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1.
Neurology ; 102(11): e209423, 2024 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38759136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Poverty is associated with greater stroke incidence. The relationship between poverty and stroke recurrence is less clear. METHODS: In this population-based study, incident strokes within the Greater Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky region were ascertained during the 2015 study period and followed up for recurrence until December 31, 2018. The primary exposure was neighborhood socioeconomic status (nSES), defined by the percentage of households below the federal poverty line in each census tract in 4 categories (≤5%, >5%-10%, >10%-25%, >25%). Poisson regression models provided recurrence rate estimates per 100,000 residents using population data from the 2015 5-year American Community Survey, adjusting for age, sex, and race. In a secondary analysis, Cox models allowed for the inclusion of vascular risk factors in the assessment of recurrence risk by nSES among those with incident stroke. RESULTS: Of 2,125 patients with incident stroke, 245 had a recurrent stroke during the study period. Poorer nSES was associated with increased stroke recurrence, with rates of 12.5, 17.5, 25.4, and 29.9 per 100,000 in census tracts with ≤5%, >5%-10%, >10%-25%, and >25% below the poverty line, respectively (p < 0.01). The relative risk (95% CI) for recurrent stroke among Black vs White individuals was 2.54 (1.91-3.37) before adjusting for nSES, and 2.00 (1.47-2.74) after adjusting for nSES, a 35.1% decrease. In the secondary analysis, poorer nSES (HR 1.74, 95% CI 1.10-2.76 for lowest vs highest category) and Black race (HR 1.31, 95% CI 1.01-1.70) were both independently associated with recurrence risk, though neither retained significance after full adjustment. Age, diabetes, and left ventricular hypertrophy were associated with increased recurrence risk in fully adjusted models. DISCUSSION: Residents of poorer neighborhoods had a dose-dependent increase in stroke recurrence risk, and neighborhood poverty accounted for approximately one-third of the excess risk among Black individuals. These results highlight the importance of poverty, race, and the intersection of the 2 as potent drivers of stroke recurrence.


Assuntos
Pobreza , Recidiva , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/economia , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Kentucky/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Classe Social , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Incidência , Ohio/epidemiologia
2.
South Med J ; 117(5): 235-240, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38701843

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study compared incidence rates, stage at presentation, and cause-specific mortality of nodular and superficial spreading melanoma along the rural-urban continuum in Kentucky. We compared resulting patterns in our data with sample demographic and other potential factors, including population by county and primary care provider rate. METHODS: Retrospective patient data were extracted from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database from 2010 through 2017. These data were supplemented by environmental, demographic, and socioeconomic data derived from publicly accessible databases. Correlation and χ2 analyses were used to test for significant differences in outcome variables by US Department of Agriculture Rural-Urban Continuum Code (RUCC) categories and other potential predictor variables. RESULTS: Incidence rates by Kentucky county were not associated with RUCC or population; likewise, there was no relationship between stage at presentation and RUCC category. There was, however, a highly significant association between cause-specific mortality and RUCC; patients from rural areas were significantly more likely to die from melanoma than those in urban areas. This overall difference was due to differences in mortality for superficial spreading melanoma. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that a disparity in patients' ability or tendency to access primary care and/or specialist providers postdiagnosis may be critical factors in determining the ultimate outcome of a melanoma diagnosis. Further studies should explore the availability of dermatologists and/or treatment options for melanoma in rural areas. Our data also provide additional support for inclusion of melanoma subtype in the American Joint Committee on Cancer guidelines.


Assuntos
Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde , Melanoma , População Rural , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Humanos , Melanoma/epidemiologia , Melanoma/terapia , Melanoma/mortalidade , Kentucky/epidemiologia , Incidência , Feminino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Masculino , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/terapia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/mortalidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Programa de SEER/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 13(9): e032645, 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38700029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a stroke risk factor with known disparities in prevalence and management between Black and White patients. We sought to identify if racial differences in presenting blood pressure (BP) during acute ischemic stroke exist. METHODS AND RESULTS: Adults with acute ischemic stroke presenting to an emergency department within 24 hours of last known normal during study epochs 2005, 2010, and 2015 within the Greater Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky Stroke Study were included. Demographics, histories, arrival BP, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, and time from last known normal were collected. Multivariable linear regression was used to determine differences in mean BP between Black and White patients, adjusting for age, sex, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, history of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking, stroke, body mass index, and study epoch. Of 4048 patients, 853 Black and 3195 White patients were included. In adjusted analysis, Black patients had higher presenting systolic BP (161 mm Hg [95% CI, 159-164] versus 158 mm Hg [95% CI, 157-159], P<0.01), diastolic BP (86 mm Hg [95% CI, 85-88] versus 83 mm Hg [95% CI, 82-84], P<0.01), and mean arterial pressure (111 mm Hg [95% CI, 110-113] versus 108 mm Hg [95% CI, 107-109], P<0.01) compared with White patients. In adjusted subanalysis of patients <4.5 hours from last known normal, diastolic BP (88 mm Hg [95% CI, 86-90] versus 83 mm Hg [95% CI, 82-84], P<0.01) and mean arterial pressure (112 mm Hg [95% CI, 110-114] versus 108 mm Hg [95% CI, 107-109], P<0.01) were also higher in Black patients. CONCLUSIONS: This population-based study suggests differences in presenting BP between Black and White patients during acute ischemic stroke. Further study is needed to determine whether these differences influence clinical decision-making, outcome, or clinical trial eligibility.


Assuntos
Negro ou Afro-Americano , Pressão Sanguínea , Hipertensão , AVC Isquêmico , População Branca , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , AVC Isquêmico/etnologia , AVC Isquêmico/epidemiologia , AVC Isquêmico/diagnóstico , AVC Isquêmico/fisiopatologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Branca/estatística & dados numéricos , Hipertensão/etnologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Negro ou Afro-Americano/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Kentucky/epidemiologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Ohio/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Prevalência
4.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 53(2): 243-256, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38604960

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the prevalence, genetic characteristics and drug resistance features of Salmonella Kentucky ST314 in Shenzhen. METHODS: Whole genome sequencing of 14 strains of Salmonella Kentucky ST314 collected from 2010-2021 by the Foodborne Disease Surveillance Network of Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention for phylogenetic evolutionary analysis, drug resistance gene and plasmid detection; drug susceptibility experiments were performed by micro-broth dilution method. RESULTS: A total of 57 strains of Salmonella Kentucky were collected from the foodborne disease surveillance network, 14 of which were ST314. The Shenzhen isolates were clustered with isolates from Southeast Asian countries such as Vietnam and Thailand on clade 314.2, and the single nucleotide polymorphism distance between local strains in Shenzhen was large, indicating dissemination. In this study, a total of 17 drug resistance genes/mutations in 9 categories were detected in the genome of Salmonella Kentucky ST314, carrying 3 extended spectrum beta-lactamases(ESBLs), including bla_(CTX-M-24)(14.3%, 2/14), bla_(CTX-M-55)(7.1%, 1/14), and bla_(CTX-M-130)(14.3%, 2/14), all located on plasmids. Regarding quinolone resistance factors, two plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance(PMQR) genes were identified in the genome: qnrB6(71.4%, 10/14) and aac(6')Ib-cr(78.6%, 11/14), a quinolone resistance quinolone resistance-determining regions(QRDR) mutation T57 S(100%, 14/14). The multi-drug resistance rate of Salmonella Kentucky ST314 in Shenzhen was 92.86%(13/14)with the highest rate of resistance to tetracycline and cotrimoxazole(100%, 14/14), followed by chloramphenicol(92.86%, 13/14), cefotaxime and ampicillin(78.57%, 11/14), ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid(71.43%, 10/14), and ampicillin-sulbactam had the lowest resistance rate(21.43%, 3/14). CONCLUSION: ST314 is the second most prevalent ST type among Salmonella Kentucky in Shenzhen, mainly isolated from food, especially poultry; phylogenetic analysis suggests that ST314 is a disseminated infection and the genome shows a highly genetically conserved phenotype. Drug resistance of Salmonella Kentucky ST314 is very serious, especially QRDR mutation, PMQR gene co-mediated quinolone resistance and plasmid-mediated cephalosporin resistance are prominent and deserve extensive attention.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Quinolonas , Humanos , Kentucky , Filogenia , Salmonella , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Plasmídeos/genética , Resistência a Medicamentos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , beta-Lactamases/genética
5.
Ann Saudi Med ; 44(2): 73-83, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38615187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hospitalizations are more resource intensive and expensive than outpatient care. Therefore, type 2 diabetes-related preventable hospitalization are a major topic of research efficiency in the healthcare system. OBJECTIVES: Analyze county level variation in type 2 diabetes-related preventable hospitalization rates in Kentucky before the Medicaid expansion (2010-2013) and after the Medicaid expansion (2014-2017). DESIGN: Geographic mapping and cluster analysis. SETTING: Data for a state of the United States of America. METHODS: We used the KID data to generate geographic mapping for type 2 diabetes-related preventable hospitalizations to visualize rates. We included all Kentucky discharges of age 18 years and older with the ICD9/10 principal diagnosis code for type 2 diabetes. Then, we conducted cluster analysis techniques to compare county-level variation in type 2 diabetes-related preventable hospitalization rates across Kentucky counties pre- and post-Medicaid expansion. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURES: County type 2 diabetes-related preventable hospitalization pre- and post-Medicaid expansion. RESULTS: From 2010-2017, type 2 diabetes-related preventable hospitalization discharge rates reduced significantly in the period of the post-Medicaid expansion (P=.001). The spatial statistics analysis revealed a significant spatial clustering of counties with similar rates of type 2 diabetes-related preventable hospitalization in the south, east, and southeastern Kentucky pre- and post-Medicaid expansion (positive z-score and positive Moran's Index value (P>.05). Also, there was a significant clustering of counties with low type 2 diabetes-related preventable hospitalization rates in the north, west, and central regions of the state pre-Medicaid expansion and post-Medicaid expansion (positive z-score and positive Moran's Index value (P>.05). CONCLUSION: Kentucky counties in the southeast have experienced a significant clustering of highly avoidable hospitalization rates during both periods. Focusing on the vulnerable counties and the economic inequality in Kentucky could lead to efforts to lowering future type 2 diabetes-related preventable hospitalization rates. LIMITATIONS: We used de-identified data which does not provide insights into the frequency of hospitalizations per patient. An individual patient may be hospitalized several times and counted as several individuals.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Adolescente , Kentucky/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Medicaid , Hospitalização , Alta do Paciente
6.
J Sch Health ; 94(6): 519-528, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38684234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has had drastic effects on K-12 teachers. Researchers partnered with a teacher advisory board to identify factors associated with K-12 teachers' consideration of leaving teaching during Fall 2020. METHODS: A web-based survey focused on teachers' working experiences was emailed to school union membership listservs in Indiana, Kentucky, and Ohio. A logistic regression model was developed to identify working conditions associated with teachers considering leaving the profession. RESULTS: Among 5873 K-12 teachers, 27% (n = 1319) were considering leaving the profession either because of COVID-19 (10%), for other reasons (6%) or were undecided (11%). Teachers who were midcareer, having taught 6-10 years, who perceived less supervisor support, whose job duties had changed significantly, who were dissatisfied with the COVID-19 related decision-making, who reported poor or fair mental health, and who were mostly or extremely afraid that a household member would get COVID-19 had higher odds of considering leaving teaching or being undecided about future career plans. IMPLICATIONS FOR SCHOOL HEALTH POLICY, PRACTICE AND EQUITY: Understanding factors influencing teachers' career decisions will help school leaders improve teacher retention amid challenging circumstances. CONCLUSION: In this study in 3 midwestern US states, limited supervisor support, significant job duty change, dissatisfaction with COVID-19-related decision-making, poor or fair mental health, and fear that a household member would get COVID-19 were associated with teachers' consideration of leaving the profession or being undecided about future career plans.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Professores Escolares , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2 , Escolha da Profissão , Inquéritos e Questionários , Satisfação no Emprego , Ohio , Indiana , Kentucky/epidemiologia , Reorganização de Recursos Humanos/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
J Viral Hepat ; 31(6): 293-299, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38436098

RESUMO

An HCV treatment trial was initiated in September 2019 to address the opioid/hepatitis C virus (HCV) syndemic in rural Kentucky. The focus of the current analysis is on participation in diagnostic screening for the trial. Initial eligibility (≥18 years of age, county resident) was established by phone followed by in-person HCV viremia testing. 900 rural residents met the inclusion criteria and comprised the analytic sample. Generalized linear models were specified to estimate the relative risk of non-attendance at the in-person visit determining HCV eligibility. Approximately one-quarter (22.1%) of scheduled participants were no-shows. People who inject drugs were no more likely than people not injecting drugs to be a no-show; however, participants ≤35 years of age were significantly less likely to attend. While the median time between phone screening and scheduled in-person screening was only 2 days, each additional day increased the odds of no-show by 3% (95% confidence interval: 2%-3%). Finally, unknown HCV status predicted no-show even after adjustment for age, gender, days between screenings and injection status. We found that drug injection did not predict no-show, further justifying expanded access to HCV treatment among people who inject drugs. Those 35 years and younger were more likely to no-show, suggesting that younger individuals may require targeted strategies for increasing testing and treatment uptake. Finally, streamlining the treatment cascade may also improve outcomes, as participants in the current study were more likely to attend if there were fewer days between phone screening and scheduled in-person screening.


Assuntos
Hepatite C , Programas de Rastreamento , População Rural , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Kentucky , Região dos Apalaches , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Hepacivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Antivirais/uso terapêutico
8.
BMJ Open ; 14(3): e083983, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38431295

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Many rural communities bear a disproportionate share of drug-related harms. Innovative harm reduction service models, such as vending machines or kiosks, can expand access to services that reduce drug-related harms. However, few kiosks operate in the USA, and their implementation, impact and cost-effectiveness have not been adequately evaluated in rural settings. This paper describes the Kentucky Outreach Service Kiosk (KyOSK) Study protocol to test the effectiveness, implementation outcomes and cost-effectiveness of a community-tailored, harm reduction kiosk in reducing HIV, hepatitis C and overdose risk in rural Appalachia. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: KyOSK is a community-level, controlled quasi-experimental, non-randomised trial. KyOSK involves two cohorts of people who use drugs, one in an intervention county (n=425) and one in a control county (n=325). People who are 18 years or older, are community-dwelling residents in the target counties and have used drugs to get high in the past 6 months are eligible. The trial compares the effectiveness of a fixed-site, staffed syringe service programme (standard of care) with the standard of care supplemented with a kiosk. The kiosk will contain various harm reduction supplies accessible to participants upon valid code entry, allowing dispensing data to be linked to participant survey data. The kiosk will include a call-back feature that allows participants to select needed services and receive linkage-to-care services from a peer recovery coach. The cohorts complete follow-up surveys every 6 months for 36 months (three preceding kiosk implementation and four post-implementation). The study will test the effectiveness of the kiosk on reducing risk behaviours associated with overdose, HIV and hepatitis C, as well as implementation outcomes and cost-effectiveness. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The University of Kentucky Institutional Review Board approved the protocol. Results will be disseminated in academic conferences and peer-reviewed journals, online and print media, and community meetings. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT05657106.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas , Infecções por HIV , Hepatite C , Humanos , Kentucky , Análise Custo-Benefício , Redução do Dano , População Rural , Hepatite C/prevenção & controle , Hepacivirus , Overdose de Drogas/prevenção & controle , Região dos Apalaches , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle
9.
Neurology ; 102(3): e208077, 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38546235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Understanding the current status of and temporal trends of stroke epidemiology by age, race, and stroke subtype is critical to evaluate past prevention efforts and to plan future interventions to eliminate existing inequities. We investigated trends in stroke incidence and case fatality over a 22-year time period. METHODS: In this population-based stroke surveillance study, all cases of stroke in acute care hospitals within a 5-county population of southern Ohio/northern Kentucky in adults aged ≥20 years were ascertained during a full year every 5 years from 1993 to 2015. Temporal trends in stroke epidemiology were evaluated by age, race (Black or White), and subtype (ischemic stroke [IS], intracranial hemorrhage [ICH], or subarachnoid hemorrhage [SAH]). Stroke incidence rates per 100,000 individuals from 1993 to 2015 were calculated using US Census data and age-standardized, race-standardized, and sex-standardized as appropriate. Thirty-day case fatality rates were also reported. RESULTS: Incidence rates for stroke of any type and IS decreased in the combined population and among White individuals (any type, per 100,000, 215 [95% CI 204-226] in 1993/4 to 170 [95% CI 161-179] in 2015, p = 0.015). Among Black individuals, incidence rates for stroke of any type decreased over the study period (per 100,000, 349 [95% CI 311-386] in 1993/4 to 311 [95% CI 282-340] in 2015, p = 0.015). Incidence of ICH was stable over time in the combined population and in race-specific subgroups, and SAH decreased in the combined groups and in White adults. Incidence rates among Black adults were higher than those of White adults in all time periods, and Black:White risk ratios were highest in adults in young and middle age groups. Case fatality rates were similar by race and by time period with the exception of SAH in which 30-day case fatality rates decreased in the combined population and White adults over time. DISCUSSION: Stroke incidence is decreasing over time in both Black and White adults, an encouraging trend in the burden of cerebrovascular disease in the US population. Unfortunately, however, Black:White disparities have not decreased over a 22-year period, especially among younger and middle-aged adults, suggesting the need for more effective interventions to eliminate inequities by race.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cerebrovasculares , AVC Isquêmico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Humanos , Incidência , Kentucky/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Ohio/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/epidemiologia
10.
Physiol Plant ; 176(1): e14186, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38351885

RESUMO

Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.), one of the most widely used cool-season turfgrasses around the world, is sensitive to powdery mildew (PM; Blumeria graminis). The PM strain identification and regulation mechanisms of Kentucky bluegrass in response to pathogens still remain unclear. Through morphological and molecular analyses, we identified that the pathogen in Kentucky bluegrass was B. graminis f. sp. poae. The infection of B. graminis led to a reduction of the sclerenchyma area, expansion of vesicular cells and movement of chloroplasts. The infected leaves had significantly lower values in net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, maximal quantum yield of PSII photochemistry, photochemical quenching and non-regulated energy dissipation compared to mock-inoculated leaves. Expressions of light-harvesting antenna protein genes LHCA and LHCB and photosynthetic electron transport genes petE and petH decreased significantly in infected leaves. Furthermore, upregulations of genes involved in plant-pathogen interaction, such as HSP90, RBOH, and RPM and downregulations of EDS, RPS and WRKY were observed in infected leaves. The findings may help design a feasible approach to effectively control the PM disease in Kentucky bluegrass and other related perennial grass species.


Assuntos
Poa , Poa/genética , Poa/metabolismo , Kentucky , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Plantas , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
11.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 30(3): 530-538, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38407144

RESUMO

Persons living in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) were disproportionately affected by COVID-19. We used wastewater surveillance to detect SARS-CoV-2 infection in this setting by collecting and testing 24-hour composite wastewater samples 2-4 times weekly at 6 LTCFs in Kentucky, USA, during March 2021-February 2022. The LTCFs routinely tested staff and symptomatic and exposed residents for SARS-CoV-2 using rapid antigen tests. Of 780 wastewater samples analyzed, 22% (n = 173) had detectable SARS-CoV-2 RNA. The LTCFs reported 161 positive (of 16,905) SARS-CoV-2 clinical tests. The wastewater SARS-CoV-2 signal showed variable correlation with clinical test data; we observed the strongest correlations in the LTCFs with the most positive clinical tests (n = 45 and n = 58). Wastewater surveillance was 48% sensitive and 80% specific in identifying SARS-CoV-2 infections found on clinical testing, which was limited by frequency, coverage, and rapid antigen test performance.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Águas Residuárias , Humanos , Kentucky/epidemiologia , Vigilância Epidemiológica Baseada em Águas Residuárias , Assistência de Longa Duração , RNA Viral , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Cancer Causes Control ; 35(5): 817-824, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38212533

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Populations with high cancer risk that are targeted for screening, education, and vaccination have been shown to increase rates of screening, which ultimately may improve timing of diagnosis and overall outcome for certain cancers. Spatial scan analysis provides a visual representation of areas with higher rates of disease. Limited research has used this methodology to assess HPV-associated cancers. Using, spatial scan statistics, our goal was to identify regions within Kentucky having significantly higher rates of HPV-associated tumors. These regions can be targeted for public health efforts in the form of education, vaccination, screening, and physician recruitment. METHODS: The Kentucky Cancer Registry data from 1995 to 2016 and spatial scan statistics were used to identify county-level clusters with high-incidence of HPV-associated cancers after adjustment for age and sex. Anatomic sites included in this analysis were oropharynx, cervix, anus, penis, and vulva. RESULTS: There was one high-rate cluster of oropharyngeal cancer, which was observed in the Louisville metropolitan region (Relative Risk [RR] = 1.24, p < 0.001). One high-rate cluster of anal and penile cancer incidence in men was identified that partially overlapped with the oropharyngeal cluster. There were five clusters of higher cervical, vulvar, and anal cancer incidence in females, one of which overlapped with the oropharyngeal cluster. CONCLUSION: Overlapping clusters of HPV-associated cancers were identified at the county-level and included both urban and rural counties of Kentucky. Findings can assist in the design of public health interventions to increase screenings, promote vaccination, and recruit physicians in these regions to improve prevention, diagnosis, and early treatment of HPV-associated cancers.


Assuntos
Infecções por Papillomavirus , Sistema de Registros , Humanos , Kentucky/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Masculino , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Papillomaviridae , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/virologia , Idoso , Análise Espacial
13.
Am J Surg ; 232: 102-106, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38281872

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kentucky was among the first to adopt Medicaid expansion, resulting in reducing uninsured rates from 14.3% to 6.4%. We hypothesize that Medicaid expansion resulted in increased elective healthcare utilization and reductions in emergency treatments by patients suffering Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). METHODS: The Hospital Inpatient Discharge and Outpatient Services Database (HIDOSD) identified all encounters related to IBD from 2009 to 2020 in Kentucky. Several demographic variables were compared in pre- and post-Medicaid expansion adoption. RESULTS: Our study analyzed 3386 pre-expansion and 24,255 post-expansion encounters for IBD patients. Results showed that hospitalization rates dropped (47.7%-8.4%), outpatient visits increased (52.3%-91.6%) and Emergency visits decreased (36.7%-11.4%). Admission following a clinical referral similarly increased with a corresponding drop in emergency room admissions. Hospital costs and lengths of stay also dropped following Medicaid expansion. CONCLUSION: In the IBD population, Medicaid expansion improved access to preventative care, reduced hospital costs by decreasing emergency care, and increased elective care pathways.


Assuntos
Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Medicaid , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/terapia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/economia , Kentucky , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Adolescente
14.
Accid Anal Prev ; 196: 107453, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38176321

RESUMO

The present study investigated the impact of real-time weather (air temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, wind speed, and solar radiation) on crash injury severity. Recent crash data (January 2016 to April 2021) on Interstate-75 in the state of Kentucky were merged with real-time weather information (retrieved from Kentucky Mesonet stations) at the 1-hour level. The severity index "SI" (i.e., the ratio of percent severe crashes to percent exposure of a specific weather state during the crash period) was introduced to evaluate the impact of different real-time weather states on fatal and severe injury crashes. Furthermore, the standard mixed logit (MXL), correlated mixed logit (CMXL), and correlated mixed logit with heterogeneity in means (CMXLHM) models were fitted and compared to identify the risk factors contributing to crash injury severity while accounting for unobserved heterogeneity. The results showed that the CMXLHM model was statistically superior to the CMXL and MXL models based on various goodness-of-fit measures (e.g., Akaike information criterion "AIC" and McFadden pseudo R-squared). Results from the SI analysis and CMXLHM model showed that real-time weather-related factors (e.g., air temperature ≥ 70 0F and relative humidity ≥ 90 %) were significantly associated with higher severe injury likelihood. Further, driving under the influence (DUI), young drivers, and vehicle travel speed were associated with greater injury severities. On the other hand, presence of horizontal curve, passenger cars, and hourly traffic volume were associated with lower injury severity likelihood. The study outcomes can help in incident management by suggesting specific real-time weather-related states to feed to dynamic message signs (DMS) to enhance travelers' safety along the interstates.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Ferimentos e Lesões , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Kentucky/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia
15.
J Rural Health ; 40(1): 87-95, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37095596

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States, and the disease burden is elevated in Appalachian Kentucky, due in part to health behaviors and inequities in social determinants of health. This study's goal was to evaluate Appalachian Kentucky's cancer burden compared to non-Appalachian Kentucky, and Kentucky compared to the United States (excluding Kentucky). METHODS: The following data were analyzed: annual all-cause and all-site cancer mortality rates from 1968 to 2018; 5-year all-site and site-specific cancer incidence and mortality rates from 2014 to 2018; aggregated screening and risk factor data from 2016 to 2018 for the United States (excluding Kentucky), Kentucky, non-Appalachian Kentucky, and Appalachian Kentucky; and human papilloma virus vaccination prevalence by sex from 2018 for the United States and Kentucky. FINDINGS: Since 1968, the United States has experienced a large decrease in all-cause and cancer mortality, but the reduction in Kentucky has been smaller and slower, driven by even smaller and slower reductions within Appalachian Kentucky. Appalachian Kentucky has higher overall cancer incidence and mortality rates and higher rates for several site-specific cancers compared to non-Appalachian Kentucky. Contributing factors include screening rate disparities and increased rates of obesity and smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Appalachian Kentucky has experienced persistent cancer disparities, including elevated all-cause and cancer mortality rates for 50+ years, widening the gap between this region and the rest of the country. In addition to addressing social determinants of health, increased efforts aimed at improving health behaviors and increased access to health care resources could help reduce this disparity.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Kentucky/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fumar , Obesidade , Região dos Apalaches/epidemiologia
16.
Med Care Res Rev ; 81(2): 133-144, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38062727

RESUMO

This study examined how interruptions in insurance coverage affect purchases of prescription drugs for young adults. It used data spanning 2014 to 2018 from Kentucky's prescription drug monitoring program, which tracked the universe of federally-regulated (Schedule II-V) prescription drugs dispensed in the state. The study employed a regression discontinuity design based on the age limit at 26 for dependent insurance coverage for children. At age 26, the probability of purchasing a prescription decreased by 5%, with all subcategories of prescriptions affected. The share of generic prescriptions increased for stimulants (the only category observed with substantial branded prescriptions). By age 27, prescription purchases returned to levels observed at 25, but the share purchased with public insurance and the generic share for stimulants remained higher. The findings suggest that interruptions in insurance coverage decrease prescription drug utilization by young adults and that public insurance programs such as Medicaid are important for resuming treatment.


Assuntos
Medicamentos sob Prescrição , Adulto Jovem , Criança , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Adulto , Kentucky , Medicaid , Cobertura do Seguro , Uso de Medicamentos , Prescrições
17.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 30(3): 410-422, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37280118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rural residence has been associated with a lower incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) but higher health care utilization and worse outcomes. Socioeconomic status is intrinsically tied to both IBD incidence and outcomes. Inflammatory bowel disease outcomes have not been investigated in Appalachia: a rural, economically distressed region rife with risk factors for both increased incidence and unfavorable outcomes. METHODS: Hospital inpatient discharge and outpatient services databases were utilized to assess outcomes in patients diagnosed with either Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) in Kentucky. Encounters were classified by patient residence in Appalachian or non-Appalachian counties. Data were reported as crude and age-adjusted rates of visits per 100,000 population per year collected in 2016 to 2019. National inpatient discharge data from 2019, stratified by rural and urban classification codes, were utilized to compare Kentucky to national trends. RESULTS: Crude and age-adjusted rates of inpatient, emergency department and outpatient encounters were higher in the Appalachian cohort for all 4 years observed. Appalachian inpatient encounters are more frequently associated with a surgical procedure (Appalachian, 676, 24.7% vs non-Appalachian, 1408, 22.2%; P = .0091). In 2019, the Kentucky Appalachian cohort had significantly higher crude and age-adjusted rates of inpatient discharges for all IBD diagnoses compared with national rural and nonrural populations (crude 55.2; 95% CI, 50.9-59.5; age-adjusted 56.7; 95% CI, 52.1-61.3). CONCLUSIONS: There is disproportionately higher IBD health care utilization in Appalachian Kentucky compared with all cohorts, including the national rural population. There is a need for aggressive investigation into root causes of these disparate outcomes and identification of barriers to appropriate IBD care.


The Kentucky Appalachian IBD population experiences increased health care utilization, with increased rates of inpatient admissions, emergency department, and outpatient visits compared with non-Appalachian Kentuckians. Kentucky Appalachian rates of inpatient admissions are higher compared with national rates, controlling for rural residence.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Doença de Crohn , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Kentucky/epidemiologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/epidemiologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/terapia , Colite Ulcerativa/epidemiologia , Colite Ulcerativa/terapia
18.
Public Health Rep ; 139(1): 72-78, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36951207

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Timely data on drug overdose deaths can help identify community needs, evaluate the effectiveness of interventions, and allocate resources. We identified variations in death investigation and reporting systems within and between states that affect the timeliness and accuracy of death certificate information. METHODS: The HEALing Communities Study (HCS) is a community-engaged, data-driven approach to combating the opioid crisis in 67 communities in 4 states: Kentucky, Massachusetts, New York, and Ohio. HCS conducted a survey of coroners and medical examiners to understand variability in drug overdose death data. We compared survey results in Massachusetts, New York, and Ohio with national data to investigate the completeness of provisional death counts by type of death investigation system. RESULTS: Communities in each HCS state had different ways of collecting and reporting mortality data. Completion of death certificates for drug overdoses ranged from <2 weeks in 23% (7 of 31) of those surveyed to more than 3 months in 10% (3 of 31) of those surveyed. Variabilities in the timeliness of reporting drug overdose deaths were not associated with type of coroner or medical examiner office in each state, urban versus rural setting, or specificity of drug information on the death certificate. CONCLUSION: Having specific drug information on the death certificate may increase death certificate quality, comparability, and accuracy. We recommend the following: (1) all coroners and medical examiners should be trained on conducting death investigations, interpreting toxicology reports, and completing death certificates; (2) 1 office in each state should oversee all coroners and medical examiners to increase data consistency; and (3) communities should identify and address barriers to timely death certification.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas , Humanos , Kentucky/epidemiologia , Massachusetts/epidemiologia , New York , Ohio/epidemiologia , Atestado de Óbito
19.
Community Ment Health J ; 60(1): 124-130, 2024 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37401957

RESUMO

Although informal peer support has been a central feature of recovery for people with substance use disorder (SUD), more recently there has been a stark increase in formal models of peer support. In the infancy of formalized peer support, researchers warned of potential threats to the integrity of the peer support role. Now, almost two decades into the rapid expansion of peer support, research has yet to evaluate the extent to which peer support is being implemented with fidelity and role integrity. The present study aimed to assess peer workers' perceptions of peer role integrity. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 21 peer workers in Central Kentucky. Results suggest that the role of peers is not well understood by onboarding organizations, and thus, the integrity of peer support is diluted. Findings from this study suggest room for improvement in the training, supervision, and implementation of peer support.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Humanos , Aconselhamento/métodos , Grupo Associado , Kentucky
20.
J Rural Health ; 40(1): 208-214, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37491595

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to describe the county-level availability of drug disposal receptacles in Kentucky community pharmacies and show the relationship between installed receptacles and opioid analgesic (OA)/controlled substance dispensing rates, stratifying where possible by urban-rural classification. METHODS: Using 2020 data from the Kentucky All Schedule Prescription Electronic Reporting program and disposal receptacle data from the US Drug Enforcement Agency, county-level comparisons were made between number of receptacles and OA/controlled substance dispensing rates. Logistic and negative binomial regression models were used to assess for differences between rural/urban county designation and odds of ≥1 disposal receptacle and compare the rates of receptacles per dispensed OA dose in rural/urban counties. FINDINGS: While rural counties saw higher OA and controlled substance dispensing rates, the majority (55.6%) of disposal receptacles were in urban locations. The odds of having at least 1 receptacle were higher in urban counties (OR 2.60, 95% CI: 1.15, 5.92) compared to rural. The estimated rate of disposal receptacles per million dispensed OA doses was found to be 0.47 (95% CI: 0.36, 0.61) in urban counties compared to 0.32 (95% CI: 0.25, 0.42) in rural counties, with an estimated rate ratio of 1.45 (95% CI: 1.01, 2.10). CONCLUSIONS: A mismatch between the availability of county-level disposal receptacles in community pharmacies and the volume of dispensed OAs/controlled substances exists, resulting in fewer receptacles per dispensed OA in rural counties compared to urban counties. Future efforts are necessary to increase access to convenient disposal receptacles located in community pharmacies, particularly in rural communities.


Assuntos
Farmácias , Humanos , Kentucky , Substâncias Controladas , Analgésicos Opioides , População Rural
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