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1.
J Vet Sci ; 25(3): e43, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38834512

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Haemaphysalis longicornis is an obligate blood-sucking ectoparasite that has gained attention due its role of transmitting medically and veterinary significant pathogens and it is the most common tick species in Republic of Korea. The preferred strategy for controlling ticks is a multi-antigenic vaccination. Testing the efficiency of a combination antigen is a promising method for creating a tick vaccine. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current research was to analyze the role of subolesin and enolase in feeding and reproduction of H. longicornis by gene silencing. METHODS: In this study, we used RNA interference to silence salivary enolase and subolesin in H. longicornis. Unfed female ticks injected with double-stranded RNA targeting subolesin and enolase were attached and fed normally on the rabbit's ear. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to confirm the extent of knockdown. RESULTS: Ticks in the subolesin or enolase dsRNA groups showed knockdown rates of 80% and 60% respectively. Ticks in the combination dsRNA (subolesin and enolase) group showed an 80% knockdown. Knockdown of subolesin and enolase resulted in significant depletion in feeding, blood engorgement weight, attachment rate, and egg laying. Silencing of both resulted in a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in tick engorgement, egg laying, egg hatching (15%), and reproduction. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Our results suggest that subolesin and enolase are an exciting target for future tick control strategies.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Artrópodes , Inativação Gênica , Ixodidae , Fosfopiruvato Hidratase , Reprodução , Animais , Ixodidae/fisiologia , Ixodidae/genética , Fosfopiruvato Hidratase/genética , Fosfopiruvato Hidratase/metabolismo , Feminino , Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética , Proteínas de Artrópodes/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/genética , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/metabolismo , Coelhos , Comportamento Alimentar , Expressão Gênica , Haemaphysalis longicornis , Antígenos
2.
Parasit Vectors ; 17(1): 259, 2024 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38879603

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Powassan virus, a North American tick-borne flavivirus, can cause severe neuroinvasive disease in humans. While Ixodes scapularis are the primary vectors of Powassan virus lineage II (POWV II), also known as deer tick virus, recent laboratory vector competence studies showed that other genera of ticks can horizontally and vertically transmit POWV II. One such tick is the Haemaphysalis longicornis, an invasive species from East Asia that recently established populations in the eastern USA and already shares overlapping geographic range with native vector species such as I. scapularis. Reports of invasive H. longicornis feeding concurrently with native I. scapularis on multiple sampled hosts highlight the potential for interspecies co-feeding transmission of POWV II. Given the absence of a clearly defined vertebrate reservoir host for POWV II, it is possible that this virus is sustained in transmission foci via nonviremic transmission between ticks co-feeding on the same vertebrate host. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether uninfected H. longicornis co-feeding in close proximity to POWV II-infected I. scapularis can acquire POWV independent of host viremia. METHODS: Using an in vivo tick transmission model, I. scapularis females infected with POWV II ("donors") were co-fed on mice with uninfected H. longicornis larvae and nymphs ("recipients"). The donor and recipient ticks were infested on mice in various sequences, and mouse infection status was monitored by temporal screening of blood for POWV II RNA via quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (q-RT-PCR). RESULTS: The prevalence of POWV II RNA was highest in recipient H. longicornis that fed on viremic mice. However, nonviremic mice were also able to support co-feeding transmission of POWV, as demonstrated by the detection of viral RNA in multiple H. longicornis dispersed across different mice. Detection of viral RNA at the skin site of tick feeding but not at distal skin sites indicates that a localized skin infection facilitates transmission of POWV between donor and recipient ticks co-feeding in close proximity. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report examining transmission of POWV between co-feeding ticks. Against the backdrop of multiple unknowns related to POWV ecology, findings from this study provide insight on possible mechanisms by which POWV could be maintained in nature.


Assuntos
Vírus da Encefalite Transmitidos por Carrapatos , Encefalite Transmitida por Carrapatos , Ixodes , Ixodidae , Animais , Vírus da Encefalite Transmitidos por Carrapatos/genética , Vírus da Encefalite Transmitidos por Carrapatos/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Encefalite Transmitidos por Carrapatos/fisiologia , Encefalite Transmitida por Carrapatos/transmissão , Encefalite Transmitida por Carrapatos/virologia , Ixodes/virologia , Ixodes/fisiologia , Camundongos , Ixodidae/virologia , Ixodidae/fisiologia , Feminino , Comportamento Alimentar , Espécies Introduzidas , Haemaphysalis longicornis , População do Leste Asiático
3.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302689, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722854

RESUMO

The states of Kansas and Oklahoma, in the central Great Plains, lie at the western periphery of the geographic distributions of several tick species. As the focus of most research on ticks and tick-borne diseases has been on Lyme disease which commonly occurs in areas to the north and east, the ticks of this region have seen little research attention. Here, we report on the phenology and activity patterns shown by tick species observed at 10 sites across the two states and explore factors associated with abundance of all and life specific individuals of the dominant species. Ticks were collected in 2020-2022 using dragging, flagging and carbon-dioxide trapping techniques, designed to detect questing ticks. The dominant species was A. americanum (24098, 97%) followed by Dermacentor variabilis (370, 2%), D. albipictus (271, 1%), Ixodes scapularis (91, <1%) and A. maculatum (38, <1%). Amblyomma americanum, A. maculatum and D. variabilis were active in Spring and Summer, while D. albipictus and I. scapularis were active in Fall and Winter. Factors associated with numbers of individuals of A. americanum included day of year, habitat, and latitude. Similar associations were observed when abundance was examined by life-stage. Overall, the picture is one of broadly distributed tick species that shows seasonal limitations in the timing of their questing activity.


Assuntos
Estações do Ano , Animais , Oklahoma , Kansas , Carrapatos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carrapatos/fisiologia , Ixodes/fisiologia , Ixodes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Dermacentor/fisiologia , Dermacentor/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ixodidae/fisiologia , Ixodidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Ecossistema , Amblyomma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Amblyomma/fisiologia
4.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 93(1): 35-48, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38695989

RESUMO

Parasites are typically concentrated on a few host individuals, and identifying the mechanisms underlying aggregated distribution can facilitate a more targeted control of parasites. We investigated the infestation patterns of hard ticks and chigger mites on two rodent species, the striped field mouse, Apodemus agrarius, and the lesser ricefield rat, Rattus losea, in Taiwan. We also explored abiotic and biotic factors that were important in explaining variation in the abundance of ticks and chiggers on rodent hosts. Ticks were more aggregated than chiggers on both rodent species. Factors important for the variation in parasitic loads, especially biotic factors, largely differed between ticks and chiggers. Variation partitioning analyses revealed that a larger proportion of variation in chiggers than in ticks can be explained, especially by abiotic factors. If, as proposed, the higher number of parasites in males is due to a larger range area or immunity being suppressed by testosterone, when A. agrarius males host more ticks, they are expected to also host more chiggers, given that chiggers adopt a similar host finding approach to that of ticks. Instead, the similar abundance of chiggers in male and female A. agrarius implies that a large home range or suppressed immunity does not predispose males to inevitably host more parasites. More variations were explained by abiotic than biotic factors, suggesting that controlling practices are more likely to be successful by focusing on factors related to the environment instead of host traits. Our study indicated that the extent of parasitism is rarely determined by a sole factor, but is an outcome of complex interactions among animal physiology, animal behavior, characteristics of parasites, and the environments.


Assuntos
Murinae , Doenças dos Roedores , Infestações por Carrapato , Trombiculidae , Animais , Taiwan , Masculino , Ratos , Feminino , Murinae/parasitologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Trombiculidae/fisiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Infestações por Ácaros/veterinária , Infestações por Ácaros/parasitologia , Infestações por Ácaros/epidemiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Ixodidae/fisiologia
5.
Parasit Vectors ; 17(1): 218, 2024 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38735919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epigenetic modifications of histones play important roles in the response of eukaryotic organisms to environmental stress. However, many histone acetyltransferases (HATs), which are responsible for histone acetylation, and their roles in mediating the tick response to cold stress have yet to be identified. In the present study, HATs were molecularly characterized and their associations with the cold response of the tick Haemaphysalis longicornis explored. METHODS: HATs were characterized by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on published genome sequences, followed by multiple bioinformatic analyses. The differential expression of genes in H. longicornis under different cold treatment conditions was evaluated using reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). RNA interference was used to explore the association of HATs with the cold response of H. longicornis. RESULTS: Two HAT genes were identified in H. longicornis (Hl), a GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase (henceforth HlGNAT) and a type B histone acetyltransferase (henceforth HlHAT-B), which are respectively 960 base pairs (bp) and 1239 bp in length. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that HlGNAT and HlHAT-B are unstable hydrophilic proteins characterized by the presence of the acetyltransferase 16 domain and Hat1_N domain, respectively. RT-qPCR revealed that the expression of HlGNAT and HlHAT-B decreased after 3 days of cold treatment, but gradually increased with a longer period of cold treatment. The mortality rate following knockdown of HlGNAT or HlHAT-B by RNA interference, which was confirmed by RT-qPCR, significantly increased (P < 0.05) when H. longicornis was treated at the lowest lethal temperature (- 14 °C) for 2 h. CONCLUSIONS: The findings demonstrate that HATs may play a crucial role in the cold response of H. longicornis. Thus further research is warranted to explore the mechanisms underlying the epigenetic regulation of the cold response in ticks.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Histona Acetiltransferases , Ixodidae , Animais , Histona Acetiltransferases/genética , Histona Acetiltransferases/metabolismo , Ixodidae/genética , Ixodidae/enzimologia , Ixodidae/fisiologia , Resposta ao Choque Frio/genética , Interferência de RNA , Epigênese Genética , Biologia Computacional , Filogenia , Haemaphysalis longicornis
6.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 24(1): 61, 2024 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38734637

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reintroduction represents an effective strategy for the conservation of endangered wildlife, yet it might inadvertently impact the native ecosystems. This investigation assesses the impact of reintroducing endangered Przewalski's horses into the desert grassland ecosystem of the Kalamaili Nature Reserve (KNR), particularly its effect on the spatial distribution of ticks. In a 25 km2 core area of Przewalski's horse distribution, we set up 441 tick sampling sites across diverse habitats, including water sources, donkey trails, and grasslands, recording horse feces and characteristics to analyze the occurrence rate of ticks. Additionally, we gathered the data of 669 fresh feces of horses. To evaluate the spatial dynamics between these feces and ticks, we used methods such as Fixed Kernel Estimation (FKE), Moran's I spatial autocorrelation index, and Generalized Linear Models (GLM). RESULTS: The dominant species of ticks collected in the core area were adult Hyalomma asiaticum (91.36%). Their occurrence rate was higher near donkey trails (65.99%) and water sources (55.81%), particularly in areas with the fresh feces of Przewalski's horses. The ticks' three risk areas, as defined by FKE, showed significant overlap and positive correlation with the distribution of Przewalski's horses, with respective overlap rates being 90.25% in high risk, 33.79% in medium risk, and 23.09% in low risk areas. Moran's I analysis revealed a clustering trend of the fresh feces of Przewalski's horses in these areas. The GLM confirmed a positive correlation between the distribution of H. asiaticum and the presence of horse fresh feces, alongside a negative correlation with the proximity to water sources and donkey trails. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals the strong spatial correlation between Przewalski's horses and H. asiaticum in desert grasslands, underlining the need to consider interspecific interactions in wildlife reintroductions. The findings are crucial for shaping effective strategies of wildlife conservation and maintaining ecological balance.


Assuntos
Pradaria , Animais , Cavalos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Análise Espacial , Fezes/parasitologia , Fezes/química , Clima Desértico , Ixodidae/fisiologia , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção
7.
Parasitol Res ; 123(4): 197, 2024 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38668762

RESUMO

The majority of ixodid ticks display host-specificity to varying extents. Feeding on different hosts affects their development and reproduction. Consequences can be analyzed at the level of the egg, as it is the initial stage of tick development. Tick egg proteins are abundant and diverse, providing nutrients for embryonic development. However, studies on tick egg profiles are scarce. In this study, we aimed to analyze whether feeding Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis ticks on the yaks (Bos grunniens) and domestic sheep (Ovis aries) has an impact on the variety and variability of the egg proteome. Detached engorged females were used to lay eggs, which were then collected, dewaxed, and subjected to protein extraction. The extracted egg proteins were enzymatically digested using Filter-Aided Sample Preparation (FASP), and the unique peptides were separated and detected by Liquid Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The MS data were searched against the previously constructed whole tick transcriptome library of H. qinghaiensis, and the UniProt database for the identification of tick-derived egg proteins. The analysis revealed 49 and 53 high-confidence proteins identified in eggs collected from B. grunniens (EggBg) and O. aries (EggOa), respectively. Of these, 46 high-confidence proteins were common to both egg types, while three were unique to EggBg and seven to EggOa. All the identified proteins mainly belonged to enzymes, enzyme inhibitors, transporters, and proteins with unknown functions. The differential abundance analysis showed that nine proteins were significantly more present in EggBg, while six were significantly more present in EggOa. Overall, enzymes were the most diverse group, while vitellogenin (Vg) was the most abundant. Blood meal uptake on different hosts has a certain effect on the egg proteome composition and the abundance of some proteins, but it may also lead to compensation of protein roles.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Ovo , Ixodidae , Animais , Ixodidae/fisiologia , Ixodidae/metabolismo , Ixodidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Proteínas do Ovo/metabolismo , Bovinos , Ovinos , Proteoma , Óvulo/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Cromatografia Líquida , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia , Comportamento Alimentar
8.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 92(4): 871-883, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38656472

RESUMO

The growing concern about migratory birds potentially spreading ticks due to global warming has become a significant issue. The city of Nantong in this study is situated along the East Asia-Australasian Flyway (EAAF), with numerous wetlands serving as roosting sites for migratory birds. We conducted an investigation of hard ticks and determined the phylogenetic characteristics of tick species in this city. We utilized three different genes for our study: the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COX1) gene, the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2), and the mitochondrial small subunit rRNA (12 S rRNA) gene. The predominant tick species were Haemaphysalis flava (H. flava) and Haemaphysalis longicornis (H. longicornis). Additionally, specimens of Haemaphysalis campanulata (H. campanulata) and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (R. sanguineus) were collected. The H. flava specimens in this study showed a close genetic relationship with those from inland provinces of China, as well as South Korea and Japan. Furthermore, samples of H. longicornis exhibited a close genetic relationship with those from South Korea, Japan, Australia, and the USA, as well as specific provinces in China. Furthermore, R. sanguineus specimens captured in Nantong showed genetic similarities with specimens from Egypt, Nigeria, and Argentina.


Assuntos
Migração Animal , Aves , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons , Ixodidae , Filogenia , Animais , China , Ixodidae/genética , Ixodidae/classificação , Ixodidae/fisiologia , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/análise , RNA Ribossômico/genética , RNA Ribossômico/análise , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ninfa/classificação , Ninfa/genética , Ninfa/fisiologia , Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética , Proteínas de Artrópodes/análise , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/análise
9.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 15(4): 102342, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38613901

RESUMO

Ixodid (hard) ticks play important ecosystem roles and have significant impacts on animal and human health via tick-borne diseases and physiological stress from parasitism. Tick occurrence, abundance, activity, and key life-history traits are highly influenced by host availability, weather, microclimate, and landscape features. As such, changes in the environment can have profound impacts on ticks, their hosts, and the spread of diseases. Researchers recognize that spatial and temporal factors influence activity and abundance and attempt to account for both by conducting replicate sampling bouts spread over the tick questing period. However, common field methods notoriously underestimate abundance, and it is unclear how (or if) tick studies model the confounding effects of factors influencing activity and abundance. This step is critical as unaccounted variance in detection can lead to biased estimates of occurrence and abundance. We performed a descriptive review to evaluate the extent to which studies account for the detection process while modeling tick data. We also categorized the types of analyses that are commonly used to model tick data. We used hierarchical models (HMs) that account for imperfect detection to analyze simulated and empirical tick data, demonstrating that inference is muddled when detection probability is not accounted for in the modeling process. Our review indicates that only 5 of 412 (1 %) papers explicitly accounted for imperfect detection while modeling ticks. By comparing HMs with the most common approaches used for modeling tick data (e.g., ANOVA), we show that population estimates are biased low for simulated and empirical data when using non-HMs, and that confounding occurs due to not explicitly modeling factors that influenced both detection and abundance. Our review and analysis of simulated and empirical data shows that it is important to account for our ability to detect ticks using field methods with imperfect detection. Not doing so leads to biased estimates of occurrence and abundance which could complicate our understanding of parasite-host relationships and the spread of tick-borne diseases. We highlight the resources available for learning HM approaches and applying them to analyzing tick data.


Assuntos
Ixodidae , Animais , Ixodidae/fisiologia , Ixodidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carrapatos/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Modelos Biológicos , Ecologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia
10.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 92(4): 835-850, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578579

RESUMO

Ticks are important disease vectors affecting animal health and causing substantial economic loss, especially in the tropics and subtropics. To examine the tick burden of cattle and associated risk factors for tick infestation, ticks were collected from 388 cattle within five regions in Ghana. Most of the cattle were males (50.3%) and generally older than 3 years (65%). Of the animals sampled, 2187 ticks were collected with a mean tick burden of 5.6 ticks per cattle, and the average tick burden on the udder/scrotum being significantly higher than in the anal region (Generalized Linear Mix Model [GLMM], p = 0.01197). The tick species identified were predominantly Amblyomma variegatum (42.6%) and Hyalomma rufipes (26.2%). High proportions of cattle examined were found to have A. variegatum infesting the udder/scrotum. Furthermore, H. rufipes infested mostly the anal region compared to other examined body parts (OR 14.8, 95% CI 8.6-25.4, p < 0.001). Using the GLMM, tick abundance was found to be significantly higher in cattle older than 3 years. The tick burden in the udder/scrotum was higher than that from the chest and leg/thigh of the cattle (GLMM, p < 0.05). The tick burden at the anal region was also significantly higher than the leg/thigh and chest. This study indicates that the preferred attachment sites of ticks on cattle are species-dependent and effective treatment with acaricides should take into consideration the udder/scrotum and anal regions as well as prioritizing older cattle.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Ixodidae , Infestações por Carrapato , Animais , Bovinos , Gana , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Ixodidae/fisiologia , Ixodidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Alimentar
11.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 92(4): 809-833, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38448756

RESUMO

To study the acaricide resistance status and possible mechanisms of action in conferring resistance to commonly used acaricides (deltamethrin and coumaphos), Hyalomma anatolicum ticks were collected from 6 dairy farms of Hisar and Charkhi Dadri districts of Haryana. By using standard larval packet test, H. anatolicum tick larvae of Charkhi Dadri isolates were found to be susceptible (100% mortality) to both the acaricides. Level-I resistance against coumaphos was recorded from four isolates, whereas, level-II was observed in only one isolate, collected from Hisar. One isolates (Kaimri) from Hisar also showed level-I resistance against deltamethrin. Biochemically, the ticks having higher values of resistance factor (RF) against coumaphos were found to possess increased enzymatic activity of α-esterase, ß-esterase, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and mono-oxygenase enzymes, whereas, the monoamine oxidase did not show any constant trend. However, the RF showed a statistical significant correlation with GST only. Native PAGE analysis of H. anatolicum ticks revealed the presence of nine types of esterases (EST-1 h to EST-9 h) by using napthyl acetate as substrate. In the inhibitory assay, esterases were found to be inhibited by PMSF, indicating the presence of serine residue at catalytic triad. The partial cds of carboxylesterase and domain II of sodium channel genes were sequenced to determine any proposed mutations in resistant isolates of H. anatolicum ticks, however, no mutations were observed in either gene, indicating that increased expression of detoxification enzymes as a possible mechanism for resistance development, in the current study.


Assuntos
Acaricidas , Cumafos , Ixodidae , Nitrilas , Piretrinas , Animais , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Nitrilas/farmacologia , Acaricidas/farmacologia , Ixodidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Ixodidae/genética , Ixodidae/fisiologia , Cumafos/farmacologia , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Índia , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Feminino , Esterases/metabolismo , Esterases/genética
12.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 92(2): 275-295, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38347254

RESUMO

Hyalomma dromedarii is the predominant tick species parasitizing camels in Egypt which leads to mortalities in young animals that result in economic losses. It can transmit a lot of pathogens to animals and humans, such as the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, the Dhori virus, Kadam virus, Theileria annulata and spotted fever rickettsia. The continuous use of chemical acaricides has negative impact on the environment and almost led to acaricidal resistance, and hence the plant extracts represent alternative methods for controlling ticks. The present study was carried out to assess the histopathological effects on the ovary of fed female Hyalomma dromedarii following immersion in the ethanolic extract of fruits of Citrullus colocynthis (100 mg/mL). Light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy observations provided evidence that Citrullus colocynthis caused extensive damage to oocytes. Destruction of the internal organelles of oocytes, along with delay and/or inhibition of vitellogenesis were demonstrated. This is the first histological study that points to damage in H. dromedarii ovaries following treatment with the ethanolic extract of fruits of C. colocynthis. The data presented suggest that the plant extract affects the ovary either directly by entering the oocytes and/or indirectly by damaging the gut cells and digestion of blood that interfere with the development of oocytes, so it can be used as a promising agent for tick control.


Assuntos
Citrullus colocynthis , Ixodidae , Carrapatos , Humanos , Feminino , Animais , Ovário , Frutas , Ixodidae/fisiologia
13.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 92(3): 463-477, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38361037

RESUMO

Ticks are hematophagous arthropods and, during feeding, may transmit pathogens to vertebrate hosts, including humans. This study aimed to investigate the presence of Rickettsia spp. in ticks collected between 2010 and 2013 from free-ranging capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) and opossums (Didelphis albiventris) that inhabit Sabiá Park in Uberlândia, Brazil. Overall, 1,860 ticks were collected: 1,272 (68.4%) from capybaras (487 of the species Amblyomma sculptum, 475 adults and 12 nymphs; 778 Amblyomma dubitatum, 727 adults and 51 nymphs; and seven larva clusters of the genus Amblyomma); and 588 (31.6%) from opossums (21 A. sculptum, one adult and 20 nymphs; 79 A. dubitatum, all nymphs; 15 Ixodes loricatus, 12 adults and three nymphs; 457 Amblyomma sp. larva clusters; 15 Ixodes sp. larva clusters; and one Argasidae larva cluster). Out of 201 DNA samples tested for the presence of Rickettsia spp. DNA using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) 12 showed amplification of a gtlA gene segment that was specific to Rickettsia bellii, a bacterium non-pathogenic to humans. As there has been a report showing serological evidence of infections caused by Rickettsia species of the spotted fever group (SFG) in capybaras and opossums in the park, including Rickettsia rickettsii, the etiological agent of Brazilian spotted fever, and considering the presence of A. sculptum ticks, which are aggressive to humans, as well as these vertebrate hosts, which are amplifiers of R. rickettsii, it is important to monitor the presence of SFG rickettsiae in the Sabiá Park, which is visited daily by thousands of people.


Assuntos
Didelphis , Ixodidae , Larva , Ninfa , Rickettsia , Animais , Brasil , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ninfa/microbiologia , Ninfa/fisiologia , Larva/microbiologia , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Ixodidae/microbiologia , Ixodidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ixodidae/fisiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Feminino , Parques Recreativos , Amblyomma/microbiologia , Amblyomma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Roedores/parasitologia , Gambás/parasitologia
14.
J Med Entomol ; 61(3): 764-771, 2024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38412407

RESUMO

Three Asian longhorned ticks (Haemaphysalis longicornis) were collected on Staten Island, Richmond County, New York, in 2014-2015 as part of a tick-borne disease surveillance program conducted by the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene and the Defense Centers of Public Health - Aberdeen Tick-Borne Disease Laboratory. These records mark the earliest known occurrence of H. longicornis in New York State outside of quarantine areas, predating previously reported detections by several years. Robust populations of H. longicornis were collected in subsequent years at the Staten Island site where these few ticks were found, demonstrating that small infestations have the potential to proliferate quickly. Haemaphysalis longicornis is a 3-host ixodid tick native to eastern Asia but now established in the United States, as well as Australasia and several Pacific islands. Although H. longicornis has not yet been associated with human disease transmission in the United States, it warrants attention as a potential vector, as it is demonstrated to harbor various pathogens of medical and veterinary interest across its native and introduced range.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Ixodidae , Animais , Ixodidae/fisiologia , New York , Feminino , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/transmissão , Masculino , Estados Unidos
15.
Vet Res Commun ; 48(3): 1779-1784, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38231369

RESUMO

Over nearly 12 years, we collected ticks from free-ranging jaguars (Panthera onca) and performed statistical analyses to comprehend the vector-host relationship throughout the seasons. We evaluated the presence and number of ticks, as well as their association with weight, age, and gender of captured jaguars in the Pantanal and Amazon biomes. Out of 100 captured jaguars (comprising 72 initial captures and 28 recaptures, with 41 females and 31 males), 77 were found to be infested by different tick species. We gathered a total of 1,002 ticks, categorized by the following species in descending order of abundance: Amblyomma sculptum, Amblyomma ovale, Rhipicephalus microplus, Amblyomma triste, Amblyomma cajennense sensu stricto, Amblyomma incisum, and Amblyomma spp. larvae. Apart from weight, statistical analysis indicated that age, gender and seasonality does not significantly affect the presence of different tick species in free ranging jaguars. Notably, A. sculptum adults were more abundant in the first semester, while A. sculptum nymphs and Amblyomma spp. larvae were mainly found during dry months, aligning with their expected life cycle stages. This is the first long-term study in jaguars to correlate seasonality and host factors and also the first time an adult of A. incisum is reported infesting a jaguar.


Assuntos
Amblyomma , Panthera , Estações do Ano , Infestações por Carrapato , Animais , Feminino , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia , Masculino , Amblyomma/fisiologia , Panthera/fisiologia , Panthera/parasitologia , Brasil , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Ninfa/fisiologia , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ixodidae/fisiologia
16.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 16802, 2023 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37798348

RESUMO

Hyalomma dromedarii is an important tick species infesting livestock. This work evaluated the novel adulticidal, insect growth-regulating, and enzymatic efficacy of ethanol plant extracts of Aloe vera and Rheum rhabarbarum and their nanoemulsions against males and engorged females of the camel tick, H. dromedarii. The physicochemical properties of nanoemulsions were evaluated. The High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analyses indicated that the extracts contained polyphenols and flavonoids, which could enhance their acaricidal effect. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) of the nanoemulsions of A. vera and R. rhabarbarum were 196.7 and 291 nm, whereas their zeta potentials were - 29.1 and - 53.1 mV, respectively. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) indicated that nanoemulsions showed a regular spherical shape (less than 100 nm). Fifteen days post-treatment (PT) with 25%, the mortality% of A. vera and R. rhabarbarum were 88.5 and 96.2%, respectively. Five days PT, the median lethal concentration values of A. vera, R. rhabarbarum, and their nanoemulsions were 7.8, 7.1, 2.8, and 1.02%, respectively, and their toxicity indices were 91.02, 100, 36.4, and 100%, respectively. Their median lethal time values PT with 3.5% were 6.09, 5.09, 1.75, and 1.34 days, respectively. Nanoemulsions enhanced the efficacy of the crude extract 1-7 folds, 5 days PT, and accelerated their speed of killing ticks 2-4 times. The total protein and carbohydrates, Acetylcholinesterase, Alpha esterase, and Amylase were affected PT. The reproductive potential of engorged females was adversely impacted. In conclusion, the novel A. vera and R. rhabarbarum extracts were promising acaricides, and their nanoformulations enhanced their efficacies.


Assuntos
Acaricidas , Aloe , Ixodidae , Rheum , Carrapatos , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Acaricidas/farmacologia , Acaricidas/química , Camelus , Acetilcolinesterase , Ixodidae/fisiologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química
17.
J Med Entomol ; 60(5): 1126-1130, 2023 09 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37551419

RESUMO

We describe the first known established Asian longhorned tick (ALT) (Acari: Ixodidae: Haemaphysalis longicornis Neumann) population in Ohio, USA. In mid-summer 2021, we collected ALTs from an infested pasture in response to an alert that grazing cattle had been infested with ticks, and 3 of them had died. No ALTs were reported following pesticide treatment of the pasture in fall 2021. In the laboratory, we identified 9,287 ticks to species, representing all 3 life stages, as ALTs and tested 100 of the adult females for infectious agents relevant to human and animal health, including Theileria orientalis, a cattle disease agent. Eight field-collected ticks were positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum (n = 100, 8%); no other infectious agents were detected. Active environmental surveillance showed the return of ALTs in June 2022 despite the tick control efforts in 2021. As ALTs continue to expand their range in the United States, active and passive surveillance studies will be needed to characterize their evolving role in human and animal health.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Ixodidae , Theileria , Carrapatos , Feminino , Animais , Humanos , Bovinos , Ixodidae/fisiologia , Ohio , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia
18.
Parasit Vectors ; 16(1): 169, 2023 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37231514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ticks are obligate hematophagous ectoparasites that transmit a variety of pathogens to humans, wildlife and domestic animals. Vaccination is an effective and environmentally friendly method for tick control. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA) is an important glycometabolism enzyme that is a candidate vaccine against parasites. However, the immune protection of FBA in ticks is unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: The 1092-bp open reading frame (ORF) of FBA from Haemaphysalis longicornis (HlFBA), encoding a 363-amino acid protein, was cloned using PCR methodology. The prokaryotic expression vector pET32a(+)-HlFBA was constructed and transformed into cells of Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) strain for protein expression. The recombinant HlFBA protein (rHlFBA) was purified by affinity chromatography, and the western blot results suggested that the rHlFBA protein was immunogenic. RESULTS: Results of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that rabbits immunized with rHlFBA produced a humoral immune response specific to rHlFBA. A tick infestation trial indicated that, compared to the ticks in the histidine-tagged thioredoxin (Trx) group, the engorged tick weight and oviposition of female ticks and egg hatching rate of those in the rHlFBA group was reduced by 22.6%, 45.6% and 24.1%, respectively. Based on the cumulative effect of the these three parameters, the overall immune efficacy of rHlFBA was estimated to be 68.4%. CONCLUSIONS: FBA is a candidate anti-tick vaccine that can significantly reduce the engorged tick weight, oviposition, and egg hatching rate. The use of enzymes involved in glucose metabolism is a new strategy in the development of anti-tick vaccines.


Assuntos
Ixodidae , Infestações por Carrapato , Vacinas , Humanos , Animais , Feminino , Coelhos , Ixodidae/fisiologia , Frutose-Bifosfato Aldolase/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Infestações por Carrapato/prevenção & controle , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Aldeído Liases
19.
Vet Parasitol ; 318: 109933, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37043866

RESUMO

Tick saliva is a reservoir of bioactive proteins. Saliva protein compositions change dynamically during blood-feeding. Decipherment of protein profiles in different blood-feeding stages may bring deeper insight into tick feeding physiology and provide targets for immunologic control alternatives. However, having the infancy of tick genome sequencing, assembly, annotation, and limited knowledge of tick salivary proteins restrain the data interpretation. Here, we aimed to depict the saliva protein profile in partially- (PE) and fully-engorged (FE) Haemaphysalis flava ticks, with a special focus on the analysis of those uncharacterized proteins. Saliva was collected from PE and FE adult female H. flava ticks. Saliva proteins were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS-MS). MS data were searched against an in-house salivary gland transcriptome library for identification of tick-derived proteins. Abundances of proteins were compared between PE and FE ticks. The uncharacterized proteins detected in saliva were further bioinformatically analyzed. In total, 614 proteins were identified including 94 host proteins and 520 tick-derived proteins. The 226 tick-derived high-confidence proteins were classified into 10 categories: transporters, enzymes, protease inhibitors, immunity-related proteins, lipocalins, glycine-rich proteins, muscle proteins, secreted proteins, uncharacterized proteins and others. A total of 98 proteins were shared in both PE and FE with 74 only in PE and 54 only in FE. Abundances of 24 shared proteins were significantly higher in PE. The profile of top 15 most abundant proteins was also different between PE and FE ticks. The 65 uncharacterized proteins detected in tick saliva were branched into subclusters 1 A, 1B, 2, 3 A, 3B and 3 C based on particular motifs like RGD, LRR, indicating their diverse predicted functions like anti-coagulation, regulation of innate immune, or other functions. This study provides and compares saliva proteomes of H. flava ticks in two feeding stages with special cluster analysis on the uncharacterized proteins. Further investigations are needed to confirm the roles of these uncharacterized proteins in ticks.


Assuntos
Ixodidae , Carrapatos , Feminino , Animais , Proteoma/genética , Saliva/química , Ixodidae/fisiologia , Proteínas de Artrópodes/metabolismo , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/metabolismo
20.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 89(2): 231-250, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36881286

RESUMO

The finding of immature stages of some Hyalomma spp. feeding on migratory birds in Europe is unexceptional. The reports of adults of Hyalomma in Europe (incl. the British Isles) after successful molting from immatures have increased in recent years. It has been claimed that the warming of the target territory could favor the populations of these invasive ticks. Although evaluations of the impact on health or measures of adaptation are on their way, the climate niches of these species remain undefined, preventing preventive policies. This study delineates such niches for both Hyalomma marginatum (2,729 collection points) and Hyalomma rufipes (2,573 collections) in their distribution area, together with 11,669 points in Europe where Hyalomma spp. are believed to be absent in field surveys. Niche is defined from daily data of temperature, evapotranspiration, soil humidity and air saturation deficit (years 1970-2006). A set of eight variables (annual/seasonal accumulated temperature and vapor deficit) has the maximum discriminatory power separating the niches of both Hyalomma and a negative dataset, with an accuracy near 100%. The sites supporting H. marginatum or H. rufipes seem to be controlled by the joint action of the amount of water in the air (accounting for mortality) and the accumulated temperature (regulating development). The use of accumulated annual temperature as the only variable for predictive purposes of colonization of Hyalomma spp. looks unreliable, as far as values of water in air are excluded.


Assuntos
Ixodidae , Carrapatos , Animais , Ixodidae/fisiologia , Europa (Continente) , Clima , Aves
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