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1.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302689, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722854

RESUMO

The states of Kansas and Oklahoma, in the central Great Plains, lie at the western periphery of the geographic distributions of several tick species. As the focus of most research on ticks and tick-borne diseases has been on Lyme disease which commonly occurs in areas to the north and east, the ticks of this region have seen little research attention. Here, we report on the phenology and activity patterns shown by tick species observed at 10 sites across the two states and explore factors associated with abundance of all and life specific individuals of the dominant species. Ticks were collected in 2020-2022 using dragging, flagging and carbon-dioxide trapping techniques, designed to detect questing ticks. The dominant species was A. americanum (24098, 97%) followed by Dermacentor variabilis (370, 2%), D. albipictus (271, 1%), Ixodes scapularis (91, <1%) and A. maculatum (38, <1%). Amblyomma americanum, A. maculatum and D. variabilis were active in Spring and Summer, while D. albipictus and I. scapularis were active in Fall and Winter. Factors associated with numbers of individuals of A. americanum included day of year, habitat, and latitude. Similar associations were observed when abundance was examined by life-stage. Overall, the picture is one of broadly distributed tick species that shows seasonal limitations in the timing of their questing activity.


Assuntos
Estações do Ano , Animais , Oklahoma , Kansas , Carrapatos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carrapatos/fisiologia , Ixodes/fisiologia , Ixodes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Dermacentor/fisiologia , Dermacentor/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ixodidae/fisiologia , Ixodidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Ecossistema , Amblyomma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Amblyomma/fisiologia
2.
Parasit Vectors ; 17(1): 218, 2024 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38735919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epigenetic modifications of histones play important roles in the response of eukaryotic organisms to environmental stress. However, many histone acetyltransferases (HATs), which are responsible for histone acetylation, and their roles in mediating the tick response to cold stress have yet to be identified. In the present study, HATs were molecularly characterized and their associations with the cold response of the tick Haemaphysalis longicornis explored. METHODS: HATs were characterized by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on published genome sequences, followed by multiple bioinformatic analyses. The differential expression of genes in H. longicornis under different cold treatment conditions was evaluated using reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). RNA interference was used to explore the association of HATs with the cold response of H. longicornis. RESULTS: Two HAT genes were identified in H. longicornis (Hl), a GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase (henceforth HlGNAT) and a type B histone acetyltransferase (henceforth HlHAT-B), which are respectively 960 base pairs (bp) and 1239 bp in length. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that HlGNAT and HlHAT-B are unstable hydrophilic proteins characterized by the presence of the acetyltransferase 16 domain and Hat1_N domain, respectively. RT-qPCR revealed that the expression of HlGNAT and HlHAT-B decreased after 3 days of cold treatment, but gradually increased with a longer period of cold treatment. The mortality rate following knockdown of HlGNAT or HlHAT-B by RNA interference, which was confirmed by RT-qPCR, significantly increased (P < 0.05) when H. longicornis was treated at the lowest lethal temperature (- 14 °C) for 2 h. CONCLUSIONS: The findings demonstrate that HATs may play a crucial role in the cold response of H. longicornis. Thus further research is warranted to explore the mechanisms underlying the epigenetic regulation of the cold response in ticks.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Histona Acetiltransferases , Ixodidae , Animais , Histona Acetiltransferases/genética , Histona Acetiltransferases/metabolismo , Ixodidae/genética , Ixodidae/enzimologia , Ixodidae/fisiologia , Resposta ao Choque Frio/genética , Interferência de RNA , Epigênese Genética , Biologia Computacional , Filogenia , Haemaphysalis longicornis
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 9961, 2024 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38693183

RESUMO

Ticks have a profound impact on public health. Haemaphysalis is one of the most widespread genera in Asia, including Japan. The taxonomy and genetic differentiation of Haemaphysalis spp. is challenging. For instance, previous studies struggled to distinguish Haemaphysalis japonica and Haemaphysalis megaspinosa due to the dearth of nucleotide sequence polymorphisms in widely used barcoding genes. The classification of H. japonica japonica and its related sub-species Haemaphysalis japonica douglasi or Haemaphysalis jezoensis is also confused due to their high morphological similarity and a lack of molecular data that support the current classification. We used mitogenomes and microbiomes of H. japonica and H. megaspinosa to gain deeper insights into the phylogenetic relationships and genetic divergence between two species. Phylogenetic analyses of concatenated nucleotide sequences of protein-coding genes and ribosomal DNA genes distinguished H. japonica and H. megaspinosa as monophyletic clades, with further subdivision within the H. japonica clade. The 16S rRNA and NAD5 genes were valuable markers for distinguishing H. japonica and H. megaspinosa. Population genetic structure analyses indicated that genetic variation within populations accounted for a large proportion of the total variation compared to variation between populations. Microbiome analyses revealed differences in alpha and beta diversity between H. japonica and H. megaspinosa: H. japonica had the higher diversity. Coxiella sp., a likely endosymbiont, was found in both Haemaphysalis species. The abundance profiles of likely endosymbionts, pathogens, and commensals differed between H. japonica and H. megaspinosa: H. megaspinosa was more diverse.


Assuntos
Ixodidae , Microbiota , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Animais , Ixodidae/microbiologia , Ixodidae/genética , Microbiota/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Genoma Mitocondrial , Variação Genética
4.
Syst Parasitol ; 101(3): 36, 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38700605

RESUMO

The adults of Haemaphysalis (Rhipistoma) adleri Feldman-Muhsam, 1951 (Acari: Ixodidae) are redescribed and the larva of this species is described for the first time here. The adults of H. adleri that we studied were collected from various canid, felid and hyaenid carnivorans (Carnivora: Canidae, Felidae, Hyaenidae) as well as a hedgehog (Erinaceomorpha: Erinaceidae) in Iraq, Israel and West Bank. The males, females and larvae of H. adleri can be differentiated from Haemaphysalis (Rhipistoma) species occurring in the Palearctic portion of West Asia and Egypt as well those in the H. asiatica subgroup by the length of idiosomal setae, development and size of spurs on palpi, dental formula on the hypostome and size of spur on coxae. A lectotype of H. adleri has been designated and the geographic distribution and hosts of this tick species are discussed.


Assuntos
Ixodidae , Larva , Especificidade da Espécie , Animais , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Ixodidae/classificação , Ixodidae/anatomia & histologia , Ixodidae/parasitologia , Feminino , Masculino , Carnívoros/parasitologia , Ásia Ocidental
5.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 24(1): 61, 2024 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38734637

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reintroduction represents an effective strategy for the conservation of endangered wildlife, yet it might inadvertently impact the native ecosystems. This investigation assesses the impact of reintroducing endangered Przewalski's horses into the desert grassland ecosystem of the Kalamaili Nature Reserve (KNR), particularly its effect on the spatial distribution of ticks. In a 25 km2 core area of Przewalski's horse distribution, we set up 441 tick sampling sites across diverse habitats, including water sources, donkey trails, and grasslands, recording horse feces and characteristics to analyze the occurrence rate of ticks. Additionally, we gathered the data of 669 fresh feces of horses. To evaluate the spatial dynamics between these feces and ticks, we used methods such as Fixed Kernel Estimation (FKE), Moran's I spatial autocorrelation index, and Generalized Linear Models (GLM). RESULTS: The dominant species of ticks collected in the core area were adult Hyalomma asiaticum (91.36%). Their occurrence rate was higher near donkey trails (65.99%) and water sources (55.81%), particularly in areas with the fresh feces of Przewalski's horses. The ticks' three risk areas, as defined by FKE, showed significant overlap and positive correlation with the distribution of Przewalski's horses, with respective overlap rates being 90.25% in high risk, 33.79% in medium risk, and 23.09% in low risk areas. Moran's I analysis revealed a clustering trend of the fresh feces of Przewalski's horses in these areas. The GLM confirmed a positive correlation between the distribution of H. asiaticum and the presence of horse fresh feces, alongside a negative correlation with the proximity to water sources and donkey trails. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals the strong spatial correlation between Przewalski's horses and H. asiaticum in desert grasslands, underlining the need to consider interspecific interactions in wildlife reintroductions. The findings are crucial for shaping effective strategies of wildlife conservation and maintaining ecological balance.


Assuntos
Pradaria , Animais , Cavalos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Análise Espacial , Fezes/parasitologia , Fezes/química , Clima Desértico , Ixodidae/fisiologia , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção
6.
Acta Trop ; 254: 107210, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38599442

RESUMO

Several species of hard ticks, including those of the genera Ixodes, Haemaphysalis, Amblyomma, and Rhipicephalus, are of medical and veterinary importance and have been reported in association with Neotropical wild birds. Colombia, known for its great bird diversity, has 57 confirmed tick species. However, there are few studies on the association between wild birds and ticks in Colombia. The Orinoquia region, a migratory center in Colombia, provides a unique opportunity to study wild bird-tick associations and their implications for tick-borne disease dynamics. Our study, conducted between October and December 2021, aimed to identify hard ticks infesting resident and migratory wild birds in the department of Arauca and to assess the presence of bacteria from the genera Anaplasma, Borrelia, Ehrlichia, Rickettsia, and piroplasms. A total of 383 birds were examined, of which 21 were infested. We collected 147 ticks, including Amblyomma dissimile (larvae), Amblyomma longirostre (nymphs), Amblyomma mixtum (adults), and Amblyomma nodosum (larvae and nymphs). We did not detect bacterial DNA in the tested ticks; however, piroplasm DNA was detected in ticks from three of the infested birds. Of the 21 bird-tick associations, six are new to the Americas, and interesting documentation of piroplasm DNA in A. longirostre, A. nodosum, and A. dissimile ticks from wild birds in the region. This study provides valuable insights into the ticks associated with wild birds and their role in the dispersal of ticks and pathogens in Colombia, enhancing our understanding of tick life cycles and tick-borne disease dynamics.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Doenças das Aves , Aves , Ixodidae , Infestações por Carrapato , Animais , Colômbia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Aves/parasitologia , Ixodidae/microbiologia , Ixodidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ixodidae/classificação , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Borrelia/isolamento & purificação , Ehrlichia/isolamento & purificação , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Rickettsia/genética , Rickettsia/classificação , Migração Animal , Anaplasma/isolamento & purificação , Anaplasma/genética , Ninfa/microbiologia , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Masculino , Larva/microbiologia , Amblyomma/microbiologia
7.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 50: 101016, 2024 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38644046

RESUMO

Wild boars or feral pigs are classified by the Brazilian Institute for the Environment and Renewable Resources (IBAMA) in "Category I of invasive exotic species". They cause economic losses, harm the environment, serve as hosts and reservoirs for several zoonotic disease agents, and provide a blood meal for tick species that act as vectors for zoonotic diseases. The objective of this study was to identify tick species on wild boars, assess host-seeking ticks in the related environment, and identify other potential tick hosts coexisting with wild boars on a farm located in the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. Additionally, the study aimed to determine the presence of rickettsiae in these arthropods and assess the exposure of wild boars to rickettsiae species from the Spotted Fever Group and Rickettsia bellii through serology. A total of 3585 host-seeking ticks from three species (Amblyomma sculptum - 41.58%; Amblyomma dubitatum - 0.39% and Rhipicephalus microplus - 0.05%) were collected in the environment and A. sculptum was the most abundant species. Thirty-one wild boars were evaluated, resulting in the collection of 415 ticks, all of which were A. sculptum. Rickettsia DNA was not detected in samples of A. sculptum and R. microplus from the environment or in A. sculptum ticks from wild boars. However, all A. dubitatum ticks (n = 14) had Rickettsia bellii DNA confirmed by the species-specific PCR protocol. Out of the 31 serum samples from wild boars, 24 reacted with at least one Rickettsia antigen. Among these, seven individuals exhibited a reaction to a probable homologous antigen (PHA) of three rickettsiae species: R. rickettsii (n = 3), R. amblyommatis (n = 3) and R. rhipicephali (n = 1). Despite the high prevalence of seroreactivity, titers were low, indicating limited exposure to Rickettsia spp. Camera traps generated 874 animal records, capturing a total of 1688 individuals. At least 11 species of birds and 14 species of mammals (12 wild and two domestic) shared the environment with wild boars and potentially shared ticks with them. These findings provide baseline information for understanding the sharing of ticks and tick-borne pathogens between wild boars and other animals within the Cerrado biome. Further studies are necessary to monitor the potential and actual risk of wild boars to harbor infected ticks and their role in the transmission and maintenance cycle of Rickettsia spp.


Assuntos
Infecções por Rickettsia , Rickettsia , Sus scrofa , Doenças dos Suínos , Infestações por Carrapato , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia , Infecções por Rickettsia/veterinária , Infecções por Rickettsia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rickettsia/microbiologia , Infecções por Rickettsia/transmissão , Feminino , Masculino , Ixodidae/microbiologia , Amblyomma/microbiologia , Rhipicephalus/microbiologia
8.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 92(4): 871-883, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38656472

RESUMO

The growing concern about migratory birds potentially spreading ticks due to global warming has become a significant issue. The city of Nantong in this study is situated along the East Asia-Australasian Flyway (EAAF), with numerous wetlands serving as roosting sites for migratory birds. We conducted an investigation of hard ticks and determined the phylogenetic characteristics of tick species in this city. We utilized three different genes for our study: the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COX1) gene, the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2), and the mitochondrial small subunit rRNA (12 S rRNA) gene. The predominant tick species were Haemaphysalis flava (H. flava) and Haemaphysalis longicornis (H. longicornis). Additionally, specimens of Haemaphysalis campanulata (H. campanulata) and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (R. sanguineus) were collected. The H. flava specimens in this study showed a close genetic relationship with those from inland provinces of China, as well as South Korea and Japan. Furthermore, samples of H. longicornis exhibited a close genetic relationship with those from South Korea, Japan, Australia, and the USA, as well as specific provinces in China. Furthermore, R. sanguineus specimens captured in Nantong showed genetic similarities with specimens from Egypt, Nigeria, and Argentina.


Assuntos
Migração Animal , Aves , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons , Ixodidae , Filogenia , Animais , China , Ixodidae/genética , Ixodidae/classificação , Ixodidae/fisiologia , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/análise , RNA Ribossômico/genética , RNA Ribossômico/análise , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ninfa/classificação , Ninfa/genética , Ninfa/fisiologia , Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética , Proteínas de Artrópodes/análise , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/análise
9.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8515, 2024 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609442

RESUMO

Ticks are obligatory voracious blood feeders infesting diverse vertebrate hosts, that have a crucial role in the transmission of diverse pathogens that threaten human and animal health. The continuous emergence of tick-borne diseases due to combined worldwide climatic changes, human activities, and acaricide-resistant tick strains, necessitates the development of novel ameliorative tick control strategies such as vaccines. The synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared micro-spectroscopy (SR-FTIR) is a bioanalytical microprobe capable of exploring the molecular chemistry within microstructures at a cellular or subcellular level and is considered as a nondestructive analytical approach for biological specimens. In this study, SR-FTIR analysis was able to explore a qualitative and semi-quantitative biochemical composition of gut and salivary glands of Hyalomma dromedarii (H. dromedarii) tick detecting differences in the biochemical composition of both tissues. A notable observation regarding Amide I secondary structure protein profile was the higher ratio of aggregated strands in salivary gland and beta turns in gut tissues. Regarding the lipid profile, there was a higher intensity of lipid regions in gut tissue when compared to salivary glands. This detailed information on the biochemical compositions of tick tissues could assist in selecting vaccine and/or control candidates. Altogether, these findings confirmed SR-FTIR spectroscopy as a tool for detecting differences in the biochemical composition of H. dromedarii salivary glands and gut tissues. This approach could potentially be extended to the analysis of other ticks that are vectors of important diseases such as babesiosis and theileriosis.


Assuntos
Acaricidas , Ixodidae , Animais , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Glândulas Salivares , Sinapsinas , Lipídeos
10.
Parasite ; 31: 21, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38602373

RESUMO

Ticks are major vectors of various pathogens of health importance, such as bacteria, viruses and parasites. The problems associated with ticks and vector-borne pathogens are increasing in mountain areas, particularly in connection with global climate change. We collected ticks (n = 2,081) from chamois and mouflon in 4 mountainous areas of France. We identified 6 tick species: Ixodes ricinus, Rhipicephalus bursa, Rh. sanguineus s.l., Haemaphysalis sulcata, H. punctata and Dermacentor marginatus. We observed a strong variation in tick species composition among the study sites, linked in particular to the climate of the sites. We then analysed 791 ticks for DNA of vector-borne pathogens: Babesia/Theileria spp., Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, A. marginale, A. ovis, and Rickettsia of the spotted fever group (SFG). Theileria ovis was detected only in Corsica in Rh. bursa. Babesia venatorum (2 sites), Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. (B. afzelii and B. garinii; 2 sites) and Anaplasma phagocytophilum (3 sites) were detected in I. ricinus. Anaplasma ovis was detected at one site in I. ricinus and Rh. sanguineus s.l. SFG Rickettsia were detected at all the study sites: R. monacensis and R. helvetica in I. ricinus at the 3 sites where this tick is present; R. massiliae in Rh. sanguineus s.l. (1 site); and R. hoogstraalii and Candidatus R. barbariae in Rh. bursa in Corsica. These results show that there is a risk of tick-borne diseases for humans and domestic and wild animals frequenting these mountain areas.


Title: Prévalence d'agents pathogènes vectorisés chez des tiques collectées chez des ongulés sauvages (mouflons, chamois) dans 4 zones montagneuses en France. Abstract: Les tiques sont des vecteurs majeurs de différents agents pathogènes d'importance sanitaire, tels que des bactéries, des virus et des parasites. Les problématiques liées aux tiques et aux pathogènes vectorisés augmentent en zones de montagne, en lien notamment avec le réchauffement climatique. Nous avons collecté des tiques (n = 2 081) sur des chamois et des mouflons dans 4 zones montagneuses en France. Six espèces ont été identifiées : Ixodes ricinus, Rhipicephalus bursa, Rh. sanguineus s.l., Haemaphysalis sulcata, H. punctata et Dermacentor marginatus. Nous avons observé une forte variation de la composition en espèces de tiques entre les sites d'étude, en lien notamment avec le climat des sites. Nous avons ensuite recherché les ADN d'agents pathogènes vectorisés sur 791 tiques : Babesia/Theileria spp, Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, A. marginale, A. ovis, et de Rickettsia du groupe des fièvres boutonneuses (SFG). Theileria ovis a été détecté uniquement en Corse chez Rh. bursa. Babesia venatorum (2 sites), Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. (B. afzelii and B. garinii; 2 sites) et Anaplasma phagocytophilum (3 sites) ont été détectés chez I. ricinus. Anaplasma ovis a été détecté dans un site chez I. ricinus et Rh. sanguineus s.l.. Les Rickettsia SFG ont été détectées dans tous les sites d'étude : Rickettsia monacensis et R. helvetica chez I. ricinus dans les 3 sites où cette tique est présente; R. massiliae chez Rh. sanguineus s.l. (1 site); et R. hoogstraalii et Candidatus R. barbariae chez Rh. bursa en Corse. Ces résultats montrent un risque de transmission de maladies par les tiques pour les personnes et les animaux domestiques et sauvages fréquentant ces zones de montagne.


Assuntos
Anaplasma phagocytophilum , Babesia , Ixodes , Ixodidae , Rickettsia , Rupicapra , Theileria , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos , Humanos , Animais , Ovinos , Carneiro Doméstico , Prevalência , Ixodes/microbiologia , Babesia/genética , Theileria/genética , Anaplasma phagocytophilum/genética , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/veterinária , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/microbiologia
11.
J Parasitol ; 110(2): 155-158, 2024 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621699

RESUMO

Eight ticks were found in Comacchio (FE), Italy parasitizing a young black iguana (Ctenosaura similis) that had been accidentally transported in a commercial plant container from Costa Rica. Specimens were identified morphologically as Amblyomma scutatum and then confirmed by the barcoding of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene. Amblyomma scutatum is a common tick known to infest reptiles in Central America, Mexico, and Venezuela, but not in Europe. In Italy, the possibility for this tick to become endemic is unlikely because of the absence of its principal hosts. Nevertheless, this finding confirms the high risk of introducing exotic species that is linked with global commerce and therefore the need for veterinary control of shipments.


Assuntos
Ixodidae , Lagartos , Infestações por Carrapato , Carrapatos , Animais , Ixodidae/genética , Amblyomma , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Itália
12.
Parasit Vectors ; 17(1): 167, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566227

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyalomma ticks are widely distributed in semi-arid zones in Northwest China. They have been reported to harbor a large number of zoonotic pathogens. METHODS: In this study, a total of 334 Hyalomma asiaticum ticks infesting domestic animals were collected from four locations in Xinjiang, Northwest China, and the bacterial agents in them were investigated. RESULTS: A putative novel Borrelia species was identified in ticks from all four locations, with an overall positive rate of 6.59%. Rickettsia sibirica subsp. mongolitimonae, a human pathogen frequently reported in Europe, was detected for the second time in China. Two Ehrlichia species (Ehrlichia minasensis and Ehrlichia sp.) were identified. Furthermore, two Anaplasma species were characterized in this study: Candidatus Anaplasma camelii and Anaplasma sp. closely related to Candidatus Anaplasma boleense. It is the first report of Candidatus Anaplasma camelii in China. CONCLUSIONS: Six bacterial agents were reported in this study, many of which are possible or validated pathogens for humans and animals. The presence of these bacterial agents may suggest a potential risk for One Health in this area.


Assuntos
Ixodidae , Rickettsia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos , Carrapatos , Animais , Humanos , Carrapatos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/microbiologia , Rickettsia/genética , Ixodidae/microbiologia , Ehrlichia , Anaplasma , China
13.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0302224, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38662658

RESUMO

Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever orthonairovirus (CCHFV) is a negative-sense, single-stranded RNA virus with a segmented genome and the causative agent of a severe Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) disease. The virus is transmitted mainly by tick species in Hyalomma genus but other ticks such as representatives of genera Dermacentor and Rhipicephalus may also be involved in virus life cycle. To improve our understanding of CCHFV adaptation to its tick species, we compared nucleotide composition and codon usage patterns among the all CCHFV strains i) which sequences and other metadata as locality of collection and date of isolation are available in GenBank and ii) which were isolated from in-field collected tick species. These criteria fulfilled 70 sequences (24 coding for S, 23 for M, and 23 for L segment) of virus isolates originating from different representatives of Hyalomma and Rhipicephalus genera. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed that Hyalomma- and Rhipicephalus-originating CCHFV isolates belong to phylogenetically distinct CCHFV clades. Analyses of nucleotide composition among the Hyalomma- and Rhipicephalus-originating CCHFV isolates also showed significant differences, mainly in nucleotides located at the 3rd codon positions indicating changes in codon usage among these lineages. Analyses of codon adaptation index (CAI), effective number of codons (ENC), and other codon usage statistics revealed significant differences between Hyalomma- and Rhipicephalus-isolated CCHFV strains. Despite both sets of strains displayed a higher adaptation to use codons that are preferred by Hyalomma ticks than Rhipicephalus ticks, there were distinct codon usage preferences observed between the two tick species. These findings suggest that over the course of its long co-evolution with tick vectors, CCHFV has optimized its codon usage to efficiently utilize translational resources of Hyalomma species.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia-Congo , Filogenia , Vírus da Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia-Congo/genética , Animais , Carrapatos/virologia , Carrapatos/genética , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/virologia , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/genética , Ixodidae/virologia , Ixodidae/genética , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Uso do Códon
14.
Parasitol Res ; 123(4): 197, 2024 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38668762

RESUMO

The majority of ixodid ticks display host-specificity to varying extents. Feeding on different hosts affects their development and reproduction. Consequences can be analyzed at the level of the egg, as it is the initial stage of tick development. Tick egg proteins are abundant and diverse, providing nutrients for embryonic development. However, studies on tick egg profiles are scarce. In this study, we aimed to analyze whether feeding Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis ticks on the yaks (Bos grunniens) and domestic sheep (Ovis aries) has an impact on the variety and variability of the egg proteome. Detached engorged females were used to lay eggs, which were then collected, dewaxed, and subjected to protein extraction. The extracted egg proteins were enzymatically digested using Filter-Aided Sample Preparation (FASP), and the unique peptides were separated and detected by Liquid Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The MS data were searched against the previously constructed whole tick transcriptome library of H. qinghaiensis, and the UniProt database for the identification of tick-derived egg proteins. The analysis revealed 49 and 53 high-confidence proteins identified in eggs collected from B. grunniens (EggBg) and O. aries (EggOa), respectively. Of these, 46 high-confidence proteins were common to both egg types, while three were unique to EggBg and seven to EggOa. All the identified proteins mainly belonged to enzymes, enzyme inhibitors, transporters, and proteins with unknown functions. The differential abundance analysis showed that nine proteins were significantly more present in EggBg, while six were significantly more present in EggOa. Overall, enzymes were the most diverse group, while vitellogenin (Vg) was the most abundant. Blood meal uptake on different hosts has a certain effect on the egg proteome composition and the abundance of some proteins, but it may also lead to compensation of protein roles.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Ovo , Ixodidae , Animais , Ixodidae/fisiologia , Ixodidae/metabolismo , Ixodidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Proteínas do Ovo/metabolismo , Bovinos , Ovinos , Proteoma , Óvulo/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Cromatografia Líquida , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia , Comportamento Alimentar
15.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 92(4): 835-850, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578579

RESUMO

Ticks are important disease vectors affecting animal health and causing substantial economic loss, especially in the tropics and subtropics. To examine the tick burden of cattle and associated risk factors for tick infestation, ticks were collected from 388 cattle within five regions in Ghana. Most of the cattle were males (50.3%) and generally older than 3 years (65%). Of the animals sampled, 2187 ticks were collected with a mean tick burden of 5.6 ticks per cattle, and the average tick burden on the udder/scrotum being significantly higher than in the anal region (Generalized Linear Mix Model [GLMM], p = 0.01197). The tick species identified were predominantly Amblyomma variegatum (42.6%) and Hyalomma rufipes (26.2%). High proportions of cattle examined were found to have A. variegatum infesting the udder/scrotum. Furthermore, H. rufipes infested mostly the anal region compared to other examined body parts (OR 14.8, 95% CI 8.6-25.4, p < 0.001). Using the GLMM, tick abundance was found to be significantly higher in cattle older than 3 years. The tick burden in the udder/scrotum was higher than that from the chest and leg/thigh of the cattle (GLMM, p < 0.05). The tick burden at the anal region was also significantly higher than the leg/thigh and chest. This study indicates that the preferred attachment sites of ticks on cattle are species-dependent and effective treatment with acaricides should take into consideration the udder/scrotum and anal regions as well as prioritizing older cattle.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Ixodidae , Infestações por Carrapato , Animais , Bovinos , Gana , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Ixodidae/fisiologia , Ixodidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Alimentar
16.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 92(3): 507-528, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38485886

RESUMO

The Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (SNSM), located in northern Colombia, is considered a geographical island with high levels of biodiversity and endemism. However, little is known about tick species and their associated microorganisms at the SNSM. In this study we sampled host-seeking ticks in areas of the town of Minca within the SNSM. We collected 47 ticks identified as Amblyomma pacae, Amblyomma longirostre, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma mixtum, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, Ixodes sp. cf. Ixodes affinis and Ixodes sp. Of these ticks, we tested for Rickettsia spp. by amplifying the gltA, SCA1, and 16S rRNA genes via PCR. Rickettsia amblyommatis was detected in one pool of 3 larvae and in a female of A. pacae. Additonally, we isolated Rickettsia sp. belonging to the group of spotted fevers in larvae of A. longirostre. This study reports new findings of six species of ticks and two species of Rickettsia within the SNSM.


Assuntos
Ixodidae , Larva , Rickettsia , Animais , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Colômbia , Feminino , Larva/microbiologia , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ixodidae/microbiologia , Masculino , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , Ninfa/microbiologia , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Amblyomma/microbiologia , Amblyomma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Amblyomma/fisiologia
17.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 33(1): e018123, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38511817

RESUMO

The domestic cat is not considered a primary host for any specific tick species; however, it can be affected by some Ixodidae species, such as Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and Amblyomma spp. The study reports parasitism by Amblyomma auricularium and the detection of anti-Rickettsia spp. antibodies in domestic cats from a rural property in the Afrânio municipality, Pernambuco, Brazil. Amblyomma auricularium (24 nymphs, six females, and four males) and Amblyomma sp. (42 larvae) parasitized three cats, and 73 free-living ticks were captured in armadillo burrows: A. auricularium (36 nymphs, six females, five males) and Amblyomma sp. (26 larvae). Blood samples from cats were collected and the obtained plasma were subjected to indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) to detect antibodies against Rickettsia antigens. Thus, anti-Rickettsia spp. antibodies were determined (titers ranging from 128 to 512) and showed a predominant antibody response to Rickettsia amblyommatis or a very closely related genotype. This study reports the first infestation of nymphs and adults of A. auricularium on cats in a new area of occurrence in the semi-arid region of Northeastern Brazil and reports for the first time the presence of anti-Ricketsia antibodies in cats in the region, with R. amblyommatis as the probable infectious agent.


Assuntos
Ixodidae , Rhipicephalus sanguineus , Rickettsia , Masculino , Feminino , Animais , Gatos , Amblyomma , Rickettsia/genética , Ixodidae/microbiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Ninfa/microbiologia , Ninfa/fisiologia , Larva/microbiologia
18.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 15(3): 102328, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38432073

RESUMO

Tick-borne Apicomplexan parasites pose a significant threat to both public health and animal husbandry. Identifying potential pathogenic parasites and gathering their epidemiological data are essential for prospectively preventing and controlling infections. In the present study, genomic DNA of ticks collected from two goat flocks (Goatflock1 and Goatflock2) and one dog group (Doggroup) were extracted and the 18S rRNA gene of Babesia/Theileria/Colpodella spp. was amplified by PCR and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis was conducted based on the obtained sequences. The differences in pathogen positive rates between ticks of different groups were statistically analyzed using the Chi-square or continuity-adjusted Chi-square test. As a result, two pathogenic Theileria (T.) luwenshuni genotypes, one novel pathogenic Colpodella sp. HLJ genotype, and two potential novel Colpodella spp. (referred to as Colpodella sp. struthionis and Colpodella sp. yiyuansis in this study) were identified in the Haemaphysalis (H.) longicornis ticks. Ticks of Goatflock2 had a significantly higher positive rate of Colpodella spp. than those from Goatflock1 (χ2=92.10; P = 8.2 × 10-22) and Doggroup (χ2=42.34; P = 7.7 × 10-11), and a significantly higher positive rate of T. luwenshuni than Doggroup (χ2=5.38; P = 0.02). However, the positive rates of T. luwenshuni between Goatflock1 and Goatflock2 were not significantly different (χ2=2.02; P = 0.16), and so as the positive rates of both pathogens between Goatflock1 and Doggroup groups (P > 0.05). For either Colpodella spp. or T. luwenshuni, no significant difference was found in prevalence between male and female ticks. These findings underscore the potential importance of Colpodella spp. in domestic animal-attached ticks, as our study revealed two novel Colpodella spp. and identified Colpodella spp. in H. longicornis for the first time. The study also sheds light on goats' potential roles in the transmission of Colpodella spp. to ticks and provides crucial epidemiological data of pathogenic Theileria and Colpodella. These data may help physicians, veterinarians, and public health officers prepare suitable detection and treatment methods and develop prevention and control strategies.


Assuntos
Apicomplexa , Ixodidae , Theileria , Carrapatos , Feminino , Masculino , Animais , Cães , Carrapatos/parasitologia , Haemaphysalis longicornis , Cabras/parasitologia , Prevalência , Filogenia , Ixodidae/parasitologia , Theileria/genética , China/epidemiologia
19.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 15(3): 102330, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38460340

RESUMO

In several urban and peri­urban areas of Brazil, populations of Amblyomma sculptum and Amblyomma dubitatum ticks are maintained by capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris). In some of these areas, this host and these tick species are associated with Brazilian spotted fever (BSF), a lethal human disease caused by the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii. In this work, we evaluated the risk of human exposure to these tick species using four collection techniques to discern host-seeking behavior. The study was carried out in 10 urban sites inhabited by capybaras in Uberlândia, a BSF-free municipality in southeastern Brazil. Ticks were collected in areas of 400 m2 at each site and at three seasons. Within the same municipality, the distance and speed of A. sculptum nymphs moving towards the CO2 traps were evaluated. In a sample of ticks Rickettsia DNA was investigated. During the study period, 52,953 ticks were collected. Among these, 83.4 % were A. sculptum (1,523 adults, 10,545 nymphs and 32,104 larvae) and 16.6 % were A. dubitatum (464 adults, 2,153 nymphs and 6,164 larvae). An average annual questing tick density of 4.4/m² was observed, with the highest density recorded at one site in autumn (31.8/m²) and the lowest in summer at another site (0.03/m²). The visual search yielded the highest proportion of A. sculptum larvae, constituting 47 % of the total and 63.6 % of all A. sculptum larvae. In contrast, CO2 traps collected a greater proportion of nymphs and adults of A. sculptum ticks. In the case of A. dubitatum, the CO2 trap was the most efficient technique with 57.7 % of captures of this species, especially of nymphs (94.5 % of captures) and adults (97.8 % of captures). Ticks' ambush height on vegetation (9 to 77 cm), observed by visual search 30 times, yielded a total of 20,771 ticks. Of these, 28 (93 %) were A. sculptum ticks, with only two (7 %) identified as A. dubitatum ticks. Among A. sculptum ticks, the nymph was the most attracted stage to humans and larva in the case of A. dubitatum. Amblyomma sculptum adults and nymphs were significantly more attracted to humans than those of A. dubitatum, but A. dubitatum larvae were significantly more attracted than the same stage of A. sculptum. The maximum distance and speed of horizontal displacement for A. sculptum nymphs were five meters and 2.0 m/h, respectively. The only species of Rickettsia detected in ticks, exclusively in A. dubitatum, was R. bellii. Importantly, it was observed that the higher the proportion of A. sculptum in the community of ticks, the lower the rate of infection of A. dubitatum by R. bellii. In conclusion, host-seeking behavior differed between the two tick species, as well as between stages of the same species. A greater restriction of A. dubitatum ticks to the soil was observed, while larvae and nymphs of A. sculptum dispersed higher in the vegetation. The behavior presented by A. sculptum provides greater opportunities for contact with the hosts, while A. dubitatum depends more on an active search for a host, the hunter behavior. Taken together, these observations show that a human being crossing an area infested with A. sculptum and A. dubitatum ticks will have almost exclusive contact with A. sculptum larvae and/or nymphs. Humans in a stationary position (sitting, lying or immobile) are exposed to both tick species, but they are more attractive to adults and mainly nymphs of A. sculptum compared to the corresponding stages of the tick A. dubitatum. The negative effect of A. sculptum on A. dubitatum infection by R. bellii deserves further studies.


Assuntos
Ixodidae , Infecções por Rickettsia , Rickettsia , Febre Maculosa das Montanhas Rochosas , Carrapatos , Animais , Humanos , Carrapatos/microbiologia , Ixodidae/microbiologia , Roedores/microbiologia , Amblyomma , Dióxido de Carbono , Febre Maculosa das Montanhas Rochosas/microbiologia , Larva/microbiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Ninfa/microbiologia
20.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 15(3): 102327, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38460341

RESUMO

The bites of hard ticks are the major route of transmission of tick-borne infections to humans, causing thousands of cases of diseases worldwide. However, the characteristics of the human population that is exposed to tick bites are still understudied. This work is aimed at characterizing both the structure of the population directly contacting ticks and the human behavioral features associated with tick bites. We studied 25,970 individuals who sought medical help after a tick bite at the Centre for Diagnostics and Prevention of Tick-borne Infections (CDPTBI) in Irkutsk City (Russian Federation). The demographic and behavioral characteristics of the human population were analyzed using z-tests for proportions, the Mann-Whitney U test, and the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. The majority of bitten people were urban residents (70 %), and most of them were either of active ages between 30 and 74 years old (62 %), or children between 0 and 9 years old (approximately 20%). Tick bites occurred mostly in the range of 150 km around the location of the diagnostic facility (83 %). In comparison to the general population, significant differences were revealed in the representation of different age groups among bitten people. The population affected by tick bites included fewer men and women in the ages of 10-29 and over 75 years old than would be predicted based on the demographics of the general population. Vice versa, the proportions of people in the ages of 5-9 and 60-74 increased among bitten people. Among men, such activities (in order of occurrence) as "leisure and recreation", "visiting allotments", "foraging for forest food", and "fulfilling work duties" tend to be more associated with tick bites. Among women, tick bites occurred mainly during "visiting allotments", "leisure and recreation", "visiting cemeteries" and "contact with pets and plants at home". The overall vaccination rate was 12 %; however, significantly more men than women were vaccinated against tick-borne encephalitis (up to 20 % vs. approximately 7 % respectively). The structure of the tick bite - affected population suggests that it is age-specific human behavior that mainly determines the frequency of contact between people and ticks. However, in several age groups, especially among children from 5 to 9 and people aged 30-39 years old, gender-related factors could significantly change the exposure of people to tick bites.


Assuntos
Ixodidae , Picadas de Carrapatos , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos , Carrapatos , Masculino , Animais , Criança , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Picadas de Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Sibéria/epidemiologia , Federação Russa , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia
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