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1.
Lipids Health Dis ; 23(1): 136, 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38715054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is one of the most common autosomal dominant diseases. FH causes a lifelong increase in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, which in turn leads to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The incidence of FH is widely underestimated and undertreated, despite the availability and effectiveness of lipid-lowering therapy. Patients with FH have an increased cardiovascular risk; therefore, early diagnosis and treatment are vital. To address the burden of FH, several countries have implemented national FH screening programmes. The currently used method for FH detection in Lithuania is mainly based on opportunistic testing with subsequent cascade screening of index cases' first-degree relatives. METHODS: A total of 428 patients were included in this study. Patients with suspected FH are referred to a lipidology center for thorough evaluation. Patients who met the criteria for probable or definite FH according to the Dutch Lipid Clinic Network (DLCN) scoring system and/or had LDL-C > = 6.5 mmol/l were subjected to genetic testing. Laboratory and instrumental tests, vascular marker data of early atherosclerosis, and consultations by other specialists, such as radiologists and ophthalmologists, were also recorded. RESULTS: A total of 127/428 (30%) patients were genetically tested. FH-related mutations were found in 38.6% (n = 49/127) of the patients. Coronary artery disease (CAD) was diagnosed in 13% (n = 57/428) of the included patients, whereas premature CAD was found in 47/428 (11%) patients. CAD was diagnosed in 19% (n = 9/49) of patients with FH-related mutations, and this diagnosis was premature for all of them. CONCLUSIONS: Most patients in this study were classified as probable or possible FH without difference of age and sex. The median age of FH diagnosis was 47 years with significantly older females than males, which refers to the strong interface of this study with the LitHir programme. CAD and premature CAD were more common among patients with probable and definite FH, as well as those with an FH-causing mutation. The algorithm described in this study is the first attempt in Lithuania to implement a specific tool which allows to maximise FH detection rates, establish an accurate diagnosis of FH, excluding secondary causes of dyslipidaemia, and to select patients for cascade screening initiation more precisely.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , LDL-Colesterol , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II , Receptores de LDL , Humanos , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/epidemiologia , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/diagnóstico , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/genética , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/sangue , Lituânia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Receptores de LDL/genética , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Idoso , Mutação , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/genética , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/sangue
2.
Lipids Health Dis ; 23(1): 134, 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38715079

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Remnant cholesterol (RC) and nonhigh-density lipoprotein cholesterol (nonHDL-C) are key risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), with apolipoprotein B (apoB) and lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] also contributing to its residual risk. However, real-world population-based evidence regarding the impact of current clinical LDL-C-centric lipid-lowering therapy (LLT) on achieving RC and nonHDL-C goals, as well as on modifying residual CVD risk factors is limited. METHODS: This prospective observational study enrolled 897 CVD patients from September, 2020 to July, 2021. All participants had previously received low-/moderate-intensity LLT and were discharged with either low-/moderate-intensity LLT or high-intensity LLT. After a median follow-up of 3 months, changes in RC, nonHDL-C, and other biomarkers were assessed. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to analyze the impact of the LLT on goal attainment. RESULTS: Among all patients, 83.50% transitioned to high-intensity LLT from low or moderate. After follow-up, the high-intensity group saw significantly greater reductions in RC (-20.51% vs. -3.90%, P = 0.025), nonHDL-C (-25.12% vs. 0.00%, P < 0.001), apoB (-19.35% vs. -3.17%, P < 0.001), triglycerides (-17.82% vs. -6.62%, P < 0.001), and LDL-C and total cholesterol. Spearman correlation analysis revealed that LDL-C reduction from current LLT was strongly correlated with nonHDL-C reduction (r = 0.87, P < 0.001). Patients who received high-intensity LLT had significant improvements in attainment of RC (from 44.2% to 60.7%, χ² = 39.23, P < 0.001) and nonHDL-C (from 19.4% to 56.9%, χ² = 226.06, P < 0.001) goals. Furthermore, multivariate logistic regression showed that high-intensity LLT was a protective factor for RC [odds ratio (OR) = 0.66; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 0.45-0.97; P = 0.033] and nonHDL-C goal attainment (OR = 0.51; 95% CI, 0.34-0.75; P < 0.001), without a significant increase of adverse reactions. CONCLUSION: Current levels of clinically prescribed LDL-C-centric treatment can reduce RC and other lipid-related residual risk factors, but high-intensity LLT is better at achieving nonHDL-C and RC goals than low-/moderate-intensity LLT, with a good safety profile. More targeted RC treatments are still needed to reduce residual lipid risk further.


Assuntos
LDL-Colesterol , Colesterol , Lipoproteína(a) , Triglicerídeos , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Idoso , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Fatores de Risco , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Lipoproteína(a)/sangue , Colesterol/sangue , Hipolipemiantes/uso terapêutico , Apolipoproteínas B/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue
3.
Brain Behav ; 14(5): e3537, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38715443

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Several studies have illustrated that elevated RC levels are related to a heightened risk of acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Our research aimed to explore the correlation between RC levels and poor prognosis after a 90-day interval in AIS patients. METHODS: A total of 287 individuals were enrolled in the study, the primary outcome was defined as poor prognosis. RC was derived by the exclusion of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) from total cholesterol (TC). RESULTS: Following the screening process, 253 AIS patients were included in the study, presenting a median age of 66[57, 75] years. Upon stratifying RC levels into quartiles, those in the top quartile faced a greater likelihood of diabetes diagnosis (42.86%, p = .014) and experienced a higher rate of unfavorable outcomes after 90 days (36.51%, p = .001). After accounting for confounding factors, the correlation between the fourth quartile of RC levels and the amplified likelihood of poor prognosis remained significant (odds ratio (OR) 8.471, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.841, 38.985); p = .006). Analysis of subgroups unveiled a notable correlation between higher RC levels and poor 90-day prognosis, particularly in individuals with elevated NIHSS scores (p = .044). A progressively increasing 90-day risk of poor prognosis after an RC greater than 0.38 mmol/L was visualized by restricted cubic spline plots (p-overall = .011). CONCLUSIONS: Including RC as a contributing element may refine the prediction of poor 90-day prognosis for AIS patients. Integrating RC with traditional risk factors can potentially enhance the predictive value for cerebrovascular disease.


Assuntos
Colesterol , AVC Isquêmico , Humanos , Masculino , AVC Isquêmico/sangue , AVC Isquêmico/diagnóstico , Feminino , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Colesterol/sangue , Fatores de Risco , LDL-Colesterol/sangue
4.
Clin Lab ; 70(5)2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38747931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The goal of the study was to provide an individual and precise genetic and molecular biological basis for the early prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of local FH by analyzing the risk factors for the development of FH in Han and Mongolian patients in the Hulunbuir, comparing the lipid levels of FH patients of the two ethnicities, and assessing differences in mutations to two genes between the two ethnic groups. METHODS: Twenty cases each of Han Chinese and Mongolian healthy controls and fifty patients who each met the inclusion criteria from November 2021 to December 2022 in five general hospitals in Hulunbuir were selected. Multifactor logistic analysis was used to analyze the risk factors associated with the development of FH. We used t-tests to analyze statistical differences in lipid levels between the groups, and Sanger sequencing to detect the dis-tribution of common mutation sites of PCSK9 and APOB in all study subjects. The mutation rates and differences between regions and ethnic groups were summarized and compared. RESULTS: 1) Gender, age, alcohol consumption, dietary status, and a family history of FH were risk factors associated with the development of FH. 2) TC, LDL-C, and APOB were significantly higher in Mongolian cases than Han cases (p < 0.05). sdLDL-C was not statistically different between the two ethnicities (p > 0.05). 3) We detected four (8%) heterozygous mutations at the PCSK9 gene E670G mutation site in the Han case group and a total of nine (18%) mutations at this site in the Mongolian cases, including one (2%) homozygous and eight (16%) heterozygous mutations. One case of a heterozygous mutation was detected in the Mongolian control group. We detected a total of ten (20%) mutations at the APOB gene rs1367117 mutation site in the Han case group, including eight (16%) heterozygous and two (4%) homozygous mutations, 11 cases (22%) of heterozygous mutations in the Mongolian case group, two cases of heterozygous mutations in the Han control group, and one case of a heterozygous mutation in the Mongolian control group. 4) The D374Y and S127R mutation sites of PCSK9 and the R3500Q mutation site of APOB were not detected in any of the study subjects. CONCLUSIONS: The mutation sites of the PCSK9 and APOB genes in FH patients in Hulunbuir are different from other regions, and the mutation rate is higher than in other regions. Therefore, we recommend that the mutation sites of the PCSK9 and APOB genes described herein be used as clinical detection indicators to assist the diagnosis of FH in this region.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteína B-100 , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II , Mutação , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9 , Humanos , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/genética , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , China/epidemiologia , Apolipoproteína B-100/genética , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/genética , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/etnologia , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/diagnóstico , Povo Asiático/genética , Adulto , Mongólia/epidemiologia , Mongólia/etnologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Predisposição Genética para Doença , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Etnicidade/genética , Idoso
5.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10765, 2024 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38729973

RESUMO

The Shiga Epidemiological Study of Subclinical Atherosclerosis was conducted in Kusatsu City, Shiga, Japan, from 2006 to 2008. Participants were measured for LDL-p through nuclear magnetic resonance technology. 740 men participated in follow-up and underwent 1.5 T brain magnetic resonance angiography from 2012 to 2015. Participants were categorized as no-ICAS, and ICAS consisted of mild-ICAS (1 to < 50%) and severe-ICAS (≥ 50%) in any of the arteries examined. After exclusion criteria, 711 men left for analysis, we used multiple logistic regression to examine the association between lipid profiles and ICAS prevalence. Among the study participants, 205 individuals (28.8%) had ICAS, while 144 individuals (20.3%) demonstrated discordance between LDL-c and LDL-p levels. The discordance "low LDL-c-high LDL-p" group had the highest ICAS risk with an adjusted OR (95% CI) of 2.78 (1.55-5.00) in the reference of the concordance "low LDL-c-low LDL-p" group. This was followed by the concordance "high LDL-c-high LDL-p" group of 2.56 (1.69-3.85) and the discordance "high LDL-c-low LDL-p" group of 2.40 (1.29-4.46). These findings suggest that evaluating LDL-p levels alongside LDL-c may aid in identifying adults at a higher risk for ICAS.


Assuntos
Lipoproteínas LDL , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lipoproteínas LDL/sangue , Idoso , Japão/epidemiologia , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Constrição Patológica/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Lipídeos/sangue , Fatores de Risco , Adulto , Feminino
6.
Glob Heart ; 19(1): 43, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38708402

RESUMO

Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH) is an ultra-rare inherited condition that affects approximately one in 300,000 people. The disorder is characterized by extremely high, life-threatening levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol from birth, leading to significant premature cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, if left untreated. Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia is severely underdiagnosed and undertreated in the United States (US), despite guidelines recommendations for universal pediatric lipid screening in children aged 9-11. Early diagnosis and adequate treatment are critical in averting premature cardiovascular disease in individuals affected by HoFH. Yet, an unacceptably high number of people living with HoFH remain undiagnosed, misdiagnosed, and/or receive a late diagnosis, often after a major cardiovascular event. The emergence of novel lipid-lowering therapies, along with the realization that diagnosis is too often delayed, have highlighted an urgency to implement policies that ensure timely detection of HoFH in the US. Evidence from around the world suggests that a combination of universal pediatric screening and cascade screening strategies constitutes an effective approach to identifying heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH). Nevertheless, HoFH and its complications manifest much earlier in life compared to HeFH. To date, little focus has been placed on the detection of HoFH in very young children and/or infants. The 2023 Updated European Atherosclerosis Society Consensus Statement on HoFH has recommended, for the first time, broadening pediatric guidelines to include lipid screening of newborn infants. Some unique aspects of HoFH need to be considered before implementing newborn screening. As such, insights from pilot studies conducted in Europe may provide some preliminary guidance. Our paper proposes a set of actionable measures that states can implement to reduce the burden of HoFH. It also outlines key research and policy gaps that need to be addressed in order to pave the way for universal newborn screening of HoFH in the US.


Assuntos
Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II , Criança , Humanos , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Homozigoto , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/diagnóstico , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/epidemiologia , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/genética , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido
7.
BMJ Open ; 14(5): e079415, 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38702083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing levels of poor glycaemic control among Thai patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) motivated us to compare T2DM care between urban and suburban primary care units (PCUs), to identify gaps in care, and to identify significant factors that may influence strategies to enhance the quality of care and clinical outcomes in this population. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study involving 2160 patients with T2DM treated at four Thai PCUs from 2019 to 2021, comprising one urban and three suburban facilities. Using mixed effects logistic regression, we compared care factors between urban and suburban PCUs. RESULTS: Patients attending suburban PCUs were significantly more likely to undergo eye (adjusted OR (AOR): 1.83, 95% CI 1.35 to 1.72), foot (AOR: 1.61, 95% CI 0.65 to 4.59) and HbA1c (AOR: 1.66, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.30) exams and achieved all ABC (HbA1c, blood pressure (BP) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)) goals (AOR: 2.23, 95% CI 1.30 to 3.83). Conversely, those at an urban PCU were more likely to undergo albuminuria exams. Variables significantly associated with good glycaemic control included age (AOR: 1.51, 95% CI 1.31 to 1.79), T2DM duration (AOR: 0.59, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.88), FAACE (foot, HbA1c, albuminuria, LDL-C and eye) goals (AOR: 1.23, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.36) and All8Q (AOR: 1.20, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.41). Chronic kidney disease (CKD) was significantly linked with high triglyceride and HbA1c levels (AOR: 5.23, 95% CI 1.21 to 7.61). Elevated HbA1c levels, longer T2DM duration, insulin use, high systolic BP and high lipid profile levels correlated strongly with diabetic retinopathy (DR) and CKD progression. CONCLUSION: This highlights the necessity for targeted interventions to bridge urban-suburban care gaps, optimise drug prescriptions and implement comprehensive care strategies for improved glycaemic control, DR prevention and CKD progression mitigation among in Thai patients with T2DM. The value of the clinical target aggregate (ABC) and the process of care aggregate (FAACE) was also conclusively demonstrated.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hemoglobinas Glicadas , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Masculino , Feminino , Tailândia , Estudos Transversais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Hemoglobinas Glicadas/análise , Análise Multinível , Pressão Sanguínea , Retinopatia Diabética/terapia , Retinopatia Diabética/epidemiologia , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Modelos Logísticos , População Suburbana , Controle Glicêmico , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , População do Sudeste Asiático
8.
BMC Pediatr ; 24(1): 320, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption by children and adolescents is receiving increasing attention. It may cause dyslipidemia, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, the association between alcohol consumption and blood lipids in children and adolescents is unclear, and so we aimed to characterize this association. METHODS: Data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey were extracted from children and adolescents aged 7-18 years for whom information was available on alcohol consumption. The population was divided into drinking and nondrinking groups. The χ2, Student's t, or Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare groups. Univariate and multivariate linear regression and propensity score matching (PSM) analysis were used to identify the association between alcohol consumption and blood lipids. RESULTS: This study included 408 children and adolescents with 35 drinkers and 373 nondrinkers. The drinkers had significantly lower values of total cholesterol (TC) (3.8 mmol/L for nondrinkers versus 3.5 mmol/L for drinkers, p = 0.002) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (1.3 mmol/L for nondrinkers versus 1.2 mmol/L for drinkers, p = 0.007), but not for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (2.1 mmol/L for nondrinkers versus 2.0 mmol/L for drinkers, p = 0.092) or triglyceride (TG) (0.9 mmol/L for nondrinkers versus 0.8 mmol/L for drinkers, p = 0.21). The univariate and multivariate analyses led to the same conclusions. After PSM there was still a significant negative association between alcohol consumption and TC or HDL-C. CONCLUSION: Alcohol consumption in children and adolescents exhibited significant negative associated with TC and HDL-C, but not with LDL-C or TG. These findings need to be confirmed in future prospective research, and the health effects of blood lipid changes caused by drinking in children and adolescents need to be clarified.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Humanos , Adolescente , Criança , Masculino , Feminino , China/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Lipídeos/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Triglicerídeos/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/etiologia , Colesterol/sangue , Fatores de Risco , População do Leste Asiático
9.
Lipids Health Dis ; 23(1): 151, 2024 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38773578

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the relationship between NHHR (non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio) and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in US adults, using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data from 2007 to 2018. METHODS: This study explored the connection between NHHR and T2DM by analyzing a sample reflecting the adult population of the United States (n = 10,420; NHANES 2007-2018). NHHR was characterized as the ratio of non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. T2DM was defined based on clinical guidelines. This research used multivariable logistic models to examine the connection between NHHR and T2DM. Additionally, it included subgroup and interaction analyses to assess variations among different groups. Generalized additive models, smooth curve fitting, and threshold effect analysis were also employed to analyze the data further. RESULTS: The study included 10,420 subjects, with 2160 diagnosed with T2DM and 8260 without. The weighted multivariate logistic regression model indicated an 8% higher probability of T2DM for each unit increase in NHHR (OR: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.01-1.15) after accounting for all covariates. Subgroup analysis outcomes were uniform across various categories, demonstrating a significant positive relationship between NHHR and T2DM. Interaction tests showed that the positive link between NHHR and T2DM remained consistent regardless of age, body mass index, smoking status, moderate recreational activities, hypertension, or stroke history, with all interaction P-values exceeding 0.05. However, participants' sex appeared to affect the magnitude of the connection between NHHR and T2DM (interaction P-value < 0.05). Also, a nonlinear association between NHHR and T2DM was discovered, featuring an inflection point at 1.50. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that an increase in NHHR may be correlated with a heightened likelihood of developing T2DM. Consequently, NHHR could potentially serve as a marker for estimating the probability of T2DM development.


Assuntos
HDL-Colesterol , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Adulto , Fatores de Risco , Modelos Logísticos , Idoso , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , LDL-Colesterol/sangue
10.
Int J Med Sci ; 21(6): 1064-1071, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38774744

RESUMO

Hyperlipidemia is notorious for causing coronary artery disease (CAD). IL-18 is a proinflammtory cytokine that contributes to the pathogenesis of CAD. Previous reports have revealed that genetic polymorphism of IL-18 is associated with its expression level as well as the susceptibility to CAD. In the present study, we aim to investigate the relationship between IL-18 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and hyperlipidemia in the Han Chinese population in Taiwan. A total of 580 participants older than 30 were recruited from the community. We collected the demographics, self-reported disease histories, and lifestyles. We also assessed the levels of lipid profiles including total cholesterol (CHOL), triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Two SNPs, rs3882891C/A (intron 5) and rs1946518A/C (promoter -607) of IL-18 were elucidated by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methods. Our results revealed that rs3882891 AA was associated with lower risk of hypercholesterolemia, higher CHOL and LDL-C in subjects (p=0.003, p=0.000 and p=0.005 separately), and rs1946518 CC was associated with hypercholesterolemia, higher CHOL and LDL-C as well (p=0.021, p=0.003 and p=0.001 separately) Furthermore, both SNPs were associated with IL-18 expression level, which was examined by Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) Portal (p=0.042 and 0.016 separately). Finally, the haplotype of IL-18 was subsequently arranged in the order of rs3882891 and rs1946518. The result revealed that the AC haplotype of 2 IL-18 SNPs was also associated with lower risk of hypercholesterolemia, lower levels of CHOL and LDL-C (p=0.01, p=0.001 and 0.003). The current study is the first to report the association between IL-18 SNPs and hyperlipidemia in the Chinese Han population.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hiperlipidemias , Interleucina-18 , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Humanos , Interleucina-18/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , Hiperlipidemias/genética , Adulto , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Povo Asiático/genética , Idoso , Haplótipos/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos de Associação Genética
11.
Cell Biol Toxicol ; 40(1): 35, 2024 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38771546

RESUMO

Neural tube defects (NTDs) represent a prevalent and severe category of congenital anomalies in humans. Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental teratogen known to cause fetal NTDs. However, its underlying mechanisms remain elusive. This study aims to investigate the therapeutic potential of lipophagy in the treatment of NTDs, providing valuable insights for future strategies targeting lipophagy activation as a means to mitigate NTDs.We successfully modeled NTDs by Cd exposure during pregnancy. RNA sequencing was employed to investigate the transcriptomic alterations and functional enrichment of differentially expressed genes in NTD placental tissues. Subsequently, pharmacological/genetic (Atg5-/- placentas) experiments confirmed that inducing placental lipophagy can alleviate Cd induced-NTDs. We found that Cd exposure caused NTDs. Further analyzed transcriptomic data from the placentas with NTDs which revealed significant downregulation of low-density lipoprotein receptor associated protein 1(Lrp1) gene expression responsible for positive regulation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) transport. Correspondingly, there was an increase in maternal serum/placenta/amniotic fluid LDL-C content. Subsequently, we have discovered that Cd exposure activated placental lipophagy. Pharmacological/genetic (Atg5-/- placentas) experiments confirmed that inducing placental lipophagy can alleviate Cd induced-NTDs. Furthermore, our findings demonstrate that activation of placental lipophagy effectively counteracts the Cd-induced elevation in LDL-C levels. Lipophagy serves to mitigate Cd-induced NTDs by reducing LDL-C levels within mouse placentas.


Assuntos
Cádmio , LDL-Colesterol , Defeitos do Tubo Neural , Placenta , Feminino , Animais , Gravidez , Placenta/metabolismo , Placenta/efeitos dos fármacos , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/genética , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/induzido quimicamente , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/metabolismo , Camundongos , Cádmio/toxicidade , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Proteína-1 Relacionada a Receptor de Lipoproteína de Baixa Densidade/genética , Proteína-1 Relacionada a Receptor de Lipoproteína de Baixa Densidade/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout
12.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11170, 2024 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38750109

RESUMO

Asprosin, an adipokine, was recently discovered in 2016. Here, the correlation between asprosin and metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) was examined by quantitatively assessing hepatic steatosis using transient elastography and controlled attenuation parameter (CAP). According to body mass index (BMI), 1276 adult participants were enrolled and categorized into three groups: normal, overweight, and obese. The study collected and evaluated serum asprosin levels, general biochemical indices, liver stiffness measure, and CAP via statistical analysis. In both overweight and obese groups, serum asprosin and CAP were greater than in the normal group (p < 0.01). Each group showed a positive correlation of CAP with asprosin (p < 0.01). The normal group demonstrated a significant and independent positive relationship of CAP with BMI, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), asprosin, waist circumference (WC), and triglycerides (TG; p < 0.05). CAP showed an independent positive association (p < 0.05) with BMI, WC, asprosin, fasting blood glucose (FBG), and TG in the overweight group, and with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) showed an independent negative link (p < 0.01). CAP showed an independent positive relationship (p < 0.05) with BMI, WC, asprosin, TG, LDL-C, FBG, glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and alanine transferase in the obese group. CAP also showed an independent positive link (p < 0.01) with BMI, WC, asprosin, TG, LDL-C, and FBG in all participants while independently and negatively correlated (p < 0.01) with HDL-C. Since asprosin and MAFLD are closely related and asprosin is an independent CAP effector, it may offer a novel treatment option for metabolic diseases and MAFLD.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Fibrilina-1 , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Fibrilina-1/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Obesidade/sangue , Exame Físico , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Sobrepeso/sangue , Circunferência da Cintura , Biomarcadores/sangue , Idoso , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/sangue , Glicemia/análise , LDL-Colesterol/sangue
13.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11108, 2024 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38750162

RESUMO

Phytosterols are natural components of plant-based foods used as supplements because of their known cholesterol-lowering effect. However, their effects on lipoprotein subfractions and the quality of the LDL particle have not been studied in greater detail. We aimed to evaluate the effects of phytosterols supplements on lipids, lipoproteins subfractions, and on the quality of LDL. A prospective, pilot-type, open label, cross-over study, randomized 23 males in primary prevention of hypercholesterolemia to receive diet or diet plus phytosterol (2.6 g in 2 doses, with meals) for 12 weeks, when treatments were switched for another 12 weeks. Lipoprotein subfractions were analyzed by electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel (Lipoprint System®). The Sampson equation estimated the small and dense (sd) and large and buoyant (lb) LDL subfractions from the lipid profile. Quality of LDL particle was analyzed by Z-scan and UV-vis spectroscopy. Primary outcome was the comparison of diet vs. diet plus phytosterols. Secondary outcomes assessed differences between baseline, diet and diet plus phytosterol. Non-parametric statistics were performed with p < 0.05. There was a trend to reduction on HDL-7 (p = 0.05) in diet plus phytosterol arm, with no effects on the quality of LDL particles. Heatmap showed strong correlations (ρ > 0.7) between particle size by different methods with both interventions. Diet plus phytosterol reduced TC, increased HDL-c, and reduced IDL-B, whereas diet increased HDL7, and reduced IDL-B vs. baseline (p < 0.05, for all). Phytosterol supplementation demonstrated small beneficial effects on HDL-7 subfraction, compared with diet alone, without effects on the quality of LDL particles.This trial is registered in Clinical Trials (NCT06127732) and can be accessed at https://clinicaltrials.gov .


Assuntos
Estudos Cross-Over , Suplementos Nutricionais , Hipercolesterolemia , Fitosteróis , Fitosteróis/farmacologia , Fitosteróis/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hipercolesterolemia/dietoterapia , Hipercolesterolemia/sangue , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Lipoproteínas LDL/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Projetos Piloto , Lipoproteínas/sangue
14.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 13(10): e033328, 2024 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38757455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mobile health technology's impact on cardiovascular risk factor control is not fully understood. This study evaluates the association between interaction with a mobile health application and change in cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: Participants with hypertension with or without dyslipidemia enrolled in a workplace-deployed mobile health application-based cardiovascular risk self-management program between January 2018 and December 2022. Retrospective evaluation explored the influence of application engagement on change in blood pressure (BP), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and weight. Multiple regression analyses examined the influence of guideline-based, nonpharmacological lifestyle-based digital coaching on outcomes adjusting for confounders. Of 102 475 participants, 49.1% were women. Median age was 53 (interquartile range, 43-61) years, BP was 134 (interquartile range, 124-144)/84 (interquartile range, 78-91) mm Hg, TC was 183 (interquartile range, 155-212) mg/dL, LDL-C was 106 (82-131) mg/dL, and body mass index was 30 (26-35) kg/m2. At 2 years, participants with baseline systolic BP ≥140 mm Hg reduced systolic BP by 18.6 (SEM, 0.3) mm Hg. At follow up, participants with baseline TC ≥240 mg/dL reduced TC by 65.7 (SEM, 4.6) mg/dL, participants with baseline LDL-C≥160 mg/dL reduced LDL-C by 66.6 (SEM, 6.2) mg/dL, and participants with baseline body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 lost 12.0 (SEM, 0.3) pounds, or 5.1% of body weight. Interaction with digital coaching was associated with greater reduction in all outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: A mobile health application-based cardiovascular risk self-management program was associated with favorable reductions in BP, TC, LDL-C, and weight, highlighting the potential use of this technology in comprehensive cardiovascular risk factor control.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Autogestão , Telemedicina , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autogestão/métodos , Adulto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/diagnóstico , Dislipidemias/terapia , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Aplicativos Móveis , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão/terapia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Comportamento de Redução do Risco
17.
Arch Esp Urol ; 77(3): 229-234, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38715162

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This work aimed to investigate the potential role of abnormal lipid metabolism in the development of prostate cancer (PCa). METHODS: A retrospective study design was used. The clinical data of 520 patients who underwent rectal prostate biopsy in our hospital from January 2020 to June 2023 were analysed. The patients were enrolled and divided into the anterior PCa group including 112 patients and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) group including 408 patients. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed for the two patient groups, and further comparisons were made according to the Gleason score and TNM staging. RESULTS: Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level may be an independent risk factor for PCa, and it was significantly associated with the risk of PCa (odds ratio (OR) = 1.363, p = 0.030). Patients with PCa were further divided into the low risk group and the high risk group according to the Gleason score. Univariate analysis (p = 0.047) and logistic regression analysis (OR = 2.249, p = 0.036) revealed that LDL-C was a significant factor influencing the Gleason score. Patients with PCa were categorised into four groups based on TNM staging. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) analysis (p = 0.015) and ordinal logistic regression analysis (OR = 2.414, p = 0.007) demonstrated that LDL-C was a significant factor influencing TNM staging. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed the important role of LDL-C in the development of PCa, highlighting its influence as an independent risk factor. Thus, LDL-C may promote the proliferation and invasion of PCa cells.


Assuntos
LDL-Colesterol , Neoplasias da Próstata , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Idoso , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias
18.
Medwave ; 24(4): e2775, 2024 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38710047

RESUMO

Objective: To compare the concentration of Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL-c) obtained using the Friedewald formula with those obtained directly with the RAYTO CHEMRAY 120 autoanalyzer. Methods: Cross-sectional study. We evaluated outpatients with a medical request for a lipid profile study (total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, and HDL). The analyses were carried out in a RAYTO CHEMRAY 120 autoanalyzer under the principle of spectrophotometry. We obtained LDL-c using the Friedewald and Vujovic formulas. Results: We evaluated 199 individuals whose direct LDL concentration averages were measured by the RAYTO CHEMRAY 120 equipment. Those calculated by the Friedewald and Vujovic formulas were 129.97 ± 32.66, 119.28 ± 30.44, and 127.01 ± 32.01, respectively, and in all cases, significant differences (P < 0.001) were observed with the RAYTO analyzer. In both cases a low positive bias was found with the RAYTO analyzer.. The Passing-Bablok and Deming's regressions showed a linear correlation between both methods (Friedewald and Vujovic) with the LDL values obtained with the Rayto autoanalyzer. Conclusions: Our study found that the Friedewald and Vujovic methods are good predictors of LDL cholesterol levels and have a low level of bias. Therefore, they could be used as potential predictors.


Objetivo: Comparar las concentraciones de Lipoproteínas de Baja Densidad (LDL-c) obtenidas mediante la fórmula de Friedewald con las obtenidas directamente con el autoanalizador RAYTO CHEMRAY 120. Métodos: Estudio transversal. Se evaluaron pacientes ambulatorios con solicitud médica de perfil lipídico (colesterol total, triglicéridos, LDL y HDL). Los análisis se realizaron con un autoanalizador RAYTO CHEMRAY 120 bajo el principio de espectrofotometría. Obtuvimos el LDL-c usando las fórmulas de Friedewald y Vujovic. Resultados: Se evaluaron 199 individuos cuyos promedios directos de concentración de LDL fueron medidos con el equipo RAYTO CHEMRAY 120. Las concentraciones calculadas por las fórmulas de Friedewald y Vujovic fueron de 129,97 ± 32,66, 119,28 ± 30,44, y de 127,01 ± 32,01, respectivamente, y en todos los casos se observaron diferencias significativas (P < 0,001) con el analizador RAYTO. En ambos casos se encontró un sesgo positivo bajo en el analizador RAYTO. Las regresiones de Passing-Bablok y Deming mostraron una correlación lineal entre ambos métodos (Friedewald y Vujovic) con los valores de LDL obtenidos con el autoanalizador Rayto. Conclusión: Nuestro estudio encontro que los métodos de Friedewald y Vujovic son buenos predictores de los niveles de colesterol LDL y presentan un nivel de sesgo bajo. Por lo que podrían usarse como potenciales predictores.


Assuntos
LDL-Colesterol , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Espectrofotometria , Adulto , Colesterol/sangue , Idoso
19.
Lipids Health Dis ; 23(1): 130, 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38702682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammation and obesity are the risk factors for hyperlipidaemia. Nonetheless, research regarding the association between dietary live microbes intake and hyperlipidaemia is lacking. Therefore, this study focused on revealing the relationship between them and mediating roles of inflammation and obesity. METHODS: Totally 16,677 subjects were enrolled from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (1999-2010 and 2015-2020). To explore the correlation between live microbes and hyperlipidaemia as well as blood lipid levels, respectively, multiple logistic regression and linear regression were employed. Furthermore, the mediating roles of body mass index (BMI), C-reactive protein (Crp) and their chain effect were explored through mediating analysis. RESULTS: High dietary live microbes intake was the protective factor for hyperlipidaemia. In addition, high dietary live microbes intake exhibited a positive relationship to the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) among males (ß = 2.52, 95% CI: 1.29, 3.76, P < 0.0001) and females (ß = 2.22, 95% CI: 1.05, 3.38, P < 0.001), but exhibited a negative correlation with triglyceride (TG) levels in males (ß = -7.37, 95% CI: -13.16, -1.59, P = 0.02) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in females (ß = -2.75, 95% CI: -5.28, -0.21, P = 0.02). Crp, BMI and their chain effect mediated the relationship between live microbes with HDL-C levels. Moreover, BMI and the chain effect mediated the relationship between live microbes with LDL-C levels. CONCLUSION: Dietary live microbes intake is related to a lower hyperlipidaemia risk. Crp, BMI and their chain effect make a mediating impact on the relationship.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Proteína C-Reativa , HDL-Colesterol , Hiperlipidemias , Triglicerídeos , Humanos , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Masculino , Hiperlipidemias/sangue , Hiperlipidemias/dietoterapia , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Triglicerídeos/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Fatores de Risco , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Inflamação/sangue , Dieta , LDL-Colesterol/sangue
20.
Lipids Health Dis ; 23(1): 131, 2024 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38704561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the past few years, circulating complement C1q involvement in atherosclerosis has garnered growing research interest in addition to the emerging recognition of the novel lipid marker named atherogenic index of plasma (AIP). Nevertheless, among patients experiencing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels less than 1.8mmol/L, the interplay between C1q combined with the AIP for coronary artery disease (CAD) is ambiguous. METHODS: Patients were stratified into a non-CAD and CAD group according to their coronary angiography. The association between C1q in conjunction with the AIP and CAD was explored using restricted cubic spline analyses and logistic regression models. To assess how it predicted, a receiver operating characteristic analysis was undertaken. RESULTS: A total of 7270 patients comprised 1476 non-CAD patients and 5794 patients diagnosed with CAD were analyzed. A comparison of the two groups showed that the C1q levels were notably higher compared to the CAD group, while AIP exhibited an inverse trend. Across quartiles of C1q, the AIP demonstrated a decline with increasing C1q levels, and significant differences were observed between the groups. A correlation analysis underscored a notable negative correlation between the two variables. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed significant associations between CAD and the C1q quartile groups/AIP. Furthermore, compared with the Q4 group, a decrease in the C1q levels corresponded to an escalation in CAD risk, with the odds ratio rising from 1.661 to 2.314. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, there appears to be a notable positive correlation between the combination of C1q with the AIP and CAD.


Assuntos
LDL-Colesterol , Complemento C1q , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Humanos , Complemento C1q/metabolismo , Masculino , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Angiografia Coronária , Biomarcadores/sangue , Curva ROC , Modelos Logísticos , Aterosclerose/sangue , Fatores de Risco
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