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1.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 184(1): 123-131, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112270

RESUMO

Objective: The challenge of finding patients with the rare conditon of diabetes insipidus in need of vasopressin treatment is demanding. The guidelines for performing the fluid deprivation test and interpreting the results are abundant. We evaluated the discriminative capacity of the fluid deprivation test in patients with polyuria to define a cut off for a more effective discrimination between diabetes insipidus and other polyuria syndromes. Research design and methods: Retrospective review and data collection of all ambulatory fluid deprivation tests, of patients with mild polyuria and polydipsia (< 3 L/day), performed between 2000 and 2018. Serum osmolality, urine osmolality, urine volumes and clinical information of diagnosis were retrieved from the patient's medical records. Results: The study group consisted of 153 patients, 123 were diagnosed with non-diabetes insipidus and 30 with diabetes insipidus. After 12 h fasting (baseline) median duration of the fluid deprivation test was 5 h (fasting range: 12-21 h). At baseline, there was a significant difference between median serum and urine osmolality between the groups (P < 0.05). The best cut-off for the diagnosis of diabetes insipidus, was the combination of < 400 mosmol/kg in urine and > 302 mosmol/kg in serum. With this cut-off a sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 98% was achieved. Conclusion: After 12 h fasting our proposed cut off clearly differentiated between diabetes insipidus, and non-diabetes insipidus suggesting a possibility to considerably reduce the duration of the fluid deprivation test.


Assuntos
Diabetes Insípido/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Urológico/estatística & dados numéricos , Polidipsia/diagnóstico , Poliúria/diagnóstico , Privação de Água , Adulto , Jejum/sangue , Jejum/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Concentração Osmolar , Valores de Referência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Soro/química , Síndrome , Urina/química
2.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 100(43): 3425-3430, 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33238673

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the influence of preoperative fasting duration on blood volume status of pediatric patients during induction based on ultrasonic technique. Methods: One hundred and ten pediatric patients, scheduled for elective operation in the Second Affiliated Hospital & Yuying Children's Hospital, were recruited during January and October in 2018. After sedation by inhalation of sevoflurane, the maximum (expiratory) and minimum (inspiratory) diameter of inferior vena cava (IVC(max), IVC(min)) and aorta velocity-time integral (VTI) in apical five-chamber cardiac view were measured with an ultrasound machine. Respiratory variabilities of these parameters were further calculated. Furthermore, passive leg raising (PLR) test was performed and above measurements/calculations were repeated. The correlation between the duration of fasting and IVC respiratory variations index (IVC(RVI)) or aortic VTI variability (ΔVTI) was then analyzed. Results: Before PLR, IVC(max), IVC(min) and IVC(RVI) were (0.78±0.19), (0.43±0.15) cm and 0.45±0.12, respectively. After PLR, IVC(max) and IVC(min) increased to (0.94±0.20), (0.55±0.18) cm, while IVC(RVI) decreased to 0.42±0.13, the differences were statistically significant (t=15.66, 10.85, 3.14, all P<0.05). However, IVC(max), IVC(min) and IVC(RVI) were not significantly correlated with the duration of fasting analyzed by linear regression (before PLR: r=0.052, 0.163, 0.171; after PLR, r=0.062, 0.169, 0.165, all P>0.05). Before PLR, expiratory aortic VTI (VTI(max)), inspiratory aortic VTI (VTI(min)) and ΔVTI were 21±5, 17±4 and 17±8, respectively. After PLR, the VTI(max) and VTI(min) significantly increased to 23±5 and 19±4 (t=13.60, 10.43, all P<0.05), but ΔVTI was not changed significantly, which was 17±8(t=0.34, P>0.05). Linear regression analysis showed that VTI(max), VTI(min) and ΔVTI were not significantly correlated with the duration of fasting (before PLR: r=0.111, 0.100, 0.047; after PLR: r=0.003, 0.033, 0.073, all P>0.05). Further multiple linear regression analysis indicated that, age and body weight were independent factors influencing IVC(RVI) and ΔVTI before and after PLR (IVC(RVI): ß=-0.441, 0.515, -0.451, 0.507; ΔVTI: ß=-0.442, 0.545, -2.422, 2.850; all P<0.05). However, the duration of fasting was not correlated with IVC(RVI) and ΔVTI after adjusting the age and weight (IVC(RVI): ß=0.177, 0.160; ΔVTI: ß=0.037, 0.054; all P>0.05). Conclusion: Age and weight, but not preoperative fasting duration, are correlated with respiratory variabilities of inferior vena cava diameter and aortic VTI in pediatric patients.


Assuntos
Jejum , Ultrassom , Volume Sanguíneo , Criança , Humanos , Ultrassonografia , Veia Cava Inferior/diagnóstico por imagem
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(46): e23211, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181703

RESUMO

Dietary intake influences gut microbiota activity. Nevertheless, there is a lack of evidence available that illustrates the acute effects of high glucose meal on metabolic endotoxemia. The present study assessed the acute impact of high glucose meal on endotoxemia and other clinical parameters in Saudi females with varying degrees of glycemia.The subjects were 64 consenting pre-menopausal women, grouped into 3: control [n = 14 lean, non-T2DM, BMI = 22.2 ±â€Š2.2 kg/m]; overweight [n = 16, non-T2DM, BMI = 28.5 ±â€Š1.5 kg/m] and T2DM [n = 34, BMI = 35.2 ±â€Š7.7 kg/m]. After an overnight fast, all subjects were given a standardized high-glucose (75 g) meal. Anthropometrics were taken and blood samples were withdrawn at baseline and postprandial (0, 2 and 4-hours), serum glucose, endotoxin and lipid profile were quantified.At baseline, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and serum glucose levels were significantly higher (P values <.01) whereas significantly lower HDL-cholesterol levels (P < .01) were observed in T2DM subjects compared to other groups. Baseline endotoxin levels were highest in the overweight group (3.2 ±â€Š1.1 mmol/L) as compared to control (2.0 ±â€Š0.5 mmol/L) and T2DM (2.7 ±â€Š1.2 mmol/L) (P = .046). HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides, significantly decreased in the T2DM group after 2 hours (P values <.05), whereas unremarkable changes observed in other groups. Lastly, endotoxin levels significantly increased only in the overweight group (3.2 ±â€Š1.1 vs 4.2 ±â€Š1.4 mmol/L; P < .05), 4 hours postprandial.High glucose meal elevates endotoxemia only among overweight subjects and impairs dysbiosis.


Assuntos
Endotoxemia/complicações , Glucose/análise , Obesidade/complicações , Administração Oral , Adulto , Árabes/classificação , Árabes/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Endotoxemia/fisiopatologia , Jejum/sangue , Jejum/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Lipídeos/análise , Lipídeos/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Arábia Saudita
4.
J Vet Sci ; 21(5): e60, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016014

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tumor-associated neoangiogenesis is a crucial target for antitumor therapies. Thalidomide (TAL) is a promising anti-neoangiogenetic drug that has recently been used in the treatment of several malignancies in dogs. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess the pharmacokinetics of TAL after single oral administration in dogs. Additionally, the influence of feeding on the pharmacokinetic profile of TAL in dogs has been preliminarily investigated. METHODS: Six healthy adult female Labradors were enrolled according to a randomized single-dose, 2-treatment, 2-phase, paired 2 × 2 cross-over study design. The dogs were administered a single 400 mg capsule of TAL in fasted and fed conditions. Blood was collected from 15 min to 48 h after dosing, and TAL quantified in plasma by a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method. The pharmacokinetics of TAL were analyzed using a non-compartmental approach. RESULTS: TAL concentration was quantifiable up to 10 h and 24 h after fasted and fed conditions, respectively. Cmax (fasted, 1.34 ± 0.12 µg/mL; fed, 2.47 ± 0.19 µg/mL) and Tmax (fasted, 3 h; fed, 10 h) differed substantially between the 2 groups. AUC and t1/2λz were significantly higher in fed (42.46 ± 6.64 mg × h/L; 17.14 ± 4.68 h) compared to fasted (12.38 ± 1.13 mg × h/L; 6.55 ± 1.25 h) dogs. The relative oral bioavailability of TAL for the fasted group was low (36.92% ± 3.28%). CONCLUSIONS: Feeding affects the pharmacokinetics of oral TAL in dogs, showing a delayed, but higher absorption with different rate of elimination. These findings are of importance in clinical veterinary settings, and represent a starting point for further related studies.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacocinética , Jejum , Talidomida/farmacocinética , Administração Oral , Animais , Área Sob a Curva , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/veterinária , Estudos Cross-Over , Cães , Feminino , Meia-Vida
5.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 33(6): 740-745, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027074

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Preoperative fasting guidelines are generalized to elective procedures and usually do not distinguish between the ambulatory and inpatient setting. Prevalence of aspiration is low while prolonged preoperative fasting is common clinical reality. Recently, changes in preoperative fasting guidelines have been widely discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Rates of prolonged clear fluid fasting (>4 h) prior to surgery are reported in up to 80% of patients with mean fasting duration of up to 16 h and beyond. Prolonged fasting may result in adverse effects such as intraoperative hemodynamic instability, postoperative delirium, patient discomfort, and extended hospital length of stay. Liberal approaches allowing clear fluids up to 1 h prior to anesthesia or until premedication/call to the operating room have shown no increase in adverse events among children. Various anesthesia societies now encourage clear fluid intake up to 1 h prior to pediatric elective anesthesia. Similar reports in the adult cohort are scarce. SUMMARY: Allowing sips of water until call to the operating room may help reducing prolonged preoperative fasting and improving patient comfort while keeping a flexibility in operating room schedule. The feasibility and safety of a liberal clear fluid fasting regimen among adults undergoing elective anesthesia needs to be evaluated in future studies.


Assuntos
Anestesia/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/normas , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/normas , Aspiração Respiratória de Conteúdos Gástricos/prevenção & controle , Jejum , Humanos , Pré-Medicação
6.
Rev Mal Respir ; 37(9): 699-709, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33071062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is no validated Arabic version of the French questionnaire of quality of life, the VQ11. This study aimed to test the applicability of the Arabic version of the VQ11 in Tunisian patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS: It was a prospective and cross-sectional study, spread over seven months, that included 40 stable COPD male patients. The Arabic version of VQ11, translated by a bilingual expert, was used. The functional, psychological, relational and total scores were calculated. Patients were divided into two groups according to the GOLD classification: "A-B" (n=25) and "C-D" (n=15). A significant correlation-coefficient (r) of≥0.51, between the VQ11 total score and the ADO index (age, dyspnoea, obstruction), and higher quality of life scores in GOLD "C-D" when compared to GOLD "A-B" would be in favour of application of the Arabic version of the VQ11. RESULTS: The mean±standard deviation of age, post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC, ADO index and VQ11 total score were 64±8 years, 0.55±0.08, 4.8±1.7 and 2±10, respectively. A significant "r" (0.56) was identified between the ADO index and the total score. Psychological, relational and total scores of GOLD "A-B" patients were significantly lower than those in GOLD "C-D" patients: 10±4 vs. 12±3, 11±4 vs. 13±3 and 30±11 vs. 36±7, respectively. CONCLUSION: The Arabic version of VQ11 is applicable in Tunisian COPD patients with reliable results.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Idioma , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Idoso , Árabes/estatística & dados numéricos , Comorbidade , Jejum/fisiologia , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/psicologia , Religião e Medicina , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Tradução , Tunísia/epidemiologia
7.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239720, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017436

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women with hyperglycaemia first detected in pregnancy (HFDP), including those with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), should undergo a glucose evaluation 4-12 weeks after delivery. Globally, suboptimal postpartum return rates limit the opportunity to intervene in women with sustained hyperglycaemia and pragmatic solutions should be sought to bridge this gap. OBJECTIVE: To assess the utility of postpartum in-hospital glucose evaluation to predict the outcome of the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) performed 4-12 weeks after delivery. METHODS: The study was performed prospectively at Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa. Women with HFDP, classified as GDM based on the modified National Institute for Health and Care Excellence criteria, who delivered between November 2018 and June 2019 were included in the study. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) was performed 24-72 hours after delivery (t1) in the postnatal ward, provided glucose lowering medication was discontinued at delivery. An OGTT 4-12 weeks postpartum (t2) was scheduled for the total cohort. We compared glucose values and glucose categories at t1 and t2 and evaluated antenatal characteristics of women who returned, compared to the group that was lost to follow-up. RESULTS: In-hospital post-delivery glucose assessment (t1) was performed in 115 women. Glucose levels were significantly lower at t1 compared to antenatal diagnostic values (t0) and assessment at t2. Of the fourteen women with hyperglycaemia at t2, none had abnormal fasting glucose concentrations at t1. Women with HFDP who fulfilled criteria for overt diabetes at t0, all (24/115) had normal fasting glucose levels at t1 except for IFG in one (1/24). The antenatal characteristics of women with HFDP who returned at t2, were similar to the women who did not return. CONCLUSION: Based on this study, in-hospital fasting glucose 24-72 hours postpartum cannot replace the OGTT 4-12 weeks postpartum. Pragmatic solutions for low postpartum return rates in women with HFDP should be pursued.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Glucose/metabolismo , Hiperglicemia/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Gestacional/sangue , Jejum/sangue , Jejum/fisiologia , Feminino , Intolerância à Glucose/sangue , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Período Pós-Parto/sangue , Gravidez , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , África do Sul
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22337, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019410

RESUMO

At present, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and glycated albumin (GA) are used to evaluate glycemic control in diabetic patients, but they cannot reflect insulin deficiency and/or insulin resistance.We investigated the feasibility of using estimated average glucose to fasting plasma glucose ratio (eAG/fPG ratio) to estimate insulin resistance in young adult diabetes. A total of 387 patients with type 2 diabetes were included and were stratified into 2 groups based on median values of the glycemic index ratio: the GA/A1c ratio <2.09 (n = 91) and ≥2.09 (n = 296); the eAG/fPG ratio <1.69 (n = 155) and ≥1.69 (n = 232). HbA1c, GA, fructosamine, insulin, and C-peptide levels were measured. The ratio of GA to HbA1c was calculated, and the homeostasis model assessment of ß-cell function and insulin resistance were determined. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance level was significantly associated with the eAG/fPG ratio, but not with the ratio of GA to HbA1c, GA, HbA1c, and fructosamine levels. The ratio of estimated average glucose to fasting plasma glucose level correlates with insulin resistance in young adult diabetes.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Jejum/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Peptídeo C/sangue , Criança , Feminino , Frutosamina/sangue , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Índice Glicêmico , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Albumina Sérica/análise , Adulto Jovem
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(44): e22258, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126298

RESUMO

We aimed to investigate the effect of interval between food intake and drug administration at fasting condition on the plasma concentrations of first-line anti- tuberculosis (TB) drugs in Chinese population. Newly diagnosed TB patients administered the anti-TB drugs under fasting conditions orally, and then had prepared breakfast at 30 minutes and 120 min after dosing, respectively. Blood sampling was also performed 120  minutes after dosing for the detection of Cmax purpose. Overall, twenty-five participants were included in our analysis. The Cmaxs of 30  minutes interval and 120  minutes interval were 21.8 ±â€Š2.0 and 19.2 ±â€Š2.0 µg/mL for rifampin, 1.6 ±â€Š0.2 and 2.1 ±â€Š0.2 µg/mL for isoniazid (INH), 1.5 ±â€Š0.1and 1.5 ±â€Š0.2 µg/mL for ethambutol (EMB), and 49.2 ±â€Š3.7 and 41.5 ±â€Š3.9 µg/mL for pyrazinamide, respectively. Statistical analysis revealed that there was no statistical difference between 2 groups. Additionally, 88.0% and 72.0% of the 25 participants at 2-hour interval group had peak concentrations less than the lower limit of the reference range for INH and EMB, respectively. The Cmaxs of INH were 0.9 ±â€Š0.4 µg/ml for rapid acetylator, which was significantly lower than those of intermediate (1.4 ±â€Š1.0 µg/mL), and slow acetylator (2.5 ±â€Š1.0 µg/mL), respectively (P < .01). In conclusion, our data demonstrate that early food intake at 30 minutes after drug administration had no significant influence on the plasma concentrations. In addition, a high proportion of patients receiving first-line anti-TB regimen fail to achieve the expected plasma drug ranges of INH and EMB (P > .05).


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/sangue , Ingestão de Alimentos , Jejum/sangue , Fatores de Tempo , Tuberculose Pulmonar/sangue , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Adulto , Antituberculosos/administração & dosagem , China , Esquema de Medicação , Etambutol/administração & dosagem , Etambutol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Isoniazida/administração & dosagem , Isoniazida/sangue , Masculino , Pirazinamida/administração & dosagem , Pirazinamida/sangue , Rifampina/administração & dosagem , Rifampina/sangue , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(43): e22215, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120730

RESUMO

The Increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been observed in younger adults. Insulin resistance [IR], decreased first-, second-phase insulin secretion, and glucose effectiveness (GE) (IR, first phase insulin secretion [FPIS], second phase insulin secretion [SPIS], and GE), denoted as diabetes factors (DF), are core for developing T2DM. A body of evidence has shown that inflammation contributes to the development of diabetes. In the present study, our goals were first, evaluate the relationships between white blood cell (WBC) count and, second, examine the relative tightness between the 4 DFs to WBC count. Thus, the pathophysiology of T2DM in Chinese young men could be more understood.21112 non-obese males between 18 to 27 years old were recruited (mean age: 24.3 ±â€Š0.017), including 1745 subjects with metabolic syndrome. DFs were calculated by the published equations by our groups as follows:The association between DFs and WBC count was analyzed using a simple correlation. The r-values of the simple correlation are regarded as the tightness of the relationships.Higher WBC, FPIS, SPIS, IR, age, BMI, blood pressure, FPG, TG, Cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and lower HDL-C and GE were observed in subjects with metabolic syndrome. A similar trend was seen across the quartiles of WBC levels. Among the 4 DFs, GE has the highest r-value (r = -0.093, P < .001), followed by IR (r = 0.067, P < .001), SPIS (r = 0.029, P < .001) and FPIS (r = 0.027, P < .001).Elevated WBC count is significantly associated with all the 4 DFs and the relative order of the tightness, from the highest to the lowest, are GE, IR, SPIS, and FPIS in Chinese young men.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Secreção de Insulina/fisiologia , Contagem de Leucócitos , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol , LDL-Colesterol , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Jejum , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Taiwan , Adulto Jovem
11.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD004730, 2020 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075159

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Cystic Fibrosis Foundation recommends both short-term and long-acting insulin therapy when cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD) has been diagnosed. Diagnosis is based on: an elevated fasting blood glucose level greater than 6.94 mmol/L (125 mg/dL); or oral glucose tolerance tests greater than 11.11 mmol/L (200 mg/dL) at two hours; or symptomatic diabetes for random glucose levels greater than 11.11 mmol/L (200 mg/dL); or glycated hemoglobin levels of at least 6.5%. This is an update of a previously published review. OBJECTIVES: To establish the effectiveness of insulin and oral agents for managing diabetes in people with cystic fibrosis in relation to blood sugar levels, lung function and weight management. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Trials Register comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. We also handsearched abstracts from pulmonary symposia and the North American Cystic Fibrosis Conferences. Date of most recent register search: 10 September 2020. We searched online trials registries; date of most recent searches: 21 March 2020. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials comparing all methods of pharmacological diabetes therapy in people with diagnosed CFRD. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias in the included studies. Authors also used GRADE to assess the quality of the evidence. MAIN RESULTS: The searches identified 29 trials (45 references). Four included trials provide results: one short-term single-center cross-over trial (seven adults) comparing insulin with oral repaglinide and no medication in adults with CFRD and normal fasting glucose; one long-term multicenter trial (61 adults with CFRD) comparing insulin with oral repaglinide and placebo; one long-term multicenter trial (67 adults) comparing insulin with oral repaglinide; and one 12-week single-center cross-over trial (20 adults) comparing the long-acting insulin glargine to short-term neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin. Two ongoing trials of newly approved incretin mimics have been noted for possible future inclusion. Downgrading of the quality of the evidence was mainly due to risks of bias across all domains, but particularly due to concerns surrounding allocation concealment and selective reporting. There were also some concerns due to imprecision from small sample sizes and low event rates. Finally, there may be some bias due to the amounts of insulin and repaglinide given not being comparable. Data from one trial comparing insulin to placebo (39 participants) did not show any difference between groups for the primary outcomes of blood glucose levels (very low-quality evidence), lung function (low-quality evidence) or nutritional status (low-quality evidence). Similarly, no differences between groups were seen for the secondary outcomes of number of hypoglycemic episodes (low-quality evidence), secondary infection complications or quality of life (QoL). These results were mirrored in the narrative reports for the second trial in this comparison (seven participants). Data from the one-year trial comparing repaglinide to placebo (38 participants), showed no differences between groups for the primary outcomes of blood glucose levels (very low-quality evidence), lung function (low-quality evidence) and nutritional status (low-quality evidence). Also, no differences were seen between groups for the secondary outcomes of number of hypoglycemic episodes (low-quality evidence), secondary infection complications or QoL. These findings were mirrored in the narrative reports for the second trial (n = 7) in this comparison. Three trials compared insulin to repaglinide (119 participants). Data from one trial (n = 67) showed no difference in blood glucose levels at either 12 months (high-quality evidence) or 24 months; narrative reports from one trial (45 participants) reported no difference between groups, but the second trial (7 participants) reported a beneficial effect of insulin over repaglinide. Two trials (112 participants) found no difference between insulin and repaglinide in lung function or nutritional status (moderate-quality evidence). Two trials (56 participants) reported no difference in the number of hypoglycemic episodes (low-quality evidence). One trial (45 participants) reported no difference between groups in secondary infections and cystic fibrosis QoL. The single trial comparing glargine to neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin did not report directly on the review's primary outcomes, but did report no differences between groups in post-prandial glucose values and weight; neither group reported infectious complications. There was no difference in episodes of hypoglycemia (very low-quality evidence) and while there was no difference reported in QoL, all participants opted to continue treatment with glargine after the trial was completed. Mortality was not reported by any trial in any comparison, but death was not given as a reason for withdrawal in any trial. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: This review has not found any conclusive evidence that any agent has a distinct advantage over another in controlling hyperglycemia or the clinical outcomes associated with CFRD. Given the treatment burden already experienced by people with cystic fibrosis, oral therapy may be a viable treatment option. While some cystic fibrosis centers use oral medications to help control diabetes, the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation (USA) clinical practice guidelines support the use of insulin therapy and this remains the most widely-used treatment method. Randomized controlled trials specifically related to controlling diabetes and its impact on the course of pulmonary disease process in cystic fibrosis continue to be a high priority. Specifically, investigators should evaluate adherence to different therapies and also whether there is benefit in using additional hypoglycemic agents as well as the newly approved incretin mimics. Agents that potentiate insulin action, especially agents with additional anti-inflammatory potential should also be further investigated as adjuvant therapy to insulin.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Viés , Glicemia/análise , Carbamatos/administração & dosagem , Fibrose Cística/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/etiologia , Jejum/sangue , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Insulina Glargina/administração & dosagem , Insulina Isófana/administração & dosagem , Piperidinas/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
12.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238648, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947608

RESUMO

Elevated postprandial plasma glucose is a risk factor for development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that the inter-individual postprandial plasma glucose response varies partly depending on the intestinal microbiome composition and function. We analyzed data from Danish adults (n = 106), who were self-reported healthy and attended the baseline visit of two previously reported randomized controlled cross-over trials within the Gut, Grain and Greens project. Plasma glucose concentrations at five time points were measured before and during three hours after a standardized breakfast. Based on these data, we devised machine learning algorithms integrating bio-clinical, as well as shotgun-sequencing-derived taxa and functional potentials of the intestinal microbiome to predict individual postprandial glucose excursions. In this post hoc study, we found microbial and clinical features, which predicted up to 48% of the inter-individual variance of postprandial plasma glucose responses (Pearson correlation coefficient of measured vs. predicted values, R = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.45 to 0.84, p<0.001). The features were age, fasting serum triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, BMI, fasting total serum cholesterol, abundance of Bifidobacterium genus, richness of metagenomics species and abundance of a metagenomic species annotated to Clostridiales at order level. A model based only on microbial features predicted up to 14% of the variance in postprandial plasma glucose excursions (R = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.02 to 0.64, p = 0.04). Adding fasting glycaemic measures to the model including microbial and bio-clinical features increased the predictive power to R = 0.78 (95% CI: 0.59 to 0.89, p<0.001), explaining more than 60% of the inter-individual variance of postprandial plasma glucose concentrations. The outcome of the study points to a potential role of the taxa and functional potentials of the intestinal microbiome. If validated in larger studies our findings may be included in future algorithms attempting to develop personalized nutrition, especially for prediction of individual blood glucose excursions in dys-glycaemic individuals.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Período Pós-Prandial , Algoritmos , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Biológicos , Fenômica
13.
Vnitr Lek ; 66(2): 71-76, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942891

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between the values of selected parameters of physical function, body composition, body mass index (BMI) and biochemical markers of metabolic health with the total testosterone (TT) levels in adult males. We aimed to analyse the correlation between these values and variations in the TT levels. METHODS: A total of 17 subjects (age = 50.2 ± 8.1 years, TT = 11.4 ± 3.8nmol/l) were included in the study. Subjects were tested on physical function (1RM on leg press, bench-press, handgrip, VO2max), body composition (DXA), biochemical parameters (morning fasting blood samples). RESULTS: TT was inversely correlated with abdominal circumference (AC) (p.


Assuntos
Força da Mão , Testosterona , Adulto , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Jejum , Humanos , Masculino
14.
J Int Acad Periodontol ; 22(4): 205-222, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980833

RESUMO

AIM: Periodontal treatment is reported to be associated with an improved periodontal condition in diabetic patients. Therefore, a comprehensive review of meta-analyses was conducted to evaluate whether periodontal treatment can improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The search on electronic databases included PubMed-Medline, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and LILACS databases. The methodological quality of the systematic reviews was evaluated using AMSTAR, and primary studies were performed in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. The weighted mean difference (WMD) was calculated, nested in a random-effects model with corresponding Z scores, p-values, and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: A total of 11 meta-analyses were included, and a meta-analysis of 11 primary studies comprising a total of 1341 participants was carried out. All the studies evaluated glycosylated hemoglobin (Hb1Ac), and 6 of the 11 publications evaluated fasting plasma glucose (FPG). The AMSTAR scores ranged between 9 and 11, with a median of 10.3. Statistically significant reductions were observed in HbA1c values [-0.32% (3.5 mmol/ mol); 95%CI: -0.50 to -0.15] and FPG values (-11.59 mg/dl; 95%CI: -15.16 to -8.01). CONCLUSION: The review of currently available clinical studies concludes that periodontal treatment is associated with improved glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. New guidelines, including periodontal treatment as a routine public health measure to improve glycemic control in diabetic patients, would be of great value.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Doenças Periodontais , Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Jejum , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Doenças Periodontais/terapia
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21574, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871873

RESUMO

The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MS) is increasing in China, but there are disparities between urban and rural populations, and across different regions.To examine the prevalence and risk factors of MS in the rural area of Qianjiang (Southwest China).From March 2016 to June 2018, 6 townships in the Qianjiang District of Chongqing Municipality were selected for a cross-sectional study of the residents in rural areas. Demographics and medical history were collected using a questionnaire. Anthropometry and blood pressure were obtained by physical examination. Blood lipids, fasting plasma glucose, and 2-h postprandial glucose were measured.A total of 2949 (1067 males and 1882 females) were included. The mean age was 63.8 ±â€Š10.7 years. The prevalence of MS in the study population was 16.8% (496/2949). The prevalence of MS was 7.4% in men, 22.2% in women, 15.7% in Han, 18.1% in Tujia, and 14.8% in Miao. According to age, the prevalence of MS was 10.6%, 17.0%, and 18.3% in the 30-50, 50-69, and ≥ 70 years groups. The multivariable analysis showed that female sex (OR = 33.36, 95%CI: 17.0-65.53), dyslipidemia (OR = 4.71, 95%CI: 1.73-12.82), kidney diseases (OR = 2.32, 95%CI: 1.37-3.94), waistline (OR = 1.39, 95%CI: 1.33-1.46), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR = 0.12, 95%CI: 0.06-0.23), triglycerides (OR = 1.52, 95%CI: 1.31-1.76), alanine aminotransferase (OR = 0.98, 95%CI: 0.97-1.00), γ-glutamyltransferase (OR = 1.00, 95%CI: 1.00-1.01), and glycated hemoglobin (OR = 1.31, 95%CI: 1.08-1.59) were independently associated with MS.The prevalence of MS was 16.8% in Qianjiang. Female sex, kidney diseases, alanine aminotransferase, and γ-glutamyltransferase were independent risk factors for MS.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , População Rural/tendências , Idoso , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Antropometria , Glicemia/análise , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , China/epidemiologia , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Nefropatias/epidemiologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Triglicerídeos/sangue , gama-Glutamiltransferase/sangue
16.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 68(10): 29-33, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978922

RESUMO

Introduction: Obesity is associated with insulin resistance and measuring it in an apparently healthy population and correlating them with established risk parameters may identify predisposed individuals who may later develop diabetes or cardiovascular diseases. Material and Methods: 405 participants from a rural area were investigated for various metabolic parameters and indices of insulin resistance. Insulin resistance indices were evaluated in the 3 different groups [Obese Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), Lean MetS and those without MetS]. Various anthropometric and metabolic parameters were compared. Lean MetS is defined as those having waist criteria below the region specific waist criteria and even then satisfying the definition of MetS as per the NCEP ATP-III criteria. Results: The mean fasting insulin level was 7.69+4.38 uIU/ml in normal population, 10.40+5.65 uIU/ml in Lean MetS population and 13.71+6.63 uIU/ml in Obese MetS population (P<0.05). The HOMA-IR2 measured was 2.39+ 1.69 in normal population, while in the Lean MetS and Obese Mets were 3.99+3.40 and 4.04+2.53, respectively (P<0.05). The QUICKI level measured was 0.358+0.041 in normal population and 0.334+0.037 and 0.316+0.026 respectively in the Lean MetS and Obese MetS (P<0.05). McAuley index measured in normal population was 0.49+0.26 and 0.75+0.25 and 0.79+0.17 in the Lean MetS and Obese MetS population (P<0.05).TyG index measured was 8.51+0.46 in normal population and 9.27+0.56 and 9.06+0.49 respectively in the Lean MetS and Obese MetS (P<0.05). Conclusion: Insulin resistance indices are elevated in MetS compared to the normal population but the indices in Lean MetS are not different from Obese MetS. The relevance of ethnicity specific waist circumference may need re-evaluation considering its little impact in influencing the level of insulin resistance.


Assuntos
Resistência à Insulina , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Jejum , Humanos , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Circunferência da Cintura
17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4592, 2020 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929089

RESUMO

Prediabetes is a state of glycaemic dysregulation below the diagnostic threshold of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Globally, ~352 million people have prediabetes, of which 35-50% develop full-blown diabetes within five years. T2D and its complications are costly to treat, causing considerable morbidity and early mortality. Whether prediabetes is causally related to diabetes complications is unclear. Here we report a causal inference analysis investigating the effects of prediabetes in coronary artery disease, stroke and chronic kidney disease, complemented by a systematic review of relevant observational studies. Although the observational studies suggest that prediabetes is broadly associated with diabetes complications, the causal inference analysis revealed that prediabetes is only causally related with coronary artery disease, with no evidence of causal effects on other diabetes complications. In conclusion, prediabetes likely causes coronary artery disease and its prevention is likely to be most effective if initiated prior to the onset of diabetes.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Estado Pré-Diabético/complicações , Glicemia/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Intervalos de Confiança , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Jejum/sangue , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Razão de Chances , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue , Estado Pré-Diabético/genética , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações
18.
Anticancer Res ; 40(10): 5445-5456, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Dietary interventions like time-restricted feeding (TRF) show promising anti-cancer properties. We examined whether therapeutic TRF alone or combined with immunotherapy would diminish renal tumor growth in mice of varying body weights. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Young (7 week) chow-fed or older (27 week) high-fat diet (HFD)-fed BALB/c mice were orthotopically injected with renal tumor cells expressing luciferase. After tumor establishment, mice were randomized to ad libitum feeding or TRF +/- anti-CTLA-4. Body composition, tumor viability and growth, and immune responses were quantified. RESULTS: TRF alone reduced renal tumor bioluminescence in older HFD-fed, but not young chow-fed mice. In the latter, TRF mitigated tumor-induced loss of lean- and fat-mass. However, TRF did not alter excised renal tumor weights or intratumoral immune responses and failed to improve anti-CTLA-4 outcomes in any mice. CONCLUSION: Therapeutic TRF exhibits modest anti-cancer properties but fails to improve anti-CTLA-4 immune checkpoint blockade in murine renal cancer.


Assuntos
Jejum , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antígeno CTLA-4/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno CTLA-4/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Humanos , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Renais/complicações , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Camundongos , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/genética
19.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4643, 2020 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938935

RESUMO

Time-restricted feeding (TRF) improves metabolism independent of dietary macronutrient composition or energy restriction. To elucidate mechanisms underpinning the effects of short-term TRF, we investigated skeletal muscle and serum metabolic and transcriptomic profiles from 11 men with overweight/obesity after TRF (8 h day-1) and extended feeding (EXF, 15 h day-1) in a randomised cross-over design (trial registration: ACTRN12617000165381). Here we show that muscle core clock gene expression was similar after both interventions. TRF increases the amplitude of oscillating muscle transcripts, but not muscle or serum metabolites. In muscle, TRF induces rhythmicity of several amino acid transporter genes and metabolites. In serum, lipids are the largest class of periodic metabolites, while the majority of phase-shifted metabolites are amino acid related. In conclusion, short-term TRF in overweight men affects the rhythmicity of serum and muscle metabolites and regulates the rhythmicity of genes controlling amino acid transport, without perturbing core clock gene expression.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/sangue , Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Jejum , Lipídeos/sangue , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Adulto , Relógios Circadianos/genética , Estudos Cross-Over , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Sobrepeso/metabolismo
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(34): e21894, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846852

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: At present, metformin is mainly used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). When the therapeutic effect is achieved, there are side effects and secondary failure will occur if taken for a long time. It is of great significance to actively explore the clinical scheme of reducing drug use while ensuring the therapeutic effect of T2DM. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility of Chinese massage (CM) in the treatment of T2DM. METHODS: Literature retrieval is divided into 2 aspects: Electronic Retrieval and Personal Check. We will search PubMed, EMBASE, CNKI, Cochrane Central, which were registered in international clinical trials registry platform systems, select all eligible studies published before November 2, 2019, and use Personal Check method to retrieve papers, conference papers, ongoing experiments, internal reports, and so on. With fasting blood glucose, 2-hour fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, and insulin index as the main observation indexes, we also pay attention to traditional Chinese medicine syndrome score scale, insulin resisting index, body mass index , serum total cholesterol, Curative effect and the occurrence of all adverse reactions in drug treatment.Of the research group 2 researchers respective selected literature, extracted data, and evaluated the risk of bias. After that we used Revman 5.7 and Stata 12.1 statistical software for meta-analysis. RESULTS: A total of 769 subjects were included in 10 studies for meta-analysis. Compared with metformin hydrochloride tablets, CM plus baseline treatment can reduce fasting plasma glucose (weighted mean difference [WMD] = -0.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] [-0.54, -0.13], Z = 3.15, P = .002), 2 hours postprandial blood glucose (WMD = -0.52, 95% CI [-0.70, -0.34), Z = 5.66, P < .00001], hemoglobin A1c (WMD = 0.12, 95% CI [0.04, 0.20], Z = 2.94, P = .003), fasting insulin (WMD = -3.59, 95% CI [-5.56, -1.42], Z = 10.29,P < .00001), traditional Chinese medicine syndrome score scale (WMD = -4.55, 95% CI [-7.58, -1.51], Z = 2.94, P = .003),homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (WMD = -1.76, 95% CI [-2.25, -1.27), Z = 7.08, P < .00001),body mass index (WMD = -1.28, 95% CI [-1.65, -0.92], Z = 6.91, P < .00001), serum total cholesterol (WMD = -1.01, 95% CI [-1.14, -0.83], Z = 15.51, P < .00001), meanwhile, the effective rate was increased (risk ratio [RR] = 1.31, 95% CI [1.21, 1.42], Z = 6.57, P < .00001). CONCLUSION: CM combined with metformin hydrochloride tablet has a synergistic effect. It can not only be used as an auxiliary treatment of T2DM, but also as an important reference way of reducing drug treatment of T2DM, improving Clinical Efficacy and reducing adverse reactions. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42020158839.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Massagem/métodos , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia/análise , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Jejum/sangue , Estudos de Viabilidade , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Massagem/tendências , Metformina/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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