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1.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt B): 118453, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737025

RESUMO

Whether propylene oxide (PO) exposure is associated with hyperglycemia were rarely explored. We aimed to determine the relationship between PO exposure and glucose metabolism, and potential role of oxidative stress. Among 3294 Chinese urban adults, urinary PO metabolite (N-Acetyl-S-(2-hydroxypropyl)-L-cysteine, 2HPMA), biomarkers of oxidative DNA damage (8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-20-deoxyguanosine, 8-OHdG) and lipid peroxidation (8-isoprostane, 8-iso-PGF2α) in urine were determined. The associations of 2HPMA with 8-OHdG, 8-iso-PGF2α, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and risk of diabetes were explored. The roles of 8-OHdG and 8-iso-PGF2α on association of 2HPMA with FPG and risk of diabetes were detected. After adjusted for potential confounders, each 1-unit increase in log-transformed concentration of 2HPMA was associated with a 0.15-mmol/L increase in FPG level, and the adjusted OR (95% CI) of diabetes by the associations of log-transformed urinary 2HPMA concentrations was 1.47 (95% CI: 1.03-2.11). Combination effects of 2HPMA with 8-OHdG or 8-iso-PGF2α on risk of diabetes were detected, and elevated 8-iso-PGF2α significantly mediated 34.5% of the urinary 2HPMA-associated FPG elevation. PO exposure was positively associated with FPG levels and risk of diabetes. PO exposure combined with DNA oxidative damage or lipid peroxidation may increase the risk of diabetes, and lipid peroxidation may partially mediate the PO exposure-induced FPG elevation.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Jejum , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Glicemia , Dano ao DNA , Dinoprosta , Compostos de Epóxi , Humanos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Estresse Oxidativo
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770245

RESUMO

Religious fasting in the Holy Month of Ramadan is an important element of the Muslim culture during which no eating or drinking is permitted from dawn till dusk. A considerable number of Muslim soccer players abide by these restrictions, which may cause a negative impact on key running performance parameters during competitive matches. Alterations to diet and water intake during the Holy Month of Ramadan may affect various running performance parameters in elite Muslim professional adult soccer players. This study was conducted with two groups of soccer players from the Russian Premier League (RPL): The Exposure Group (EG) consisted of 13 Muslims age 24.0 ± 2.8 years abiding by religious fasting and the Control Group (CG) included 13 non-Muslim age 26.0 ± 4.4 years. Using the Instat system, the running performance of each player was controlled in both groups during matches from the RPL before and in the third week of Ramadan (a total of two matches for every player). None of the measured parameters demonstrated significant changes in any match. In conclusion, restrictions in diet and liquid intake during the Holy Month of Ramadan had no negative influence on the running performance of elite Muslim professional adult soccer players during daytime matches.


Assuntos
Futebol , Adulto , Ingestão de Líquidos , Jejum , Humanos , Islamismo , Federação Russa , Adulto Jovem
3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(21)2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770259

RESUMO

Hydration is an important aspect of human health, as water is a critical nutrient used in many physiological processes. However, there is currently no clinical gold standard for non-invasively assessing hydration status. Recent work has suggested that permittivity in the microwave frequency range provides a physiologically meaningful metric for hydration monitoring. Using a simple time of flight technique for estimating permittivity, this study investigates microwave-based hydration assessment using a population of volunteers fasting during Ramadan. Volunteers are measured throughout the day while fasting during Ramadan and while not fasting after Ramadan. Comparing the estimated changes in permittivity to changes in weight and the time s fails to establish a clear relationship between permittivity and hydration. Assessing the subtle changes in hydration found in a population of sedentary, healthy adults proves difficult and more work is required to determine approaches suitable for tracking subtle changes in hydration over time with microwave-based hydration assessment techniques.


Assuntos
Jejum , Micro-Ondas , Adulto , Humanos , Fenômenos Físicos , Voluntários , Água
4.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 19(1): 254, 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34772424

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus are highly vulnerable due to severe complications. However, there is a contradiction in the relationship between social support and quality of life, which warrants further exploration of the internal mechanism. This study assessed the quality of life and its interfering factors in this patient population. METHODS: In total, 571 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus over 60 years old were recruited from two community clinics in Heilongjiang Province, China. We collected data on health status, quality of life, self-management behavior, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level, and social support. Structural equation modeling and the bootstrap method were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: The average quality of life score was - 29.25 ± 24.41. Poorly scored domains of quality of life were "Psychological feeling" (- 8.67), "Activity" (- 6.36), and "Emotion" (- 6.12). Of the 571 patients, 65.32% had normal FPG, 9.8% had high-risk FPG, 15.94% had good self-management behavior, and 22.07% had poor social support. Significant correlations among social support, self-management behavior, FPG level, and quality of life were noted. A multiple mediator model revealed that social support influenced quality of life in three ways: (1) directly (c' = 0.6831); (2) indirectly through self-management behavior (a1*b1 = 0.1773); and (3) indirectly through FPG control (a2*b2 = 0.1929). Self-management behavior influenced the quality of life directly and indirectly through FPG control. CONCLUSION: Improving self-management behavior and monitoring hypoglycemia should become priority targets for future intervention. Scheduled social support to self-management projects should be put into the standardized management procedure. Physicians should provide substantial and individualized support to the elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus regarding medication, blood glucose monitoring, and physical exercise.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Autogestão , Idoso , Glicemia , Automonitorização da Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Jejum , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Apoio Social
5.
Adv Mind Body Med ; 35(4): 24-28, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34734846

RESUMO

Context: Obesity is associated with chronic diseases, including metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Fasting is commonly employed by obese people to reduce their weight. Likewise, yoga and naturopathy (YN) that include liquid fasting (LF) have been shown to be beneficial in reducing weight for people with metabolic disorders. However, the safety of LF during YN treatments and its effects on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors haven't yet been reported. Objective: The study intended to evaluate the safety of LF during YN treatments and its effects on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in people with obesity. Design: A single-group, pretest-and-posttest design was adopted for the study. Setting: The study took place in a YN hospital located in South India. Participants: Participants were 176 obese people aged between 18 and 65 years. Intervention: Together with YN treatments, all participants underwent LF using lime juice with jaggery, ash guard juice, vegetable soup, buttermilk, and kokum juice for a period of 5 consecutive days. Outcome Measures: Assessments such as body weight, body mass index (BMI), fat mass, lipid profile, and blood pressure were taken at baseline and postintervention. Results: Participants showed a significant reduction in body weight, BMI, fat mass, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Conclusions: The results suggest that LF during YN treatment canbe effective in reducing metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in people with obesity.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Naturopatia , Ioga , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Jejum , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/terapia , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
6.
Am J Case Rep ; 22: e934187, 2021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34840324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Tetrahydrocannabinol has been implicated in gastroparesis development, a disorder characterized by delayed gastric emptying in the absence of mechanical obstruction. While most patients with gastroparesis present with upper gastrointestinal symptoms, patients with significantly delayed emptying can be asymptomatic, creating a dangerous aspiration risk. CASE REPORT A 24-year-old man with a body mass index of 22 presented for right lower extremity open reduction and internal fixation. He endorsed daily marijuana use. His last meal was at 10 PM the prior night. After induction of general anesthesia and laryngeal mask airway (LMA) placement, 150 cc of gastric contents filled the LMA. The LMA was immediately removed and 25 to 50 cc of gastric contents was suctioned from the oropharynx. The airway was immediately secured with an endotracheal tube, after which 500 cc of clear gastric contents was suctioned from the stomach. Bronchoscopy revealed no obvious gastric contents in the tracheobronchial tree. The patient maintained adequate ventilation and oxygenation. He was safely extubated and brought to the post-anesthesia care unit, where recovery was uneventful. CONCLUSIONS Our case raises important questions and considerations for management of THC- dependent patients with potential for impacting NPO guidelines. It is unclear whether the quantity and chronicity of THC use effects gastroparesis development. The patient endorsed no signs of hyperemesis syndrome or gastric fullness; therefore, we cannot reliably deem patients risk-free based on their lack of symptomology alone. Until the true incidence of THC-induced gastroparesis is elicited in further studies, it is prudent to take aspiration precautions in all patients who endorse THC use.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Gastroparesia , Adulto , Anestesia Geral , Cannabis/efeitos adversos , Jejum , Gastroparesia/etiologia , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 31(12): 1482-1486, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794292

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency and time of onset of new-onset diabetes after transplant (NODAT) and its associated factors. STUDY DESIGN: Observational study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Nephrology, Bahria International Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan, from April 2016 to April 2018. METHODOLOGY: NODAT was diagnosed according to American Diabetes Association Criteria with fasting plasma glucose >126 mg/dl or random plasma glucose >200 mg/dl. Those with pre-existing diabetes and follow-up duration less than 12months, were excluded. Patients were divided in two groups: with and without NODAT, for statistical comparison. RESULTS: The study included 115 patients, 101 were males and the median age was 35.0 (29.0-46.0) years. During the one-year period of follow-up, 28 (24.3%) patients developed NODAT. The mean time of onset of NODAT was 5.3 ± 3.6 months. Family history of diabetes was positive in 46% patients in NODAT group, which was significantly higher as compared to 5.7% in non-NODAT group with p-value of <0.001, which is significant. All patients with more than three HLA mismatches developed NODAT. The mean fasting glucose levels (FPG) before transplant in NODAT group was 96.6 ± 15.4 mg/dl, which was significantly higher than FPG of non-NODAT group, where it was 80.5 ± 12.2 mg/dl. It was interesting to note that 35.7% of hepatitis patients developed NODAT as compared to 6 % in non-NODAT group with p =  0.001. CONCLUSION: NODAT was observed in 24.3% patients. The pre-transplant FPG, family history of diabetes, increased HLA mismatches, and hepatitis C infection were the major associated factors. Key Words: New onset diabetes after transplant, Fasting plasma glucose, Renal transplant.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Transplante de Rim , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/etiologia , Jejum , Humanos , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
8.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(3): 482-487, 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814417

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the relationship of triglyceride (TG), fasting blood glucose (FPG) and triglyceride glucose product index (TyG) with the incidence of hypertension, and provide basic data for the prevention and treatment of hypertension in the population. Methods: A total of 23 581 individuals who met the research criteria in Jinchang cohort were selected as the research subjects, the Cox proportional hazard model was used to analyze the relationship of TG, FPG, and TyG with the risk of hypertension. A stratified analysis was conducted by sex. Results: After adjusting for confounding factors, compared with the normal TG group, the HR(95%CI) of the elevated TG margin group and the elevated group were 1.16 (1.01-1.34) and 1.49 (1.30-1.70), respectively in the total population. Among men, they were 1.13 (1.01-1.27) and 1.17 (1.06-1.30), and among women, they were 1.05 (0.88-1.26) and 1.06 (0.88-1.28). Compared with the normal FPG group, the HR (95%CI) of the FPG-impaired group were 1.29 (1.13-1.48) in the total population, 1.26 (1.08-1.48) in men and 1.59 (1.14-2.21) in women. Taking the lowest quartile array as a reference, the HR (95%CI) of the highest quartile array of TyG was 1.73 (1.45-2.07) in the total population, 1.32 (1.14-1.53) in men and 1.87 (1.37-2.54) in women. TG, FPG had a nonlinear dose-response relationship with the risk of hypertension, while TyG had a linear correlation with the risk of hypertension. Conclusions: Higher TG, FPG, and TyG levels are independent risk factors for the incidence of hypertension. People with higher TG, FPG and TyG are at high risk for hypertension, to which close attention should be paid in the prevention and treatment of hypertension.


Assuntos
Jejum , Hipertensão , Biomarcadores , Glicemia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Glucose , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Triglicerídeos
9.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(7): 1274-1279, 2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814543

RESUMO

Objective: To establish a multi-state Markov model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients and explore the transition rule between the cumulative number of different chronic complications, estimate the transition probability and intensity between status, and explore the possible factors affecting the transition between status. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of 33 575 patients with T2DM was conducted. According to the baseline and the cumulative number of chronic complications during the follow-up period, the patients were classified based on five status: T2DM, one complication, two complications, three complications, four and above complication, indicated by S0, S1, S2, S3 and S4, respectively. A time-continuous and state-discrete multi-state irreversible Markov model was used for statistical analysis. Results: The study included 33 575 T2DM patients, and their average age was 60 years old, the median of follow-up length was 8 years. In these patients, 32 653 had no baseline complications. At the end of follow-up, the transition probabilities of S0→S1, S1→S2, S2→S3 and S3→S4 were 16.4%, 32.4%, 45.6% and 25.9%, respectively. The results of multivariate analysis showed that being female (HR=0.919), less than 60 years old (HR=0.929), higher fasting plasma glucose (HR=1.601), lower high-density lipoprotein (HR=1.087), higher total cholesterol (HR=1.090),weekly exercise (HR=0.897), vegetarian diet (HR=0.852) and heavy diet (HR=1.887) were the risk factors for S0 to S1. And being female (HR=0.768), less than 60 years old (HR=0.859) and lower high-density lipoprotein (HR=1.160) were the risk factors for S1 to S2. Conclusions: The probability of multiple complications in T2DM patients increased over time, the transition intensity of S2→S3 was largest, followed by S1→S2. Therefore, we need to conduct both early and long-term indicators monitoring and disease prevention, strengthen the health education to improve patients' daily living habits at early stage of the illness, encourage patients to have moderate exercise and balanced diet, strengthen the monitoring of fasting blood- glucose, cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein levels to prevent the deterioration of the illness.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Colesterol , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Jejum , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
10.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 321(5): E665-E673, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605248

RESUMO

The short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) acetate, propionate, butyrate, isovalerate, and valerate are end products of intestinal bacterial fermentation and important mediators in the interplay between the intestine and peripheral organs. To unravel the transorgan fluxes and mass balance comparisons of SCFAs, we measured their net fluxes across several organs in a translational pig model. In multicatheterized conscious pigs [n = 12, 25.6 (95% CI [24.2, 26.9]) kg, 8-12 wk old], SCFA fluxes across portal-drained viscera (PDV), liver, kidneys, and hindquarter (muscle compartment) were measured after an overnight fast and in the postprandial state, 4 h after administration of a fiber-free, mixed meal. PDV was the main releasing compartment of acetate, propionate, butyrate, isovalerate, and valerate during fasting and in the postprandial state (all P = 0.001). Splanchnic acetate release was high due to the absence of hepatic clearance. All other SCFAs were extensively taken up by the liver (all P < 0.05). Even though only 7% [4, 10] (propionate), 42% [23, 60] (butyrate), 26% [12, 39] (isovalerate), and 3% [0.4, 5] (valerate) of PDV release were excreted from the splanchnic area in the fasted state, splanchnic release of all SCFAs was significant (all P values ≤0.01). Splanchnic propionate, butyrate, isovalerate, and valerate release remained low but significant in the postprandial state (all P values <0.01). We identified muscle and kidneys as main peripheral SCFA metabolizing organs, taking up the majority of all splanchnically released SCFAs in the fasted state and in the postprandial state. We conclude that the PDV is the main SCFA releasing and the liver the main SCFA metabolizing organ. Splanchnically released SCFAs appear to be important energy substrates to peripheral organs not only in the fasted but also in the postprandial state.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Using a multicatheterized pig model, we identified the portal-drained viscera as the main releasing compartment of the short-chain fatty acids acetate, propionate, butyrate, isovalerate, and valerate in the fasted and postprandial states. Low hepatic acetate metabolism resulted in a high splanchnic release, whereas all other SCFAs were extensively cleared resulting in low but significant splanchnic releases. Muscle and kidneys are the main peripheral SCFA metabolizing organs during fasting and in the postprandial state.


Assuntos
Jejum/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Animais , Cateterismo , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Feminino , Rim/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional , Suínos
11.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684404

RESUMO

Ketone body production, an alternative fuel upon low glucose availability, reduces hepatic fat accumulation. However, its clinical implications have not been established in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We investigated the association between spontaneous fasting ketonuria and liver fibrosis in patients with NAFLD without prediabetes and diabetes mellitus (DM). A total of 6202 patients with ultrasound confirmed NAFLD without prediabetes and DM were enrolled in the study. Using low cut off values of NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS) and fibrosis-4, liver fibrosis was defined as an intermediate-high probability of advanced liver fibrosis. Of the 6202 NAFLD patients, 360 (5.8%) had ketonuria. Compared to the patients without ketonuria, patients with ketonuria were younger (41.1 vs. 44.6 years, p < 0.001), had lower levels of glucose (87.2 vs. 91.0 mg/dL, p < 0.001), and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (1.0 vs. 1.5, p < 0.001). The presence of ketonuria had an inverse association with liver fibrosis, assessed using both NFS (final adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.45-1.01) and fibrosis-4 (aOR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.40-0.84). The presence of ketonuria in NAFLD patients without prediabetes and DM may have favorable metabolic effects compared to the absence of ketonuria, independent of traditional metabolic factors.


Assuntos
Corpos Cetônicos/urina , Cetose/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Adulto , Glicemia/metabolismo , Estudos Transversais , Complicações do Diabetes , Jejum , Feminino , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Cetose/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Masculino , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Estado Pré-Diabético/complicações , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
12.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684490

RESUMO

This review examines the effects of two popular intermittent fasting regimens on sleep in adults with overweight and obesity. Specifically, the effects of time restricted eating (TRE; eating all food within a 4-10 h window) and alternate day fasting (ADF; 600 kcal fast day alternated with ad libitum feast day) on sleep quality, sleep duration, sleep latency, sleep efficiency, insomnia severity, and risk of obstructive sleep apnea, will be summarized. The role of weight loss will also be discussed. Results from our review reveal that the majority of these trials produced weight loss in the range of 1-6% from baseline. Sleep quality and sleep duration remained unaltered with TRE and ADF, as assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The effects of intermittent fasting on sleep latency and sleep efficiency are mixed, with one study showing worsening of these parameters, and others showing no effect. Insomnia severity and the risk of obstructive sleep apnea remained unchanged in the trials assessing these metrics. Taken together, these preliminary findings suggest that TRE and ADF produce mild to moderate weight loss (1-6%) but their effects on sleep remain unclear. Solid conclusions are difficult to establish since participants in the studies had healthy sleep durations and no clinical insomnia at baseline, leaving little room for improvement in these metrics. Moreover, none of the trials were adequately powered to detect statistically significant changes in any measure of sleep. Future well-powered trials, conducted in individuals with diagnosed sleep disturbances, will be necessary to elucidate the effect of these popular diets on sleep.


Assuntos
Restrição Calórica/efeitos adversos , Jejum/efeitos adversos , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Sono/fisiologia , Adulto , Restrição Calórica/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Jejum/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/etiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/etiologia , Perda de Peso/fisiologia
13.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684558

RESUMO

Markers of iron metabolism are altered in new-onset diabetes, but their relationship with metabolic signals involved in the maintenance of energy balance is poorly understood. The primary aim was to explore the associations between markers of iron metabolism (hepcidin and ferritin) and markers of energy balance (leptin, ghrelin, and the leptin/ghrelin ratio) in both the fasted and postprandial states. These associations were also studied in the sub-groups stratified by diabetes status. This was a cross-sectional study of individuals without disorders of iron metabolism who were investigated after an overnight fast and, in addition, some of these individuals underwent a mixed meal test to determine postprandial responses of metabolic signals. The associations between hepcidin, ferritin, and leptin, ghrelin, leptin/ghrelin ratio were studied using several multiple linear regression models. A total of 76 individuals in the fasted state and 34 individuals in the postprandial state were included. In the overall cohort, hepcidin was significantly inversely associated with leptin (in the most adjusted model, the ß coefficient ± SE was -883.45 ± 400.94; p = 0.031) and the leptin/ghrelin ratio (in the most adjusted model, the ß coefficient ± SE was -148.26 ± 61.20; p = 0.018) in the fasted state. The same associations were not statistically significant in the postprandial state. In individuals with new-onset prediabetes or diabetes (but not in those with normoglycaemia or longstanding prediabetes or diabetes), hepcidin was significantly inversely associated with leptin (in the most adjusted model, the ß coefficient ± SE was -806.09 ± 395.44; p = 0.050) and the leptin/ghrelin ratio (in the most adjusted model, the ß coefficient ± SE was -129.40 ± 59.14; p = 0.037). Leptin appears to be a mediator in the link between iron metabolism and new-onset diabetes mellitus. These findings add to the growing understanding of mechanisms underlying the derangements of glucose metabolism.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Jejum/sangue , Ferritinas/sangue , Hepcidinas/sangue , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Feminino , Grelina/sangue , Humanos , Leptina/sangue , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Refeições/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(4): 973-979, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605465

RESUMO

Impaired fasting glucose (IFG) is an important risk factor for overt diabetes. Gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) is an oxidative stress maker that is synthesized in liver. Increased serum Uric Acid (UA) may reflect systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. Insulin secretion by pancreatic ß cells is impaired due to oxidative stress. Serum GGT and UA levels are elevated in patients with diabetes or cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between serum GGT and UA with IFG. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 120 subjects aged 25-55 years. The study subjects were divided into two groups with either Normal fasting glucose (NFG) or IFG according to WHO diagnostic criteria. Blood was collected to perform OGTT. Serum was separated to measure GGT, UA and lipid profile. GGT and UA levels were significantly higher (p<0.01) in IFG group than NFG group (67.23±14.40 vs. 24.19±8.41) and (7.61±1.31 vs. 4.84±1.27). Odds Ratio (OR) for IFG were 4.1 and 20.25 with GGT tertile 2 (24.0-42.0) U/L and tertile 3 (>42.0) U/L where T1 (<24.0) U/L was considered as reference category. Odds Ratio (OR) for IFG were 2.05 and 17.69 with UA tertile 2 (5.7-7.5)mg/dl and tertile 3(>7.5) mg/dl where T1 (<5.7)mg/dl was considered as reference category. Multiple regression analysis of the relation between Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) with serum GGT and UA by adjustment of other factors revealed that IFG was significantly (p<0.01) associated with serum GGT and UA.


Assuntos
Ácido Úrico/sangue , gama-Glutamiltransferase/sangue , Adulto , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Glicemia , Estudos Transversais , Jejum , Hospitais , Humanos
16.
J Psychiatr Res ; 143: 422-428, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656874

RESUMO

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by dysregulation of stress systems and by abnormalities in cerebral energy metabolism. Stress induction has been shown to impact neurometabolism in healthy individuals. Contrarily, neurometabolic changes in response to stress are insufficiently investigated in MDD patients. Metabolic stress was induced in MDD patients (MDD, N = 24) and in healthy individuals (CTRL, N = 22) by application of an established fasting protocol in which calorie intake was omitted for 72 h. Both study groups were comparable regarding age, gender distribution, and body mass index (BMI). Fasting-induced effects on brain high-energy phosphate levels and membrane phospholipid metabolism were assessed using phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS). Two-way repeated measures ANOVAs did not reveal significant interaction effects (group x fasting) or group differences in adenosine triphosphate (ATP), phosphocreatine (PCr), inorganic phosphate (Pi), phosphomonoesters (PME), phosphodiesters (PDE), or pH levels between MDD and CTRL. Fasting, independent of group, significantly increased ATP and decreased Pi levels and an overall increase in PME/PDE ratio as marker for membrane turnover was observed. Overall these results indicate reactive changes in cerebral energetics and in membrane phospholipid metabolism in response to fasting. The observed effects did not significantly differ between CTRL and MDD, indicating that neurometabolic adaptation to metabolic stress is preserved in MDD patients.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico por imagem , Metabolismo Energético , Jejum , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estresse Fisiológico
18.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1912, 2021 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34674685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Muslims around the world practice intermittent fasting during the month of Ramadan each year. We hypothesized that daily physical activity could be reduced among Muslims due to the inability to refuel and rehydrate in the fasting state. METHODS: A cohort study design among adults registered with national physical activity community program. Data from a pedometer-based community program was used to extract 3 months of daily step counts before, during, and after Ramadan for the past years (2013-2019). A survey was conducted among participants to determine fasting practice and other health and environmental factors. RESULTS: A total of 209 participants completed the survey and provided valid data on physical activity. During Ramadan, the average steps per day decreased significantly (- 385 ± SE 158) among participants who fasted (n = 151) p = 0.046 and increased (+ 731 ± SE 247) for the non- fasting participants (n = 58) p = 0.010. Fasting participants preferred before sunset (33.8%) or evening (39.7%) for physical activity. Whereas, non-fasting participants preferred early morning (34.5%). CONCLUSION: Fasting during Ramadan impacts the daily physical activity behavior among Muslims. Interventions should focus on creating awareness of the importance of maintenance of adequate physical activity for adults fasting during Ramadan.


Assuntos
Jejum , Islamismo , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Atividade Motora
19.
J Nutr ; 151(12 Suppl 2): 110S-118S, 2021 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34689190

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes has increased substantially in India over the past 3 decades. Undiagnosed diabetes presents a public health challenge, especially in rural areas, where access to laboratory testing for diagnosis may not be readily available. OBJECTIVES: The present work explores the use of several machine learning and statistical methods in the development of a predictive tool to screen for prediabetes using survey data from an FFQ to compute the Global Diet Quality Score (GDQS). METHODS: The outcome variable prediabetes status (yes/no) used throughout this study was determined based upon a fasting blood glucose measurement ≥100 mg/dL. The algorithms utilized included the generalized linear model (GLM), random forest, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), elastic net (EN), and generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) with family unit as a (cluster) random (intercept) effect to account for intrafamily correlation. Model performance was assessed on held-out test data, and comparisons made with respect to area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity. RESULTS: The GLMM, GLM, LASSO, and random forest modeling techniques each performed quite well (AUCs >0.70) and included the GDQS food groups and age, among other predictors. The fully adjusted GLMM, which included a random intercept for family unit, achieved slightly superior results (AUC of 0.72) in classifying the prediabetes outcome in these cluster-correlated data. CONCLUSIONS: The models presented in the current work show promise in identifying individuals at risk of developing diabetes, although further studies are necessary to assess other potentially impactful predictors, as well as the consistency and generalizability of model performance. In addition, future studies to examine the utility of the GDQS in screening for other noncommunicable diseases are recommended.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável , Dieta , Aprendizado de Máquina , Modelos Estatísticos , Estado Pré-Diabético/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Glicemia/análise , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Jejum , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/economia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Rural , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(44): 13246-13254, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34702032

RESUMO

There is limited information available about the physiological content of glyceraldehyde, a precursor of toxic advanced glycation end products. The conventional derivatization method for aldoses using 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone did not allow reproducible quantification of glyceraldehyde due to the instability of glyceraldehyde compared to other aldoses. We optimized the derivatization condition to achieve high and reproducible recovery of derivatives for liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry quantification. Based on the stability of glyceraldehyde during sample preparation and high recovery of spiked standard, the present method provides reproducible quantification of glyceraldehyde in the body. The glyceraldehyde contents in fasting conditions in the rodent liver (mice: 50.0 ± 3.9 nmol/g; rats: 35.5 ± 4.9 nmol/g) were higher than those in plasma (9.4 ± 1.7 and 7.2 ± 1.2 nmol/mL). The liver glyceraldehyde levels significantly increased after food consumption (p < 0.05) but remained constant in the plasma. High fat diet feeding significantly increased plasma glyceraldehyde levels in mice (p < 0.005). In healthy human volunteers, the plasma glyceraldehyde levels remained unchanged after the consumption of steamed rice. In patients with type 2 diabetes, the plasma glyceraldehyde level was positively correlated with the plasma glucose level (r = 0.84; p < 0.0001).


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Gliceraldeído , Animais , Jejum , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada , Humanos , Camundongos , Ratos , Roedores
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