Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 7.645
Filtrar
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401543

RESUMO

The Israeli Mamanet Cachibol League (MCL) serves as a community model that incorporates physical activity and amateur team sports among women. Team sports have been shown to bridge gaps and build positive relationships between communities. There is a paucity of data regarding the advantages of team sports to promote the health and well-being of women from different ethnic backgrounds. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of participation in MCL with social capital, health, and well-being across two ethnic groups: Jewish and Arab women. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among women aged 25-64: 102 Jewish and 96 Arab MCL participants, and 102 Jewish and 81 Arab non-MCL participants. Data regarding social capital (trust, social support and social involvement) and well-being (self-reported health and psychosomatic and depressive symptoms) were analyzed using two-way analyses of covariance and multiple regression models with sequential entry of the variables. MCL participants from both ethnic groups reported higher social capital (p < 0.001), better self-reported health (p < 0.001), and lower psychosomatic symptoms (p < 0.001) compared to non-participants. Jewish MCL participants reported lower depressive symptoms (p < 0.001) than non-participants, however no difference was found between Arab MCL participants and non-participants (p < 0.160). Amateur team sports such as MCL are related with higher levels of well-being and social capital. Future research should focus on longitudinal studies that examine the change in social capital and well-being over time.


Assuntos
Árabes , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Judeus , Capital Social , Esportes , Adulto , Árabes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Israel , Judeus/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
2.
Harefuah ; 160(1): 45-48, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Hebraico | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33474878

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In the last decade of the 19th century, some hundred years after the introduction of the smallpox vaccine, a heated controversy broke out in London regarding the compulsory vaccination of children against the disease. Amongst those affected by the legislation, mandating the immunization of children against smallpox was a Jewish father who was eventually imprisoned for refusing to have his son vaccinated. His grounds for refusal were his religious beliefs and it is with his case and its aftermath that the present article is concerned. The two major protagonists in the controversy were Chief Rabbi of England, Dr. Herman Adler and Mr. J. H. Levi. According to the Chief Rabbi, members of the Anglo-Jewish community were required to comply with the law of the land and act in accordance with mainstream medical opinion regarding the vaccination of their children as a matter of their Jewish faith. Levi who was a prominent economist at London University and a champion of liberalism and individual freedom, strongly opposed the Chief Rabbi's ruling on Jewish as well as general grounds. The debate between the two protagonists as it emerges from newspaper clippings and articles of the period is similar in many ways to the contemporary vaccination controversy in both London and Israel. One salient feature of the 19th century debate is the failure of the health authorities to publish precise and ongoing reports on the importance and effectiveness of vaccination throughout the year and not only prior to anticipated outbreaks of the disease. One of the lessons to be learned from the present article is the need for the medical establishment to acquire expertise in the areas of communication and media in order to deal successfully with the phenomenon of vaccine refusal. Amongst the issues that would need to be confronted is that of the halakhic objections, if any, to compulsory vaccination, which is a central theme of this article.


Assuntos
Judeus , Vacinação , Criança , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Israel , Judaísmo , Londres
3.
J Homosex ; 68(1): 23-46, 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204585

RESUMO

Kabbalat Shabbat (Welcoming the Sabbath) is a traditional Jewish ritual marking the transition between the profane weekday and the holy Shabbat. Reform Jewish communities maintain this practice with certain ritualistic and textual revisions, in order to include gender and sexual categories previously excluded from mainstream traditional Jewish texts and rituals. This ethnographic article analyzes the particular LGBTQ Kabbalat Shabbat. By creating unique rituals to mark phenomena of both oppression and exclusion, on the one hand, and of love and acceptance, on the other, the Reform congregation emerges as a religious safe space. I argue that those rituals dedicated to and constructed by the LGBTQ community function as a performance of affirmation and empower of gender and sexual identities. This egalitarian performance fosters a shared political discourse for promoting the struggle for equal rights, through a new religious practice.


Assuntos
Homossexualidade , Judeus , Judaísmo , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Comportamento Ritualístico , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Israel , Judeus/psicologia , Masculino
4.
Harefuah ; 159(12): 876-881, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Hebraico | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33369301

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Annually in the US, about 2 million patients who are animal-related casualties go to the Emergency Medicine Department (ER), which accounts for 0.5-1.5% of the ER visits; 25% of these casualties are children. Similar numbers are also seen in Europe and the UK. In a single-center study in Israel, it was found that the percentage of ER visits for animal injuries was about 2.1%. Soroka University Hospital is the only Level I trauma center in the Negev, serving a population of over 1,250,000, and as such it treats about 175,000 ER visits each year, of which about 27% are pediatric visits. The population treated in our hospital is diverse in terms of socioeconomic origin and status, and includes Jewish patients mainly situated in urban settlements and Arab-Bedouin population living in familiar and unfamiliar villages (the Bedouin diaspora). In light of this, in the present study, we have tried to investigate animal injuries in children, emphasizing scorpion bites which are common in our area. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all children aged 0-17 years during an 18-month study period - from January 2009 until the end of June 2010 - to identify children who have been referred to the ER at the Soroka Hospital due to animal injury. Demographics, characteristics of the injury, incidence times and referral to treatment, and data on the course of assessment and treatment of the injury and hospitalization were recorded. Data was typed and processed using Microsoft Excel 2007 software and we used SPSS 23.0 for Windows for the statistical analysis. RESULTS: A total of 729 pediatric injuries caused by animals were reported, which accounted for about 1% of the total number of children's visits to the pediatric ER during the study period. Twenty-six cases were omitted because they did not meet the inclusion criteria in the study. Of the remaining 703 referrals, 66.1% of the patients were boys, the peak age was in the 6-8-year age group (26%); 44.1% lived in a Jewish settlement, 31.2% in an unrecognized Arab-Bedouin settlement and 24% in a recognized Arab-Bedouin settlement. In both forms of Bedouin settlements, the most frequent injuries were dog bites n = 166, (23.60%), yellow scorpion bites = 163 (23.2%) and black scorpion bites n = 44 (6.25%); 97 of the children were admitted (13.8%), of whom 44 were admitted to the ICU, with 84.1% of those admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) were treated due to yellow scorpion injury. The 2-5-year age group was the most prevalent among inpatients, accounting for 32. DISCUSSION: Pediatric animal injuries are a common cause of ER visits and even hospitalization. A relatively high percentage of hospitalizations were in the ICU. The most common cause of animal injury seen in our cohort was dog bites, but yellow scorpion bites resulted in most hospitalizations, especially in the pediatric ICU. The incidence of yellow scorpion injuries was significantly higher in the Arab-Bedouin population and even more so in those living in unrecognized settlements, and 87% of the pediatric hospitalizations were seen in Arabic-Bedouin children. Animal-related injuries are a serious health problem in the Arab-Bedouin population and in the unrecognized villages in particular, and there is room to emphasize the prevention of these injuries in this impoverished sector.


Assuntos
Árabes , Judeus , Animais , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Lactente , Israel/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 22(12): 788-793, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33381954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death. OBJECTIVES: To identify changing patterns of lung cancer and its histologic subtypes among different population groups in Israel over a 25 year period. METHODS: Primary lung cancers, all types and all stages, diagnosed during 1990-2014 were recorded in the Israel National Cancer Registry database. Demographic information was retrieved from the National Population Register. Age-standardized rates for the different subgroups were calculated for each year. Joinpoint software was used to analyze trends in incidence. RESULTS: We identified 42,672 lung cancer cases. The most common histology was adenocarcinoma (34%), followed by squamous cell carcinoma (19%), large cell/not-otherwise-specified (19%), other histologies (15%), and small cell lung cancer (11%). The adenocarcinoma incidence rose from 25.7% to 48.2% during the examined period. Large cell/not-otherwise-specified incidence peaked around 2005-2006 and declined after. Lung cancer incidence increased significantly for the population overall and specifically in Arab females, followed by Jewish females and by Arab males. Adenocarcinoma and small cell lung cancer increased in Jewish females and in Arab males. A younger age of diagnosis was seen in Arab compared to Jewish patients. CONCLUSIONS: Jewish females and Arab males and females living in Israel demonstrated a constant increase in lung cancer incidence, mostly in adenocarcinoma and small cell lung cancer incidence. In addition, a younger age of diagnosis in Arabs was noted. Smoking reduction interventions and screening should be implemented in those populations.


Assuntos
Árabes/estatística & dados numéricos , Judeus/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Adenocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Adenocarcinoma/etnologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Grandes/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Grandes/etnologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Israel/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Fatores Sexuais , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/etnologia
6.
Am J Bioeth ; 20(12): 16-18, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33196388
7.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240034, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064722

RESUMO

The influence of the health-related behavior of one spouse on that of the other is an important research question with public policy reprecussions. Yet, we are unaware of any previous study, which considered endogeneity problems between couples. Moreover, only a few studies considered ethnic origin differences among couples. Based on the 2016 wave of the Israeli longitudinal survey, we observe the cross-sectional correlation between the married couples' BMI, age, and accumulated wealth. The BMI (= [Formula: see text]) is a conventional measure of obesity, where BMI≥25 is considered overweight. Using a 3SLS methodology (in an effort to correct the endogeneity problem associated with BMI couples), the analysis tests the mutual obesity hypothesis among married couples. This hypothesis states that the BMI of the male influences that of a female and vice versa. Results indicate that on the one hand, a one-percent BMI increase among Arab Israeli males is associated with a projected 0.969 percent BMI increase among Arab Israeli females (p = 0.017); and in the case that an Arab Israeli male suffers from overweight, the projected probability of his Arab Israeli female counterpart to suffer from overweight as well rises (p = 0.050). On the other hand, one cannot reject the null hypothesis that projected BMI of the Arab Israeli male is unaffected by that of his Arab Israeli female counterpart (p = 0.907 and p = 0.853). As for the Jewish Israeli population, in the case that the 3SLS methodology is employed, so that the endogeneity problem among couples is considered, a one-percent BMI increase among Jewish Israeli females is associated with a projected 0.639 percent BMI increase among Jewish Israeli males (p = 0.091). Unlike Arab Israeli couples, no support is found to indicate the influence in the other direction, namely, the BMI of the male influences that of the female spouse. Research findings may thus be of relevance to public health and policy planners. Two limitations of this research lie in: 1) the self-reported BMI (which might be different from the measured BMI); and 2) missing confounders, such as regional dummies, which are not available in the dataset.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adulto , Árabes , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Judeus , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Casamento , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia
8.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 28(3): 237-244, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997481

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Period of elderly age preordains the occurrence of many health issues. People deported during World War II to concentration camps suffered from malnutrition, lack of sleep, physical and mental exhaustion. Recently, the health condition of Holocaust survivors is often complicated as a result of physical punishments and different torture methods as well as mental hardships which they had suffered during deportation. The consequences often have psychosomatic nature thus the survivors are often receivers of health care. The topic of bibliography review is based on the need to objectivize and systematically evaluate subjective health issues of Holocaust survivors in connection with trauma related to the stay in a concentration camp. The aim is to offer a review of effects of the Holocaust on health of different body systems for survivors in concentration camps and Jewish ghettos in the course of World War II. METHODS: To map the subjective problems of Holocaust survivors, evidence-based medicine (EBM) method has been used with the help of scientific database PubMed, CINAHL Plus with full text, ProQuest and other sources with specific key words and Boole operators. Prognostic type of clinical/review questions has been selected for the bibliography review, which is trying to predict the probability of relation or output of illness/condition and based on diseases or symptoms seriousness to find out expectancy for treatment/improvement of care. RESULTS: 175 studies have been found in basic search with the use of key words both in English and in Czech language. The search has not been time-limited. The advanced search has focused on different body systems and health damage due to Nazi experiments. Fourteen studies have been used to complete the study. The research results have confirmed the significant effect of Holocaust trauma on body condition of the survivors. The reasons of this condition were insufficient nutrition, unsuitable and harmful hygienic, living and working conditions and brutality of the guards. According to the research, these factors have impacted all organ systems, mainly locomotion and cardiovascular ones. The results have shown a more frequent occurrence of osteoporosis, fractures of long bones and corresponding chronical pain of people of Jewish origin who had gone through different forms of torture during World War II. Other present symptoms include gastrointestinal problems, tumors mainly in the area of colorectum and lungs. Moreover, the stay in concentration camps had influence on women's menstrual cycle. CONCLUSION: The studies of Holocaust effects are an example of the influence of an extreme mental and physical burden on the body condition of the survivors' health. The results of the studies have shown a wide range of the effects also in mental and social areas.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Holocausto , Sobreviventes/estatística & dados numéricos , Bibliografias como Assunto , Humanos , Judeus
9.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 9(22): 521-528, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954702

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dependence on technology and electronic media devices (EMDs) is a significant phenomenon of modern life with many people experiencing adverse symptoms during abstention. Orthodox Jews abstain from using all forms of EMDs for 25 consecutive hours every week on the Sabbath but do not appear to experience significant adverse reactions during this abstention. OBJECTIVES: To better examine whether Sabbath observant Jews experience fewer and less severe adverse symptoms while abstaining from EMDs on the Sabbath compared to weekdays. METHODS: Ten Sabbath observant Jews abstained from using all forms of EMDs for 25 hours on a Sabbath and again on a weekday. At the end of each 25-hour period participants completed a 12-item Likert-type scale self-assessment of 1-5, once as a report of their condition at 10:00 and again after 25 hours of abstaining. The authors compared the mean results of Sabbath and weekday using Wilcoxon signed ranks test. P ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: Overall, discomfort on Sabbath was less than on weekdays. A statistically significant decrease on the Sabbath was found at both the 10:00 reporting time and after 25 hours in anxiety, restlessness, thoughts and plans of using devices, and overall difficulty to abstain. Significance was found for feelings of not knowing what to do with time (10:00) and moodiness and irritability, being drawn to devices, and cravings achieved significance (after 25 hours). CONCLUSIONS: Sabbath observant Jews reported statistically significant less adverse reactions while abstaining from EMDs on the Sabbath compared to on a weekday.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Uso do Telefone Celular/estatística & dados numéricos , Judeus/psicologia , Judaísmo , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
10.
Int J Equity Health ; 19(1): 153, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907584

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The first wave of the Covid-19 pandemic hit Israel in late February 2020. The present study examines patterns of the first wave of Covid-19 morbidity in Israel at the macro level, during the period of late February to early June 2020, when the first wave has faded out. The analysis focuses on the significance of four sociodemographic variables: socioeconomic status, population density, rate of elderly population and minority status (Jewish / Arab identity) of the population in cities with 5000 residents or more. Additionally, we take a closer look into the association between morbidity rates and one SES component - home Internet access. METHODS: The article is a cross sectional study of morbidity rates, investigated on a residential community basis. Following the descriptive statistics, we move on to present multivariate analysis to explore associations between these variables and Covid-19 morbidity in Israel. RESULTS: Both the descriptive statistics and regressions show morbidity rates to be positively associated with population density. Socioeconomic status as well as the size of elderly population were both significantly related to morbidity, but only in Jewish communities. Interestingly, the association was inverse in both cases. i.e., the higher the SES the lower the morbidity and the larger the elderly population, the lower the community's morbidity. Another interesting result is that overall, morbidity rates in Jewish cities were consistently higher than in Arab communities. CONCLUSIONS: We attribute the low morbidity rates in communities with relatively small elderly populations to the exceptionally high fertility rates in ultra-orthodox communities that sustained increased rates of morbidity; the lower morbidity in Arab communities is attributed to several factors, including the spatial Jewish-Arab segregation.


Assuntos
Árabes/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Judeus/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Morbidade/tendências , Densidade Demográfica , Classe Social
12.
Harefuah ; 159(7): 516-520, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Hebraico | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32720770

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Europe was affected by a particularly severe outbreak of smallpox during the 17th and 18th centuries. In the early 18th century, the use of vaccines began to spread. The vaccines in use at that time were not risk free, and both post-vaccine mortality and the risk of spreading the disease to the non-vaccinated population were a matter of public concern. The Jewish documents reviewed in this article present epidemiological and clinical information on smallpox among European Jewish communities in the last decades of the 18th century. These documents provide a useful tool for historical research in that they shed light on, and provide a source of information about the spread of the disease, and the various measures aimed at preventing its spread including vaccination, among Jewish communities at the time.


Assuntos
Vacina Antivariólica , Varíola/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente) , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Judeus , Vacinação
13.
J Med Ethics ; 46(11): 736-737, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661072

RESUMO

Solnica et al argue that "Jewish law and modern secular approaches based on professional responsibilities obligate physicians to care for all patients even those with communicable diseases". The authors base their viewpoint on the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer Waldenberg and apply it to suggest that physicians are obligated to endanger themselves during epidemics, such as COVID-19. It is argued that Solnica et al's analysis of Rabbi Waldenberg's text and their conclusion that healthcare workers are obligated to endanger themselves while treating patient who suffer from contagious illness during epidemics according to Jewish law suffer from various shortcomings. Indeed, Jewish law looks favourably on healthcare workers who take a reasonable risk in treating their patients in the context of epidemics. However, it is considered a voluntary supererogatory act-not obligatory. Solnica et al may express a legitimate ethical viewpoint. However, it does not seem to represent the mainstream approach of what Jewish law would demand as obligatory from its practitioners.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Judeus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Ética Médica , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Judaísmo , Risco
14.
J Relig Health ; 59(5): 2288-2301, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32705481

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic presents potential mental health challenges, and the American Orthodox Jewish population has been particularly affected by the virus. The current study assessed the impact of the pandemic and explored the relationships between exposure, religiosity, and distress in a sample of n = 419 American Orthodox Jews. Results indicated high levels of exposure, concern, and compliance with medical guidelines; however stress was generally low and we found evidence for positive impact. Direct exposure correlated with higher religiosity. Positive religious coping, intrinsic religiosity and trust in God strongly correlated with less stress and more positive impact, while negative religious coping and mistrust in God correlated with the inverse. While the study is limited by its design, findings highlight that for some, faith may promote resilience especially during crisis.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Judeus , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Adaptação Psicológica , Humanos , Estados Unidos
15.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(4): 419-426, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32688338

RESUMO

Objective: The need for personalization of the reference values of thyroid function tests has been previously suggested. We aimed at determining TSH reference values in a large cohort of children according to age, sex, BMI, and ethnicity. Design: A population-based cohort study. Methods: The study cohort included 75 549 healthy children aged 5-18 years. Data analyzed included age, gender, TSH, FT4 levels, BMI and ethnicity. Multivariate logistic regression analysis examined the associations between the study parameters. Results: TSH in the Jewish population is lower than in the non-Jewish population (median: 2.1 IU/L (IQR: 1.5) vs 2.2 IU/L (IQR: 1.5), P < 0.0001). TSH is significantly affected by BMI for children defined as underweight, normal weight, overweight or obese, levels increased as weight diverged from the normal range (median levels: 2.1 IU/L (IQR: 1.4), 2.0 IU/L (IQR: 1.3), 2.1 IU/L (IQR: 1.4), 2.4 (IQR: 1.5), respectively, P < 0.001). The 2.5 percentile is affected by gender and BMI (P < 0.02 and P < 0.001, respectively), while the 97.5 percentile is affected by ethnic origin and BMI (P < 0.001 for both). New TSH reference intervals (RI) adjusted according to BMI and ethnicity are suggested. Comparison of the old and new RI demonstrate the significance of RI personalization: 25.1% of the children with TSH levels above the old RI are within the new RI, while 2.3% of the children who were in the old RI are below the new RI. Conclusions: TSH reference values in children are affected by BMI and ethnicity. Reference values should be individualized accordingly to improve future clinical decision-making and treatment.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Grupos Étnicos , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Testes de Função Tireóidea/normas , Tireotropina/sangue , Adolescente , Análise Química do Sangue/normas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Endócrino/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Judeus , Masculino , Pediatria/métodos , Pediatria/normas , Medicina de Precisão/normas , Valores de Referência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tireotropina/normas , Tiroxina/sangue
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(31): 18378-18384, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32690675

RESUMO

We often talk about peace as if the concept is self-explanatory. Yet people can have various theories about what peace "is." In this study, we examine the lay theories of peace of citizens embroiled in a prolonged ethnonational conflict. We show that lay theories of peace 1) depend on whether one belongs to the high-power or low-power party and 2) explain citizens' fundamental approaches to conflict resolution. Specifically, we explore the link between power asymmetry, lay theories of peace, and preference for conflict resolution strategies within large-scale samples of Palestinian residents of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip and Jewish residents of Israel. Results reveal that members of the high-power group (in this case Jewish-Israelis) are more likely to associate peace with harmonious relationships (termed "positive peace") than with the attainment of justice (termed "structural peace"), while members of the low-power group (in this case Palestinians) exhibit an opposite pattern. Yet both groups firmly and equally interpret peace as the termination of war and bloodshed (termed "negative peace"). Importantly, across societies, associating peace with negative peace more than with positive or structural peace predicts citizens' desire for a solution that entails the partition of land (the Two-State Solution) whereas associating peace with structural or positive peace more than with negative peace predicts citizens' desire to solve the conflict by sharing the land (the One-State Solution). This study demonstrates the theoretical and policy-relevant utility of studying how those most affected by war understand the concept of peace.


Assuntos
Políticas de Controle Social , Violência/legislação & jurisprudência , Violência/psicologia , Agressão/psicologia , Árabes/legislação & jurisprudência , Árabes/psicologia , Humanos , Israel , Judeus/legislação & jurisprudência , Judeus/psicologia , Oriente Médio , Condições Sociais , Violência/etnologia
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503205

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic is an ongoing epidemic of coronavirus disease, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome, which has spread recently worldwide. Efforts to prevent the virus from spreading include travel restrictions, lockdowns as well as national or regional quarantines throughout the international community. The major negative psychological outcome of the COVID-19 pandemic is the anxiety caused by it. The aim of the present study was to examine the level of concern and the contributions of modes of resilience, well-being and demographic attributes towards decreasing or enhancing anxiety and depression among two samples: Israeli Jews (majority group) and Israeli Arabs (minority group). These random samples included 605 Jews and 156 Arabs who participated in an internet survey. A previous study, which has been conducted in the context of terror attacks, has shown that compared to Israeli Jews, Israeli Arabs expressed a higher level of fear of war and lower levels of resilience supporting personality attributes. The results of the current study indicated a similar pattern that emerged in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic: the Israeli Arabs reported a higher level of distress and a lower level of resilience and well-being.


Assuntos
Árabes/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Judeus/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Angústia Psicológica , Resiliência Psicológica , Adulto , Sintomas Afetivos , Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia
19.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 28(2): 155-160, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592562

RESUMO

The main objective of this study is to describe the most common childhood diseases occurring in the Theresienstadt ghetto during the Second World War as well as applied anti-epidemic measures. A partial objective is to describe medical and nursing care of sick child prisoners. The data was obtained by the method of synthesis of primary and secondary data with the highest importance after adequate external source criticism using selected monographs, memoirs, survivor diaries, Orders of the day by the Council of the Elders and Reports of the Jewish self-government of the Theresienstadt ghetto from 1941 to 1945, the Archives of the Jewish Museum in Prague, the Ghetto Museum, the Museum of the History of Polish Jews in Warsaw, Post Bellum online electronic collection of oral historical interviews, and witness accounts. The validity of the presented conclusions is ensured by comparing data from several sources. The most common infections in Theresienstadt children were enteritis, scarlet fever, infectious jaundice, measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, black cough, pneumonia, otitis media, and typhoid fever. Most of these infections had entirely atypical symptomatology or complications. Children were hospitalized in children's hospitals, in children's rooms of hospitals for adults and infirmaries in children's homes. Albeit diagnostic methods had a high standard, options of treatment were very limited. The most common treatments included bed rest, diet and cold compress. Occasionally, chemotherapeutic agents (e.g. a sulphonamide drug Prontosil) and Aspirin were available. The anti-epidemic measures in the ghetto focused on hygiene, enhancing children's immunity, vaccination and pest control.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Pediatria/métodos , Áreas de Pobreza , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Judeus , Polônia/epidemiologia
20.
Psychol Trauma ; 12(S1): S258-S260, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32538652

RESUMO

This commentary describes the religiously innovative adaptations made to customary rituals by Jewish religious leaders to address issues of belonging and resilience during the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic quarantine. These adaptations included allowing religious prayer through a "balcony" minyan, conducting an online chavruta using video conferencing, and broadcasting the Passover ceremony. The approach shown here could contribute to future evidence-based research, conducted among different faiths, about the roles of both religious leadership and information and communications technology (ICT) in preserving one's sense of belonging and resilience in times of crisis. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Religião e Psicologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Adulto , Clero , Humanos , Israel , Judeus
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...