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1.
Fam Community Health ; 46(1): 51-57, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36383231

RESUMO

During Ramadan, Muslims fast from dawn to dusk for the duration of the month. The current literature focuses on adults who fast, with little attention to pediatric practices. An anonymous, digital survey was conducted using Qualtrics software and distributed to residents, fellows, or attendings in Michigan in 2019. Overall, 278 participants were included in the analysis, with 87% (242/278) identifying as pediatric trained physicians. In all, 82% (228/278) of physicians identified as non-Muslim and 76% (211/278) had never partaken in the Muslim fast. About 52% (141/273) of participants had at least a moderate amount of exposure to Muslim pediatric patients in their clinical practice. Most physicians (66%; 175/265) reported they never asked their pediatric patients or their families about fasting. About 61% (167/273) of participants rated their understanding of fasting as minimal to none. Another 52% (142/273) of participants reported feeling somewhat or extremely uncomfortable discussing fasting recommendations with their pediatric patients and their families. Our study is the first of its kind in assessing current knowledge and practice regarding pediatric Muslim fasting among physicians in the United States. In addition, it highlights a gap in physicians' understanding and comfort in providing anticipatory guidance for their Muslim patients.


Assuntos
Jejum , Médicos , Adulto , Humanos , Criança , Estados Unidos , Islamismo , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249104, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339389

RESUMO

Abstract The present study was designed to evaluate the strength of association of raised plasma homocysteine concentration as a risk factor for coronary heart disease independent of conventional risk factor. It was a case control study conducted at Punjab Institute of Cardiology Lahore. A total of 210 subjects aged 25 to 60 years comprising of 105 newly admitted patients of CHD as cases and 105 age and sex matched healthy individuals with no history of CHD as control were recruited for the study. Fasting blood samples were obtained from cases and controls. Plasma homocysteine was analyzed by fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) method on automated immunoassay analyzer (Abbott IMX). Total cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL cholesterol were analyzed using calorimetric kit methods. The concentration of LDL cholesterol was calculated using Friedewald formula. The patients were also assessed for traditional risk factors such as age, sex, family history of CVD, hypertension, smoking and physical activity, and were compared with control subjects. The collected data was entered in SPSS version 24 for analysis and interpretation.The mean age in controls and experimental groups were 43.00± 8.42 years and 44.72± 8.59 years with statistically same distribution (p- value= 0.144). The mean plasma homocysteine for cases was 22.33± 9.22 µmol/L where as it was 12.59±3.73 µmol/L in control group. Highly significant difference was seen between the mean plasma level of homocysteine in cases and controls (p˂0.001).Simple logistic regression indicates a strong association of coronary heart disease with hyperhomocysteinemia (OR 7.45), which remained significantly associated with coronary heart disease by multivariate logistic regression (OR 7.10, 95%C1 3.12-12.83, p=0.000). The present study concludes that elevated levels of Plasma homocysteine is an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease independent of conventional risk factors and can be used as an indicator for predicting the future possibility for the onset of CVD.


Resumo O presente estudo foi desenhado para avaliar a força da associação da concentração elevada de homocisteína no plasma como um fator de risco para doença cardíaca coronária independente do fator de risco convencional. Foi um estudo de caso-controle realizado no Punjab Institute of Cardiology Lahore. Um total de 210 indivíduos com idade entre 25 e 60 anos, compreendendo 105 pacientes recém-admitidos de CHD como casos e 105 indivíduos saudáveis ​​pareados por idade e sexo sem histórico de CHD como controle, foi recrutado para o estudo. Amostras de sangue em jejum foram obtidas de casos e controles. A homocisteína plasmática foi analisada pelo método de imunoensaio de polarização de fluorescência (FPIA) em analisador de imunoensaio automatizado (Abbott IMX). Colesterol total, triglicerídeos e colesterol HDL foram analisados ​​usando métodos de kit calorimétrico. A concentração de colesterol LDL foi calculada pela fórmula de Friedewald. Os pacientes também foram avaliados para fatores de risco tradicionais, como idade, sexo, história familiar de DCV, hipertensão, tabagismo e atividade física, e foram comparados com indivíduos de controle. Os dados coletados foram inseridos no SPSS versão 24 para análise e interpretação. A média de idade nos grupos controles e experimentais foi de 43,00 ± 8,42 anos e 44,72 ± 8,59 anos com distribuição estatisticamente igual (p-valor = 0,144). A homocisteína plasmática média para os casos foi de 22,33 ± 9,22 µmol / L, enquanto no grupo controle foi de 12,59 ± 3,73 µmol / L. Diferença altamente significativa foi observada entre o nível plasmático médio de homocisteína em casos e controles (p ˂ 0,001). A regressão logística simples indica uma forte associação de doença cardíaca coronária com hiper-homocisteinemia (OR 7,45), que permaneceu significativamente associada com doença cardíaca coronária por multivariada regressão logística (OR 7,10, 95% C1 3,12-12,83, p = 0,000). O presente estudo conclui que níveis elevados de homocisteína plasmática são fator de risco independente para doença cardíaca coronária, independentemente dos fatores de risco convencionais, e pode ser usado como um indicador para prever a possibilidade futura de aparecimento de DCV.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença das Coronárias/embriologia , Hiper-Homocisteinemia/diagnóstico , Hiper-Homocisteinemia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Fatores de Risco , Jejum
3.
Clin Pharmacol Drug Dev ; 11(2): 165-172, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453416

RESUMO

Tadalafil is an effective, reversible, and competitive phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor mainly used to treat erectile dysfunction. This study investigated the bioequivalence of generic and marketed formulations of 10-mg tadalafil tablets under fasted and fed conditions. This open-label, randomized, single-dose, 2-period crossover study included 53 healthy Chinese men (aged 20-43 years). Plasma samples were collected from 0.5 hours before treatment to 72 hours after each dose and analyzed using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using noncompartmental analysis. Safety assessments were performed throughout the study. For the fasted state, the 90% confidence intervals of the geometric mean ratios between the generic and marketed formulations were 86.1% to 99.1% for the maximum plasma concentration and 88.4% to 100.3% for the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity, and the corresponding values under the fed state were and 99.9% to 108.4% and 95.7% to 104.3%, respectively. All data were within the accepted bioequivalence range of 80% to 125%. After consuming high-fat, high-calorie meals in the fed condition, the time to the maximum plasma concentration was similar between the formulations, and area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity and maximum plasma concentration were 10.2% and 6.55% higher, respectively, for the marketed formulation. Thus, food had no clinically relevant effect on tadalafil exposure following a single oral dose in healthy Chinese men. No serious adverse reactions were reported. These results indicated that the analyzed generic and marketed tadalafil tablets were bioequivalent with similar safety profiles.


Assuntos
Jejum , Adulto , China , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Masculino , Comprimidos , Tadalafila/efeitos adversos , Equivalência Terapêutica , Adulto Jovem
5.
Horm Metab Res ; 54(2): 84-93, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130569

RESUMO

Long-term glycemic fluctuation has been associated with cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the findings are inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis to summarize the association between parameters of long-term glycemic variability and risk of cardiovascular events in T2DM patients. Medline, Embase, and Web of Science databases were searched for longitudinal follow-up studies comparing the incidence of cardiovascular events in T2DM patients with higher or lower long-term glycemic variability. A random-effect model incorporating the potential heterogeneity among the included studies was used to pool the results. Twelve follow-up studies with 146 653 T2DM patients were included. The mean follow-up duration was 4.9 years. Pooled results showed that compared to those with the lowest glycemic variability, patients with the highest glycemic variability had significantly increased risk of cardiovascular events, as evidenced by the standard deviation of glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c-SD: relative risk (RR)=1.44, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.23 to 1.69, p<0.001; I2=70%], HbA1c coefficient of variation (HbA1c-CV: RR=1.46, 95% CI: 1.19 to 1.79. p<0.001; I2=83%), standard deviation of fasting plasma glucose (FPG-SD: RR=1.33, 95% CI: 1.07 to 1.65, p=0.009; I2=0%), and FPG coefficient of variation (FPG-CV: RR=1.29, 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.64, p=0.04; I2=47%). In conclusion, increased long-term glycemic variability may be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events in T2DM patients.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Glicemia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Jejum , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
6.
Dan Med J ; 69(12)2022 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36458611

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Our aim was to conduct a follow-up of a cohort of women screened for GDM with a normal oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) during pregnancy to investigate the incidence and time of diagnosis of manifest diabetes mellitus and identify risk factors for subsequent development of diabetes. METHODS: This was a follow-up study of a cohort with normal and borderline OGTT in 1991/1992. Among the original 352 women, only five were lost to follow-up. RESULTS: In total, 64 women (18%) had manifest diabetes. Their median age was 57 years after 28 years of follow-up. This amounts to three times the expected rate compared with the background population. The rate of manifest diabetes rises 10-20 years after pregnancy and after the age of 40 years. A normal fasting glucose and also a borderline fasting glucose at OGTT during pregnancy were associated with an increased risk of manifest diabetes (p less-than 0.001), also after adjustment for age, Body Mass Index, non-Danish origin and smoking during pregnancy (p less-than 0.002). CONCLUSION: The incidence of diabetes is higher in women with various risk factors for DM and a previously normal OGTT in pregnancy than in the background population. Our results are useful in identifying the time during which women may benefit from effective implementation of evidence-based treatment to postpone and avert manifest DM, even though they had a normal OGTT during pregnancy. FUNDING: none. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered with the the Regional Ethics Committee and the Data Protection Agency, nos. 2014-41-3433, 1-16-02-824-17 (under running permission no. 621549), 1-16-02-825-17, and 1-16-02-180-17, all under the cover of data handling agreement no. 509 with the Danish Health Authority.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Jejum , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Seguimentos , Glucose , Índice de Massa Corporal
7.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 43(10): 1590-1595, 2022 Oct 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36456490

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the association of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in the Chinese middle-aged and elderly population from four provinces. Methods: Data were drawn from the baseline data of the Community-based Cohort Study on Nervous System Disease 2018-2019. We selected 3 272 subjects aged 55 and above with completed information on demographics, lifestyle, disease history, cognitive test, psychological assessment, and bio-chemistries measurement, and who were capable of performing basic activities of daily living but without Alzheimer's disease during recruitment. A multivariate logistic regression model was employed to analyze the association between FPG and MCI. Results: Median level of FPG in the study population was 5.5 mmol/L. The prevalence of MCI was 24.8%, and those in groups of the FPG quintile were 19.4%, 22.2%, 29.2%, 26.6%, and 26.1%, respectively, which significantly increased the trend (P=0.002). After adjustment of confounders, multivariate logistic regression analysis found that the MCI risk of subjects in the Q3,Q4 and Q5 groups was 1.641 (95%CI: 1.226-2.131), 1.373 (95%CI: 1.036-1.825), 1.402 (95%CI: 1.054-1.871) times as high as that in the Q1 group, respectively. Conclusion: High FPG level might serve as a risk factor for MCI in the middle-aged and elderly population, suggesting the importance of monitoring and controlling plasma glucose even without diabetes.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Jejum , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Humanos , Idoso , Glicemia , Atividades Cotidianas , Estudos de Coortes , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia
8.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 43(10): 1603-1610, 2022 Oct 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36456492

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the relationship of serum uric acid with prediabetes and newly detected type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in adults. Methods: Data were obtained from the baseline investigation of Songjiang Peak-Plan cohort. According to the baseline fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin, the eligible subjects were divided into normal blood sugar group, prediabetes group, and newly detected T2DM group. Unconditional logistic regression model was used to explore the effect of serum uric acid level on prediabetes and newly detected T2DM, and restricted cubic spline (RCS) function was used to explore the nonlinear dose-response relationship of serum uric acid level with the prevalence of prediabetes and newly detected T2DM. Results: A total of 30 375 subjects were included in the analysis, with an average age of (55.36±11.52) years, and 60.2% (18 299) of them were women. The baseline survey found that the prevalence of prediabetes was 38.6% (11 739 cases), and the prevalence of newly detected T2DM was 6.6% (1 992 cases). Logistic regression analysis showed that, in women, for every 10µmol/L increase in serum uric acid, the risk of developing prediabetes and T2DM s increased by 2.4% (OR=1.024, 95%CI: 1.018-1.030), and 1.5% (OR=1.015, 95%CI: 1.005-1.025), respectively; in men, for every 10 µmol/L increase in serum uric acid, the risk of developing prediabetes and T2DM decreased by 0.8% (OR=0.992, 95%CI: 0.987-0.998) and 5.0% (OR=0.950, 95%CI: 0.939-0.960), respectively. The RCS function showed that the serum uric acid level showed a nonlinear dose-response relationship with newly detected T2DM (P=0.017), but not with prediabetes (P=0.670) in women and showed a nonlinear dose-response relationship with both prediabetes (P=0.040) and newly detected T2DM (P<0.001) in men. Conclusions: Adult women are at increased risk of prediabetes and newly detected T2DM with increase of serum uric acid level, and adult men are at decreased risk of newly diagnosed T2DM with the increase of serum uric acid level. There was no significant relationship between serum uric acid level and prediabetes in men.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Estado Pré-Diabético , Adulto , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Ácido Úrico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Hemoglobina A Glicada , Jejum
9.
S Afr Med J ; 112(8b): 594-606, 2022 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36458353

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Worldwide, higher-than-optimal fasting plasma glucose (FPG) is among the leading modifiable risk factors associated with all- cause mortality and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) due to the direct sequelae of diabetes and the increased risk for cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease. OBJECTIVES: To report deaths and DALYs of health outcomes attributable to high FPG by age and sex for South Africa (SA) for 2000, 2006 and 2012. METHODS: Comparative risk assessment methodology was used to estimate the burden attributable to high FPG. A meta-regression analysis was performed using data from national and small-area studies to estimate the population distribution of FPG and diabetes prevalence. Attributable fractions were calculated for selected health outcomes and applied to local burden estimates from the second South African National Burden of Disease Study (SANBD2). Age-standardised rates were calculated using World Health Organization world standard population weights. RESULTS: We estimated a 5% increase in mean FPG from 5.31 (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.18 - 5.43) mmol/L to 5.57 (95% CI 5.41 - 5.72) mmol/L and a 75% increase in diabetes prevalence from 7.3% (95% CI 6.7 - 8.3) to 12.8% (95% CI 11.9 - 14.0) between 2000 and 2012. The age-standardised attributable death rate increased from 153.7 (95% CI 126.9 - 192.7) per 100 000 population in 2000 to 203.5 (95% CI 172.2 - 240.8) per 100 000 population in 2012, i.e. a 32.4% increase. During the same period, age-standardised attributable DALY rates increased by 43.8%, from 3 000 (95% CI 2 564 - 3 602) per 100 000 population in 2000 to 4 312 (95% CI 3 798 - 4 916) per 100 000 population in 2012. In each year, females had similar attributable death rates to males but higher DALY rates. A notable exception was tuberculosis, with an age-standardised attributable death rate in males double that in females in 2000 (14.3 v. 7.0 per 100 000 population) and 2.2 times higher in 2012 (18.4 v. 8.5 per 100 000 population). Similarly, attributable DALY rates were higher in males, 1.7 times higher in 2000 (323 v. 186 per 100 000 population) and 1.6 times higher in 2012 (502 v. 321 per 100 000 population). Between 2000 and 2012, the age-standardised death rate for chronic kidney disease increased by 98.3% (from 11.7 to 23.1 per 100 000 population) and the DALY rate increased by 116.9% (from 266 to 578 per 100 000 population). CONCLUSION: High FPG is emerging as a public health crisis, with an attributable burden doubling between 2000 and 2012. The consequences are costly in terms of quality of life, ability to earn an income, and the economic and emotional burden on individuals and their families. Urgent action is needed to curb the increase and reduce the burden associated with this risk factor. National data on FPG distribution are scant, and efforts are warranted to ensure adequate monitoring of the effectiveness of the interventions.


Assuntos
Jejum , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Feminino , Masculino , Humanos , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Glicemia , Qualidade de Vida , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença
10.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 21(1): 267, 2022 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36463152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to assess the gender-specific impact of 3-year changes in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) status on the risk of all-cause, cardiovascular (CV), and cancer mortality in individuals without type 2 diabetes (T2DM) during an 18-year follow-up. METHODS: The study population included 14,378 participants aged 30-60 years (8272 women) from three population-based cohort studies, including Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities, Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, and Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Subjects were classified into six categories based on the approximately three-year changes in FPG status: (1) normal FPG (NFG) to NFG (reference category); (2) NFG to impaired fasting glucose (IFG) (i.e., 126 > FPG ≥ 100 mg/dl); (3) NFG to T2DM; (4) IFG to NFG; (5) IFG to IFG; (6) IFG to T2DM. Multivariable stratified Cox regression, adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), BMI-Change, smoking status, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs (95% CI)) for all-cause and cause-specific mortality events. Women-to-men ratios of HRs (RHRs) for each category were also estimated. RESULTS: During follow-up, 2,362 all-cause mortality events were recorded. Among women, all categories of FPG change, excluding IFG-NFG (HR, 95%CI 1.24 (0.98-1.57), p = 0.07), were associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality compared to the NFG-NFG category. Moreover, women in IFG-T2DM group were at increased risk for CV mortality (2.21 (1.42-3.44)). We also found that women in NFG-IFG (1.52 (1.20-1.91)), NFG-T2DM (2.90 (1.52-5.51)), and IFG-IFG (1.30 (1.02-1.66)) categories had a higher risk for cancer mortality. However, among men, a higher risk of all-cause mortality was found for only two groups of NFG-T2DM (1.78 (1.15-2.74)) and IFG-T2DM (1.34 (1.04-1.72)). Women with IFG-IFG had a 24% higher risk for all-cause mortality events than their men counterparts (RHR; 1.24 (1.01-1.54)). After further adjustment for physical activity, results were in line with the main findings, excluding T2DM up to six years after the measurement period and early mortality events. CONCLUSION: In women, the IFG status, whether as incident, persistent, or converted to T2DM, had a higher risk for mortality events; however, among men, only conversion to T2DM conferred an excess risk of all-cause mortality.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Neoplasias , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Glicemia , Jejum , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Glucose
11.
Turk J Med Sci ; 52(3): 724-729, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36326333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common rheumatic disease in childhood and manifests mainly as autoinflammation of the joints and other tissues. Several treatment options such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, methotrexate, and intra-articular steroids are widely used to relieve and improve this inflammation. Secondary carnitine deficiency can be detected in chronic diseases by either renal loss or increased demand. While carnitine status can be associated with several conditions, in the present study our aim is to determine the levels of free carnitine and acyl-carnitine in Turkish JIA patients. METHODS: One hundred and fourteen patients diagnosed with juvenile idiopathic arthritis and 50 healthy individuals who served as the control group were included in the study. A fasting blood sample was collected from the children in both groups to determine free carnitine and acylcarnitine ester by quadripole electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/ MS). RESULTS: Screening of acyl-carnitine profile revealed free carnitine, C14, C14:2, C16, C16-OH, and C18 carnitine levels were higher (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p = 0.011, respectively), while C2, C3, C4, C6, C8, C10, C10:1, C10:2, C3DC, C4DC, C5DC, C4-OH, and C18:1-OH carnitine levels were lower (p < 0.0001) in JIA patients in comparison to the control group. Total acyl-carnitine levels (p < 0.001) and acyl-carnitine to free carnitine ratio (p < 0.001) were also lower in JIA patients than the control group. Free carnitine levels were significantly higher (48.05 ± 13.36 µmol/L) in patients under antiinflammatory drug therapy than those who did not receive any treatment (43.18 ± 7.96 µmol/L) (p = 0.004). DISCUSSION: In the present study we were not able to define secondary carnitine deficiency in JIA patients, although free carnitine and acyl-carnitine variations were detected in JIA patients. In conclusion, routine carnitine supplementation is not recommended in all patients with JIA.


Assuntos
Artrite Juvenil , Criança , Humanos , Artrite Juvenil/tratamento farmacológico , Carnitina , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Jejum , Aminoácidos
12.
J Obstet Gynaecol Res ; 48(11): 2748-2755, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36319200

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) affects glucose metabolism by increasing insulin secretion and insulin receptor expression. However, whether 25(OH)D deficiency will increase the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has not been clearly reported. The purpose of this study is to assess the relationship between vitamin D levels in the second trimester of pregnancy and the risk of GDM. METHODS: According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 247 pregnant women came to the fourth hospital of Shijiazhuang (The affiliated obstetrics and gynecology hospital of Hebei Medical University) for obstetrics were investigated during the period of January 1, 2019 to December 31, 2020. The levels of 25(OH)D in the second trimester (16-20 weeks) and oral 75 g glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at 24-28 weeks of pregnancy were reviewed. The sociodemographic data were collected from questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between vitamin D levels and GDM. RESULTS: The incidence of GDM in the observation group (25(OH)D ≤ 26 ng/ml) was higher than that in the control group (25(OH)D > 26 ng/ml) (p = 0.039). Compared with control group, the observation group had significantly higher level of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (4.7 [4.5-5.0] mmol/L vs. 4.6 [4.4-4.8] mmol/L, p = 0.012). In the whole study, the level of 25(OH)D was negatively correlated with FPG (r = - 0.164,p = 0.010). After adjusting for age, pre-pregnancy BMI, parity and adverse pregnancy history, compared with the observation group (25 (OH) D ≤ 26 ng/ml), the risk of developing GDM decreased by 50.9% in control group (25(OH)D > 26 ng/ml) (odds ratio [OR] = 0.491, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.243-0.989, p = 0.047). CONCLUSION: Adequate vitamin D levels during the second trimester of pregnancy may reduce the risk of GDM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez , Vitamina D , Calcifediol , Jejum , Glicemia
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18435, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36319655

RESUMO

High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) is a key inflammatory factor in atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. In Chinese patients with coronary heart disease (CHD), the changes in hs-CRP levels after a daily meal and the effect of statins on those were never explored. A total of 300 inpatients with CHD were included in this study. Hs-CRP levels were measured in the fasting and non-fasting states at 2 h and 4 h after a daily breakfast. All inpatients were divided into two groups according to fasting hs-CRP ≤ 3 mg/L or not. Group with fasting hs-CRP ≤ 3 mg/L had a significantly higher percentage of patients with statins using ≥ 1 month (m) before admission than that with fasting hs-CRP > 3 mg/L (51.4% vs. 23.9%, P < 0.05). Hs-CRP levels increased significantly in the non-fasting state in two groups (P < 0.05). About 32% of patients with non-fasting hs-CRP > 3 mg/L came from those with fasting hs-CRP ≤ 3 mg/L. In conclusion, hs-CRP levels increased significantly in CHD patients after a daily meal. It suggested that the non-fasting hs-CRP level could be a better parameter to evaluate the inflammation state of CHD patients rather than fasting hs-CRP level.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases , Humanos , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Jejum , China
14.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0275684, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36322540

RESUMO

Intermittent fasting (IF) is an alternating pattern of restricting eating. This study evaluated mental and physical fatigue secondary to IF (daily 18-hour fast, 7-days-a-week) in the high-fat diet (HFD)-induced male obese Sprague Dawley rats. Fifty-four rats were randomly assigned to a HFD (n = 28) or a standard diet (SD; n = 26). After six weeks, the HFD rats were divided into one of four groups: obese HFD ad libitum (OB-HFD-AL), obese HFD-IF (OB-HFD-IF), obese SD-AL (OB-SD-AL), and obese SD-IF (OB-SD-IF). Similarly, non-obese controls were grouped into HFD-AL (C-HFD-AL), non-obese HFD-IF (C-HFD-IF), non-obese SD-AL (C-SD-AL), and non-obese SD-IF (C-SD-IF). After 2 weeks of IF, mental and physical fatigue were measured using open field (OF) and novel object recognition (NOR) tests. Rats on IF gained weight at a slower pace (p<0.05) and had lower glucose levels (p<0.01) compared to the AL group. In non-obese rats, ketone levels were higher in the IF-HFD group than IF-SD (p<0.05) and AL-SD (p<0.01) animals. Obese rats exhibited elevated blood ketone levels in IF-SD conditions versus AL-SD rats (p<0.01). AL-HFD rats had higher ketone levels than AL-SD animals in both obese and non-obese groups (p<0.05). In conclusion, rats with higher blood ketone levels, whether they were on IF or AL, traveled a greater distance during OF suggesting a lack of physical fatigue. There was no significant difference between IF and AL during NOR indicating a lack of mental fatigue. Thus, IF results in reduced body weight and blood glucose levels but does not induce physical or mental fatigue.


Assuntos
Jejum , Obesidade , Ratos , Masculino , Animais , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Obesidade/complicações , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Cetonas , Fadiga Mental
15.
Turk J Med Sci ; 52(4): 873-879, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36326405

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One of the most important components of treatment for diabetic patients is diet and healthy nutrition therapy. Calorie restriction is effective and without cost increases its appeal for both patients and physicians. Unfortunately, continuous calorie restriction is a difficult method. For this reason, alternative calorie restriction methods, such as intermittent fasting (IF), have been investigated by some researchers. METHODS: IF refers to a wide range of diet programmes covering periods of eating and fasting, which vary according to the different regimens. In this article, first, some general information will enable us to understand the concept of IF, and then scientific evidence with respect to IF applications in diabetes will be discussed in detail. Thereafter our clinical experience will be summarised, finally, the author will try to answer the question "are the IF applications beneficial or harmful for diabetic patients?" RESULTS: Considering animal studies, epidemiological studies, pilot studies, clinical experiences and a small number of randomized controlled trials conducted so far, it seems possible to say that the beneficial effects of IF for diabetes patients are greater than potential harms. However, there are not yet enough studies with a high level of evidence to recommend IF as a routine part of the treatment in patients with diabetes. DISCUSSION: It is necessary to show which IF regimen is safe and effective, how often and for how long, for diabetic patients. This seems possible with well-designed randomized controlled trials focusing on long-term clinical outcomes and eliminating confounding factors. This will make the answer clearer.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Jejum , Humanos , Restrição Calórica/métodos , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Dieta , Jejum/efeitos adversos , Obesidade
16.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 994707, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36339408

RESUMO

Purpose: An end-of-fast insulin level ≥ 3 µIU/ml, C-peptide level ≥ 0.6 ng/ml, and proinsulin level ≥ 5 pmol/l with end-of-fast glucose level ≤ 3.0 mmol/l have been established as the criteria for endogenous hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. However, all these criteria have been proposed based on patients in Western populations. This study aimed to determine the optimal criteria using a large series of Chinese patients. Methods: This retrospective study comprised 144 patients with surgically proven insulinoma and 40 controls who underwent a 72-h fasting test at the Peking Union Medical College Hospital(PUMCH) from 2000 to 2020. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used for analysis. Results: In this series of patients, the optimal diagnostic criteria for endogenous hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia were insulin ≥ 5.5 µIU/ml, C-peptide ≥ 0.7 ng/ml, and proinsulin ≥ 12 pmol/l with end-of-fast glucose ≤ 2.8 mmol/l; the sensitivity and specificity were 99% and 100% for insulin, 100% and 100% for C-peptide, and 93% and 100% for proinsulin, respectively. The diagnostic efficacy of the criteria based on Western populations was then tested. The sensitivity and specificity of end-of-fast insulin ≥ 3 µIU/ml, C-peptide ≥ 0.6 ng/ml, and proinsulin ≥ 5 pmol/l with end-of-fast glucose ≤ 3.0 mmol/l were 100% and 83%, 100% and 80%, and 97% and 78%, respectively. Conclusions: New and optimized diagnostic criteria for endogenous hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia in Chinese populations have been proposed, and these criteria yield satisfactory accuracy.


Assuntos
Hiperinsulinismo Congênito , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Humanos , Proinsulina , Peptídeo C , Estudos Retrospectivos , Jejum , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Insulina , Glucose , China/epidemiologia
17.
Front Public Health ; 10: 960928, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36424968

RESUMO

Introduction: Previous studies based on a single measure of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) showed an inconsistent conclusion about the association between FPG and osteoporosis risk. Not accounting for time-varying and cumulative average of FPG over time could bias the true relation between FPG and osteoporosis. Our study aims to investigate the association between the trajectories of FPG and osteoporosis risk for non-diabetic and diabetic populations. Methods: A total of 18,313 participants who attended physical examinations during 2008-2018 were included. They were free of osteoporosis at their first physical examination and followed until their last physical examination before December 31, 2018. We recorded their incidence of osteoporosis and at least three FPG values during follow-up. Their longitudinal FPG trajectories were identified by the latent class growth analysis model based on the changes in FPG. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between the trajectories of FPG and osteoporosis diagnosed in the follow-up physical examination in both non-diabetics and diabetics. Results: There were 752 incident osteoporosis among 16,966 non-diabetic participants, and 57 incident osteoporosis among 1,347 diabetic participants. Among non-diabetics, the elevated-increasing FPG trajectory was negatively associated with osteoporosis risk in women (odds ratio (OR), 0.62; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.43-0.88). Premenopausal women with elevated-increasing FPG trajectory had lower osteoporosis risk than those women with normal-stable FPG trajectory (OR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.20-0.88), while this association was insignificant in postmenopausal women. Among diabetics, those whose longitudinal FPG is kept at a very high level had the highest risk of osteoporosis (OR, 3.09; 95% CI, 1.16-8.22), whereas those whose FPG starts with the high level and keeps on increasing did not exhibit a significantly increased risk (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 0.81-3.76) compared with those who keep stable moderate-high level of FPG, except in men (OR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.02-6.12). Conclusion: Distinct trajectories of FPG are associated with differential risk of osteoporosis in non-diabetic and diabetic populations. Controlling a proper FPG level in different populations is necessary for osteoporosis prevention.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Osteoporose , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Jejum , Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Incidência , Osteoporose/epidemiologia
18.
J Nutr Sci ; 11: e94, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36405095

RESUMO

Alternate day fasting (ADF) with consumption of calories up to 25 % of the daily energy intake on fast days is one of the most used intermittent fasting regimens and promoted as a promising, alternative approach for treating obesity. Feelings of appetite are critical for adherence to dietary approaches, and therefore the success of dietary interventions. This systematic review aimed to assess the effects of a minimum of 8 weeks of ADF on subjective feelings of appetite and body weight for adults with overweight and obesity. We conducted the review in accordance with the Cochrane guidelines, including systematic searches in four databases. Because of the high level of clinical and methodological heterogeneity, a narrative approach was used to synthesise the results. Eight studies with a total of 456 participants met the eligibility criteria: three randomised controlled trials and five uncontrolled before-after studies. Seven of the studies had high risk of bias. Feelings of appetite were assessed by hunger in eight studies, fullness in seven studies, satisfaction in four studies and desire to eat in one study. All the studies assessed weight loss. The certainty of the evidence was rated low or very low for all outcomes, thus no firm conclusions can be drawn about the potential benefits of ADF on subjective feelings of appetite and body weight. Despite the high interest in ADF, good quality evidence is still needed to determine its effectiveness and if offered in clinical practice, ADF should be offered cautiously while concomitantly evaluated.


Assuntos
Apetite , Sobrepeso , Humanos , Adulto , Jejum , Peso Corporal , Obesidade
19.
Nat Med ; 28(11): 2293-2300, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36357677

RESUMO

The implementation of recommendations for type 2 diabetes (T2D) screening and diagnosis focuses on the measurement of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and fasting glucose. This approach leaves a large number of individuals with isolated impaired glucose tolerance (iIGT), who are only detectable through oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs), at risk of diabetes and its severe complications. We applied machine learning to the proteomic profiles of a single fasted sample from 11,546 participants of the Fenland study to test discrimination of iIGT defined using the gold-standard OGTTs. We observed significantly improved discriminative performance by adding only three proteins (RTN4R, CBPM and GHR) to the best clinical model (AUROC = 0.80 (95% confidence interval: 0.79-0.86), P = 0.004), which we validated in an external cohort. Increased plasma levels of these candidate proteins were associated with an increased risk for future T2D in an independent cohort and were also increased in individuals genetically susceptible to impaired glucose homeostasis and T2D. Assessment of a limited number of proteins can identify individuals likely to be missed by current diagnostic strategies and at high risk of T2D and its complications.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Intolerância à Glucose , Humanos , Intolerância à Glucose/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Glicemia/metabolismo , Proteômica , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Jejum
20.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1017254, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36388372

RESUMO

Intermittent fasting (IF), time-restricted eating (TRE) and fasting-mimicking diets (FMD) are gaining popularity as weight loss programs. As such, the timing and frequency of meals have been recognized as essential contributors to improving cardiometabolic health and a role as adjuvant therapy in cancer. Randomized controlled trials suggested that the weight loss associated with IF is due to a reduced energy intake due to time restriction. Although the supervised TRE clinical trials documented the dietary caloric intake, many free-living studies focused on the timing of meals without a complete characterization of the dietary intake, caloric density, or macronutrient composition. It is possible that both caloric-restriction diets and time-restriction protocols could work synergistically or additively to improve metabolic health outcomes. Like personalized medicine, achieving precision nutrition mandates the provision of the right nutrients to the right patient at the right time. To accomplish this goal, future studies need to evaluate the benefits of IF and TRE. Randomized controlled trials were conducted in different populations, ethnic groups, ages, geographic distribution, physical activity levels, body composition and in patients with obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Also, it is crucial to analyze the dietary composition and caloric density as related to circadian rhythm and timing of meals. It is conceivable that IF and TRE may contribute to precision nutrition strategies to achieve optimal health. However, more research is needed to evaluate IF and TRE effects on health outcomes and any side effects.


Assuntos
Restrição Calórica , Jejum , Humanos , Redução de Peso , Ingestão de Energia , Obesidade
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