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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e050480, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475179

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify mental health prospective trajectories before and after a second lockdown during the COVID-19 pandemic and their associations with somatic symptoms. DESIGN: Prospective Study. SETTING: Population-based study drawn from a probability-based internet panel of over 100 000 Israelis. PARTICIPANTS: Adults aged 18 years or more, representative of the adult Israeli population. The participants were measured at two time points (time 1 (T1) pre-second lockdown N=1029; response rate=76.17%; time 2 (T2) post-second lockdown N=764; response rate=74.24%). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Trajectories of anxiety and adjustment disorder based on clinical cut-off score for probable diagnoses across T1-T2, somatic symptoms at T2. The four trajectories: stable-low, (no probable diagnosis), stable-high (stable probable diagnosis), exacerbation (no probable diagnosis at T1, probable diagnosis at T2), recovery (probable diagnosis at T1, no probable diagnosis at T2). RESULTS: Three anxiety trajectories predicted probable somatic symptoms (stable-high OR=6.451; exacerbation OR=5.379; recovery OR=2.025) compared with the stable-low trajectory. The three adjustment disorder trajectories also predicted somatic symptoms (stable-high OR=4.726; exacerbation OR=6.419; recovery OR=4.666) compared with the stable-low trajectory. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show elevated somatic symptoms among those whose mental health trajectories were poor, exacerbated and those who recovered following the second lockdown. The presentation of somatic symptoms may mask psychological vulnerabilities, even among those who appear to have recovered from the stressor. This indicates that lockdown may be a double-edged sword and should be carefully administered given these populations vulnerabilities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Sintomas Inexplicáveis , Adulto , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 16(1): 379, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2) is the causative agent of the current COVID-19 pandemic. Lysosomal storage disorders (LSD) comprise of 70 inherited inborn errors of metabolism. Affected individuals suffer from multi-systemic involvement with variable severity and rate of disease progression between different diseases. Some of the LSDs have established treatments, whether parenteral or oral therapies. The full impact of the COVID-19 pandemic together with the lockdown on the wellbeing and medical management of patients with rare diseases, such as LSDs, is widely unknown. Herein, we describe the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and its associated mandatory home lockdown on patients with LSDs in Israel. RESULTS: We present a prospective multi-center questionnaire study including 48 LSD patients from four medical centers in Israel. The study objective was to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic restrictions on individuals with LSDs in Israel, as reported by their caregivers. Secondary objectives were to assess the morbidity from SARS CoV-2 in LSD patients and the impact of changes in mood and behavior on compliance to treatment and to assess the relationship between changes in mood to changes in cognition and behavior. Thirty one of 38 patients (82%) who received any kind of regular treatment did not miss treatments. Among patients receiving enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) in the in-hospital setting, 5 patients (20%) experienced treatment disruptions. Four patients had tested positive for SARS-Cov-2 virus infection by PCR. Seven out of the 48 patients (14%) described mood changes with cognitive and motor deterioration during the home quarantine. CONCLUSIONS: We observed high rates of treatment adherence and low morbidity through the COVID-19 pandemic in patients with LSDs in Israel. LSDs patients can be a model for patients with complex chronic diseases requiring routine treatments and surveillance during a pandemic or other disruption of daily routine.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Lisossomos , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
3.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0253843, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407073

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Knowing the true infected and symptomatic case fatality ratios (IFR and CFR) for COVID-19 is of high importance for epidemiological model projections. Early in the pandemic many locations had limited testing and reporting, so that standard methods for determining IFR and CFR required large adjustments for missed cases. We present an alternate approach, based on results from the countries at the time that had a high test to positive case ratio to estimate symptomatic CFR. METHODS: We calculated age specific (0-69, 70-79, 80+ years old) time corrected crude symptomatic CFR values from 7 countries using two independent time to fatality correction methods. Data was obtained through May 7, 2020. We applied linear regression to determine whether the mean of these coefficients had converged to the true symptomatic CFR values. We then tested these coefficients against values derived in later studies as well as a large random serological study in NYC at that time. RESULTS: The age dependent symptomatic CFR values accurately predicted the percentage of the population infected as reported by two random testing studies in NYC. They also were in good agreement with later studies that estimated age specific IFR and CFR values from serological studies and more extensive data sets available later in the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: We found that for regions with extensive testing it is possible to get early accurate symptomatic CFR coefficients. These values, in combination with an estimate of the age dependence of infection, allows symptomatic CFR values and percentage of the population that is infected to be determined in similar regions with limited testing.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Israel/epidemiologia , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Mortalidade , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Isr J Health Policy Res ; 10(1): 48, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407864

RESUMO

Among the challenges presented by the SARS-CoV2 pandemic are those related to balancing societal priorities with averting threats to population health. In this exceptional context a group of Israeli physicians and public health scholars (multidisciplinary academic group on children and coronavirus [MACC]) coalesced, examining the role of children in viral transmission and assessing the necessity and consequences of restricted in-class education. Combining critical appraisal and analytical skills with public health experience, MACC advocated for safe and monitored school re-opening, stressing the importance of education as a determinant of health, continuously weighing this stance against evolving COVID-19-risk data. MACC's activities included offering research-based advice to government agencies including Ministries of Health, Finance, and Education. In a setting where government bodies were faced with providing practical solutions to both decreasing disease transmission and maintaining society's vital activities, and various advisors presented decision-makers with disparate views, MACC contributed epidemiological, clinical and health policy expertise to the debate regarding school closure as a pandemic control measure, and adaptations required for safe re-opening. In this paper, we describe the evolution, activities, policy inputs and media profile of MACC, and discuss the role of academics in advocacy and activism in the midst of an unprecedented public health crisis. A general lesson learned is that academics, based on the rigor of their scientific work and their perceived objectivity, can and should be mobilized to pursue and promote policies based on shared societal values as well as empiric data, even when considerable uncertainty exists about the appropriate course of action. Mechanisms should be in place to open channels to multidisciplinary academic groups and bring their input to bear on decision-making.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Criança , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Médicos/psicologia , Saúde Pública
5.
Harefuah ; 160(8): 508-513, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Hebraico | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34396726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown a correlation between acute pancreatitis and several different risk factors that vary in different countries and ethnic groups. The aims of this study are to examine the clinical characteristics and outcomes of acute pancreatitis in patients of Jewish and Bedouin origin. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients hospitalized with acute pancreatitis in the Soroka University Medical Center between the years 2012 and 2016 and compared two groups of patients: patients of Jewish and Bedouin origin. The primary outcome was a composite outcome consisting of 30-days mortality, ICU admission, complications (defined as necrotizing pancreatitis or pseudocyst formation), surgery due to these complications and 30-days re-admission due to pancreatitis. RESULTS: A total of 560 patients were included, 483 patients (86.3%) of Jewish origin and 77 patients (13.7%) of Bedouin origin. The most common cause in both groups was biliary pancreatitis: 49.7% among Jewish, 61% among Bedouin. In our study alcohol consumption, the most common worldwide risk factor of pancreatitis, accounts for only a small percentage of the disease in the Jewish population (5.6%) and does not exist in the Bedouin population. We found no significant differences in outcomes between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Biliary pancreatitis was the most common cause in both groups of patients. The important finding of our study is that alcohol use is a minor cause of acute pancreatitis in the Negev. Moreover, it is uncommon in the Jewish population and is completely non-existent among Bedouins. No differences were found in the primary outcomes between the two groups.


Assuntos
Pancreatite , Doença Aguda , Árabes , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Judeus , Pancreatite/epidemiologia , Pancreatite/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 23(8): 469-474, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392619

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hip fractures in elderly patients are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Variability in length of hospital stay (LOS) was evident in this population. The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic led to prompt discharge of effected patients in order to reduce contagion risk. LOS and discharge destination in COVID-19 negative patients has not been studied. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the LOS and discharge destination during the COVID-19 outbreak and compare it with a similar cohort in preceding years. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted comparing a total of 182 consecutive fragility hip fracture patients operated on during the first COVID-19 outbreak to patients operated on in 2 preceding years. Data regarding demographic, co-morbidities, surgical management, hospitalization, as well as surgical and medical complications were retrieved from electronic charts. RESULTS: During the pandemic 67 fragility hip fracture patients were admitted (COVID group); 55 and 60 patients were admitted during the same time periods in 2017 and 2018, respectively (control groups). All groups were of similar age and gender. Patients in the COVID group had significantly shorter LOS (7.2 ± 3.3 vs. 8.9 ± 4.9 days, P = 0.008) and waiting time for a rehabilitation facility (7.2 ± 3.1 vs. 9.3 ± 4.9 days, P = 0.003), but greater prevalence of delirium (17.9% vs. 7% of patients, P = 0.028). In hospital mortality did not differ among groups. CONCLUSIONS: LOS and time to rehabilitation were significantly shorter in the COVID group. Delirium was more common in this group, possibly due to negative effects of social distancing.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Delírio , Fixação de Fratura , Fraturas do Quadril , Controle de Infecções , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Delírio/diagnóstico , Delírio/epidemiologia , Delírio/etiologia , Feminino , Fixação de Fratura/efeitos adversos , Fixação de Fratura/métodos , Fixação de Fratura/reabilitação , Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Fraturas do Quadril/cirurgia , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Inovação Organizacional , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Alta do Paciente/tendências , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Gestão de Riscos/organização & administração , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444117

RESUMO

Tobacco taxation and price policies are considered the most effective for lowering demand for tobacco products. While this statement is based on research from numerous countries, scant evidence exists on this topic for Israel. Accordingly, we assessed the association between cigarette prices and smoking prevalence and intensity from a national sample of adults in Israel (2002-2017). Data on smoking behavior were derived from the Israeli Knowledge Attitudes and Practices (KAP) survey, a repeated cross-sectional survey. Price information is from the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) since it was not collected in the KAP survey. We used the price of a pack of 20 cigarettes for Marlboro and the local brand. These two price variables were the primary independent variables, and we adjusted for inflation. The dependent variables were current smoking (yes/no) and smoking intensity, defined as the number of cigarettes smoked per week. Multivariable analysis was employed using a two-part model while adjusting for covariates. The first step of the model utilized logistic regression with current smoking as the dependent variable. The second step examining smoking intensity as the dependent variable, used OLS regression. Price elasticity was estimated as well. Analysis revealed that a one-unit increase (Israeli currency) in the price of local brand of cigarettes was related to 2.0% (OR = 0.98; 95%CI 0.98, 0.99) lower odds of being a current smoker, adjusting for covariates including household income. Moreover, a one unit increase in the price of the local brand of cigarettes was related to consuming 1.49 (95% CI -1.97, -1.00) fewer weekly cigarettes, controlling for household income and covariates. Similar results were found with the Marlboro cigarette prices. The total price elasticity of cigarette demand, given by the sum of price elasticities of smoking prevalence and intensity, showed that a 10.0% increase in the price is associated with a 4.6-9.2% lower cigarette consumption among Israeli adults. Thus, increasing cigarette prices will likely lead to a reduction in cigarette smoking thereby improving public health in Israel.


Assuntos
Comércio , Produtos do Tabaco , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Impostos
9.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 23(8): 475-478, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic had enormous impact on many aspects of our society, including huge medical, social, and economic challenges. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic and the related movement restrictions on the incidence of hip fractures in different age groups. METHODS: This single center retrospective observational study included all patients over 60 years old admitted to our hospital with the diagnosis of hip fracture during March and April 2020. Exclusion criteria were periprosthetic or pathologic fractures and multitrauma. We collected the same data on all patients with hip fractures admitted during March and April of 2018 and 2019. RESULTS: Mean patient age increased from 81.7 to 85.0 years. Only two of 49 patients tested positive for COVID-19. The data show a decrease of 38% in fracture load, but a striking decrease of 85% and 59% among sexagenarians and septuagenarian, respectively. There was no decrease among nonagenarians. Early mortality, both at 30 days and 90 days, was twice as common during the pandemic. However, stratification by age group demonstrated that the risks of early mortality were the same as previous years. Mean waiting time for surgery decreased from 27.5 to 18.9 hours. Patient discharge to home over a rehabilitation facility increased from 9% to 17. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic affected the epidemiology of hip fractures in the elderly. The incidence of fractures and age distribution were significantly different from other years. Discharge destinations were also affected. The management of hip fracture patients was not compromised.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Fraturas do Quadril , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Fraturas do Quadril/mortalidade , Fraturas do Quadril/reabilitação , Fraturas do Quadril/terapia , Humanos , Incidência , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/métodos , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/tendências , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
10.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 23(8): 479-483, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding the impact of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the incidence of hip fractures among older adults. OBJECTIVES: To compare the characteristics of patients with a hip fracture following a fall during the COVID-19 pandemic year and during the preceding year. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of older patients who had undergone surgery for hip fracture repair in a major 495-bed hospital located in northern central Israel following a fall. Characteristics of patients who had been hospitalized in 2020 (pandemic year, n=136) and in 2019 (non-pandemic year, n=151) were compared. RESULTS: During the pandemic year, patients were less likely to have fallen in a nursing facility, to have had muscle or balance problems, and to have had a history of falls and fractures following a fall. Moreover, the average length of stay (LOS) in the hospital was shorter; however, the average time from the injury to hospitalization was longer. Patients were less likely to have acquired a postoperative infection or to have died. During the pandemic year, postoperative infection was only associated with prolonged LOS. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic may have had a positive impact on the behavior of older adults as well as on the management of hip fracture patients. However, healthcare providers should be aware of the possible reluctance to seek care during a pandemic. Moreover, further research on the impact of the change in management during COVID-19 on hip fracture survival is warranted.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas , COVID-19 , Fixação de Fratura , Fraturas do Quadril , Controle de Infecções , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Fixação de Fratura/métodos , Fixação de Fratura/reabilitação , Fixação de Fratura/estatística & dados numéricos , Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Fraturas do Quadril/etiologia , Fraturas do Quadril/cirurgia , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Israel/epidemiologia , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
11.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 23(8): 484-489, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392622

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surgery for hip fractures within 48 hours of admission is considered standard. During the lockdown period due to the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) epidemic, our medical staff was reduced. OBJECTIVES: To compare the demographics, treatment pathways, and outcomes of patients with hip fractures during the COVID-19 epidemic and lockdown with the standard at routine times. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted of all patients who were treated surgically for hip fracture in a tertiary center during the COVID-19 lockdown period between 01 March and 01 June 2020 and the equivalent period in 2019. Demographic characteristics, time to surgery, surgery type, hospitalization time, discharge destination, postoperative complications, and 30- and 90-day mortality rates were collected for all patients. RESULTS: During the COVID-19 period, 105 patients were operated due to hip fractures compared to 136 in the equivalent period with no statistical difference in demographics. The rate of surgeries within 48 hours of admission was significantly higher in the COVID-19 period (92% vs. 76%, respectively; P = 0.0006). Mean hospitalization time was significantly shorter (10 vs. 12 days, P = 0.037) with diversion of patient discharge destinations from institutional to home rehabilitation (P < 0.001). There was a significant correlation between the COVID-19 period and lower 90-day mortality rates (P = 0.034). No statistically significant differences in postoperative complications or 30-day mortality rates were noted. CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 epidemic, despite the limited staff and the lack of therapeutic sequence, there was no impairment in the quality of treatment and a decrease in 90-day mortality was noted.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Fixação de Fratura , Fraturas do Quadril , Controle de Infecções , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Fixação de Fratura/efeitos adversos , Fixação de Fratura/métodos , Fixação de Fratura/reabilitação , Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Fraturas do Quadril/cirurgia , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Israel/epidemiologia , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Mortalidade , Inovação Organizacional , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Alta do Paciente , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
12.
J Psychiatr Res ; 142: 272-274, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392054

RESUMO

This is the first study to examine COVID-19 vaccine-related stressors in the context of current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms amongst older adults exposed to traumatic events prior to the COVID-19 outbreak, with particular focus on the associations between ageism, vaccine-related stressors and PTSD. Five hundred and sixty-three participants aged 65 and above reported exposure to at least one traumatic event, their current PTSD level, physical and mental health, ageist attitudes, and vaccine related stressors. Univariate logistic regression revealed that depressive symptoms, ageism, vaccine hesitancy and severity of side effects were the main factors associated with clinical levels of current PTSD. These results suggest that older adults were vulnerable to intensified PTSD symptoms, not only as a result of greater depression, but also as a consequence of other factors, including ageism, vaccination hesitancy and vaccination side effects. Practitioners would benefit from awareness to these factors.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Idoso , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia
13.
Isr J Health Policy Res ; 10(1): 46, 2021 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384483

RESUMO

AIMS: Only several empirical studies have examined substance use during the COVID-19 pandemic in general populations. Most of these studies compared self-reported substances use before the pandemic and during the pandemic's early stages. This study aims to identify the changes in substance use between the early and later waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in Israel. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey recruited 750 participants (ages 18-65) in two waves: (1) 427 during and following the first lockdown (April-mid-May, 2020); and (2) 323 following the second lockdown (from October to mid-November, 2020). RESULTS: Participants who experienced two lockdowns reported more frequent consumption of all alcoholic beverages and cannabis in the last 30 days than those who experienced one lockdown. After controlling for demographic variables, significant differences were found between participants who experienced one lockdown and those who experienced two lockdowns in the consumption of alcoholic beverages (F(1, 742) = 6.90, p = .01, η2 = .01). However, there was no significant association between pandemic duration and other illegal drug consumption. CONCLUSIONS: There is a significant association between pandemic duration and alcohol consumption. Policymakers and practitioners should develop national alcohol and cannabis use prevention and harm reduction interventions during pandemics with a focus on men, singles and youth.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , COVID-19 , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360310

RESUMO

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic is having major adverse consequences for the mental health of individuals worldwide. Alongside the direct impact of the virus on individuals, government responses to tackling its spread, such as quarantine, lockdown, and physical distancing measures, have been found to have a profound impact on mental health. This is manifested in an increased prevalence of anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbances. As older adults are more vulnerable and severely affected by the pandemic, they may be at increased psychological risk when seeking to protect themselves from COVID-19. Methods: Our study aims to quantify the association between the stringency of measures and increased feelings of sadness/depression in a sample of 31,819 Europeans and Israelis aged 65 and above. We hypothesize that more stringent measures make it more likely that individuals will report increased feelings of sadness or depression. Conclusions: We found that more stringent measures across countries in Europe and Israel affect the mental health of older individuals. The prevalence of increased feelings of sadness/depression was higher in Southern European countries, where the measures were more stringent. We therefore recommend paying particular attention to the possible effects of pandemic control measures on the mental health of older people.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Idoso , Ansiedade , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Depressão/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Governo , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Quarentena , SARS-CoV-2
15.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1521, 2021 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 outbreak holds public health concerns. The stay-at-home increases sedentary behavior, with unintended adverse outcomes. Since organized recreation and sports facilities were closed, we aimed to study how the crisis of closure affected exercise habits and weight gain among the trainee population in Israel. We examined differences in weight gain among individuals with different PA activities and assessed their ability to adapt to digital media as an alternative training structure. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey consisted of a multiple-choice questionnaire obtained using a web-based survey application. Trainees (1202) who exercised steadily anonymously answered the questionnaire sent by their coaches regarding their activity and weight gain during lockdown times. RESULTS: Results confirmed that 70% of Israelis trained less than their usual routine, 60% used digital media for training, 55% gained weight. Half of the respondents gained more than 2 kg, with an average increase of 1.2 kg. However, those who exhibited a higher physical activity level gained less weight. Using digital media for training was associated with higher physical activity levels. The aged population was less likely to use digital media. CONCLUSIONS: Since increased sedentary behavior could increase the risk for potential worsening of health conditions, health agencies should look for strategies, including digital remote media training to promote physical activity and subsequently, preventing the increased burden of future comorbidities worsening by a sedentary lifestyle. Approval: by the Helsinki ethics committee of Sheba Medical Center (6504-19-SMC).


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , Idoso , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Internet , Israel/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Ganho de Peso
16.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e153, 2021 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372950

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic is still ongoing along with the global vaccination efforts against it. Here, we aimed to understand the longevity and strength of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG responses in a small community (n = 283) six months following local SARS-COV-2 outbreak in March 2020. Three serological assays were compared and neutralisation capability was also determined. Overall 16.6% (47/283) of the participants were seropositive and 89.4% (42/47) of the IgG positives had neutralising antibodies. Most of the symptomatic individuals confirmed as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive during the outbreak were seropositive (30/32, 93.8%) and 33.3% of the individuals who quarantined with a PCR confirmed patient had antibodies. Serological assays comparison revealed that Architect (Abbott) targeting the N protein LIASON® (DiaSorin) targeting the S protein and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) targeting receptor binding domain detected 9.5% (27/283), 17.3% (49/283) and 17% (48/283), respectively, as IgG positives. The latter two assays highly agreed (kappa = 0.89) between each other. In addition, 95%, (19/20, by ELISA) and 90.9% (20/22, with LIASON) and only 71.4% (15/21, by Architect) of individuals that were seropositive in May 2020 were found positive also in September. The unexpected low rate of overall immunity indicates the absence of un-noticed, asymptomatic infections. Lack of overall high correlation between the assays is attributed mainly to target-mediated antibody responses and suggests that using a single serological assay may be misleading.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Coletiva/imunologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
17.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1543, 2021 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Influenza is a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality for Israel and the Palestinian territory. Given the extensive interaction between the two populations, vaccination in one population may indirectly benefit the other via reduced transmission. Due to the mobility and extensive contacts, Palestinians employed in Israel could be a prime target for vaccination. METHODS: To evaluate the epidemiological and the economic benefits conferred by vaccinating Palestinians employed in Israel, we developed a model of influenza transmission within and between Israel and the West Bank. We parameterized the contact patterns underlying transmission by conducting a survey among Palestinians employed in Israel, and integrating survey results with traffic patterns and socio-demographic data. RESULTS: Vaccinating 50% of Palestinian workers is predicted to reduce the annual influenza burden by 28,745 cases (95% CI: 15,031-50,717) and 37.7 deaths (95% CI: 19·9-65·5) for the Israeli population, and by 32,9900 cases (95% CI: 14,379-51,531) and 20.2 deaths (CI 95%: 9·8-31·5) for the Palestinian population. Further, we found that as the indirect protection was so substantial, funding such a vaccination campaign would be cost-saving from the Israeli Ministry of Health perspective. CONCLUSIONS: Offering influenza vaccination to Palestinians employed in Israel could efficiently reduce morbidity and mortality within both Israel and the Palestinian territory.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Israel/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação
20.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 40(8): 1225-1233, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339236

RESUMO

Social resilience and trust are two major components of the mitigation of the spread of contagious diseases. Although measures such as the imposition of national lockdowns and self-quarantines have been proven to be effective in reducing morbidity, their efficacy is dependent on public trust and compliance. The purpose of this study was to assess public attitudes toward the COVID-19 outbreak over the course of a year. A cohort study of the adult population in Israel was conducted during three waves of COVID-19 morbidity in that country, with February 2020 as the baseline, March 2020 for the first wave, August 2020 for the second, and January 2021 for the third. The results suggest that there is a relationship between risk perception and compliance with health regulations. Moreover, trust is a major component in public compliance. Fluctuations in risk perception and trust were found to affect compliance with regulations. The failure of decision makers to appropriately address the economic constraints imposed on the public during prolonged disasters, such as the COVID-19 outbreak, is likely to lead to a reduction in public trust in the government and to a decrease in societal resilience.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Fadiga , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Confiança
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