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1.
Aerosp Med Hum Perform ; 92(10): 835-837, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642005

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) that increases risk for clinically significant atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). This common (1:220) disease is present within the fighter pilot community and hesitation to treat this condition at younger ages results in a higher risk for coronary artery disease (CAD), the presence of which can be catastrophic for flying safety. CASE REPORT: A 40-yr-old asymptomatic F-15 pilot presented with persistently elevated LDL-C levels > 190 mg dL1 and a significant family history of CAD. Coronary artery calcium, CT angiography, and finally, invasive angiography were used to further stratify him as having mild CAD. Initiation of statin therapy significantly lowered his LDL and subsequent risk for disease progression, allowing him to return to flying. DISCUSSION: Early recognition and treatment of HeFH is imperative for lowering the risk of ASCVD. Often the medical community supporting flyers is hesitant to diagnose or treat this condition, due to nonrecognition, the young age of presentation, or reluctance to potentially ground a flyer. By intervening earlier, rather than waiting, aviators can remain on flying status longer with lower risk to themselves and their aircrew. Gatzke LC. Heterozygous familial hyperlipidemia in a fighter pilot. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2021; 92(10):835837.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Hiperlipidemias , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II , Pilotos , LDL-Colesterol , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Humanos , Hiperlipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/diagnóstico , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/genética , Masculino
2.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 45: 91-101, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic. Studies reported dyslipidemia in patients with COVID-19. Herein, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published articles to evaluate the association of the lipid profile with the severity and mortality in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: PubMed/Medline, Europe PMC, and Google Scholar were searched for studies published between January 1, 2020 and January 13, 2021. Random or Fixed effects models were used to calculate the mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Statistical heterogeneity was assessed using Cochran's Q test and I2 statistics. RESULTS: This meta-analysis included 19 studies. Of which, 12 studies were categorized by severity, 04 studies by mortality, and 03 studies by both severity and mortality. Our findings revealed significantly decreased levels of total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in the severe group when compared with the non-severe group in a random effect model. Similarly, random effect model results demonstrated significantly lower levels of HDL-C and LDL-C in the non-survivor group when compared with the survivor group. The level of TC was also found to be decreased in the non-survivor group when compared to the survivor group in a fixed-effect model. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the lipid profile is associated with both the severity and mortality in COVID-19 patients. Hence, the lipid profile may be used for assessing the severity and prognosis of COVID-19. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021216316.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , HDL-Colesterol , LDL-Colesterol , Humanos , Lipídeos , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 117(2): 270-278, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495217

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Statin use is highlighted as the most commonly utilized therapy for the treatment of dyslipidemias and can be considered as the most efficient pharmacological intervention for low-density lipoprotein (LDL) reduction. On the other hand, physical training can be considered an efficient and safe non-pharmacological strategy to promote improvements in lipid profile. However, the influence of statins on lipid adaptations arising from water-based training in populations with dyslipidemia is not known. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the influence of simvastatin use on lipid adaptations arising from water-based aerobics and resistance training in elderly women with dyslipidemia. METHODS: Sixty-nine elderly (66.13 ± 5.13 years), sedentary, and dyslipidemic women, both non-users and users of simvastatin (20 mg and 40 mg), were randomized into the following 3 groups: water-based aerobic training (WA), water-based resistance training (WR), and control group (CG). Total duration of interventions, for all experimental groups consisted of 10 weeks, with 2 weekly sessions. Biochemical analyses were performed before the beginning of the interventions and repeated after the end of the trial. Generalized estimating equations were used to compare these data, setting α = 0.05. RESULTS: In intention-to-treat analysis, the medicated participants obtained a greater magnitude of decrease in total cholesterol (TC) (-3.41 to -25.89 mg.dl-1; p = 0.038), LDL (-5.58 to -25.18 mg.dl-1; p = 0.007) and TC/HDL ratio (-0.37 to -0.61; p = 0.022) when compared to the non-medicated participants, and this decrease was statistically significant only in the WR group. CONCLUSIONS: Statin use enhances the adaptations promoted by water-based physical training in CT, LDL levels, and CT/HDL ratio, and it is more pronounced after WR.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Dislipidemias , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases , Idoso , HDL-Colesterol , LDL-Colesterol , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico
4.
Trials ; 22(1): 582, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470656

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nut consumption has been related to improvements on cardiometabolic parameters and reduction in the severity of atherosclerosis mainly in primary cardiovascular prevention. The objective of this trial is to evaluate the effects of the Brazilian Cardioprotective Diet (DIeta CArdioprotetora Brasileira, DICA Br) based on consumption of inexpensive locally accessible foods supplemented or not with mixed nuts on cardiometabolic features in patients with previous myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS: DICA-NUTS study is a national, multicenter, randomized 16-week follow-up clinical trial. Patients over 40 years old with diagnosis of previous MI in the last 2 to 6 months will be recruited (n = 388). A standardized questionnaire will be applied to data collection and blood samples will be obtained. Patients will be allocated in two groups: Group 1: DICA Br supplemented with 30 g/day of mixed nuts (10 g of peanuts, 10 g of cashew, 10 g of Brazil nuts); and Group 2: only DICA Br. The primary outcome will consist of LDL cholesterol means (in mg/dL) after 16 weeks of intervention. Secondary outcomes will consist of other markers of lipid profile, glycemic profile, and anthropometric data. DISCUSSION: It is expected that DICA Br supplemented with mixed nuts have superior beneficial effects on cardiometabolic parameters in patients after a MI, when compared to DICA Br. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT03728127 . First register: November 1, 2018; Last update: June 16, 2021. World Health Organization Universal Trial Number (WHO-UTN): U1111-1259-8105.


Assuntos
Dieta , Infarto do Miocárdio , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Glicemia , LDL-Colesterol , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
5.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(9)2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34577798

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Coronary artery disease is still a major cause of death in developed countries. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering with statin therapy is a key strategy in major acute coronary events' prevention. The aim of the study was to establish if there is a cardioprotective effect of pre-operative LDL lowering therapy on perioperative myocaridal injury in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Moreover, the impact of pre-operative LDL level on long term outcome was analysed. Materials and Methods: The retrospective single center analysis included 662 consecutive patients (431 (65%) males and 231 (35%) female, mean age of 65 ± 8) referred for cardiac surgery due to stable chronic coronary syndrome between 2012-2018. The follow up was 9 years. Results: A statistically significant difference was found in postoperative serum Troponin-I for LDL thresholds of 1.8 mmol/L (p = 0.009), 2.6 mmol/L (p = 0.03) and 3.0 mmol/L (p = 0.001). The results indicate that cardioprotective role of LDL is achieved within LDL concentration rate below 1.8 mmol/L (<70 mg/dL). Five patients died perioperatively, whereas 1-year and 9-year overall mortality rates were 4% (n = 28) and 18.6% (n = 123), respectively. Comparing the survival group with diseased, Mann-Whitney U test showed a statistically significant difference in HDL-C (p = 0.007), Troponin (p = 0.009), Castelli index (p = 0.001) and atherogenic index (p = 0.004). Preoperative levels of total cholesterol, LDL-C and HDL-C did not significantly differ between survivors and diseased. The 9-year mortality risk did not differ significantly between subgroups divided according to LDL-C thresholds of 1.4 mmol/L (55 mg/dL), 1.8 mmol/L (70 mg/dL), 2.6 mmol/L (100 mg/dL) and 3.0 mmol/L (116 mg/dL). Conclusions: Preoperative low level of LDL-C cholesterol (below 1.83 mmol/L, 70 mg/dL) has a cardioprotective effect on perioperative myocardial injury in off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , LDL-Colesterol , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(15): 3533-3543, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34522180

RESUMO

Importance: Despite the availability of a vaccine against the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), humans will have to live with this virus and the after-effects of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection for a long time. Cholesterol plays an important role in the infection and prognosis of SARS-CoV-2, and the study of its mechanism is of great significance not only for the treatment of COVID-19 but also for research on generic antiviral drugs. Observations: Cholesterol promotes the development of atherosclerosis by activating NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3), and the resulting inflammatory environment indirectly contributes to COVID-19 infection and subsequent deterioration. In in vitro studies, membrane cholesterol increased the number of viral entry sites on the host cell membrane and the number of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors in the membrane fusion site. Previous studies have shown that the fusion protein of the virus interacts with cholesterol, and the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 also requires cholesterol to enter the host cells. Cholesterol in blood interacts with the spike protein to promote the entry of spike cells, wherein the scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-B1) plays an important role. Because of the cardiovascular protective effects of lipid-lowering therapy and the additional anti-inflammatory effects of lipid-lowering drugs, it is currently recommended to continue lipid-lowering therapy for patients with COVID-19, but the safety of extremely low LDL-C is questionable. Conclusions and Relevance: Cholesterol can indirectly increase the susceptibility of patients to SARS-CoV-2 and increase the risk of death from COVID-19, which are mediated by NLRP3 and atherosclerotic plaques, respectively. Cholesterol present in the host cell membrane, virus, and blood may also directly participate in the virus cell entry process, but the specific mechanism still needs further study. Patients with COVID-19 are recommended to continue lipid-lowering therapy.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Hipercolesterolemia/complicações , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Aterosclerose/fisiopatologia , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/terapia , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , HDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , LDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Endocitose , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/diagnóstico , Hipercolesterolemia/terapia , Inflamação , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/sangue , Prognóstico , SARS-CoV-2 , Receptores Depuradores Classe B/metabolismo
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(36): e27146, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516506

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: To evaluate the value of the combination schemes of 10 serological markers in the clinical diagnosis of acute cerebral infarction.The level of total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, homocysteine (HCY), lipoprotein-related phospholipase A2, ischemia-modified albumin, complement C1q, and lipoprotein a were analyzed in 154 patients with acute ischemic cerebral infarction. The optimized diagnostic combination for acute cerebral infarction was explored by calculating the maximum area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC).The levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, HCY, lipoprotein-related phospholipase A2, ischemia-modified albumin, complement C1q, and lipoprotein a were significantly higher in the patient vs the control group. Moreover, the positive rate of HCY reached 89.9%. The analysis of the receiver operating characteristic curve of each index and their combinations showed that the minimum AUC of HDL-C alone was 0.543, while the maximum AUC of HCY was 0.853. A multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that HDL-C was a slightly significant variate in the diagnosis of acute cerebral infarction.The value of individual serological markers in the diagnosis of acute cerebral infarction was slightly significant, while the combination of the markers significantly improved the efficiency of its diagnosis.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Doença Aguda , Área Sob a Curva , Isquemia Encefálica/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Albumina Sérica Humana , Triglicerídeos/sangue
9.
Acta Clin Croat ; 60(1): 63-67, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588723

RESUMO

Diabetes is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Despite recommendations and available therapeutic options, patients with diabetes do not always reach the recommended lipid levels. In this study, our aim was to compare the real world lipid profile of type 2 diabetes patients with guideline recommendations for dyslipidemia. Four hundred and sixty eight consecutive patients referred to Outpatient Diabetes Clinic of Istanbul Medeniyet University were recruited. Patient anthropometric measurements (height, weight, waist circumference), biochemical test results (LDL cholesterol (LDL-c), triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, HbA1c) and treatment modalities were recorded. Patients were stratified into cardiovascular risk categories according to the risk factors and their treatment dose was compared to the recommendations. Among 468 patients, 56 (12%) patients had coronary heart disease (CHD). Thirty-four percent of these patients were not on statin treatment (n=19) and their mean LDL-c level was 114±29 mg/dL (2.9±0.75 mmol/L). Nineteen percent of these patients were on high intensity statin treatment (atorvastatin 40-80 mg, rosuvastatin 20 mg). Only four patients with CHD had LDL-c levels <70 mg/dL (1.8 mmol/L). Four hundred and twelve patients had no CHD. In these patients, the mean LDL-c level was 132±38 mg/dL (3.4±0.9 mmol/L). Eighty (19%) patients had LDL-c level lower than 100 mg/dL (2.5 mmol/L). Overall 82% (n=384) of the cohort had not achieved treatment goal. In conclusion, a more pronounced approach for statin treatment is needed in diabetes patients for both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases , Atorvastatina , HDL-Colesterol , LDL-Colesterol , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Lipídeos , Fatores de Risco
10.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 69(8): 11-12, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Family history of premature coronary artery disease as a risk factor in first degree relatives has been well established by various studies. This study aims at identification and assessment of the presence of risk factors in asymptomatic siblings of patients with documented premature coronary artery disease. Prevalence of Systemic Hypertension in siblings (both male and female) of patients with premature coronary artery disease (males <45yrs, females <55yrs, confirmed by coronary angiography) was analysed. Other risk factor prevalence estimation was also done which included, dyslipidaemia, diabetes mellitus, tobacco use, alcohol intake, obesity, passive smoke exposure, diet and exercise. The study also estimated the percentage of sibling awareness regarding the risk factors for cardiovascular disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross sectional study where all patients (both In and Out patient), visiting Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Kochi and diagnosed as having angiographically proven Premature Coronary Artery Disease from December 2014 to June 2016 were identified and risk factor screening was done for both male and female siblings of any age of these patients. Laboratory tests included fasting blood sugar and fasting lipid profile were analysed after sample collection. RESULTS: 47.6% of male siblings and 35.7% of female siblings were found to be hypertensive, 17.3% of the male siblings and 18.7% of the female siblings were found to have abnormal levels of LDL cholesterol, 22.7% of male siblings and female siblings were found to have abnormal fasting plasma sugar levels, 30.5% of male siblings and 20% of male siblings were found to be overweight. 19.1% of male siblings and 21.4% of female siblings were found to be obese. Only 18.1% of male siblings and 5.7% of female siblings performed any kind of exercise on a regular basis. Among male siblings, 21.9% of male siblings were currently using tobacco in some form. Among non-smokers in both sexes, as many as 36% were exposed to some form of passive smoke. Almost half of the male siblings (49.5%) consumed alcohol containing beverages on a regular basis. CONCLUSIONS: Previously undetected risk factors were found to be highly prevalent among the studied siblings. Significant number of siblings were was found to be hypertensive and in addition some had elevated fasting blood sugar levels. Other modifiable risk factors like obesity, alcohol consumption, tobacco use, passive smoking and lack of exercise were also found to be widely prevalent. An important aspect that the study highlighted is the widespread lack of awareness in the study population about risk factors for disease.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Irmãos , LDL-Colesterol , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
11.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445043

RESUMO

Postmenopausal women are at higher risk of developing cardiovascular diseases due to changes in lipid profile and body fat, among others. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of urinary tartaric acid, a biomarker of wine consumption, with anthropometric (weight, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), and waist-to-height ratio), blood pressure, and biochemical variables (blood glucose and lipid profile) that may be affected during the menopausal transition. This sub-study of the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) trial included a sample of 230 women aged 60-80 years with high cardiovascular risk at baseline. Urine samples were diluted and filtered, and tartaric acid was analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Correlations between tartaric acid and the study variables were adjusted for age, education level, smoking status, physical activity, BMI, cholesterol-lowering, antihypertensive, and insulin treatment, total energy intake, and consumption of fruits, vegetables, and raisins. A strong association was observed between wine consumption and urinary tartaric acid (0.01 µg/mg (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.01, 0.01), p-value < 0.001). Total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were inversely correlated with urinary tartaric acid (-3.13 µg/mg (-5.54, -0.71), p-value = 0.016 and -3.03 µg/mg (-5.62, -0.42), p-value = 0.027, respectively), whereas other biochemical and anthropometric variables were unrelated. The results suggest that wine consumption may have a positive effect on cardiovascular health in postmenopausal women, underpinning its nutraceutical properties.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/urina , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Colesterol/sangue , Tartaratos/urina , Vinho , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antropometria , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444607

RESUMO

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic is a serious global health problem. In Italy, to limit the infections, the government ordered lockdown from March 2020. This measure, designed to contain the virus, led to serious limitations on the daily life of the individuals it affected, and in particular in the limitation of physical exercise. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of reduced physical activity on the lipid profile in patients with high cardiovascular risk. Methods: We enrolled 38 dyslipidemic patients, 56% male, with an age range of 44-62 years, considered to be at high cardiovascular risk. All patients were prescribed statin drug therapy (atorvastatin 40 mg) and a vigorous physical activity program four times a week, 1 h per session. In addition, a personalized Mediterranean diet was prescribed to all the patients. Total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and triglycerides were measured in patients at T0 before lockdown and at T1 during lockdown. Results: Data showed a significant increase (p < 0.01) in total cholesterol (+6,8%) and LDL (+15,8%). Furthermore, the analysis of the data revealed a reduction in HDL (-3%) and an increase in triglycerides (+3,2%), although both were not significant (p > 0.05). Conclusions: Our study showed that the reduction in physical activity during lockdown led to an increase in LDL levels, and therefore, in the risk of ischemic heart disease in dyslipidemic patients with high cardiovascular risk.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , HDL-Colesterol , LDL-Colesterol , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Lipídeos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(9): 2619-2627, 2021 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353699

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the sole causative agent of coronavirus infectious disease-19 (COVID-19). METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a retrospective single-center study of consecutively admitted patients between March 1st and May 15th, 2020, with a definitive diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The primary end-point was to evaluate the association of lipid markers with 30-days all-cause mortality in COVID-19. A total of 654 patients were enrolled, with an estimated 30-day mortality of 22.8% (149 patients). Non-survivors had lower total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) levels during the entire course of the disease. Both showed a significant inverse correlation with inflammatory markers and a positive correlation with lymphocyte count. In a multivariate analysis, LDL-c ≤ 69 mg/dl (hazard ratio [HR] 1.94; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-3.31), C-reactive protein >88 mg/dl (HR 2.44; 95% CI, 1.41-4.23) and lymphopenia <1000 (HR 2.68; 95% CI, 1.91-3.78) at admission were independently associated with 30-day mortality. This association was maintained 7 days after admission. Survivors presented with complete normalization of their lipid profiles on short-term follow-up. CONCLUSION: Hypolipidemia in SARS-CoV-2 infection may be secondary to an immune-inflammatory response, with complete recovery in survivors. Low LDL-c serum levels are independently associated with higher 30-day mortality in COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Dislipidemias/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/terapia , Regulação para Baixo , Dislipidemias/diagnóstico , Dislipidemias/mortalidade , Dislipidemias/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Espanha , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444691

RESUMO

The aim of the report was to evaluate the impact of soy protein containing isoflavones and soy isoflavones extract on lipid profile in postmenopausal women, as compared with placebo or protein of milk, casein or isolated soy protein with or without trace isoflavone content. We used the following databases: MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE and the Cochrane Library. Quantitative data synthesis was performed by applying a random-effects model. Subgroup analysis and meta-regression were performed to assess the modifiers of treatment response. In total, in the analysis studies, 2305 postmenopausal women took part. Changes in the lipid profile showed statistically significant decreases of total cholesterol by -0.12 (95% CI: -0.21, -0.03) mmol/L, -4.64 (95% CI: -8.12, -1.16) mg/dL, p = 0.01 and increased HDL-cholesterol by 0.03 (95% CI: 0.00, 0.06) mmol/L, 1.15 (95% CI: 0.00, 1.93) mg/dL, p = 0.05, as well as in LDL-cholesterol -0.05 (95% CI: -0.11, 0.01) mmol/L, -1.93 (95% CI: -4.25, 0.39) mg/dL, p = 0.08 and triacylglycerols -0.07 (95% CI: -0.14, 0.00) mmol/L, -6.123 (95% CI: -12.25, 0.00) mg/dL, p = 0.06. Our results suggests that soy and its isoflavones can be effective in correction changes in lipid metabolism in postmenopausal women and may favorably influence in preventing cardiovascular events.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Lipídeos/sangue , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Proteínas de Soja/administração & dosagem , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Isoflavonas/administração & dosagem , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Triglicerídeos/sangue
16.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361788

RESUMO

This research investigated a UPLC-QTOF/ESI-MS-based phytochemical profiling of Combretum indicum leaf extract (CILEx), and explored its in vitro antioxidant and in vivo antidiabetic effects in a Long-Evans rat model. After a one-week intervention, the animals' blood glucose, lipid profile, and pancreatic architectures were evaluated. UPLC-QTOF/ESI-MS fragmentation of CILEx and its eight docking-guided compounds were further dissected to evaluate their roles using bioinformatics-based network pharmacological tools. Results showed a very promising antioxidative effect of CILEx. Both doses of CILEx were found to significantly (p < 0.05) reduce blood glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and total cholesterol (TC), and increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Pancreatic tissue architectures were much improved compared to the diabetic control group. A computational approach revealed that schizonepetoside E, melianol, leucodelphinidin, and arbutin were highly suitable for further therapeutic assessment. Arbutin, in a Gene Ontology and PPI network study, evolved as the most prospective constituent for 203 target proteins of 48 KEGG pathways regulating immune modulation and insulin secretion to control diabetes. The fragmentation mechanisms of the compounds are consistent with the obtained effects for CILEx. Results show that the natural compounds from CILEx could exert potential antidiabetic effects through in vivo and computational study.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Combretum/química , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Arbutina/química , Arbutina/isolamento & purificação , Sítios de Ligação , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , HDL-Colesterol/agonistas , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/antagonistas & inibidores , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Insulina/agonistas , Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Pâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Pâncreas/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Ratos , Ratos Long-Evans , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação
17.
Mol Immunol ; 138: 121-127, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392110

RESUMO

AIMS: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel viral infection threatening worldwide health as currently there exists no effective treatment strategy and vaccination programs are not publicly available yet. T lymphocytes play an important role in antiviral defenses. However, T cell frequency and functionality may be affected during the disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Total blood samples were collected from patients with mild and severe COVID-19, and the total lymphocyte number, as well as CD4+ and CD8 + T cells were assessed using flowcytometry. Besides, the expression of exhausted T cell markers was evaluated. The levels of proinflammatory cytokines were also investigated in the serum of all patients using enzyme-linked immunesorbent assay (ELISA). Finally, the obtained results were analyzed along with laboratory serological reports. RESULTS: COVID-19 patients showed lymphopenia and reduced CD4+ and CD8 + T cells, as well as high percentage of PD-1 expression by T cells, especially in severe cases. Serum secretion of TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) were remarkably increased in patients with severe symptoms, as compared with healthy controls. Moreover, high levels of triglyceride (TG) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), were correlated with the severity of the disease. CONCLUSION: Reduced number and function of T cells were observed in COVID-19 patients, especially in severe patients. Meanwhile, the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines was increased as the disease developed. High level of serum IL-2R was also considered as a sign of lymphopenia. Additionally, hypercholesterolemia and hyperlipidemia could be important prognostic factors in determining the severity of the infection.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Linfopenia/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/virologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/virologia , COVID-19/metabolismo , COVID-19/virologia , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Citocinas/sangue , Citocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Linfopenia/sangue , Linfopenia/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Triglicerídeos/sangue
18.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445009

RESUMO

The Portfolio Diet, a plant-based portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods, has been shown to reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and other cardiovascular risk factors, in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). It is not known if these beneficial effects translate to a lower incidence cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. To support examinations between Portfolio Diet adherence and disease, a Portfolio Diet score (PDS) was developed and its predictive and concurrent validity was assessed within the Toronto Healthy Diet Study, a six-month RCT in overweight adults. Predictive validity was assessed using change in the PDS measured by food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and concomitant change in LDL-C from baseline to six months using multiple linear regression, adjusted for potential confounders (n = 652). Concurrent validity was assessed in a subset of participants (n = 50) who completed the FFQ and a 7-day diet record (7DDR) at baseline. The PDS determined from each diet assessment method was used to derive correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots to assess the between-method agreement. The change in PDS was inversely associated with change in LDL-C (ß coefficients: -0.01 mmol/L (95% confidence intervals (CIs): -0.02, -0.002; p =0.02). The correlation between the PDS from the FFQ and 7DDR was 0.69 (95% CIs: 0.48, 0.85). The Bland-Altman plot showed reasonable agreement between the score from the FFQ and 7DDR. These findings indicate predictive validity of the PDS with lower LDL-C, and reasonable concurrent validity of the PDS as assessed by an FFQ against a 7DDR.


Assuntos
Registros de Dieta , Dieta Saudável , Dieta Vegetariana , Comportamento Alimentar , Valor Nutritivo , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário , Sobrepeso/sangue , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 665406, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34350129

RESUMO

Gut microbiota has been proved to be involved in the occurrence and development of many diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, coronary heart disease, etcetera. It provides a new idea for the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Our study showed that the gut microbial community of PCOS with high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) has a noticeable imbalance. Gut microbiota of PCOS patients was significantly changed compared with CON, and these changes were closely related to LDLC. Gut microbiota may affect the metabolic level of PCOS patients through multiple metabolic pathways, and lipid metabolism disorder may further aggravate the imbalance of gut microbiota. Actinomycetaceae, Enterobacteriaceae and Streptococcaceae had high accuracy in the diagnosis of PCOS and the differentiation of subgroups, suggesting that they may play an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of PCOS in the future. Also, the model we built showed good specificity and sensitivity for distinguishing PCOS from CON (including L_CON and L_PCOS, H_CON and H_PCOS). In conclusion, this is the first report on the gut microbiota of PCOS with high LDLC, suggesting that in the drug development or treatment of PCOS patients, the difference of gut microbiota in PCOS patients with different LDLC levels should be fully considered.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico , Colesterol , HDL-Colesterol , LDL-Colesterol , Feminino , Humanos
20.
Clin Lab ; 67(8)2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to identify the risk factors for gallstone disease in the Hakka population in the Meizhou area of China. METHODS: In total, 816 patients with gallstone disease and 818 control participants were included in the study, and their serum lipid levels were measured. Data on age, gender, and risk factors for gallstone disease (such as smoking and drinking history and the prevalence of hypertension) were recorded. RESULTS: Of the 1,634 enrolled individuals, age 13 - 101 years, 727 were men and 907 were women. Serum triglyceride (TG) (p < 0.001), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) (p = 0.043), total bile acid (TBA) (p < 0.001), and total bilirubin (T-BIL) (p < 0.001) levels showed significant differences between the patients and controls. However, age, the proportion history of drinking and smoking; the prevalence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus; and serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein A1 (Apo-A1), apolipoprotein B (Apo-B), and Apo-A1/Apo-B were similar between the two groups. The frequencies of gallstones in the common bile duct (χ2 = 13.909, p < 0.001) and intrahepatic bile ducts (χ2 = 8.289, p = 0.004) showed significant differences between male and female patients, but the distribution of gallstones of different sizes was similar between the two groups. Serum TBA (p < 0.001) and T-BIL (p < 0.001) levels were higher in patients with gallstones in the common bile duct than in those with gallstones in the gall bladder and intrahepatic bile ducts. Logistic regression analysis indicated that participants with high serum TG, LDL-C, TBA, and T-BIL levels had a significantly higher risk of gallstone disease. CONCLUSIONS: High serum levels of TG, LDL-C, TBA, and T-BIL are found to be the main risk factors for gallstone formation in our study.


Assuntos
Cálculos Biliares , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ácidos e Sais Biliares , Bilirrubina , HDL-Colesterol , LDL-Colesterol , Feminino , Cálculos Biliares/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Triglicerídeos , Adulto Jovem
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