly higher in cars containing child car seats than in cars without. PFOS, PFOA, PFBS, and PFHxS were all detected frequently in drinking water, but concentrations of PFASs were low, and although ΣPFASs were 64 ng/L in one bottled water sample, this fell below a Swedish Action Level of 90 ng ΣPFASs/L. The Irish population's exposure to PFOS and PFOA via non-dietary sources is well below estimates of dietary exposure elsewhere in Europe. Moreover, even under a high-end exposure scenario, it falls below the European Food Safety Authority's (EFSA) provisional tolerable weekly intakes for PFOS and PFOA.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Água Potável , Fluorcarbonetos , Caprilatos , Criança , Poeira , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Irlanda
4.
Syst Appl Microbiol ; 42(6): 126016, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635887

RESUMO

Hypoxic and anoxic niches of meromictic lakes are important sites for studying the microbial ecology of conditions resembling ancient Earth. The expansion and increasing global distribution of such environments also means that information about them serves to understand future phenomena. In this study, a long-term chemical dataset (1996-2015) was explored together with seasonal (in 2015) information on the diversity and abundance of bacterial and archaeal communities residing in the chemocline, monimolimnion and surface sediment of the marine meromictic Rogoznica Lake. The results of quantitative PCR assays, and high-throughput sequencing, targeting 16S rRNA genes and transcripts, revealed a clear vertical structure of the microbial community with Gammaproteobacteria (Halochromatium) and cyanobacteria (Synechococcus spp.) dominating the chemocline, Deltaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes dominating the monimolimnion, and significantly more abundant archaeal populations in the surface sediment, most of which affiliated to Nanoarchaeota. Seasonal changes in the community structure and abundance were not pronounced. Diversity in Rogoznica Lake was found to be high, presumably as a consequence of stable environmental conditions accompanied by high dissolved carbon and nutrient concentrations. Long-term data indicated that Rogoznica Lake exhibited climate changes that could alter its physico-chemical features and, consequently, induce structural and physiological changes within its microbial community.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Lagos/microbiologia , Microbiota , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Archaea/classificação , Archaea/genética , Archaea/isolamento & purificação , Archaea/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Mudança Climática , Bases de Dados de Compostos Químicos , Irlanda , Lagos/química , Microbiota/genética , Oxigênio/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Estações do Ano , Microbiologia da Água
5.
J Environ Manage ; 252: 109676, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614263

RESUMO

In this paper we examine an example of a conservation conflict that is encountered in Ireland arising from the designation of Special Protection Areas (SPAs) for the Hen Harrier under the European Birds Directive (Directive, 2009/147/EC) and the consequent restrictions that are placed on forestry activities within these SPAs. We examine the causes of the Hen Harrier-forestry conflict; identify what stakeholders believe are the policy instruments and management strategies that may be useful in managing the conflict and finally identify plausible solutions that may be relevant to similar conflicts around multi-functional forests elsewhere in Europe and globally. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with key actors in this conflict. Drawing on Walker and Daniels' conflict triangle theory, a qualitative analysis of the transcripts of these interviews revealed that the conflict between Hen Harrier conservation and forestry in Ireland has a number of deep-rooted dimensions including those relating to the substance (e.g. restrictions on forest management activity in the SPAs), as well as procedural (e.g. lack of stakeholder engagement) and relationship dimensions (e.g. lack of trust). The polarisation of views in this conflict testifies to how entrenched stakeholders can become through lack of communication and trust. The policy instruments that stakeholders identified as having potential to address the conflict include the introduction of incentives/compensation scheme; changes to restrictions; more data and research on Hen Harrier bird surveys; implementation of landscape management models; and better communication and stakeholder engagement. The study highlights that conservation conflicts persist due to the multi-functional nature of forests and also due to repeated mistakes in terms of the lack of engagement with local stakeholders. Increasing the involvement of local actors has important substantive and instrumental benefits including improving the quality of decisions, as well as creating a greater chance of policies being better socially and politically acceptable. The need for more and better capacity-building across EU Member States for statutory and government agencies to learn from one another in terms of how to avoid repeating the same mistakes from one site to another is highlighted.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Agricultura Florestal , Animais , Aves , Europa (Continente) , Irlanda
6.
Global Health ; 15(1): 53, 2019 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481126

RESUMO

Health security in the European Union (EU) aims to protect citizens from serious threats to health such as biological agents and infectious disease outbreaks- whether natural, intentional or accidental. Threats may include established infections, emerging diseases or chemical and radiological agents. Co-ordinated international efforts attempt to minimize risks and mitigate the spread of infectious disease across borders.We review the current situation (March 2019) with respect to detection and management of serious human health threats across Irish borders- and what may change for Ireland if/when the United Kingdom (UK) withdraws from the EU (Brexit).Specifically, this paper reviews international legislation covering health threats, and its national transposition; and EU legislation and processes, especially the relevant European Decision No. 1082/2013/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council on serious cross border threats to health with repeal of Decision No 2119/98/EC. We enumerate European surveillance systems and agencies which relate to port health security; we consider consortia and academic arrangements within the EU framework and established collaboration with the World Health Organization. We describe current Health Services Executive port health structures in Ireland which address preparedness and management of human health threats at points of entry. We appraise risks which Brexit could bring, reviewing literature on shared concerns about these risks, and we evaluate post-Brexit challenges for the EU, and potential opportunities to remain within current structures in shared health threat preparedness and response.It is imperative that the UK, Ireland and the EU work together to mitigate these risks using some agreed joint coordination mechanisms for a robust, harmonised approach to global public health threats at points of entry.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , União Europeia/organização & administração , Saúde Global/legislação & jurisprudência , Regulamento Sanitário Internacional , Humanos , Irlanda , Reino Unido
7.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 101(8): 584-588, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537105

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence published a draft consultation update on abdominal aortic aneurysm, which was expected to be published on 7 November 2018. This article analyses the readiness of NHS hospitals and their workforce to embrace the proposed guidelines. METHODS: The trust and individual surgeon-level anonymised data in the public domain for elective, rupture and complex abdominal aortic aneurysm cases were collected and analysed for all the acute care trusts providing these services from the Vascular Society of Great Briton and Ireland's prospective National Vascular Registry database. RESULTS: Of the 95 acute care trusts providing the service for the year 2017, the annual volume of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (both endovascular and open repairs) ranged between 0 and 137. Of these, 64 (67.36%) trusts had an annual volume of fewer than 60 cases. A total of 366 (approximately 75% of 490) vascular surgeons have performed 10 or fewer open abdominal aortic aneurysm repairs in three years (2014-2016) with a mean operating volume of 1.452 procedures per surgeon per three years (n = 254, median 0, interquartile range, IQR, 0-3, 0.484 procedures per surgeon per year) and about 51% of the vascular surgeons have only performed five or fewer procedures in those three years with a mean operating volume of 3.455 per surgeon per three years (n = 367, median 3, IQR 0-3, 1.151 per surgeon per year). CONCLUSION: The observations show that most UK acute hospitals lack the optimum case volume necessary to embrace the proposed change in the guideline.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/normas , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/epidemiologia , Ruptura Aórtica/epidemiologia , Ruptura Aórtica/cirurgia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/normas , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/estatística & dados numéricos , Emergências , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Medicina Estatal/normas , Medicina Estatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/estatística & dados numéricos , Carga de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
Anaesthesia ; 74(12): 1509-1523, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478198

RESUMO

The tragic death of an anaesthetic trainee driving home after a series of night shifts prompted a national survey of fatigue in trainee anaesthetists. This indicated that fatigue was widespread, with significant impact on trainees' health and well-being. Consultants deliver an increasing proportion of patient care resulting in long periods of continuous daytime duty and overnight on-call work, so we wished to investigate their experience of out-of-hours working and the causes and impact of work-related fatigue. We conducted a national survey of consultant anaesthetists and paediatric intensivists in the UK and Ireland between 25 June and 6 August 2018. The response rate was 46% (94% of hospitals were represented): 84% of respondents (95%CI 83.1-84.9%) contribute to a night on-call rota with 32% (30.9-33.1%) working 1:8 or more frequently. Sleep disturbance on-call is common: 47% (45.6-48.4%) typically receive two to three phone calls overnight, and 48% (46.6-49.4%) take 30 min or more to fall back to sleep. Only 15% (14.0-16.0%) reported always achieving 11 h of rest between their on-call and their next clinical duty, as stipulated by the European Working Time Directive. Moreover, 24% (22.8-25.2%) stated that there is no departmental arrangement for covering scheduled clinical duties following a night on-call if they have been in the hospital overnight. Overall, 91% (90.3-91.7%) reported work-related fatigue with over half reporting a moderate or significantly negative impact on health, well-being and home life. We discuss potential explanations for these results and ways to mitigate the effects of fatigue among consultants.


Assuntos
Anestesiologistas/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fadiga/epidemiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado , Adulto , Idoso , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Consultores/estatística & dados numéricos , Técnica Delfos , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal , Sono , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
11.
Anaesthesia ; 74(12): 1524-1533, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538329

RESUMO

The recent development of electronic logbooks with secure off-device data storage provides a rich resource for research. We present the largest analysis of anaesthetic logbooks to date, with data from 494,235 cases logged by 964 anaesthetists over a 4-year period. Our analysis describes and compares the annual case-load and supervision levels of different grades of anaesthetists across the UK and Republic of Ireland. We calculated the number of cases undertaken per year by grade (median (IQR [range]) core trainees = 388 (252-512 [52-1204]); specialist trainees = 344 (228-480 [52-1144]); and consultants = 328 (204-500 [52-1316]). Overall, the proportion of cases undertaken with direct consultant supervision was 56.7% and 41.6% for core trainees and specialist trainees, respectively. The proportion of supervised cases reduced out-of-hours, for both core trainees (day 93.5%, evening 86.3%, night 78.6%) and specialist trainees (day 81.0%, evening 67.7%, night 56.4%).


Assuntos
Anestesiologistas/estatística & dados numéricos , Carga de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Anestesiologia , Competência Clínica , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Irlanda , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reino Unido
12.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(Suppl 3): 421-426, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Avoidant Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID), at the cross roads of eating and feeding disorders, is sometimes called an "umbrella diagnosis" as it covers a certainly large and rather heterogeneous list of eating symptoms. It came with the DSM5 (2013) but still, there are no clear guidelines re diagnosis and treatment. PURPOSE: Through this case, we aim to report not only a presentation of ARFID, but also how this relatively new and emerging diagnostic category has been identified and managed on a Pediatric Ward, in a General Hospital. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This study reports the case of a 12y old girl Irish girl with ARFID treated by a multi-disciplinary team on a Pediatric Ward in a general hospital. A literature review regarding ARFID was concomitantly carried on, in order to consider the current therapeutic options recommended. RESULTS: 3 admissions on a pediatric Ward were necessary for this patient with ARFID, who was successfully managed with a partial hospitalization model, Family Based Treatment (FBT) and Mirtazapine. CONCLUSIONS: The dynamic around the management of this condition is the occasion to discuss the other therapeutic options suggested these days, and more specifically the different pharmacological molecules that have also been used in young patients with ARFID and the importance of involving a multi-disciplinary team.


Assuntos
Hospital Dia , Família , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/terapia , Hospitalização , Hospitais Gerais , Mirtazapina/uso terapêutico , Criança , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Irlanda
13.
J Dent Educ ; 83(12): 1452-1456, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406004

RESUMO

This article describes the development of medical competencies for oral medicine specialty training in the UK and Ireland by a collaborative working group using a modified Delphi technique. The current specialty training curriculum for oral medicine (OM) in the UK was developed by a working group including members of the British Society for Oral Medicine (BSOM) and members of the Specialty Advisory Committee for Additional Dental Specialties (SACADS) and adopted by the UK General Dental Council (GDC) in 2010. When the curriculum was developed, the entry requirements for specialty training in OM included undergraduate degrees in both dentistry and medicine. At the time of adoption, the requirement for a medical degree was removed. Medical competencies were assumed to have been delivered in medical undergraduate and postgraduate training. Accordingly, there was a need to define the medical competencies for OM specialty training to benefit trainees, trainers, and assessors. In 2018, a group comprising specialty trainers, recent former specialty trainees, and current specialty trainees in OM held face-to-face meetings in addition to email discussions and developed an updated curriculum document to better reflect the medical competencies required in specialty training. A collaborative modified Delphi approach was used to evaluate medical foundation competencies and to include only those that were considered relevant to OM specialty training. A list of relevant and achievable medical competencies was determined that has been approved by SACADS and will be incorporated into a revised OM curriculum from the UK GDC. The newly agreed-upon document for medical competencies in OM specialty training will serve as a reference for trainees, trainers, and assessors and reflects a successful use of a modified Delphi approach.


Assuntos
Currículo , Medicina Bucal , Competência Clínica , Técnica Delfos , Irlanda , Especialidades Odontológicas
14.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1155, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438911

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sedentary behaviour (SB) has been linked with detrimental effects on morbidity and mortality. This study aims to identify the individual, social and environmental correlates of total sedentary behaviour and the contexts in which sitting time accumulates in an Irish adult cohort. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of data from 7328 adults of the nationally representative Healthy Ireland Survey. Ordinal regression analyses were used to examine participants' socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, physical and mental health status, perceived neighbourhood environmental factors, and their association with total daily sitting times and sitting times across the domains of occupation, leisure screen-time and transportation/leisure. RESULTS: Overall median of sitting time per day was 450 min (7.5 h). Male gender, and living in an urban location were associated with increased total-, occupational, and screen-time sitting (p < 0.001). Younger age was associated with increased total and occupational sitting times (p < 0.001), while being older was associated with increased screen-time and transportation/leisure sitting (p < 0.001). Insufficient physical activity levels were associated with increased sitting across all domains (p < 0.001). Higher socio-economic classification and education levels were associated with increased total, occupational, and transportation/leisure SB (p < 0.001), while lower socio-economic classification and education levels were associated with increased screen-time sitting (p < 0.001). Alcohol consumption was associated with screen-time and transportation/leisure sitting (p < 0.01), while smoking was associated with increased screen-time sitting (p < 0.001). Being married was associated with less screen-time (p < 0.001) and transportation/leisure sitting (p = 0.02), while those with a caring role had less total (p = 0.04) and screen-time sitting (p = 0.01). A significant negative association between neighbourhood attributes and total (p = 0.04), and transportation/leisure sitting times (p < 0.001) was found. CONCLUSION: The results of this study provide a starting position for development of targeted interventions aimed at the most sedentary, such as males with sedentary occupations in higher socio-economic groups and education levels, those with insufficient levels of physical activity and who live in an urban location.


Assuntos
Atividades de Lazer/psicologia , Ocupações/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Tela , Comportamento Sedentário , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Irlanda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 685: 1019-1029, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390693

RESUMO

Extreme weather events (EWEs) are increasing in frequency, posing a greater risk of adverse human health effects. As such, developing sociological and psychological based interventions is paramount to empowering individuals and communities to actively protect their own health. Accordingly, this study compared the efficacy of two established social-cognitive models, namely the Health Beliefs Model (HBM) and Risks-Attitudes-Norms-Abilities-Self-regulation (RANAS) framework, in predicting health behaviours following EWEs. Surface water flooding was used as the exemplar EWE in the current study, due to the increasing incidence of these events in the Republic of Ireland over the past decade. Levels of prior experience with flooding were considered for analyses and comparative tools included a number of variables predicting health behaviours and intervention potential scores (i.e. measure of impact of targeting each model element). Results suggest that the RANAS model provides a robust foundation for designing interventions for any level of experience with an extreme weather event, however, use of the simpler HBM may be more cost-effective among participants unacquainted with an EWE and in relatively infrequent health threat scenarios. Results provide an evidence base for researchers and policymakers to appropriately engage with populations about such threats and successfully promote spatiotemporally appropriate health behaviours in a changing climate.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Modelos Teóricos , Poluição da Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Transmitidas pela Água/epidemiologia , Água Subterrânea , Humanos , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Eur J Dent Educ ; 23(4): 522-526, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429507

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Internet has become an established learning tool in dental education where students can access online videos on a range of dental subjects. However, finding reliable peer-reviewed content is not straightforward. AIM: To evaluate the video content offered by UK and Republic of Ireland (RoI) Dental Schools on their YouTube channels and public websites. METHODS: Free videos offered on UK and RoI Dental schools websites and YouTube channels were watched and set according to its purpose, as educational or non-educational. The number of views, length, category and date of publication were analysed. RESULTS: A total of 627 videos offered by dental courses were evaluated. Videos were available on 83% of the websites, but only 9% was educational content. Dental courses YouTube channels received more than 2.3 million views, but less than 5% of the material offered is educational. Instructional videos found on the websites (3.2 min) were shorter than those found on YouTube (8.5 min) (P = .03). The majority of the videos, provided by Universities, were not educational and focused on promoting the dental courses. Most websites have demonstrated a password-protected area where quality content may be offered. CONCLUSION: Students wishing to watch instructional videos will find limited educational content provided by UK and RoI dental courses. Therefore, they are likely to access course-related material elsewhere on the Internet that may not be necessarily peer-reviewed.


Assuntos
Educação em Odontologia , Faculdades de Odontologia , Humanos , Internet , Irlanda , Estudantes de Odontologia , Gravação em Vídeo
17.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 146: 349-354, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426167

RESUMO

Between 2012 and 2015, 13 grey seals were recovered from trammel nets targeting monkfish and rays off the south coast of Ireland. Incidence and distribution of microplastics were investigated along the intestines of bycaught seals. No macrodebris items were found, whereas microplastics were detected in all seals. A total of 363 microplastics items were identified (85% fibers, 14% fragments, 1% films). Estimation of microplastic ingestion based on prey ingestion (245 particles) was lower than the observed data. Acantocephala parasites (n = 1543) were found in 12 seals, with an average of 74.5 ±â€¯67.7 parasites per seal. Distribution of microplastics varied between seals, although microplastics tended to accumulate in areas where more parasites were aggregated; however, there was no significant relationship between the number of parasites and microplastics was found. Seals recovered from nets appear to be a good source to monitor the incidence of microplastic pollution within the coastal food webs.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Intestinos , Plásticos/análise , Focas Verdadeiras , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Cadeia Alimentar , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Intestinos/química , Intestinos/parasitologia , Irlanda , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 693: 133546, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369893

RESUMO

Elevated temperatures due to anthropogenic activities can improve the performance of non-native species that are adapted to higher temperatures than resident species. Ecosystems may experience higher temperature due to global stressors, such as climate change, or local stressors, including thermal effluents and urban heat islands. Using field surveys of population density and body size of the highly invasive and hot-adapted clam Corbicula fluminea in and out of two thermal effluents from power plants along the River Shannon, Ireland, we tested the hypothesis that C. fluminea performs better in thermal plumes. Shell length and body mass of C. fluminea in thermal effluents were 1.8 and 4.4 times higher, respectively, compared with adjacent unheated river sections. Density of C. fluminea was 13.7 times higher in heated, compared with unheated river reaches, leading to an increase in combined biomass per unit area of >50-fold. Our temperature data suggest an up to 2.5-fold increase of degree-days for growth and up to 5.2-fold increase of degree-days for larval incubation in the thermal plumes in River Shannon, compared with unheated conditions. Through enlarged body size, the elevated temperatures likely increase fecundity within the plumes. These findings illustrate that, in temperate climates, thermal plumes can form sanctuaries, where C. fluminea likely alters habitat, outpaces competitors and potentially dominates the energy flow through food webs. Furthermore, thermal plumes can act as stepping-stones and propagule banks for further proliferation of C. fluminea and other warm-adapted invaders.


Assuntos
Corbicula/fisiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Espécies Introduzidas , Centrais Elétricas , Animais , Mudança Climática , Cadeia Alimentar , Temperatura Alta , Irlanda , Densidade Demográfica , Rios , Temperatura Ambiente
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 702, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C infection is a major public health concern globally. In Ireland, like other European countries, people who use drugs (PWUD) and prisoners carry a larger HCV disease burden than the general population. Recent advances in HCV management have made HCV elimination across Europe a realistic goal. Engaging these two marginalised and underserved populations remains a challenge. The aim of this review was to map key findings and identify gaps in the literature (published and unpublished) on HCV infection in Irish PWUD and prisoners. METHODS: A scoping review guided by the methodological framework set out by Levac and colleagues (based on previous work by Arksey & O'Malley). RESULTS: A total of 58 studies were identified and divided into the following categories; Epidemiology, Guidelines and Policy, Treatment Outcomes, HCV-related Health Issues and qualitative research reporting on Patients' and Health Providers' Experiences. This review identified significantly higher rates of HCV infection among Irish prisoners and PWUD than the general population. There are high levels of undiagnosed and untreated HCV infection in both groups. There is poor engagement by Irish PWUD with HCV services and barriers have been identified. Prison hepatology nurse services have a positive impact on treatment uptake and outcomes. Identified gaps in the literature include; lack of accurate epidemiological data on incident infection, untreated chronic HCV infection particularly in PWUD living outside Dublin and those not engaged with OST. CONCLUSION: Ireland like other European countries has high levels of undiagnosed and untreated HCV infection. Collecting, synthesising and identifying gaps in the available literature is timely and will inform national HCV screening, treatment and prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Usuários de Drogas/estatística & dados numéricos , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Prisões/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Accid Anal Prev ; 131: 336-349, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377497

RESUMO

Under the Safe System framework, Road Authorities have a responsibility to deliver inherently safe roads and streets. Addressing this problem depends on knowledge of the road network safety conditions and the number of funds available for new road safety interventions. It also requires the prioritisation of the various interventions that may generate benefits, increasing safety, while ensuring that reasonable steps are taken to remedy the deficiencies detected within a reasonable timeframe. In this context, Road Safety Inspections (RSI) are a proactive tool for identifying safety issues, consisting of a regular, systematic, on-site inspection of existing roads, covering the whole road network, carried out by trained safety expert teams. This paper aims to describe how topic modelling can be effectively used to identify co-occurrence patterns of attributes related to the run-off-road crashes, as well as the corresponding patterns of road safety interventions, as described in the RSI reports. We apply latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA), a widespread method for fitting a topic model, to analyse the topics mentioned in RSI reports, divided into two groups: problems found; and proposed solutions. For this study, 54 RSI gathered over six years (2012-2017) were analysed, covering 4011 km of Irish roads. The results indicate that important keywords relating to the "forgiving roadside" and "clear zone" concepts, as well as the relevant European technical standards (CEN-EN1317 and EN 12,767), are absent from the extracted latent topics. We also found that the frequency of topics related to roadside safety is higher in the problems record set than in the solutions record set, meaning that problems are more easily identified and related to the roadside area than interventions may be. This paper presents methodological empirical evidence that the LDA is appropriate for identifying the co-occurrence patterns of attributes related to the ROR crashes in road safety inspections' reports, as well as the interventions' patterns associated with these crashes. Also, it provides valuable information aimed to determine the extent to which national road authorities in Europe and their contractors are currently capable of implementing and maintaining compliance with roadside standards and guidelines throughout the life cycle of roads.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Ambiente Construído/normas , Ambiente Construído/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Irlanda , Probabilidade , Segurança
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA