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1.
Ceska Gynekol ; 86(1): 22-29, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33752405

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smoking is considered a risk factor for bacterial vaginosis. It is currently unknown which parameters of the vaginal environment are affected and how smoking triggers the disease. AIM OF THE STUDY: The primary objective is to estimate the effect size of smoking on vaginal pH and the Nugent score in patients with chronic vulvovaginal discomfort prior to the development of episode of vaginosis. The secondary goal is to investigate the effect of smoking on individual microscopic parameters of the vaginal environment and on subjectively reported symptoms of vaginal discomfort. METHODS: Smoking reported by patients was tested as a predictor, using multivariate logistic and ordinal logistic regression analysis on a dataset from the first visit of a randomized trial NCT04171947, which enrolled patients with intermediate vaginal environment. We tested the primary hypothesis (odds ratio (OR) for vaginal pH > 4.5 and Nugent score > 3 in smokers) at the significance level á = 5%. For exploratory analyses of the effect of smoking on the parameters of the vaginal environment, á was corrected as per Bonferoni. RESULTS: In a cross-sectional sample of 250 women after adjusting for other risk factors, smoking had an impact on the Nugent score (OR = 3.3 (1.3-8.5), P = 0.011), while pH was not affected (OR = 1.2 (0.5-2.8), P = 0.698). Smoking was associated with the prevalence of clue cells (P < 0.000), Gardnerella spp. (P = 0.001) and Mobiluncus spp. (P = 0.001), while the prevalence of Lactobacillus remained unchanged (P = 0.049). CONCLUSION: Contrarily to common assumptions, vaginal Lactobacillus is not directly affected by smoking, which rather promotes the growth of bacteria of Gardnerella and Mobiluncus spp. Given that other parameters remained unaffected, it appears that smoking leads to vaginal dysbio-sis by creating specific favourable conditions for these two opportunistic  pathogens.


Assuntos
Lactobacillus , Mobiluncus , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gardnerella , Gardnerella vaginalis , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Vagina
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1498, 2021 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686084

RESUMO

Sugarcane ethanol fermentation represents a simple microbial community dominated by S. cerevisiae and co-occurring bacteria with a clearly defined functionality. In this study, we dissect the microbial interactions in sugarcane ethanol fermentation by combinatorically reconstituting every possible combination of species, comprising approximately 80% of the biodiversity in terms of relative abundance. Functional landscape analysis shows that higher-order interactions counterbalance the negative effect of pairwise interactions on ethanol yield. In addition, we find that Lactobacillus amylovorus improves the yeast growth rate and ethanol yield by cross-feeding acetaldehyde, as shown by flux balance analysis and laboratory experiments. Our results suggest that Lactobacillus amylovorus could be considered a beneficial bacterium with the potential to improve sugarcane ethanol fermentation yields by almost 3%. These data highlight the biotechnological importance of comprehensively studying microbial communities and could be extended to other microbial systems with relevance to human health and the environment.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Etanol/metabolismo , Fermentação , Interações Microbianas/fisiologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/fisiologia , Acetaldeído/metabolismo , Acetaldeído/farmacologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biodiversidade , Microbiologia Industrial/métodos , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Microbiota , Melaço , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/efeitos dos fármacos , Saccharum
3.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(2): e20200945, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33681877

RESUMO

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been considered as dysbiosis state whose etiology is not fully understood. This condition affects a large number of women of reproductive age and its study has been highly relevant due to the growing association of BV with and gynecological and obstetric complications and diseases, in addition to a greater susceptibility to sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. The vaginal microbiota composition presents high variability among different ethnic groups of women, although, generally, the prevalence of lactobacilli species has been reported. Several studies suggest they may play a protective role, especially Lactobacillus crispatus whose population is typically present in low proportions in women with BV. This review article describes the contributions and limitations of genomic approaches in elucidating protective characteristics and mechanisms associated with colonization and persistence of lactobacilli strains. Although some genetic features were associated with resilience of L. crispatus during BV, furher studies are required to uncover their functions.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Vaginose Bacteriana , Feminino , Genômica , Humanos , Lactobacillus/genética , Microbiota/genética , Vaginose Bacteriana/genética
4.
Food Chem ; 351: 129290, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631613

RESUMO

The effect of different types of sugar (sucrose, demerara, brown, fructose, coconut sugar, and honey) on sheep milk kefir was evaluated. Microbial counts (Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, yeast), antagonistic activity against foodborne pathogens, microstructure (scanning electron microscopy), and antiproliferative activity of cancer cells were evaluated. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity (DPPH), inhibitory activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), α-amylase, and α-glucosidase, lactose content, lactic and acetic acids and ethanol, fatty acid profile and volatile organic compounds were determined. The addition of sugars increased the Lactobacillus population (up to 2.24 log CFU/mL), metabolites concentration, antagonistic activity against pathogens, antioxidant activity (11.1 to 24.1%), ACE inhibitory activity (27.5 to 37.6%), α-amylase inhibition (18 to 37.4%), and anti-proliferative activity. Furthermore, it improved the fatty acid profile and volatile compounds. The results suggest that the replacement of sucrose with different types of sugar constitute an interesting option to be used in sheep milk kefir formulations.


Assuntos
Kefir/análise , Sacarose/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Kefir/microbiologia , Kefir/toxicidade , Lactobacillus/isolamento & purificação , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Lactococcus/isolamento & purificação , Lactococcus/metabolismo , Leite/química , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal , Ovinos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Leveduras/isolamento & purificação , Leveduras/metabolismo , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo
5.
Nutr Res ; 87: 1-12, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592454

RESUMO

COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 is an ongoing global pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 affects the human respiratory tract's epithelial cells, leading to a proinflammatory cytokine storm and chronic lung inflammation. With numerous patients dying daily, a vaccine and specific antiviral drug regimens are being explored. Probiotics are live microorganisms with proven beneficial effects on human health. While probiotics as nutritional supplements are long practiced in different cuisines across various countries, the emerging scientific evidence supports the antiviral and general immune-strengthening health effects of the probiotics. Here, we present an overview of the experimental studies published in the last 10 years that provide a scientific basis for unexplored probiotics as a preventive approach to respiratory viral infections. Based on collated insights from these experimental data, we identify promising microbial strains that may serve as lead prophylactic and immune-boosting probiotics in COVID-19 management.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Pulmão/virologia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , /imunologia , Humanos , Lactobacillus , Pandemias , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533812

RESUMO

Human toxocariasis consists of chronic tissue parasitosis that is difficult to treat and control. This study aimed to evaluate the action of the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 on larvae of Toxocara canis and the effect of IFN-γ cytokine on parasite-host in vivo (1.109 CFU) and in vitro (1.106, 1.107, 1.108, 1.109 CFU) interactions. Four groups of six BALB/c mice were formed: G1 - L. acidophilus supplementation and T. canis infection; G2 - T. canis infection; G3 - L. acidophilus supplementation; and G4 - PBS administration. Mice were intragastrically suplemented with probiotics for 15 days before inoculation and 48 h after inoculation with 100 T. canis eggs. The inoculation of T. canis was also perfomed intragastrically. The recovery of larvae took place through digestion of liver and lung tissues; the evaluation of IFN-γ gene transcription in leukocytes was performed by qPCR. The in vitro test consisted of incubating the probiotic with T. canis larvae. The supplementation of probiotics produced a reduction of 57.7% (p = 0.025) in the intensity of infection of T. canis larvae in mice, whereas in the in vitro test, there was no larvicidal effect. In addition, a decrease in the IFN-γ gene transcription was observed in both, T. canis-infected and uninfected mice, regardless of whether or not they received supplementation. The probiotic L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 reduced T. canis infection intensity in mice, however, the probiotic did not have a direct effect on larvae, demonstrating the need of interaction with the host for the beneficial effect of the probiotic to occur. Yet, the proinflammatory cytokine IFN-γ did not apparently contributed to the observed beneficial effect of probiotics.


Assuntos
Lactobacillus acidophilus/efeitos dos fármacos , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Toxocara canis/efeitos dos fármacos , Toxocaríase/tratamento farmacológico , Toxocaríase/prevenção & controle , Animais , Lactobacillus , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Probióticos/farmacologia , Toxocara canis/microbiologia , Toxocara canis/fisiologia , Toxocaríase/parasitologia
7.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 342: 109056, 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33540190

RESUMO

The interest in the consumption of African indigenous leafy vegetables increased in African countries, e.g. Kenya, within the last years. One example of African indigenous leafy vegetables is African nightshade (Solanum scabrum) which is nutritious, rich in proteins and micronutrients and therefore could contribute to a healthy diet. African nightshade has several agricultural advantages. However, the most important disadvantage is the fast perishability which leads to enormous post-harvest losses. In this study, we investigated the fermentation of African nightshade as a post-harvest processing method to reduce post-harvest losses. The two lactic acid bacterial starter strains Lactiplantibacillus plantarum BFE 5092 and Limosilactobacillus fermentum BFE 6620 were used to inoculate fermentations of African nightshade leaves with initial counts of 106-107 cfu/ml. Uninoculated controls were conducted for each fermentation trial. Fermentations were performed both in Kenya and in Germany. The success of the inoculated starter cultures was proven by the measurement of pH values and determination of lactic acid concentration. Lactobacilli strains dominated the microbiota of the starter inoculated samples in contrast to the non-inoculated controls. This was supported by classical culture-dependent plating on different microbiological media as well as by the culture-independent molecular biological methods denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S rRNA gene high-throughput amplicon sequencing. We could demonstrate that the use of the selected starter cultures for fermentation of African nightshade leaves led to controlled and reliable fermentations with quick acidification. Thus, controlled fermentation with appropriate starter cultures is a promising method for post-harvest treatment of African nightshade leaves.


Assuntos
Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/microbiologia , Lactobacillales/metabolismo , Solanum , Verduras/microbiologia , África , Fermentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Ácido Láctico/análise , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Microbiota , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
8.
Food Chem ; 348: 129116, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33508610

RESUMO

ß-Glucan as a component of grain cell walls is consumed daily. However, little is known about whether ß-glucan is influenced by the gastrointestinal environment. In this study, we aim to investigate the integrated metabolic process of cereal ß-glucan. In vitro simulated digestion and fermentation combined with microbiome and metabolome analysis were used to profile the metabolism of ß-glucan. Intriguingly, we found that ß-glucan was not hydrolyzed by digestive enzymes but partially degraded by gastric acid environment during in vitro digestion. Moreover, ß-glucan was utilized by gut microbiota to produce acetate, propionate and butyrate, concurrently, the relative abundance of Lactobacillus significantly increased and Escherichia-Shigella significantly decreased. The correlation analysis between metabolomics datasets and microorganisms revealed that ß-glucan catabolism was also accompanied by amino acid catabolism and linoleic acid biosynthesis. Our study offered a forceful basis for the further exploration of the role of ß-glucan and gut microbiota in host health.


Assuntos
Avena/metabolismo , beta-Glucanas/metabolismo , Animais , Técnicas de Cultura Celular por Lotes , Digestão , Análise Discriminante , Ácido Gástrico/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrólise , Lactobacillus/genética , Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Análise de Componente Principal , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , beta-Glucanas/química , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia
9.
Animal ; 15(1): 100014, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516034

RESUMO

Corn silage (CS) is the most common forage used to feed dairy cows with inclusion rates typically around 20-40% of the diet DM. In recent years, the use of corn shredlage (SDL) has been proposed as a substitute for CS. Corn SDL is produced by a method which involves shredding the corn plant into unusually long sections and crushing the corn kernels. The objective of this study was to provide additional data on the effect of feeding SDL vs CS on milking performance and rumen microbial ecosystem. A total of 212 000 kg of whole plant were harvested on the same day and ensiled in two adjacent bunker silos of ~100,000 kg each. One silo was processed using a theoretical length of cut (LOC) of 26 mm (SDL) and other was harvested using a 16-mm LOC (CS). Both corn plants were treated at the rate of 100 ml/ton with a commercial inoculant (Magniva Platinum 1, Lallemand, France) to supply 150 000 CFU of Lactobacillus hilgardii CNCM I-4785 and 150 000 CFU of L. buchneri NCIMB 40 788 per gram of fresh material. Sixty lactating Holstein cows (648 ±â€¯66.6 kg of BW; 44.4 ±â€¯9.9 kg/d of milk yield; 155 ±â€¯75 DIM) were split into two groups and fed the same total mixed ration (15.2% CP, 30.8% NDF on a DM basis) containing either 32.7% CS or 32.7% SDL, on a DM basis, for 7 weeks. Individual feed intake and milk production and composition were monitored daily. Also, at 50 d of study (completion), a rumen sample was obtained from every cow, and DNA extracted and submitted to high-throughput sequencing to evaluate potential changes in rumen microbiota. Data were analyzed using a mixed-effects model which accounted for the fixed effects of treatment, week of study, and their two-way interaction, plus the random effect of cow. Cows on SDL had a greater DMI toward the end of the study, but milk yield and composition were not affected by dietary treatments. As result, feed efficiency was greater in cows fed CS than in those fed SDL toward the end study. There were no major changes in the relative abundances of the different microbial populations in the rumen between both groups of cows. It is concluded that SDL increases DMI of cows, but this increase is not followed by improvements in production.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Silagem , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Feminino , França , Lactação , Lactobacillus , Leite , Rúmen , Silagem/análise , Zea mays
10.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 341: 109070, 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33503540

RESUMO

Zhejiang Rosy Vinegar (ZRV) is a traditional condiment in Southeast China, produced using semi-solid-state fermentation techniques under an open environment, yet little is known about the functional microbiota involved in the flavor formation of ZRV. In this study, 43 kinds of volatile flavor substances were identified by HS-SPME/GC-MS, mainly including ethyl acetate (relative content at the end of fermentation: 1104.1 mg/L), phenylethyl alcohol (417.6 mg/L) and acetoin (605.2 mg/L). The most abundant organic acid was acetic acid (59.6 g/L), which kept rising during the fermentation, followed by lactic acid (7.0 g/L), which showed a continuously downward trend. Amplicon sequencing analysis revealed that the richness and diversity of bacterial community were the highest at the beginning and then maintained decreasing during the fermentation. The predominant bacteria were scattered in Acetobacter (average relative abundance: 63.7%) and Lactobacillus (19.8%). Both sequencing and culture-dependent analysis showed Lactobacillus dominated the early stage (day 10 to 30), and Acetobacter kept highly abundant from day 40 to the end. Spearman correlation analysis displayed that the potential major groups involved in the formation of flavor compounds were Acetobacter and Lactobacillus, which were also showed strong relationships with other bacteria through co-occurrence network analysis (edges attached to Acetobacter: 61.7%; Lactobacillus: 14.0%). Moreover, structural equation model showed that the contents of ethanol, titratable acid and reducing sugar were the major environmental factors playing essential roles in influencing the succession of bacterial community and their metabolism during the fermentation. Overall, these findings illuminated the dynamic profiles of bacterial community and flavor compounds and the potential functional microbes, which were expected to help us understand the formation of flavor substances in ZRV.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético/metabolismo , Acetobacter/metabolismo , Condimentos/microbiologia , Aromatizantes/microbiologia , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Acetatos/análise , Acetoína/análise , China , Condimentos/análise , Fermentação , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Microbiota , Álcool Feniletílico/análise , Paladar
11.
Food Chem ; 347: 129036, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33508589

RESUMO

3-(Methylthio)-1-propanol, reminiscent of cauliflower and cooked vegetable aroma, is an important sulfur compound in Baijiu. It is important to develop a method to increase 3-(methylthio)-1-propanol content to improve flavor quality of products. In this study, a synthetic microbial community was employed to enhance the content of 3-(methylthio)-1-propanol by multi-module division of labor approach. Firstly, the synthetic pathway of 3-(methylthio)-1-propanol was reconstructed and classified into three modules. Later, the hyper producers in each module were isolated and negative interaction between the members was relieved. Finally, a synthetic microbial community was constructed using three species containing one hyper producer from each module. Furthermore, the transcription characteristics of the species in each module were validated by metatranscriptomic analysis. The constructed synthetic microbial community can be used to biosynthesize 3-(methylthio)-1-propanol for Baijiu. This work provided a novel and workable strategy to design synthetic microbial community to enhance the flavor feature of other fermented foods.


Assuntos
Bacillus/metabolismo , Compostos de Enxofre/metabolismo , Bacillus/genética , Técnicas de Cultura Celular por Lotes , Biomassa , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Lactobacillus/genética , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Metionina/análise , Metionina/metabolismo , RNA Bacteriano/química , RNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , RNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , RNA Fúngico/química , RNA Fúngico/isolamento & purificação , RNA Fúngico/metabolismo , Saccharomyces/genética , Saccharomyces/metabolismo , Compostos de Enxofre/química
12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 101, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397942

RESUMO

Western diet (WD) is one of the major culprits of metabolic disease including type 2 diabetes (T2D) with gut microbiota playing an important role in modulating effects of the diet. Herein, we use a data-driven approach (Transkingdom Network analysis) to model host-microbiome interactions under WD to infer which members of microbiota contribute to the altered host metabolism. Interrogation of this network pointed to taxa with potential beneficial or harmful effects on host's metabolism. We then validate the functional role of the predicted bacteria in regulating metabolism and show that they act via different host pathways. Our gene expression and electron microscopy studies show that two species from Lactobacillus genus act upon mitochondria in the liver leading to the improvement of lipid metabolism. Metabolomics analyses revealed that reduced glutathione may mediate these effects. Our study identifies potential probiotic strains for T2D and provides important insights into mechanisms of their action.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/microbiologia , Dieta Ocidental , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Animais , Bilirrubina/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Glucose/metabolismo , Glutationa/sangue , Glutationa/metabolismo , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Masculino , Metabolômica , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mitocôndrias Hepáticas/ultraestrutura , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Transcriptoma/genética
13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 271, 2021 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431867

RESUMO

Dietary patterns and psychosocial factors, ubiquitous part of modern lifestyle, critically shape the gut microbiota and human health. However, it remains obscure how dietary and psychosocial inputs coordinately modulate the gut microbiota and host impact. Here, we show that dietary raffinose metabolism to fructose couples stress-induced gut microbial remodeling to intestinal stem cells (ISC) renewal and epithelial homeostasis. Chow diet (CD) and purified diet (PD) confer distinct vulnerability to gut epithelial injury, microbial alternation and ISC dysfunction in chronically restrained mice. CD preferably enriches Lactobacillus reuteri, and its colonization is sufficient to rescue stress-triggered epithelial injury. Mechanistically, dietary raffinose sustains Lactobacillus reuteri growth, which in turn metabolizes raffinose to fructose and thereby constituting a feedforward metabolic loop favoring ISC maintenance during stress. Fructose augments and engages glycolysis to fuel ISC proliferation. Our data reveal a diet-stress interplay that dictates microbial metabolism-shaped ISC turnover and is exploitable for alleviating gut disorders.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Autorrenovação Celular , Dieta , Intestinos/microbiologia , Células-Tronco/citologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Animais , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Proliferação de Células , Doença Crônica , Células Epiteliais/microbiologia , Feminino , Frutose/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Glicólise , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Rafinose/metabolismo
14.
J Anim Sci ; 99(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476395

RESUMO

Folate is increasingly thought to promote gastrointestinal health and regulate the diversity of gut microbiota to alleviate weaning stress in piglets. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of folate on organ weight, digesta pH, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) concentration, and intestinal microbiota in weaned piglets. A total of 28 piglets (6.73 ± 0.62 kg) were allocated to four dietary treatments consisting of a control group, 3, 9, and 18 mg/kg of folate supplementation in a 14-d feeding trial. The results showed that piglets fed with 9 and 18 mg/kg of folate supplementation had greater (P < 0.05) average liver and spleen weight than the control group. Folate supplementation (9 and 18 mg/kg) can significantly increase (P < 0.05) the stomach pH and tend (P < 0.10) to decrease the cecum pH. Folate treatment (9 and 18 mg/kg) had a positive effect on the metabolism of SCFAs in piglets, in particular, compared with the control group, and the content of acetic acid (AA) and valeric acid was markedly increased (P < 0.05) in the cecum and colon, respectively. Moreover, isobutyric acid, butyric acid, and isovaleric acid were tended (P < 0.10) to increase in the colon. Cecum contents samples were used to determine bacterial community diversity by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. At the genus level, in the cecum, there was a higher (P < 0.05) relative abundance of Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus salivarius, and Lactobacillus mucosae in the 9 mg/kg folate supplementation group. The functional pathways analysis predicted that folate may modify nutrient metabolism by changing the gut microbiota function of weaned piglets. Furthermore, the data showed that Lactobacillus was positively correlated with AA in the cecum. Overall, these findings suggested that folate treatment could increase the organ weight and the stomach pH of weaned piglets and had beneficial effects on gut health, which might be attributed to the alteration in intestinal microbiota induced by folate and the interaction of the intestinal microbiota with SCFAs.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Ácido Fólico , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lactobacillus , Tamanho do Órgão , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Suínos , Desmame
15.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(2): 1696-1713, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309357

RESUMO

The environment temperature and its effect on the temperature of silage is very important for the fermentation and subsequent quality of a silage. Obligate heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inocula, because of their ability to inhibit yeasts, have been developed to prevent the aerobic deterioration of silages. The temperature during silage conservation may also play an important role in the fermentation profile of silages. This study has evaluated the effect of temperature, during the conservation of whole crop corn silage, untreated or treated with different LAB inocula, on the fermentation profile and on the aerobic stability of the silage. Corn was harvested at 42% dry matter and either not treated (control) or treated with Lactobacillus buchneri NCIMB 40788 (LB) at 300,000 cfu/g fresh matter (FM); Lactobacillus hilgardii CNCM I-4785 at 150,000 cfu/g FM (LH150); L. hilgardii CNCM I-4785 at 300,000 cfu/g FM (LH300); or LB+LH at 150,000 cfu/g FM each. In an attempt to experimentally simulate temperature fluctuations in the mass or at the periphery of a silage bunker, corn was conserved in laboratory silos at a constant temperature (20 ± 1°C; MASS) or at lower and variable outdoor temperatures (PERIPH; ranging from 0.5 to 19°C), and the silos were opened after 15, 30, and 100 d of conservation. Lactic acid, acetic acid, and ethanol contents increased in all the silages over the conservation period. The lactic acid content was higher (+10%) in the silages kept at a constant temperature than those conserved at the lower and variable outdoor temperatures. The acetic acid was higher in the treated silages than in the control ones conserved at a constant temperature for 100 d. Moreover, 1,2-propanediol was only detected in the treated silages after at least 30 d at a constant temperature, whereas only traces were detected in the LB+LH treatment for the other temperature conditions. The yeast count decreased during conservation at a slower rate in PERIPH than in MASS and on average reached 2.96 and 4.71 log cfu/g for MASS and PERIPH, respectively, after 100 d of conservation. The highest aerobic stability values were observed for LH300 (191 h) in the MASS silage after 100 d of conservation, whereas the highest aerobic stability was observed in LB+LH (150 h) in the PERIPH silages. After 7 d of air exposure, a pH higher than 4.5 and a higher yeast than 8.0 log cfu/g were detected in all the silages opened after 15 and 30 d of conservation. A pH value close to that of silo opening was detected in the LB, LH150, and LH300 silages conserved under MASS conditions after 100 d, whereas LB+LH was the most effective under PERIPH conditions. The temperature and its fluctuation during conservation of silage in laboratory silos influenced the fermentation, which in turn had an effect on the quality of silage and on the extent of the effect of LAB inocula.


Assuntos
Fermentação/fisiologia , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Silagem/microbiologia , Temperatura , Zea mays/microbiologia , Ácido Acético/análise , Aerobiose , Animais , Etanol/análise , Laboratórios , Ácido Láctico/análise , Silagem/análise , Leveduras/isolamento & purificação , Zea mays/química , Zea mays/metabolismo
17.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 339: 109020, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360296

RESUMO

Extra ingredients are often used in traditional sourdough production recipes by artisan bakeries. These ingredients may be the source of microorganisms or stimulate the growth and/or the metabolic activities of the microorganisms added to or naturally present in the flour-water mixture. The present study examined the influence of the addition of lemon juice or apple juice as source of citrate or malate, respectively, on the growth and activity of the citrate- and malate-positive Companilactobacillus crustorum LMG 23699 strain (formerly known as Lactobacillus crustorum LMG 23699), used to initiate firm (dough yield of 200) wheat sourdough productions, and on the flavour of the baked goods produced. Three fermentation strategies were applied, namely one-step long fermentation sourdough production processes with the addition of juice at the start (Type 2) and backslopped fermentations with the addition of juice either only at the start of the sourdough productions or at the start of the sourdough productions and at the beginning of each subsequent refreshment step during the whole backslopping process (both Type 3). It turned out that the starter culture strain used prevailed during all sourdough productions performed. Yeasts were particularly present in Type 3 sourdough productions, although lemon juice retarded their growth. Due to high yeast activity, high concentrations of ethanol and glycerol were produced toward the end of the sourdough productions. Addition of lemon juice stimulated the production of lactic acid, acetic acid, and the buttery flavour compounds acetoin and diacetyl, because of citrate conversion, during the Type 2 and Type 3 sourdough productions. In Type 3 sourdough productions, these compounds were found in higher concentrations only when lemon juice was added at each backslopping step. Alternatively, the addition of apple juice led to high concentrations of lactic acid because of malolactic fermentation in both Type 2 and Type 3 sourdough productions. Moreover, the addition of apple juice increased the initial concentrations of the carbohydrates (fructose, glucose, and sucrose) and sugar alcohols (mannitol and sorbitol), which were exhausted upon backslopping or accumulated in the sourdough matrix, respectively. Baked goods produced using sourdoughs obtained from the Type 2 and Type 3 sourdough productions with the addition of juice at each backslopping step were significantly different in flavour from doughs supplemented with the respective juices and lactic acid and/or Type 3 sourdough productions with the addition of juice only at the start.


Assuntos
Pão/microbiologia , Ácido Cítrico/metabolismo , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Pão/análise , Citrus/química , Fermentação , Farinha/microbiologia , Frutas/química , Malatos/metabolismo , Malus/química , Odorantes/análise
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 209: 111732, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373928

RESUMO

Fluoride, widely presented in drinking water and tea, may be detrimental or beneficial to the human health, depending on its dosages ingested. However, the relationship of different dosages of fluoride and gut microbiota is still unclear. In this work, the fermentation model using fecal samples provided by four volunteers was used to evaluate the effects of different dosages of fluoride (1, 2, 10 and 15 mg/L) on the gut microbiota in vitro. The result showed low dosages of fluoride (1 and 2 mg/L) had limited effect on the structure and functional Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway of gut microbiota. Furthermore, the low dosage of fluoride could promote the growth of beneficial gut microbiota, including Faecalibacterium and Lactobacillus. Whereas, the high dosage of fluoride (10 and 15 mg/L) significantly changed the composition and functional KEGG pathway of gut microbiota. Moreover, the high dosage of fluoride could also reduce the beneficial gut microbiota, including Faecalibacterium and Phascolarctobacterium, and increase the harmful bacterium including Proteobacteria and Enterobacteriaceae. Both low and high dosages of fluoride showed limited effect on the productions of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Thus, the beneficial or detrimental fluoride to gut microbiota depends on its dosages. The fluoride is expected to serve as a food additive in suitable dosage to improve human health through modulation of the gut microbiota. Moreover, more attention should be paid to toxicity of fluoride with high dosage to gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Fluoretos/toxicidade , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Bactérias/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/química , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Fermentação , Fluoretos/análise , Humanos , Lactobacillus/metabolismo
19.
Food Chem ; 334: 127428, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32688173

RESUMO

Aspergillus quadrilineatus endo-ß-mannanase effectively degraded konjac glucomannan (66.09% w/v), copra meal (38.99% w/v) and locust bean galactomannan (20.94% w/v). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of KG hydrolysate indicated its mannooligosaccharides (MOS) content (656.38 mg/g) with high amounts of DP 5 oligosaccharide. Multi-scale characterization of mannan hydrolysate was done using FTIR and 13C NMR which revealed α and ß form of galactose or glucose in MOS, respectively. CM and LBG hydrolysates (1 mg/mL) have shown cytotoxic effect and reduced cell viability of Caco-2 cells by 45% and 62%, respectively. MOS DP (1-4) derived from LBG supported better Lactobacilli biofilm formation as compared to KG hydrolysate containing high DP MOS (5-7). Lactobacilli effectively fermented MOS to generate acetate and propionate as main short chain fatty acids. Lactobacilli produced leucine, isoleucine and valine as branched chain amino acids when grown on LBG hydrolysate.


Assuntos
Mananas/química , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Prebióticos , beta-Manosidase/metabolismo , Aspergillus/enzimologia , Biofilmes , Células CACO-2 , Fermentação , Humanos , Hidrólise , Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Mananas/metabolismo , Oligossacarídeos/química , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , beta-Manosidase/química
20.
Food Chem ; 336: 127616, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763733

RESUMO

This study is an example of apple by-products (AP) recycling through a designed fermentation by selected autochthonous Lactobacillus plantarum AFI5 and Lactobacillus fabifermentans ALI6 used singly or as binary cultures with the selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae AYI7. Compared to Raw-, Unstarted- and Chemically Acidified-AP, Fermented-AP promoted the highest levels of total and insoluble dietary fibers, DPPH scavenging capacity, and free phenolics. The binary culture of L. plantarum AFI5 and S. cerevisiae AYI7 had the best effect on the bioavailability phenolic compounds as resulted by the LC-MS/MS validated method. The accumulation of phenolic acids derivatives highlighted the microbial metabolism during AP fermentation. Bio-converted phenolics were likely responsible for the increased DPPH scavenging capacity. The potential health-promoting effects of Fermented-AP were highlighted using Caco-2 cells. With variations among single and binary cultures, fermented-AP counteracted the inflammatory processes and the effects of oxidative stress in Caco-2 cells, and preserved the integrity of tight junctions.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Malus/química , Fenóis/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/análise , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Técnicas de Cultura Celular por Lotes , Células CACO-2 , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Humanos , Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Malus/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
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