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1.
Nutrients ; 16(3)2024 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38337642

RESUMO

The efficacy of intermittent fasting (IF), as an emerging weight management strategy, in improving cardiometabolic health has been evaluated in various populations, but that among Chinese individuals has not been systematically studied. A comprehensive search on multiple databases was performed to identify eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) up to October 2022. The primary outcome was post-intervention weight loss, and secondary outcomes included changes in cardiometabolic indicators. Effect estimates were meta-analyzed using a random-effects model. In total, nine RCTs with 899 Chinese participants were included. Time-restricted eating was the most adopted IF protocol in this study (six out of nine), followed by alternate-day fasting. The IF intervention significantly reduced body weight, body mass index, body fat mass, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides when compared with control groups. However, no statistically significant reductions in waist circumference, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting glucose, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure were found. To sum up, IF can be a weight management strategy and may improve the cardiometabolic health of Chinese adults, but more long-term trials using different IF strategies are required to generate robust evidence of its efficacy.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Obesidade , Adulto , Humanos , Jejum Intermitente , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Jejum/fisiologia , HDL-Colesterol , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , China
2.
Nutrients ; 16(3)2024 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38337705

RESUMO

Lentils have potential to improve metabolic health but there are limited randomized clinical trials evaluating their comprehensive impact on metabolism. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of lentil-based vs. meat-based meals on fasting and postprandial measures of glucose and lipid metabolism and inflammation. Thirty-eight adults with an increased waist circumference (male ≥ 40 inches and female ≥ 35 inches) participated in a 12-week dietary intervention that included seven prepared midday meals totaling either 980 g (LEN) or 0 g (CON) of cooked green lentils per week. Linear models were used to assess changes in fasting and postprandial markers from pre- to post-intervention by meal group. Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms were assessed through a survey randomly delivered once per week during the intervention. We found that regular consumption of lentils lowered fasting LDL (F = 5.53, p = 0.02) and total cholesterol levels (F = 8.64, p < 0.01) as well as postprandial glucose (ß = -0.99, p = 0.01), IL-17 (ß = -0.68, p = 0.04), and IL-1ß (ß = -0.70, p = 0.03) responses. GI symptoms were not different by meal group and all symptoms were reported as "none" or "mild" for the duration of the intervention. Our results suggest that daily lentil consumption may be helpful in lowering cholesterol and postprandial glycemic and inflammatory responses without causing GI stress. This information further informs the development of pulse-based dietary strategies to lower disease risk and to slow or reverse metabolic disease progression in at-risk populations.


Assuntos
Lens (Planta) , Lens (Planta)/metabolismo , Glucose , Glicemia/metabolismo , Jejum , Colesterol , Refeições , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Insulina/metabolismo , Estudos Cross-Over
3.
RNA Biol ; 21(1): 1-14, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38326277

RESUMO

Cardiac tolerance to ischaemia can be increased by dietary interventions such as fasting, which is associated with significant changes in myocardial gene expression. Among the possible mechanisms of how gene expression may be altered are epigenetic modifications of RNA - epitranscriptomics. N6-methyladenosine (m6A) and N6,2'-O-dimethyladenosine (m6Am) are two of the most prevalent modifications in mRNA. These methylations are reversible and regulated by proteins called writers, erasers, readers, and m6A-repelled proteins. We analysed 33 of these epitranscriptomic regulators in rat hearts after cardioprotective 3-day fasting using RT-qPCR, Western blot, and targeted proteomic analysis. We found that the most of these regulators were changed on mRNA or protein levels in fasting hearts, including up-regulation of both demethylases - FTO and ALKBH5. In accordance, decreased methylation (m6A+m6Am) levels were detected in cardiac total RNA after fasting. We also identified altered methylation levels in Nox4 and Hdac1 transcripts, both of which play a role in the cytoprotective action of ketone bodies produced during fasting. Furthermore, we investigated the impact of inhibiting demethylases ALKBH5 and FTO in adult rat primary cardiomyocytes (AVCMs). Our findings indicate that inhibiting these demethylases reduced the hypoxic tolerance of AVCMs isolated from fasting rats. This study showed that the complex epitranscriptomic machinery around m6A and m6Am modifications is regulated in the fasting hearts and might play an important role in cardiac adaptation to fasting, a well-known cardioprotective intervention.


Assuntos
Adenosina , Proteômica , Animais , Ratos , Adenosina/genética , Adenosina/metabolismo , RNA/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Jejum
4.
Arq Bras Cir Dig ; 36: e1791, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38324852

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To reduce the risk of regurgitation during anesthesia for elective procedures, residual gastric volumes (RGV) have traditionally been minimized by overnight fasting. Prolonged preoperative fasting presents some adverse consequences and has been abandoned for most surgical procedures, except for obese and/or diabetic patients. AIMS: The aim of this study was to assess the RGV in morbidly obese diabetic patients after traditional or abbreviated fasting. METHODS: This study was approved by the Ethics Committee for Research with Human Beings from the Federal University of Mato Grosso, under number 179.017/2012. This is a prospective, randomized, and crossover design study in eight morbidly obese type II diabetic patients. RGV was measured endoscopically after either traditional overnight fasting of at least 8 hours, or after abbreviated fasting of 6 hours for solids and 3 hours for a drink containing water plus 25 g (12.5%) of maltodextrin. Data were expressed as mean and range and differences were compared with paired t-tests at p<0.05. RESULTS: The study population had a mean age of 41.5 years (28-53), weight of 135 kg (113-196), body mass index of 48.2 kg/m2 (40-62.4), and type II diabetes for 4.5 years (1-10). The RGV after abbreviated fasting was 21.5 ml (5-40) vs 26.3 ml (7-65) after traditional fasting. This difference was not significant (p=0.82). CONCLUSIONS: Gastric emptying in morbidly obese diabetic patients is similar after either traditional or abbreviated fasting with a carbohydrate drink.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Obesidade Mórbida , Humanos , Adulto , Projetos Piloto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Estudos Cross-Over , Obesidade Mórbida/complicações , Estudos Prospectivos , Esvaziamento Gástrico , Jejum , Carboidratos
5.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 527, 2024 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38378536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is frequently misdiagnosed during pregnancy. There is an abundance of evidence, but little is known regarding the regional prevalence estimates of GDM in India. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to provide valuable insights into the national and regional prevalence of GDM among pregnant women in India. METHODS: We conducted an initial article search on PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and ShodhGanga searches to identify quantitative research papers (database inception till 15th June,2022). This review included prevalence studies that estimated the occurrence of GDM across different states in India. RESULTS: Two independent reviewers completed the screening of 2393 articles, resulting in the identification of 110 articles that met the inclusion criteria, which collectively provided 117 prevalence estimates. Using a pooled estimate calculation (with an Inverse square heterogeneity model), the pooled prevalence of GDM in pregnant women was estimated to be 13%, with a 95% confidence interval (CI) ranging from 9 to 16%.. In India, Diabetes in Pregnancy Study of India (DIPSI) was the most common diagnostic criteria used, followed by International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) and World Health Organization (WHO) 1999. It was observed that the rural population has slightly less prevalence of GDM at 10.0% [6.0-13.0%, I2=96%] when compared to the urban population where the prevalence of GDM was 12.0% [9.0-16.0%, I2 = 99%]. CONCLUSIONS: This review emphasizes the lack of consensus in screening and diagnosing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), leading to varied prevalence rates across Indian states. It thoroughly examines the controversies regarding GDM screening by analyzing population characteristics, geographic variations, diagnostic criteria agreement, screening timing, fasting vs. non-fasting approaches, cost-effectiveness, and feasibility, offering valuable recommendations for policy makers. By fostering the implementation of state-wise screening programs, it can contribute to improving maternal and neonatal outcomes and promoting healthier pregnancies across the country.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Diabetes Gestacional/diagnóstico , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Jejum , Índia/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia
6.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 1309, 2024 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38378685

RESUMO

In mice, periodic cycles of a fasting mimicking diet (FMD) protect normal cells while killing damaged cells including cancer and autoimmune cells, reduce inflammation, promote multi-system regeneration, and extend longevity. Here, we performed secondary and exploratory analysis of blood samples from a randomized clinical trial (NCT02158897) and show that 3 FMD cycles in adult study participants are associated with reduced insulin resistance and other pre-diabetes markers, lower hepatic fat (as determined by magnetic resonance imaging) and increased lymphoid to myeloid ratio: an indicator of immune system age. Based on a validated measure of biological age predictive of morbidity and mortality, 3 FMD cycles were associated with a decrease of 2.5 years in median biological age, independent of weight loss. Nearly identical findings resulted from  a second clinical study (NCT04150159). Together these results provide initial support for beneficial effects of the FMD on multiple cardiometabolic risk factors and biomarkers of biological age.


Assuntos
Dieta , Jejum , Adulto , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Pré-Escolar , Longevidade , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Causalidade
7.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 27(1): 95-101, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyperlipidemia caused by a high-fat diet (HFD) has many adverse effects on the cardiovascular system, including vascular problems. In addition, a HFD also has significant adverse effects on bone health. AIM: The aim of this study is to examine bone-implant osteointegration and new bone formation in peri-implant defects in fasting and high-fatty diet applied rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, 28 female Sprague Dawley rats were used. The rats were divided into four groups, with seven rats in each group: the control group on a normal diet (Group 1) (n = 7), the fasted group (Group 2) (n = 7), the high-fatty diet (HFD) group (Group 3) (n = 7), and the fasted and HFD group (Group 4) (n = 7). Titanium implants with a diameter of 2.5 mm and a length of 4 mm were placed in the right tibia bones of the subjects, and a bone graft corresponding to 2 mm of the implant length was placed in the bone defect applied to the neck region. All rats that continued the administered diet for 12 weeks were sacrificed at the end of the experiment period. The implants and surrounding bone tissue were surgically removed and subjected to biomechanical analysis to assess bone-implant osteointegration and peri-implant new bone formation. RESULTS: It was determined that there was no statistically significant difference between the rats in the control group and the other three groups in terms of bone-implant osteointegration and peri-implant new bone formation (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: As a result of this study, it was determined that fasting or maintaining a HFD does not adversely affect bone-implant osteointegration or peri-implant new bone formation in the tibias of rats.


Assuntos
Implantes Dentários , Osteogênese , Humanos , Ratos , Feminino , Animais , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Osso e Ossos , Próteses e Implantes , Jejum/efeitos adversos , Titânio , Implantes Dentários/efeitos adversos
8.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1301921, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38313368

RESUMO

Background: Prediabetes is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality. Rare research in China has evaluated the prevalence of prediabetes among children and adolescents using the HbA1c criterion or the combined FPG-or-HbA1c diagnostic criterion, and researchers paid no attention to the distributions of blood glucose in Shenzhen, especially for juveniles. Methods: We conducted a school-based cross-sectional study based on the first-year students from 17 primary, middle, and high schools. Prediabetes was defined as FPG of 5.6-6.9 mmol/L or HbA1c of 5.7%-6.4%. The crude and standardized prevalence of prediabetes with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was estimated. Results: A total of 7519 participants, aged 6 to 17 years, were included. For all subjects, the crude prevalence (95% CI) of prediabetes was 1.49% (1.21-1.77), 8.72% (8.08-9.36), and 9.80% (9.13-10.47) by the FPG-only, HbA1c-only, and FPG-or-HbA1c criteria, respectively. Based on the 2010 Shenzhen census population, the standardized prevalence was 1.56% (males 1.85%, females 1.19%), 11.05% (males 11.47%, females 10.53%), and 12.19% (males 13.01%, females 11.15%) by the corresponding criteria. The proportion of prediabetes was higher for males than females, and the prevalence decreased with grade for males but increased for females. The association of BMI and prediabetes was U-shaped curve, indicating higher rates of prediabetes for underweight and obesity people. Conclusion: The blood glucose status of children and adolescents in Shenzhen is worrisome, and the early detection and management of prediabetes are imperative.


Assuntos
Estado Pré-Diabético , Masculino , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Adolescente , Estado Pré-Diabético/diagnóstico , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Glicemia , Hemoglobinas Glicadas , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Fatores de Risco , Jejum , China/epidemiologia
9.
BMJ ; 384: q278, 2024 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38307595

Assuntos
Jejum , Humanos
10.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2755: 133-140, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38319574

RESUMO

Tumor hypoxia is an essential factor related to malignancy, prognosis, and resistance to treatment. Positron emission tomography (PET) is a modality that visualizes the distribution of radiopharmaceuticals administered into the body. PET imaging with [18F]fluoromisonidazole ([18F]FMISO) identifies hypoxic tissues. Unlike [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG)-PET, fasting is not necessary for [18F]FMISO-PET, but the waiting time from injection to image acquisition needs to be relatively long (e.g., 2-4 h). [18F]FMISO-PET images can be displayed on an ordinary commercial viewer on a personal computer (PC). While visual assessment is fundamental, various quantitative indices such as tumor-to-muscle ratio have also been proposed. Several novel hypoxia tracers have been invented to compensate for the limitations of [18F]FMISO.


Assuntos
Misonidazol , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Humanos , Jejum , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Hipóxia/diagnóstico por imagem
11.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1331954, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38327583

RESUMO

Background: This investigation sought to elucidate the correlations between alcohol intake and trajectories of fasting blood glucose (FBG) among American women in midlife. Methods: Our analysis was rooted in the foundational data from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), a comprehensive longitudinal study centered on US women during their midlife transition. We employed group-based trajectory modeling to chart the FBG trajectories spanning from 1996 to 2005. Employing logistic regression, we gauged the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to draw connections between initial alcohol consumption and FBG trajectory patterns, whilst controlling for predominant potential confounders. Results: Our cohort comprised 2,578 women in midlife, ranging in age from 42 to 52, each having a minimum of three subsequent FPG assessments. We discerned two distinct FBG trajectories: a low-stable pattern (n = 2,467) and a high-decreasing pattern (n = 111). Contrasted with the low-stable group, our data showcased an inverse relationship between alcohol intake and the high-decreasing FBG trajectory in the fully adjusted model 3. The most pronounced reduction was evident in the highest tertile of daily servings of alcoholic beverages (OR: 0.23, 95% CI: 0.10-0.52, p < 0.001), percentage of kilocalories sourced from alcoholic beverages (OR: 0.30, 95% CI: 0.16-0.58, p < 0.001), and daily caloric intake from alcoholic beverages (OR: 0.31, 95% CI: 0.16-0.62, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Moderate alcohol consumption may protect against high FPG trajectories in middle-aged women in a dose-response manner. Further researches are needed to investigate this causality in midlife women.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Glicemia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Fatores de Risco , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Jejum
12.
S Afr Fam Pract (2004) ; 66(1): e1-e6, 2024 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38299530

RESUMO

Muslims constitute approximately 20% of the world's population. In South Africa, Muslims constitute just under 2% of the total population. Fasting is one of the mandatory activities of adherents of the Islamic faith, where all healthy adult Muslims abstain from food, drink, and sexual activities between dawn and dusk during the month of Ramadhan. Medical doctors are frequently required to provide advice to their Muslim patients about the safety or other health impacts of this type of fasting. This narrative review provides an overview of research conducted on Muslim populations during the fasting period, with special reference to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) that are prevalent in the Muslim community. In the absence of evidence-based clinical guidelines, this article summarises the latest published research on this topic, providing a resource for clinicians and researchers. This paper provides an evidence summary to clinicians when engaging with their patients who may be engaging in Ramadhan fasting, while also identifying gaps in the body of evidence that could inform future research.


Assuntos
Jejum , Islamismo , Adulto , Humanos , Doença Crônica , África do Sul/epidemiologia
14.
Eat Disord ; 32(2): 212-222, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38186089

RESUMO

Non-purging compensatory behaviors (NPCB; e.g. driven exercise, fasting, other extreme behaviors) are a subcategory of compensatory behaviors typically characterized as infrequent and less severe. Limited prior research has studied NPCB despite their increasing prevalence among adults with binge-spectrum eating disorders (B-ED). More research is needed to understand the types of NPCB present among B-ED and the association between NPCB, clinical severity, and treatment outcomes. Secondary analyses were conducted among 155 adults with B-ED in cognitive-behavioral (CBT)-based clinical trials. At baseline and post-treatment, clinical interviews of eating pathology assessed binge eating frequency, purging compensatory behavior frequency, and global eating pathology. The following NPCB were also assessed: driven exercise, 24-h fasting, 8+ waking hours of compensatory fasting, chewing and spitting, and other extreme weight control behaviors. Participants engaging in NPCB reported higher global eating pathology than those not engaging in NPCB. Frequency of chewing and spitting and 24-h fasting significantly decreased over treatment. Engagement in NPCB at baseline did not predict CBT outcomes. The current study highlights the prevalence and clinical severity of NPCB in B-ED but offers promising results regarding the potential for CBT to improve these behaviors. More research is needed on other extreme weight control behaviors reported qualitatively in our sample and on the maintenance of improvements in non-purging behaviors after CBT.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar , Bulimia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Adulto , Humanos , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Bulimia/terapia , Jejum
15.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 208: 111111, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38266822

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of serum connecting peptide (C-peptide) concentrations with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk among Chinese women. METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted on 436 reproductive-aged women, involving 218 GDM cases and 218 controls matched at 1:1 by maternal age, in Beijing, China between January 2016 and December 2017. Fasting serum C-peptide were successively determined at 10-14 and 15-20 weeks of gestation. Restricted cubic spline and logistic regression analyses were utilized, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to evaluate the predictive capacity of C-peptide for GDM. RESULTS: Fasting serum C-peptide concentrations exhibited a significant decrease from the initial to the subsequent trimester in females with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). For each 1 log ng/mL increase of fasting serum C-peptide during the first and second trimesters, GDM risk increased by 2.38-fold [odds ratio (OR): 2.38, 95% confidence intervals (95%CI): 1.33-4.40] and 3.07-fold (OR: 3.07, 95%CI: 1.49-6.62), respectively. The areas under the ROC curves for the first- and second-trimester C-peptide were 80.4% and 82.4%. CONCLUSION: Our findings revealed a positive correlation between fasting serum C-peptide during the first and second trimesters and the risk of GDM or its subtypes, underscoring the potential of C-peptide as a predictor for GDM development.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez , Peptídeo C , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Jejum , Glicemia/análise
16.
Cell Metab ; 36(2): 301-314, 2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38176412

RESUMO

Time-restricted eating (TRE) has become a popular strategy to treat obesity. TRE involves confining the eating window to 4-10 h per day and fasting for the remaining hours (14-20 h fast). During the eating window, individuals are not required to monitor food intake. The sudden rise in popularity of TRE is most likely due to its simplicity and the fact that it does not require individuals to count calories to lose weight. This feature of TRE may appeal to certain individuals with obesity, and this could help produce lasting metabolic health improvements. The purpose of this review is to summarize current evidence from randomized clinical trials of TRE (without calorie counting) on body weight and metabolic risk factors. The efficacy of TRE in various populations groups, including those with obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), is also examined.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico , Feminino , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Obesidade , Fatores de Risco , Ingestão de Energia , Jejum , Ingestão de Alimentos
17.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 119(2): 511-526, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38212160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolomics has the potential to enhance dietary assessment by revealing objective measures of many aspects of human food intake. Although metabolomics studies indicate that hundreds of metabolites are associated with dietary intake, correlations have been modest (e.g., r < 0.50), and few have been evaluated in controlled feeding studies. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate associations between metabolites and weighed food and beverage intake in a controlled feeding study of habitual diet. METHODS: Healthy postmenopausal females from the Women's Health Initiative (N = 153) were provided with a customized 2-wk controlled diet designed to emulate their usual diet. Metabolites were measured by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in end-of-study 24-h urine and fasting serum samples (1293 urine metabolites; 1113 serum metabolites). We calculated partial Pearson correlations between these metabolites and intake of 65 food groups, beverages, and supplements during the feeding study. The threshold for significance was Bonferroni-adjusted to account for multiple testing (5.94 × 10-07 for urine metabolites; 6.91 × 10-07 for serum metabolites). RESULTS: Significant diet-metabolite correlations were identified for 23 distinct foods, beverages, and supplements (171 distinct metabolites). Among foods, strong metabolite correlations (r ≥ 0.60) were evident for citrus (highest r = 0.80), dairy (r = 0.65), and broccoli (r = 0.63). Among beverages and supplements, strong correlations were evident for coffee (r = 0.86), alcohol (r = 0.69), multivitamins (r = 0.69), and vitamin E supplements (r = 0.65). Moderate correlations (r = 0.50-0.60) were also observed for avocado, fish, garlic, grains, onion, poultry, and black tea. Correlations were specific; each metabolite correlated with one food, beverage, or supplement, except for metabolites correlated with juice or multivitamins. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolite levels had moderate to strong correlations with weighed intake of habitually consumed foods, beverages, and supplements. These findings exceed in magnitude those previously observed in population studies and exemplify the strong potential of metabolomics to contribute to nutrition research. The Women's Health Initiative is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00000611.


Assuntos
Dieta , Metabolômica , Feminino , Humanos , Biomarcadores , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Jejum , Metabolômica/métodos , Vitaminas
18.
Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; 132(2): 83-90, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38266748

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Elevated blood glucose has been linked to unfavorable outcomes among individuals with heart failure (HF). Nevertheless, evidence is scarce regarding the association between fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels and the likelihood of readmission within one year for elderly patients. To address this gap, a retrospective cohort study was conducted, integrating electronic health records of restricted health data from PhysioNet. METHODS: The study focused on HF patients aged 60 years and older, utilizing baseline data, comorbidities, and laboratory test results as covariates. A total of 374 patients were included in the study. The relationship between 1-year readmission rates and various glucose levels was assessed using Kaplan-Meier plots. The analysis employed three multivariate Cox regression models to examine patients with varying glucose levels. RESULTS: Following adjustments for relevant factors, an association was observed between FBG levels and the rate of readmission in elderly patients with HF (HR=1.0264 [95% CI 0.9994-1.0541]). The diabetes group faced a higher risk of readmission compared to the normal group. However, this difference in outcome events was not statistically significant, with hazard ratios and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals of 1.2134 (0.9811~1.5007), 1.2393 (0.9993~1.5371), and 1.1905 (0.9570~1.4809), respectively. The robustness of the model was further demonstrated through risk models with subgroup analysis, revealing that FBG levels consistently exerted a stable effect on outcome events, unaffected by covariates such as age, gender, body mass index, glomerular filtration rate, and brain natriuretic peptide. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest a notable association between elevated FBG at the time of initial hospitalization and the likelihood of readmission within one year among elderly patients with HF.


Assuntos
Glicemia , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Idoso , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Glicemia/análise , Readmissão do Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Jejum
19.
Saudi J Gastroenterol ; 30(1): 53-62, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38192177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The epidemic of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its metabolic effects present a serious public health concern. We hypothesized that the Ramadan fasting model (RFM), which involves fasting from dawn to dusk for a month, could provide potential therapeutic benefits and mitigate NAFLD. Accordingly, we aimed to validate this hypothesis using obese male rats. METHODS: Rats were split into two groups (n = 24 per group), and they were given either a standard (S) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. During the last four weeks of the study period, both S- and HFD-fed rats were subdivided into eight groups to assess the effect of RFM with/without training (T) or glucose administration (G) on the lipid profile, liver enzymes, and liver structure (n = 6/group). RESULTS: The HFD+RFM group exhibited a significantly lower final body weight than that in the HFDC group. Serum cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and triglyceride levels were significantly lower in the HFD+RFM, HFD+RFM+T, and HFD+RFM+G groups than those in the HFDC group. Compared with the HFDC group, all groups had improved serum high-density lipoprotein levels. Furthermore, HFD groups subjected to RFM had reduced serum levels of aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase compared with those of the HFD-fed group. Moreover, the liver histology improved in rats subjected to RFM compared with that of HFD-fed rats, which exhibited macro- and micro-fat droplet accumulation. CONCLUSION: RFM can induce positive metabolic changes and improve alterations associated with NAFLD, including weight gain, lipid profile, liver enzymes, and hepatic steatosis.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Masculino , Animais , Ratos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Jejum , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Lipídeos
20.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 1713, 2024 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38242911

RESUMO

Ketone bodies serve as an energy source, especially in the absence of carbohydrates or in the extended exercise. Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a crucial energy sensor that regulates lipid and glucose metabolism. However, whether AMPK regulates ketone metabolism in whole body is unclear even though AMPK regulates ketogenesis in liver. Prolonged resulted in a significant increase in blood and urine levels of ketone bodies in wild-type (WT) mice. Interestingly, fasting AMPKα2-/- and AMPKα1-/- mice exhibited significantly higher levels of ketone bodies in both blood and urine compared to fasting WT mice. BHB tolerance assays revealed that both AMPKα2-/- and AMPKα1-/- mice exhibited slower ketone consumption compared to WT mice, as indicated by higher blood BHB or urine BHB levels in the AMPKα2-/- and AMPKα1-/- mice even after the peak. Interestingly, fasting AMPKα2-/- and AMPKα1-/- mice exhibited significantly higher levels of ketone bodies in both blood and urine compared to fasting WT mice. . Specifically, AMPKα2ΔMusc mice showed approximately a twofold increase in blood BHB levels, and AMPKα2ΔMyo mice exhibited a 1.5-fold increase compared to their WT littermates after a 48-h fasting. However, blood BHB levels in AMPKα1ΔMusc and AMPKα1ΔMyo mice were as same as in WT mice. Notably, AMPKα2ΔMusc mice demonstrated a slower rate of BHB consumption in the BHB tolerance assay, whereas AMPKα1ΔMusc mice did not show such an effect. Declining rates of body weights and blood glucoses were similar among all the mice. Protein levels of SCOT, the rate-limiting enzyme of ketolysis, decreased in skeletal muscle of AMPKα2-/- mice. Moreover, SCOT protein ubiquitination increased in C2C12 cells either transfected with kinase-dead AMPKα2 or subjected to AMPKα2 inhibition. AMPKα2 physiologically binds and stabilizes SCOT, which is dependent on AMPKα2 activity.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP , Corpos Cetônicos , Animais , Camundongos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Jejum , Cetonas , Camundongos Knockout , Ubiquitinação , Coenzima A-Transferases/metabolismo
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