Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 20.849
Filtrar
1.
Anal Chem ; 93(32): 11268-11274, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347440

RESUMO

Discrimination of isomers in a mixture is a subject of ongoing interest in biology, pharmacology, and forensics. We demonstrate that femtosecond time-resolved mass spectrometry (FTRMS) effectively quantifies mixtures of ortho-, para-, and meta-nitrotoluenes, the first two of which are common explosive degradation products. The key advantage of the FTRMS approach to mixture quantification lies in the ability of the pump-probe laser control scheme to capture distinct fragmentation dynamics of each nitrotoluene cation isomer on femtosecond timescales, thereby allowing for discrimination of the isomers using only the signal of the parent molecular ion at m/z 137. Upon measurement of reference dynamics of each individual isomer, the molar fractions of binary and ternary mixtures can be predicted to within ∼5 and ∼7% accuracy, respectively.


Assuntos
Lasers , Cátions , Isomerismo , Espectrometria de Massas
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 775: 145592, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380608

RESUMO

Recently, we identified seven novel hydroxy-carboxylic acids resulting from gas-phase reactions of isoprene in the presence of nitrogen oxides (NOx), ozone (O3), and/or hydroxyl radicals (OH). In the present study, we provide evidence that hydroxy-carboxylic acids, namely methyltartaric acids (MTA) are: (1) reliable isoprene tracers, (2) likely produced via rapid peroxy radical hydrogen atom (H) shift reactions (autoxidation mechanism) and analogous alkoxy radical H shifts in low and high NOx environments respectively and (3) representative of aged ambient aerosol in the low NOx regime. Firstly, MTA are reliable tracers of isoprene aerosol because they have been identified in numerous chamber experiments involving isoprene conducted under a wide range of conditions and are absent in the oxidation of mono- and sesquiterpenes. They are also present in numerous samples of ambient aerosol collected during the past 20 years at several locations in the U.S. and Europe. Furthermore, MTA concentrations measured during a year-long field study in Research Triangle Park (RTP), NC in 2003 show a seasonal trend consistent with isoprene emissions and photochemical activity. Secondly, an analysis of chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS) data of several chamber experiments in low and high NOx environments show that highly oxidized molecules (HOMs) derived from isoprene that lead to MTAs may be produced rapidly and considered as early generation isoprene oxidation products in the gas phase. Density functional theory calculations show that rapid intramolecular H shifts involving peroxy and alkoxy radicals possess low barriers for methyl-hydroxy-butenals (MHBs) that may represent precursors for MTA. From these results, a viable rapid H shift mechanism is proposed to occur that produces isoprene derived HOMs like MTA. Finally, an analysis of the mechanism shows that autoxidation-like pathways in low and high NOx may produce HOMs in a few OH oxidation steps like commonly detected methyl tetrol (MT) isoprene tracers. The ratio of MTA/MT in isoprene aerosol is also shown to be significantly greater in field versus chamber samples indicating the importance of such pathways in the atmosphere even for smaller hydrocarbons like isoprene.


Assuntos
Laboratórios , Aerossóis , Álcoois , Butadienos , Hemiterpenos , Isomerismo
3.
Anal Chem ; 93(31): 10871-10878, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34324299

RESUMO

Data organization through molecular networks has been used in metabolomics over the past years as a way to efficiently mine the massive amount of structural information produced by tandem mass spectrometry (MS). However, glycomics lags a step behind: carbohydrate structures involve numerous levels of isomerism, making MS and tandem MS blind to many key structural features of glycans. This roadblock can in part be alleviated with gas-phase ion mobility spectrometry (IMS), a method highly sensitive to isomerism. In this work, we propose a novel strategy for structural glycomics: molecular networking of high-resolution IMS/IMS spectra. We combine the cutting-edge strategies of tandem IMS and molecular networking of spectral data. We demonstrate that-when it comes to oligosaccharides and their numerous levels of isomerisms-molecular networks based on IMS/IMS spectra are widely superior to MS/MS-based networks to sort and organize molecules with a high degree of structural relevance.


Assuntos
Glicômica , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Espectrometria de Mobilidade Iônica , Isomerismo , Oligossacarídeos , Polissacarídeos
4.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(59): 7236-7239, 2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34263271

RESUMO

The extent of thermodynamic stabilization of telomeric G-quadruplex (G4) by isomers of G4 ligand L2H2-6OTD, a telomestatin analog, is inversely correlated with susceptibility to S1 nuclease. L2H2-6OTD facilitated the S1 nuclease activities through the base flipping in G4, unlike the conventional role of G4 ligands which inhibit the protein binding to DNA/RNA upon ligand interactions.


Assuntos
Quadruplex G , Endonucleases Específicas para DNA e RNA de Cadeia Simples/metabolismo , Isomerismo , Ligantes , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Oxazóis/química , Telômero/química , Termodinâmica
5.
J Chem Phys ; 154(22): 224113, 2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34241205

RESUMO

Understanding the dynamic disorder behind a process, i.e., the dynamic effect of fluctuations that occur on a timescale slower or comparable with the timescale of the process, is essential for elucidating the dynamics and kinetics of complicated molecular processes in biomolecules and liquids. Despite numerous theoretical studies of single-molecule kinetics, our microscopic understanding of dynamic disorder remains limited. In the present study, we investigate the microscopic aspects of dynamic disorder in the isomerization dynamics of the Cys14-Cys38 disulfide bond in the protein bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor, which has been observed by nuclear magnetic resonance. We use a theoretical model with a stochastic transition rate coefficient, which is calculated from the 1-ms-long time molecular dynamics trajectory obtained by Shaw et al. [Science 330, 341-346 (2010)]. The isomerization dynamics are expressed by the transitions between coarse-grained states consisting of internal states, i.e., conformational sub-states. In this description, the rate for the transition from the coarse-grained states is stochastically modulated due to fluctuations between internal states. We examine the survival probability for the conformational transitions from a coarse-grained state using a theoretical model, which is a good approximation to the directly calculated survival probability. The dynamic disorder changes from a slow modulation limit to a fast modulation limit depending on the aspects of the coarse-grained states. Our analysis of the rate modulations behind the survival probability, in relation to the fluctuations between internal states, reveals the microscopic origin of dynamic disorder.


Assuntos
Aprotinina/química , Microscopia/métodos , Isomerismo , Cinética , Modelos Teóricos , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Conformação Proteica
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4343, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267224

RESUMO

Aberrant sterol lipid metabolism is associated with physiological dysfunctions in the aging brain and aging-dependent disorders such as neurodegenerative diseases. There is an unmet demand to comprehensively profile sterol lipids spatially and temporally in different brain regions during aging. Here, we develop an ion mobility-mass spectrometry based four-dimensional sterolomics technology leveraged by a machine learning-empowered high-coverage library (>2000 sterol lipids) for accurate identification. We apply this four-dimensional technology to profile the spatially resolved landscapes of sterol lipids in ten functional regions of the mouse brain, and quantitatively uncover ~200 sterol lipids uniquely distributed in specific regions with concentrations spanning up to 8 orders of magnitude. Further spatial analysis pinpoints age-associated differences in region-specific sterol lipid metabolism, revealing changes in the numbers of altered sterol lipids, concentration variations, and age-dependent coregulation networks. These findings will contribute to our understanding of abnormal sterol lipid metabolism and its role in brain diseases.


Assuntos
Química Encefálica , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Lipídeos/química , Esteróis/análise , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Isomerismo , Lipidômica/métodos , Lipídeos/análise , Aprendizado de Máquina , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Esteróis/química , Esteróis/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
7.
Anal Chem ; 93(28): 9826-9834, 2021 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34228922

RESUMO

Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) of lipids within tissues has significant potential for both biomolecular discovery and histopathological applications. Conventional MSI technologies are, however, challenged by the prevalence of phospholipid regioisomers that differ only in the location(s) of carbon-carbon double bonds and/or the relative position of fatty acyl attachment to the glycerol backbone (i.e., sn position). The inability to resolve isomeric lipids within imaging experiments masks underlying complexity, resulting in a critical loss of metabolic information. Herein, ozone-induced dissociation (OzID) is implemented on a mobility-enabled quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometer capable of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI). Exploiting the ion mobility region in the Q-TOF, high number densities of ozone were accessed, leading to ∼1000-fold enhancement in the abundance of OzID product ions compared to earlier MALDI-OzID implementations. Translation of this uplift into imaging resulted in a 50-fold improvement in acquisition rate, facilitating large-area mapping with resolution of phospholipid isomers. Mapping isomer distributions across rat brain sections revealed distinct distributions of lipid isomer populations with region-specific associations of isomers differing in double bond and sn positions. Moreover, product ions arising from sequential ozone- and collision-induced dissociation enabled double bond assignments in unsaturated fatty acyl chains esterified at the noncanonical sn-1 position.


Assuntos
Ozônio , Glicerol , Isomerismo , Lipídeos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
8.
Analyst ; 146(15): 4789-4795, 2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231555

RESUMO

Glycosylation patterns in monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) can vary significantly between different host cell types, and these differences may affect mAbs safety, efficacy, and immunogenicity. Recent studies have demonstrated that glycan isomers with the terminal galactose position on either the Man α1-3 arm or the Man α1-6 arm have an impact on the effector functions and dynamic structure of mAbs. The development of a robust method to distinguish positional isomers of glycans is thus critical to guarantee mAb quality. In this work, we apply high-resolution ion mobility combined with cryogenic infrared spectroscopy to distinguish isomeric glycans with different terminal galactose positions, using G1F as an example. Selective enzymatic synthesis of the G1(α1-6)F isomer allows us to assign the peaks in the arrival-time distributions and the infrared spectra to their respective isomeric forms. Moreover, we demonstrate the impact of the host cell line (CHO and HEK-293) on the IgG G1F gycan profile at the isomer level. This work illustrates the potential of our approach for glycan analysis of mAbs.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais , Polissacarídeos , Glicosilação , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Isomerismo
9.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204673

RESUMO

The almiramide N-methylated lipopeptides exhibit promising activity against trypanosomatid parasites. A structure-activity relationship study has been performed to examine the influences of N-methylation and conformation on activity against various strains of leishmaniasis protozoan and on cytotoxicity. The synthesis and biological analysis of twenty-five analogs demonstrated that derivatives with a single methyl group on either the first or fifth residue amide nitrogen exhibited greater activity than the permethylated peptides and relatively high potency against resistant strains. Replacement of amino amide residues in the peptide, by turn inducing α amino γ lactam (Agl) and N-aminoimidazalone (Nai) counterparts, reduced typically anti-parasitic activity; however, peptide amides possessing Agl residues at the second residue retained significant potency in the unmethylated and permethylated series. Systematic study of the effects of methylation and turn geometry on anti-parasitic activity indicated the relevance of an extended conformer about the central residues, and conformational mobility by tertiary amide isomerization and turn geometry at the extremities of the active peptides.


Assuntos
Leishmania/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopeptídeos/química , Lipopeptídeos/farmacologia , Amidas/química , Isomerismo , Metilação , Conformação Proteica , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
10.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 262: 120143, 2021 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34271237

RESUMO

Astaxanthin (AST) is a xanthophyll carotenoid widely distributed in aquatic animals, which has many physiological functions such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-hypertensive and anti-diabetic activities. AST has three optical isomers, including a pair of enantiomers (3S,3'S and 3R,3'R) and a meso form (3R,3'S). Different optical isomers have differences in a variety of physiological functions. Traditionally, High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) has been used to distinguish these isomers. In this work, it was found that Raman spectroscopy can be employed to distinguish the three optical isomers. The intensities of two Raman bands at 1190 and 1215 cm-1 of three isomers are different. Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations are performed to analyze the spectral differences. The mainly occupied conformers of these three optical isomers are speculated and identified.


Assuntos
Luteína , Xantofilas , Animais , Carotenoides , Isomerismo , Estereoisomerismo
11.
Chemosphere ; 281: 130831, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289597

RESUMO

The understanding of the photochemistry of antibiotic compounds is important because it gives the direct information on the possible environmental pollution caused by them. Due to their large size, the theoretical studies of their excited-state reactions are rather challenging. In current work, we combined the on-the-fly trajectory surface-hopping dynamics, conical-intersection optimizations and excited-state pathway calculations to study the photochemistry of the trans-isomer of nitrofurantoin, a widely-used drug to treat the urinary tract infections. The dynamics-then-pathway approach was taken. First the trajectory surface hopping dynamics at the state-averaged complete-active-space self-consistent-field (SA-CASSCF) level with small active space and small basis sets were run. Second, the minimum-energy conical-intersection optimizations were performed. Finally the excited pathways from the Frank-Condon region to different reaction channels were built at the multi-state multi-reference second-order perturbation (MS-CASPT2) level with large active space and large basis set. Several possible channels responsible for the photo-induced reaction mechanism of the trans-nitrofurantoin were obtained, including the cleavage of the NO bond of the NO2 moiety, the photoisomerization at the central CN bond, and other internal conversion channels. Our findings give some preliminary explanations on available experimental observations. It is also demonstrates that the current theoretical approach is a powerful tool to explore the excited-state reactions in the photochemistry of media-sized or large-sized drug compounds.


Assuntos
Nitrofurantoína , Teoria Quântica , Isomerismo , Modelos Teóricos , Fotoquímica
12.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 263: 120158, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274637

RESUMO

The UV-induced photochemistry and molecular structure of 3-aminopyrazine-2-carboxylic acid were studied in argon matrices by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and B3LYP/6-311++G(2d,2p) calculations. Out of seventeen possible isomers of this molecule located on the singlet potential energy surface the most stable one, APA1 comprising intramolecular O-H···N and N-H···O hydrogen bonds, was detected experimentally in the matrix after deposition. Two new conformers APA2 and APA3 were generated upon irradiation with λ = 280 nm by trans/cis-COOH isomerization and at λ = 360 nm by COOH group rotamerization, respectively, whereas an amino-imino tautomerization leading to IPA1 and IPA2 structures occurred at λ = 305 nm. The reverse reactions were also observed upon irradiation of the matrices at 265, 230 and 400 nm. Simultaneously with the photoisomerizations, a cleavage of the pyrazine ring along with CO2 elimination was observed leading to the formation of carbodiimide and cyanamide derivatives.


Assuntos
Pirazinas , Argônio , Isomerismo , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
13.
Chemistry ; 27(50): 12815-12825, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34288176

RESUMO

The electronic and geometric structures of the water-oxidizing complex of photosystem II in the steps of the catalytic cycle that precede dioxygen evolution remain hotly debated. Recent structural and spectroscopic investigations support contradictory redox formulations for the active-site Mn4 CaOx cofactor in the final metastable S3 state. These range from the widely accepted MnIV 4 oxo-hydroxo model, which presumes that O-O bond formation occurs in the ultimate transient intermediate (S4 ) of the catalytic cycle, to a MnIII 2 MnIV 2 peroxo model representative of the contrasting "early-onset" O-O bond formation hypothesis. Density functional theory energetics of suggested S3 redox isomers are inconclusive because of extreme functional dependence. Here, we use the power of the domain-based local pair natural orbital approach to coupled cluster theory, DLPNO-CCSD(T), to present the first correlated wave function theory calculations of relative stabilities for distinct redox-isomeric forms of the S3 state. Our results enabled us to evaluate conflicting models for the S3 state of the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) and to quantify the accuracy of lower-level theoretical approaches. Our assessment of the relevance of distinct redox-isomeric forms for the mechanism of biological water oxidation strongly disfavors the scenario of early-onset O-O formation advanced by literal interpretations of certain crystallographic models. This work serves as a case study in the application of modern coupled cluster implementations to redox isomerism problems in oligonuclear transition metal systems.


Assuntos
Manganês , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II , Isomerismo , Oxirredução , Oxigênio , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Água
14.
Biomacromolecules ; 22(7): 2996-3004, 2021 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34152724

RESUMO

The extracellular matrix of hard connective tissues is composed primarily of mineralized collagen fibrils. Acidic noncollagenous proteins play important roles in mediating mineralization of collagen. Polyaspartate, a homopolymer substitute for such proteins, has been used extensively in in vitro models to produce biomimetic mineralized collagen. Polyglutamate behaves differently in mineralization models, despite its chemical similarity. We show that polyaspartate is a 350 times more effective inhibitor of solution precipitation of hydroxyapatite than polyglutamate. Supersaturated CaP solutions stabilized with polyaspartic acid produce collagen with aligned intrafibrillar mineral, while solutions containing polyglutamate lead to the formation of unaligned mineral clusters on the fibril surface. Molecular analysis showed that the commercial polyaspartic acid contains substantial isomerization, unlike polyglutamic acid. Hence, the secondary structure of polyaspartic acid is more disordered than that of polyglutamic acid. The increased flexibility of the polyaspartic acid chain may explain its potency as an inhibitor of solution crystallization and a mediator of intrafibrillar collagen mineralization.


Assuntos
Biomimética , Ácido Poliglutâmico , Colágeno , Matriz Extracelular , Isomerismo
15.
J Food Sci ; 86(7): 2924-2938, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146402

RESUMO

Baijiu quality control has always been a major challenge for researchers. In this paper, taking furfural which is closely related to baijiu brewing process and organic acids related to baijiu fermentation process and microorganism types as the main discriminating factors, a carbon dot (CDs) sensor array targeting furfural and organic acids was constructed to identify 41 kinds of baijiu. Through the fluorescence response investigation of CDs synthesized by isomers of benzenediol, aminophenol, and phenylenediamine to different baijiu, two CDs synthesized by meta-benzene substitutions containing -NH2 were selected to build a fluorescence sensor array. Due to the aggregation-induced enhancement effect between furfural and the CDs, and the protonation of organic acid and the CDs, different fluorescence changes were observed, the sensor array combined with partial least squares regression could quantitatively analyze furfural and organic acids. What is more, semi-quantitative analysis of furfural and lactic acid in baijiu was performed. Owing to the interaction of the two CDs with furfural and organic acids in baijiu, the sensor array could accurately identify different baijiu through linear discriminant analysis. This sensor array has potential applications in the quantitative analysis of flavor substances in other alcoholic beverages, moreover, this method could provide a quick response and practical tool for real-time quality control monitoring in the baijiu industry.


Assuntos
Ácidos/análise , Furaldeído/química , Vinho/análise , Carbono/química , China , Análise Discriminante , Fermentação , Aromatizantes/química , Fluorescência , Análise de Alimentos , Humanos , Isomerismo , Paladar
16.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 148: 109789, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34116752

RESUMO

Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase A (RpiA) is of great importance in biochemistry research, however its application in biotechnology has not been fully explored. In this study the activity of RpiA from Ochrobactrum sp. CSL1 (OsRpiA) towards D-allose was engineered based on sequential and structural analyses. Strategies of alanine scanning, rational design and saturated mutagenesis were employed to create three mutant libraries. A single mutant of K124A showed a 45 % activity improvement towards D-allose. The reaction properties of the mutant were analyzed, and a shift of optimal pH and higher thermal stability at low reaction temperatures were identified. The conversion of D-allose was also improved by 40 % using K124A, and higher activities on major substrates were found in the mutant's substrate scope, implying its application potential in rare sugar preparation. Kinetics analysis revealed that Km of K124A mutant decreased by 12 % and the catalytic efficiency increased by 65 % towards D-allose. Moreover, molecular dynamics simulation illustrated the binding of substrate and K124A was more stable than that of the wild-type. The shorter distance and more relax bond angle between the catalytic residue of K124A and D-allose explained the activity improvement in detail. This study highlights the potential of OsRpiA as a biocatalyst for rare sugar preparation, and provides distinct evidences for its catalytic mechanism.


Assuntos
Aldose-Cetose Isomerases , Ochrobactrum , Aldose-Cetose Isomerases/genética , Aldose-Cetose Isomerases/metabolismo , Isomerismo , Ochrobactrum/metabolismo , Açúcares
17.
Chemistry ; 27(48): 12437-12446, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34096662

RESUMO

Photoswitch triads comprising two dihydroazulene (DHA) units in conjugation with a central trans-azobenzene (AZB) unit were prepared in stepwise protocols starting from meta- and para-disubstituted azobenzenes. The para-connected triad had significantly altered optical properties and lacked the photoactivity of the separate photochromes. In contrast, for the meta-connected triad, all three photochromes could be photoisomerized to generate an isomer with two vinylheptafulvene (VHF) units and a cis-azobenzene unit. Ultrafast spectroscopy of the photoisomerizations revealed a fast DHA-to-VHF photoisomerization and a slower trans-to-cis AZB photoisomerization. This meta triad underwent thermal VHF-to-DHA back-conversion with a similar rate of all VHFs, independent of the identity of the neighboring units, and in parallel thermal cis-to-trans AZB conversion. The experimental observations were supported by computation (excitation spectra and orbital analysis of the transitions).


Assuntos
Compostos Azo , Azulenos , Isomerismo
18.
J Org Chem ; 86(14): 9503-9514, 2021 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34181424

RESUMO

Molecules or ions are either paramagnetic (unpaired electrons) or diamagnetic (all electrons are paired). Switching between the two states under ambient conditions was considered a typical solid state phenomenon and has been termed spin crossover. The first single-molecule spin state switches operated with light in solution were developed a decade ago and offer a number of technical applications that are not accessible to solid state systems. Magnetic switching in biological environments, however, requires water solubility, and for in vivo applications, switching wavelengths within the bio-optical window (650-950 nm) are needed. We now present molecular spin state switches that are water-soluble and switchable in the far-red and near-infrared region. At the same time, they are photochromic compounds with excellent photophysical properties. trans-cis isomerization is induced with 505 nm radiation, and cis-trans conversion with 620 or 720 nm radiation. The metastable cis isomers are stable at room temperature for at least several weeks. The detailed mechanism of this surprising and unprecedented long wavelength photoisomerization of azobenzenes is still under investigation.


Assuntos
Porfirinas , Isomerismo
19.
J Phys Chem B ; 125(26): 7222-7230, 2021 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34181423

RESUMO

We synthesized two types of donor-acceptor Stenhouse adducts (DASAs), a new type of photochromic molecules showing dual color in two different isomeric forms in solution phase, using Meldrum acid (DASA-Mel) and barbituric acid (DASA-Bar), along with a naphthalimide derivative to obtain interesting fluorescence properties. DASA-Mel was found to have fast photochromic conversion in comparison to DASA-Bar, evident from ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) and fluorescence spectroscopic studies. The colored form of DASA-Mel was encapsulated inside the water-soluble Stoddart's blue box and became soluble in water much faster than DASA-Bar. Interestingly, the competitive encapsulation experiment showed that DASA-Mel was selectively encapsulated inside the blue box in water whereas DASA-Bar was mostly separated out from the solution after centrifugation, and this phenomenon was confirmed by 1H and DOSY NMR and mass spectroscopies. Moreover, we found through density functional theory (DFT) optimization that the open form of DASA-Mel was more stable during the encapsulation reaction in a water medium in comparison to DASA-Bar. The calculated binding energies of encapsulated DASA-Mel and DASA-Bar are -10.2 and -9.9 kcal/mol, respectively, clearly showing that the former is more stable by 0.3 kcal. Consequently, the organic macrocycle selectively separating one kind of DASA from a mixture by encapsulation in water is reported for the first time with experimental and theoretical support in the literature.


Assuntos
Água , Isomerismo , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
20.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 23(25): 13934-13950, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34142688

RESUMO

Photosensory receptors containing the flavin-binding light-oxygen-voltage (LOV) domain are modular proteins that fulfil a variety of biological functions ranging from gene expression to phototropism. The LOV photocycle is initiated by blue-light and involves a cascade of intermediate species, including an electronically excited triplet state, that leads to covalent bond formation between the flavin mononucleotide (FMN) chromophore and a nearby cysteine residue. Subsequent conformational changes in the polypeptide chain arise due to the remodelling of the hydrogen bond network in the cofactor binding pocket, whereby a conserved glutamine residue plays a key role in coupling FMN photochemistry with LOV photobiology. Although the dark-to-light transition of LOV photosensors has been previously addressed by spectroscopy and computational approaches, the mechanistic basis of the underlying reactions is still not well understood. Here we present a detailed computational study of three distinct LOV domains: EL222 from Erythrobacter litoralis, AsLOV2 from the second LOV domain of Avena sativa phototropin 1, and RsLOV from Rhodobacter sphaeroides LOV protein. Extended protein-chromophore models containing all known crucial residues involved in the initial steps (femtosecond-to-microsecond) of the photocycle were employed. Energies and rotational barriers were calculated for possible rotamers and tautomers of the critical glutamine side chain, which allowed us to postulate the most energetically favoured glutamine orientation for each LOV domain along the assumed reaction path. In turn, for each evolving species, infrared difference spectra were constructed and compared to experimental EL222 and AsLOV2 transient infrared spectra, the former from original work presented here and the latter from the literature. The good agreement between theory and experiment permitted the assignment of the majority of observed bands, notably the ∼1635 cm-1 transient of the adduct state to the carbonyl of the glutamine side chain after rotation. Moreover, both the energetic and spectroscopic approaches converge in suggesting a facile glutamine flip at the adduct intermediate for EL222 and more so for AsLOV2, while for RsLOV the glutamine keeps its initial configuration. Additionally, the computed infrared shifts of the glutamine and interacting residues could guide experimental research addressing early events of signal transduction in LOV proteins.


Assuntos
Glutamina/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Avena/química , Cisteína/química , Mononucleotídeo de Flavina/química , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Isomerismo , Modelos Moleculares , Distribuição Normal , Processos Fotoquímicos , Fototropinas/química , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho , Sphingomonadaceae/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Termodinâmica
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...