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1.
Ann Intern Med ; 177(4): JC44, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38560909

RESUMO

SOURCE CITATION: Guo J, Zhao F, Bian J, et al. Low-dose ketamine versus morphine in the treatment of acute pain in the emergency department: a meta-analysis of 15 randomized controlled trials. Am J Emerg Med. 2024;76:140-149. 38071883.


Assuntos
Dor Aguda , Ketamina , Humanos , Ketamina/efeitos adversos , Morfina/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Dor Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Medição da Dor , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego
3.
Elife ; 132024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38629811

RESUMO

Background: Ketamine has emerged as one of the most promising therapies for treatment-resistant depression. However, inter-individual variability in response to ketamine is still not well understood and it is unclear how ketamine's molecular mechanisms connect to its neural and behavioral effects. Methods: We conducted a single-blind placebo-controlled study, with participants blinded to their treatment condition. 40 healthy participants received acute ketamine (initial bolus 0.23 mg/kg, continuous infusion 0.58 mg/kg/hr). We quantified resting-state functional connectivity via data-driven global brain connectivity and related it to individual ketamine-induced symptom variation and cortical gene expression targets. Results: We found that: (i) both the neural and behavioral effects of acute ketamine are multi-dimensional, reflecting robust inter-individual variability; (ii) ketamine's data-driven principal neural gradient effect matched somatostatin (SST) and parvalbumin (PVALB) cortical gene expression patterns in humans, while the mean effect did not; and (iii) behavioral data-driven individual symptom variation mapped onto distinct neural gradients of ketamine, which were resolvable at the single-subject level. Conclusions: These results highlight the importance of considering individual behavioral and neural variation in response to ketamine. They also have implications for the development of individually precise pharmacological biomarkers for treatment selection in psychiatry. Funding: This study was supported by NIH grants DP5OD012109-01 (A.A.), 1U01MH121766 (A.A.), R01MH112746 (J.D.M.), 5R01MH112189 (A.A.), 5R01MH108590 (A.A.), NIAAA grant 2P50AA012870-11 (A.A.); NSF NeuroNex grant 2015276 (J.D.M.); Brain and Behavior Research Foundation Young Investigator Award (A.A.); SFARI Pilot Award (J.D.M., A.A.); Heffter Research Institute (Grant No. 1-190420) (FXV, KHP); Swiss Neuromatrix Foundation (Grant No. 2016-0111) (FXV, KHP); Swiss National Science Foundation under the framework of Neuron Cofund (Grant No. 01EW1908) (KHP); Usona Institute (2015 - 2056) (FXV). Clinical trial number: NCT03842800.


Ketamine is a widely used anesthetic as well as a popular illegal recreational drug. Recently, it has also gained attention as a potential treatment for depression, particularly in cases that don't respond to conventional therapies. However, individuals can vary in their response to ketamine. For example, the drug can alter some people's perception, such as seeing objects as larger or small than they are, while other individuals are unaffected. Although a single dose of ketamine was shown to improve depression symptoms in approximately 65% of patients, the treatment does not work for a significant portion of patients. Understanding why ketamine does not work for everyone could help to identify which patients would benefit most from the treatment. Previous studies investigating ketamine as a treatment for depression have typically included a group of individuals given ketamine and a group given a placebo drug. Assuming people respond similarly to ketamine, the responses in each group were averaged and compared to one another. However, this averaging of results may have masked any individual differences in response to ketamine. As a result, Moujaes et al. set out to investigate whether individuals show differences in brain activity and behavior in response to ketamine. Moujaes et al. monitored the brain activity and behavior of 40 healthy individuals that were first given a placebo drug and then ketamine. The results showed that brain activity and behavior varied significantly between individuals after ketamine administration. Genetic analysis revealed that different gene expression patterns paired with differences in ketamine response in individuals ­ an effect that was hidden when the results were averaged. Ketamine also caused greater differences in brain activity and behavior between individuals than other drugs, such as psychedelics, suggesting ketamine generates a particularly complex response in people. In the future, extending these findings in healthy individuals to those with depression will be crucial for determining whether differences in response to ketamine align with how effective ketamine treatment is for an individual.


Assuntos
Ketamina , Humanos , Ketamina/farmacologia , Método Simples-Cego , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Encéfalo
4.
Rev Med Suisse ; 20(870): 784-787, 2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38630037

RESUMO

Adolescence is a developmental phase that exposes young people to exploratory behaviors, including substance abuse. In Switzerland, recreational ketamine use among young people is on the rise and is likely to lead to irreversible somatic complications. Primary care physicians play an essential role in identifying ketamine users, and should offer brief interventions, risk-reduction advice and a psychosocial assessment of the situation, involving close relatives. In the event of secondary damage, particularly urological damage, coordinated management by specialists is essential to achieve symptom regression. Primary and secondary prevention measures are also essential in the fight against addiction among young people.


L'adolescence est une phase développementale exposant les jeunes à des comportements exploratoires, dont la prise de substances. En Suisse, la consommation récréative de kétamine chez les jeunes est en augmentation et est susceptible d'entraîner des complications somatiques irréversibles. Le médecin de premier recours joue un rôle essentiel dans l'identification des usager-e-s de kétamine et doit proposer des interventions brèves, des conseils de réduction des risques et une évaluation globale de la situation (anamnèse psychosociale), en impliquant les proches. En cas d'atteinte secondaire, en particulier urologique, une prise en charge coordonnée entre spécialistes est primordiale pour viser une régression des symptômes. Des mesures de prévention primaires et secondaires sont également essentielles dans la lutte contre les addictions chez les jeunes.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Drogas Ilícitas , Ketamina , Adolescente , Humanos , Drogas Ilícitas/efeitos adversos , Ketamina/efeitos adversos , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Prevenção Secundária
5.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 44(3): 484-490, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38597439

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of esketamine combined with distal limb ischemic preconditioning (LIP) for lung protection in elderly patients undergoing thoracoscopic radical surgery for lung cancer. METHODS: This randomized trial was conducted in 160 patients undergoing elective thoracoscopic surgery for lung cancer, who were randomized into control group (with saline injection and sham LIP), esketamine group, LIP group, and esketamine + LIP group (n=40). Before anesthesia induction, according to the grouping, the patients received an intravenous injection with 0.5 mg/kg esketamine or 10 ml saline (in control group). LIP was induced by applying a tourniquet 1-2 cm above the popliteal fossa in the left lower limb to block the blood flow for 5 min for 3 times at the interval of 5 min, and sham LIP was performed by applying the tourniquet without pressurization for 30 min. Oxygenation index (OI) and alveolar-arterial PO2 difference (A-aDO2) were calculated before induction (T0), at 30 min (T0.5) and 1 h (T1) of one-lung ventilation (OLV), and at 1 h after two-lung ventilation (T3). Serum levels of SP-D, CC-16 and TNF-α were measured by ELISA at T0, T1, T2 (2 h of OLV), T3, and 24 h after the operation (T4). The length of hospital stay and postoperative pulmonary complications of the patients were recorded. RESULTS: Compared with those in the control group, the patients in the other 3 groups had significantly lower CC-16, SP-D and TNF-α levels, shorter hospital stay, and lower incidences of lung infection and lung atelectasis (all P < 0.05). Serum CC-16, SP-D and TNF-α levels, hospital stay, incidences of complications were significantly lower or shorter in the combined treatment group than in esketamine group and LIP group (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: In elderly patients undergoing thoracoscopic radical surgery for lung cancer, treatment with esketamine combined with LIP can alleviate acute lung injury by enhancing anti-inflammatory response to shorten postoperative hospital stay, reduce lung complications and promote the patients' recovery.


Assuntos
Precondicionamento Isquêmico , Ketamina , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Ventilação Monopulmonar , Humanos , Idoso , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Proteína D Associada a Surfactante Pulmonar , Pulmão , Toracoscopia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle
6.
N Z Med J ; 137(1593): 85-89, 2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38603791

RESUMO

An increasing number of young patients with severe bladder overactivity syndrome potentially caused by recreational ketamine use has been treated in our department. Ketamine has become a popular and increasingly used recreational drug in New Zealand. Ketamine bladder syndrome has been reported internationally; however, local New Zealand data do not exist. It can lead to irreversible damage to the bladder, and internationally, surgical procedures like cystectomy and urinary diversion or augmentation cystoplasty have been reported as necessary treatments.


Assuntos
Ketamina , Bexiga Urinária , Humanos , Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Ketamina/efeitos adversos , Nova Zelândia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos , Cistectomia
7.
Int J Pharm Compd ; 28(2): 111-116, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38604147

RESUMO

The need for continued improvement in pain management is growing. This review is aimed towards identifying the literature regarding clinical and therapeutic value of the commonly used ingredients in pain management compounds: lidocaine, tetracaine, ketoprofen, ketamine, and gabapentin. Prospectively, future studies should be conducted to identify the exact benefits and side effects of compounded pain management therapies, such that these compounds can be effectively utilized when deemed appropriate.


Assuntos
Ketamina , Manejo da Dor , Gabapentina , Lidocaína/uso terapêutico , Tetracaína , Anestésicos Locais
8.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 32(1): 26, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594764
9.
Psychiatry Res ; 335: 115890, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38579458

RESUMO

This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the impact of intraoperative and/or postoperative esketamine application on the prevention of postpartum depression (PPD). PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were thoroughly searched for eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) regarding the application of esketamine for postnatal depression prevention. Nine RCTs including 1277 participants were involved in the final analysis. It was found that intraoperative and/or postoperative administration of esketamine significantly reduced the PPD incidence and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scores in the early postoperative period. Meanwhile, esketamine lowered the occurrence of postoperative nausea and vomiting with no influence on other psychiatric symptoms.


Assuntos
Depressão Pós-Parto , Ketamina , Feminino , Humanos , Depressão Pós-Parto/prevenção & controle , Ketamina/uso terapêutico , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios , Período Pós-Operatório
10.
Age Ageing ; 53(4)2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557666

RESUMO

Adequate management of acute pain in the older population is crucial. However, it is inherently complex because of multiple physiological changes that significantly impact both the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of medications. Current guidelines promote paracetamol as the first-line analgesic for acute pain in older adults, whereas opioids are advised cautiously for moderate to severe acute pain. However, opioids come with a significant array of side effects, which can be more pronounced in older individuals. Ketamine administered via intranasal (IN) and nebulised inhalation in the emergency department for managing acute pain in older patients shows promising potential for improving pain management and reducing opioid reliance Kampan, Thong-on, Sri-on (2024, Age Ageing, 53, afad255). Nebulised ketamine appears superior in terms of adverse event incidence. However, the adoption of IN or nebulised ketamine in older adult acute pain management remains unclear because of the lack of definitive conclusions and clear guidelines. Nevertheless, these modalities can be valuable options for patients where opioid analgesics are contraindicated or when intravenous morphine titration is impractical or contraindicated. Here, we review these concepts, the latest evidence and propose avenues for research.


Assuntos
Dor Aguda , Ketamina , Dor Musculoesquelética , Humanos , Idoso , Ketamina/efeitos adversos , Ketamina/administração & dosagem , Morfina/administração & dosagem , Morfina/efeitos adversos , Manejo da Dor/efeitos adversos , Dor Aguda/diagnóstico , Dor Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Dor Musculoesquelética/induzido quimicamente , Dor Musculoesquelética/tratamento farmacológico , Analgésicos/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência
11.
J Psychiatr Res ; 173: 124-130, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38522166

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We investigated the antidepressant effects of a novel oral prolonged-release formulation of racemic ketamine (KET01) in patients suffering from treatment-resistant depression (TRD) as add-on therapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients were randomized to an additional 160 mg/day or 240 mg/day KET01 or placebo for 14 days. The primary endpoint was change in Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) scores from baseline to day 15. For treatment group comparisons, we used ANOVA with pairwise least squares mean difference tests in a mixed model repeated measures analysis. RESULTS: Twenty-seven patients completed the double-blind protocol before trial premature termination due to poor recruitment during the COVID-19 pandemic. Mean (SD) MADRS scores on day 15 were 23 (10.32) in placebo, 25 (8.28) with 160 mg/day and 17 (10.32) with 240 mg/day KET01. MADRS change was numerically larger but statistically non-significant in the 240 mg/day KET01 group vs placebo on day 7 (-5.67; p = 00.106) and day 15 was (difference: 4.99; p = 00.15). In exploratory analysis, baseline leukocyte count correlated with response to KET01 (p = 00.01). Distribution of adverse event rates were comparable between the treatment arms. Safety analysis did not identify increased risk of suicidality, dissociation, hear rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure associated with trial treatment. DISCUSSION: Our results suggest that adjunctive oral administration of prolonged-release ketamine at a dose of 240 mg/day shows a positive, although statistically non-significant, trend towards antidepressant efficacy, however, the benefit could not be confirmed due to premature trial termination. Given its ease of use and low side effects, further trials are warranted to investigate this route of ketamine administration as a promising potential treatment of TRD.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtorno Depressivo Resistente a Tratamento , Ketamina , Humanos , Ketamina/efeitos adversos , Depressão , Pandemias , Antidepressivos/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Transtorno Depressivo Resistente a Tratamento/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38552775

RESUMO

There is an urgent need for novel antidepressants, given that approximately 30% of those diagnosed with depression do not respond adequately to first-line treatment. Additionally, monoaminergic-based antidepressants have a substantial therapeutic time-lag, often taking months to reach full therapeutic effect. Ketamine, an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist is the only current effective rapid-acting antidepressant, demonstrating efficacy within hours and lasting up to two weeks with an acute dose. Reelin, an extracellular matrix glycoprotein, has demonstrated rapid-acting antidepressant-like effects at 24 h, however the exact timescale of these effects has not been investigated. To determine the short and long-term effects of reelin, female Long Evans rats (n = 120) underwent a chronic corticosterone (CORT; or vehicle) paradigm (40 mg/kg, 21 days). On day 21, rats were treated with reelin (3µg; i.v.), ketamine (10 mg/kg; i.p.), both reelin and ketamine (same doses), or vehicle (saline). Behavioural and biological effects were then evaluated at 1 h, 6 h, 12 h, and 1 week after treatment. The 1-week cohort continued CORT injections to ensure the effect of chronic stress was not lost. Individually, both reelin and ketamine significantly rescued CORT-induced behaviour and hippocampal reelin expression at all timepoints. Ketamine rescued a decrease in dendritic maturity as induced by CORT. Synergistic effects of reelin and ketamine appeared at 1-week, suggesting a potential additive effect of the antidepressant-like actions. Taken together, this study provides further support for reelin-based therapeutics to develop rapid-acting antidepressant.


Assuntos
Corticosterona , Ketamina , Animais , Feminino , Ratos , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Corticosterona/metabolismo , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/induzido quimicamente , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Ketamina/farmacologia , Ketamina/uso terapêutico , Ratos Long-Evans , Proteína Reelina/farmacologia , Proteína Reelina/uso terapêutico
13.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 28(5): 1797-1811, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38497863

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Perioperative anxiety and depression syndrome (PADS) is a common clinical concern among women with systemic tumors. Esketamine has been considered for its potential to alleviate anxiety and depressive symptoms. However, its specific application and effectiveness in PADS among women with systemic tumors remain unclear. This study aimed to analyze the utility of Machine Learning (ML) algorithms based on electroencephalogram (EEG) signals in evaluating perioperative anxiety and depression in women with systemic tumors treated with Esketamine, utilizing a large-scale medical data background. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A single-center, randomized, placebo-controlled (SC-RPC) trial design was adopted. A total of 112 female patients with systemic tumors and PADS who received Esketamine treatment were included as study participants. A moderate dose (0.7 mg/kg) of Esketamine was administered through intravenous infusion over a duration of 60 minutes. EEG signals were collected from all patients, and the EEG signal features of individuals with depression were compared to those without depression. In this study, a Support Vector Machine (SVM)-K-Nearest Neighbour (KNN) hybrid classifier was constructed based on SVM and KNN algorithms. Using the EEG signals, the classifier was utilized to assess the anxiety and depression status of the patients. The predictive performance of the classifier was evaluated using accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity measures. RESULTS: The C2 correntropy feature of the delta rhythm in the left-brain EEG signal was significantly higher in individuals with depression compared to those without depression (p<0.05). Moreover, the C2 correntropy feature of the Alpha, Beta, and Gamma rhythms in the left-brain EEG signal was significantly lower in individuals with depression compared to those without depression (p<0.05). In the right brain EEG signal, the C2 correntropy feature of the delta rhythm was significantly higher in individuals with depression (p<0.05), while the C2 correntropy feature of the alpha and gamma rhythms was significantly lower in individuals with depression compared to those without depression (p<0.05). Additionally, the C1 correntropy feature of the Gamma rhythm in the right brain EEG signal was significantly higher in individuals with depression compared to those without depression (p<0.05). The SVM classifier achieved accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of 98.23%, 98.10%, and 98.56%, respectively, in recognizing the left-brain EEG signals, with a correlation coefficient of 0.95. In recognizing the right brain EEG signals, the SVM classifier achieved accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of 98.74%, 98.43%, and 99.03%, respectively, with a correlation coefficient of 0.96. The improved SVM-KNN approach yielded an accuracy, recall, precision, F-score, area over the curve (AOC), and Receiver Operation Characteristics (ROC) of 0.829, 0.811, 0.791, 0.853, 0.787, and 0.877, respectively, in predicting anxiety. For predicting depression, the accuracy, recall, precision, F-score, AOC, and ROC were 0.869, 0.842, 0.831, 0.893, 0.827, and 0.917, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Significant differences were observed in the brain EEG signals between individuals with depression and those without depression. The improved SVM-KNN algorithm developed in this study demonstrates good predictive capability for anxiety and depression.


Assuntos
Big Data , Ketamina , Neoplasias , Feminino , Humanos , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Ritmo Gama , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome
14.
BMJ Paediatr Open ; 8(1)2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38490692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) is a neurosurgical procedure that reduces lower limb spasticity, performed in some children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy. Effective pain management after SDR is essential for early rehabilitation. This study aimed to describe the anaesthetic and early pain management, pain and adverse events in children following SDR. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study. Participants were all children who underwent SDR at a single Australian tertiary hospital between 2010 and 2020. Electronic medical records of all children identified were reviewed. Data collected included demographic and clinical data (pain scores, key clinical outcomes, adverse events and side effects) and medications used during anaesthesia and postoperative recovery. RESULTS: 22 children (n=8, 36% female) had SDR. The mean (SD) age at surgery was 6 years and 6 months (1 year and 4 months). Common intraoperative medications used were remifentanil (100%), ketamine (95%), paracetamol (91%) and sevoflurane (86%). Postoperatively, all children were prescribed opioid nurse-controlled analgesia (morphine, 36%; fentanyl, 36%; and oxycodone, 18%) and concomitant ketamine infusion. Opioid doses were maximal on the day after surgery. The mean (SD) daily average pain score (Wong-Baker FACES scale) on the day after surgery was 1.4 (0.9), decreasing to 1.0 (0.5) on postoperative day 6 (POD6). Children first attended the physiotherapy gym on median day 7 (POD8, range 7-8). Most children experienced mild side effects or adverse events that were managed conservatively. Common side effects included constipation (n=19), nausea and vomiting (n=18), and pruritus (n=14). No patient required return to theatre, ICU admission or prolonged inpatient stay. CONCLUSIONS: Most children achieve good pain management following SDR with opioid and ketamine infusions. Adverse events, while common, are typically mild and managed with medication or therapy. This information can be used as a baseline to improve postoperative care and to support families' understanding of SDR before surgery.


Assuntos
Ketamina , Rizotomia , Criança , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Rizotomia/métodos , Manejo da Dor , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ketamina/uso terapêutico , Austrália , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia
15.
Air Med J ; 43(2): 84-89, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38490790

RESUMO

Current first-line therapies for seizure management recommend benzodiazepines, which target gamma-aminobutyric acid type A channels to stop the seizure activity. However, seizures may be refractory to traditional first-line therapies, transitioning into status epilepticus and becoming resistant to gamma-aminobutyric acid type A augmenting drugs. Although there are other antiseizure medications available for clinicians to use in the intensive care unit, these options can be less readily available outside of the intensive care unit and entirely absent in the prehospital setting. Instead, patients frequently receive multiple doses of first-line agents with increased risk of hemodynamic or airway collapse. Ketamine is readily available in the prehospital setting and emergency department, has well-established antiseizure effects with a favorable safety profile, and is a drug often used for several other indications. This article aimed to explore the utilization of ketamine for seizure management in the prehospital setting, reviewing seizure pathophysiology, established treatment mechanisms of action and pharmacokinetics, and potential benefits of early ketamine use in status epilepticus.


Assuntos
Ketamina , Estado Epiléptico , Humanos , Ketamina/uso terapêutico , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Estado Epiléptico/tratamento farmacológico , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/uso terapêutico
16.
J Affect Disord ; 353: 27-35, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38428531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether ketamine used in the perioperative period reduces the risk of postoperative depressive symptoms remains uncertain. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the clinical efficacy of ketamine in adult surgical patients. METHODS: Two investigators independently systematically searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline, Web of Science, and PsycINFO databases using a combination of relevant Medical Subject Headings terms and free-text keywords from database inception through May 24, 2023. RESULTS: 29 studies encompassing 5327 patients were included. The pooled analysis demonstrated that the ketamine group had no significantly reduced incidence of postoperative depressive mood compared with the control group, with trial sequential analysis (TSA) inconclusive. However, postoperative depression scale scores were significantly decreased in the ketamine group. LIMITATIONS: Most randomized controlled trials of surgical patients have included depression scale scores as the primary outcome. The incidence of postoperative depressive has been assessed as a secondary outcome or has not been assessed. In addition, non-uniform assessment scales have introduced greater heterogeneity. More rigorous methods and higher-quality evidence for further research are needed to better understand the effects of ketamine on perioperative depression in surgical anesthesia. CONCLUSIONS: Current evidence suggests that ketamine cannot significantly decrease the incidence of postoperative depressive mood in adult surgical patients. However, ketamine can reduce postoperative depression scores. PROSPERO registration: CRD42023431566.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo , Ketamina , Adulto , Humanos , Ketamina/uso terapêutico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Período Pós-Operatório , Transtorno Depressivo/induzido quimicamente
17.
J Evid Based Dent Pract ; 24(1): 101957, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38448122

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of preemptive ibuprofen, local ketamine, and their combination in managing postoperative pain and trismus following third molar surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred patients were randomly divided into 4 groups. The Intrafen Group had their impacted third molars surgically removed under local anesthesia after receiving intravenous (IV) ibuprofen for preemptive effect. The Ketamine Group received an IV placebo before the surgery, and the extraction process was completed with a local anesthetic-ketamine combination. The Combined Group received preemptive IV ibuprofen before the procedure, and the surgery was performed with a local anesthetic-ketamine combination. The Control Group received an IV placebo before the procedure and then had their impacted third molars removed under local anesthesia. The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) values, corresponding to the patients' pain levels at the 2nd and 12th postoperative hours and the total amount of analgesic dose used in the first 24 hours, were recorded, and evaluated. The maximum mouth opening of the patients was measured immediately before the procedure, and on the second and seventh postoperative days. The level of patient satisfaction in all groups was assessed during the procedure. RESULTS: The mean VAS value corresponding to the second-hour pain level of the combined group was statistically significantly lower than the other groups (P = .003). A statistically significant difference was found in the mean VAS values corresponding to the pain levels of the groups, favoring the combined group compared to the other groups (P ≤ .001). A significant difference was observed between the VAS difference values corresponding to the pain levels of the Intrafen group and the Ketamine group, favoring the Intrafen group (P = .038). The Ketamine group consumed the most analgesic on average over the first 24 hours, whereas the Combined group consumed the least. No statistically significant difference was found between the mean trismus levels of the groups on days 0-2 (P = .528) and days 0-7 (P = .129). The intraoperative patient satisfaction level of the combined group was significantly higher than that of the other groups (P = .030). CONCLUSION: Preemptive Intrafen is an effective regimen for postoperative pain management and is superior to the local anesthetic-ketamine regimen. The most effective method to reduce postoperative pain following third molar surgery is to use a combination of these 2 regimens. However, none of the treatment methods used in the study had a positive effect on postoperative trismus.


Assuntos
Analgesia , Ketamina , Humanos , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Anestésicos Locais , Ibuprofeno/uso terapêutico , Dente Serotino/cirurgia , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Trismo/prevenção & controle , Método Duplo-Cego
18.
Psychopharmacol Bull ; 54(1): 8-17, 2024 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38449472

RESUMO

Background: Despite the prevalence of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and the propensity of affected individuals to eventually die by suicide, there is no therapeutic approved specifically for suicidal ideation and behavior (SI/B) in MDD. The NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine has been investigated for the treatment of depression and shown to have a rapid effect on symptoms. Spravato® (esketamine) is approved by the FDA for use in treatment-resistant depression and Major Depressive Episodes with Suicidal Ideation based on studies conducted in adults also taking standard antidepressants. While esketamine was associated with a large reduction in suicidality indicators, the effects did not significantly exceed those associated with placebo. Racemic ketamine, a mixture of both esketamine and arketamine, may hold greater potential for the rapid alleviation of SI/B. SLS-002 was developed as an investigational intranasal racemic ketamine for the treatment of SI/B in individuals with MDD. Methods: In part one of a two-part clinical trial, the safety, tolerability, and potential effectiveness of SLS-002 were evaluated in an open label study of 17 patients with MDD hospitalized with acute SI/B. Results: Treatment with SLS-002 was associated with a significant reduction in depression and suicidality indicators on four clinical scales: the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, the Sheehan-Suicidality Tracking Scale, and the Clinical and Patient Global Impression Scales for SI/B. SLS-002 was well tolerated with an acceptable safety profile. Conclusions: The results of this open label study support the continued development of SLS-002. The randomized double-blind placebo-controlled part two of this trial was recently completed.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Ketamina , Suicídio , Adulto , Humanos , Analgésicos , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Ketamina/efeitos adversos , Ideação Suicida
19.
J Med Case Rep ; 18(1): 84, 2024 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38431685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Anesthesiologists prefer ketamine for certain surgeries due to its effectiveness as a non-competitive inhibitor of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor in the brain. Recently, this agent has also shown promise as an antidepressant. However, ketamine can cause hallucinogenic effects and is sometimes abused as an illicit drug. Ketamine abuse has been associated with liver and bile duct complications. This systematic study aims to better understand cholangiopathy in ketamine abusers by reviewing case reports. METHODS AND MATERIAL: In this systematic review, a comprehensive literature search was conducted with the terms "biliary tract diseases" and "ketamine". Case reports and case series of adult patients with documented ketamine abuse and reported cholangiopathy or biliary tract disease were included. We extracted the data of relevant information and the results were reported through narrative synthesis and descriptive statistics. RESULTS: A total of 48 studies were initially identified, and 11 studies were finally included in the review. The mean age of the patients was 25.88 years. Of the 17 patients, 64.7% were men. Symptoms often included abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Most patients were discharged with improved symptoms and liver function. Common bile duct dilation and other findings were observed in imaging results and other diagnostic studies. CONCLUSION: This review highlights the diverse presentations and diagnostic modalities used in ketamine-induced cholangiography. These patients tend to be young men with deranged liver function tests and abdominal pain, which should be taken into consideration. These patients often require a multidisciplinary approach in their management.


Assuntos
Doenças Biliares , Sistema Biliar , Drogas Ilícitas , Ketamina , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Humanos , Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Ductos Biliares , Doenças Biliares/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Biliares/complicações , Ketamina/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Relatos de Casos como Assunto
20.
Elife ; 122024 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38512722

RESUMO

Ketamine (KET) and isoflurane (ISO) are two widely used general anesthetics, yet their distinct and shared neurophysiological mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, we conducted a comparative analysis of the effects of KET and ISO on c-Fos expression across the mouse brain, utilizing hierarchical clustering and c-Fos-based functional network analysis to evaluate the responses of individual brain regions to each anesthetic. Our findings reveal that KET activates a wide range of brain regions, notably in the cortical and subcortical nuclei involved in sensory, motor, emotional, and reward processing, with the temporal association areas (TEa) as a strong hub, suggesting a top-down mechanism affecting consciousness by primarily targeting higher order cortical networks. In contrast, ISO predominantly influences brain regions in the hypothalamus, impacting neuroendocrine control, autonomic function, and homeostasis, with the locus coeruleus (LC) as a connector hub, indicating a bottom-up mechanism in anesthetic-induced unconsciousness. KET and ISO both activate brain areas involved in sensory processing, memory and cognition, reward and motivation, as well as autonomic and homeostatic control, highlighting their shared effects on various neural pathways. In conclusion, our results highlight the distinct but overlapping effects of KET and ISO, enriching our understanding of the mechanisms underlying general anesthesia.


Assuntos
Anestésicos , Isoflurano , Ketamina , Camundongos , Animais , Isoflurano/farmacologia , Ketamina/farmacologia , Anestésicos/farmacologia , Inconsciência , Encéfalo , Mapeamento Encefálico
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