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1.
Virulence ; 15(1): 2350904, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38725098

RESUMO

Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum) is closely correlated with tumorigenesis in colorectal cancer (CRC). We aimed to investigate the effects of host norepinephrine on the carcinogenicity of F. nucleatum in CRC and reveal the underlying mechanism. The results revealed that both norepinephrine and bacterial quorum sensing (QS) molecule auto-inducer-2 (AI-2) were positively associated with the progression of F. nucleatum related CRC (p < 0.01). In vitro studies, norepinephrine induced upregulation of QS-associated genes and promoted the virulence and proliferation of F. nucleatum. Moreover, chronic stress significantly increased the colon tumour burden of ApcMin/+ mice infected with F. nucleatum (p < 0.01), which was decreased by a catecholamine inhibitor (p < 0.001). Our findings suggest that stress-induced norepinephrine may promote the progression of F. nucleatum related CRC via bacterial QS signalling. These preliminary data provide a novel strategy for the management of pathogenic bacteria by targeting host hormones-bacterial QS inter-kingdom signalling.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Fusobacterium nucleatum , Norepinefrina , Percepção de Quorum , Transdução de Sinais , Percepção de Quorum/efeitos dos fármacos , Fusobacterium nucleatum/patogenicidade , Fusobacterium nucleatum/efeitos dos fármacos , Fusobacterium nucleatum/fisiologia , Animais , Neoplasias Colorretais/microbiologia , Norepinefrina/farmacologia , Camundongos , Humanos , Progressão da Doença , Infecções por Fusobacterium/microbiologia , Virulência , Homosserina/análogos & derivados , Homosserina/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Masculino , Lactonas
2.
Food Res Int ; 186: 114335, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38729717

RESUMO

Germination holds the key to nutritional equilibrium in plant grains. In this study, the effect of soybean germination on the processing of soymilk (SM) and glucono-δ-lactone (GDL) induced soymilk gel (SG) was investigated. Germination promoted soybean sprout (SS) growth by activating the energy metabolism system. The energy metabolism was high during the three-day germination and was the most vigorous on the second day of germination. After germination, protein dissolution was improved in SM, and endogenous enzymes produced small molecule proteins. Small molecule proteins were more likely to aggregate to produce SM protein particles. Germination increased the water-holding capacity of SG induced by GDL but weakened the strength. Furthermore, the dynamic fluctuations in isoflavone content were closely monitored throughout the processing of soybean products, including SS, SM, and SG. Although the total amount of isoflavones in SM and SG processed from germinated soybeans decreased, a significant enrichment in the content of aglycone isoflavones was observed. The content of aglycone isoflavones in SG processed from germinated soybeans on the second day of germination was 736.17 ± 28.49 µg/g DW, which was 83.19 % higher than that of the control group. This study demonstrates that germination can enhance the nutritional value of soybean products, providing innovative opportunities for the development of health-promoting soybean-based products.


Assuntos
Géis , Germinação , Glycine max , Isoflavonas , Leite de Soja , Isoflavonas/análise , Isoflavonas/metabolismo , Leite de Soja/química , Leite de Soja/metabolismo , Glycine max/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glycine max/química , Glycine max/metabolismo , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Valor Nutritivo , Sementes/química , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Lactonas/metabolismo , Lactonas/análise
3.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 37(1(Special)): 205-213, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38747271

RESUMO

In this study, a sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography detector was established and validated for the simultaneous determination of geniposide, ellagic acid, piperine, costunolide and dehydrocostuslactone in Liuwei Muxiang Capsules. The analysis was achieved on CHANIN 100-5-C18-H column (5µm, 250 mm×4.6 mm) with the temperature of 30oC. Gradient elution was applied using 0.1% phosphoric acid solution-methanol-acetonitrile (50:50) as mobile phase at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The determination was performed at the wavelength of 225 nm (detecting geniposide), 254 nm (detecting ellagic acid), 343 nm (detecting piperine) and 225 nm (detecting costunolide and dehydrocostuslactone) along with the sample volume of 10µL. The linear ranges of geniposide, ellagic acid, piperine, costunolide and dehydrocostuslactone demonstrated good linear relationships within their respective determination ranges. The average recoveries were 100.04%, 99.86%, 99.79%, 100.17% and 100.41%, respectively. RSD% was 1.3%, 1.2%, 1.2%, 1.2%, 1.5%, respectively. The developed method was proved to be simple, accurate and sensitive, which can provide a quantitative analysis method for the content determination of geniposide, ellagic acid, piperine, costunolide and dehydrocostuslactone in Liuwei Muxiang capsules.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Benzodioxóis , Cápsulas , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Ácido Elágico , Iridoides , Lactonas , Piperidinas , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Benzodioxóis/análise , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas/análise , Piperidinas/análise , Piperidinas/química , Alcaloides/análise , Lactonas/análise , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Iridoides/análise , Ácido Elágico/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sesquiterpenos/análise
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(19): e2316371121, 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38701118

RESUMO

Strigolactones are a class of phytohormones with various functions in plant development, stress responses, and in the interaction with (micro)organisms in the rhizosphere. While their effects on vegetative development are well studied, little is known about their role in reproduction. We investigated the effects of genetic and chemical modification of strigolactone levels on the timing and intensity of flowering in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and the molecular mechanisms underlying such effects. Results showed that strigolactone levels in the shoot, whether endogenous or exogenous, correlate inversely with the time of anthesis and directly with the number of flowers and the transcript levels of the florigen-encoding gene SINGLE FLOWER TRUSS (SFT) in the leaves. Transcript quantifications coupled with metabolite analyses demonstrated that strigolactones promote flowering in tomato by inducing the activation of the microRNA319-LANCEOLATE module in leaves. This, in turn, decreases gibberellin content and increases the transcription of SFT. Several other floral markers and morpho-anatomical features of developmental progression are induced in the apical meristems upon treatment with strigolactones, affecting floral transition and, more markedly, flower development. Thus, strigolactones promote meristem maturation and flower development via the induction of SFT both before and after floral transition, and their effects are blocked in plants expressing a miR319-resistant version of LANCEOLATE. Our study positions strigolactones in the context of the flowering regulation network in a model crop species.


Assuntos
Flores , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lactonas , MicroRNAs , Solanum lycopersicum , Solanum lycopersicum/genética , Solanum lycopersicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solanum lycopersicum/metabolismo , Solanum lycopersicum/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactonas/metabolismo , Lactonas/farmacologia , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Flores/efeitos dos fármacos , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Giberelinas/metabolismo , Giberelinas/farmacologia
5.
Molecules ; 29(8)2024 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38675685

RESUMO

Alantolactone is a eudesmane-type sesquiterpene lactone containing an α-methylene-γ-lactone moiety. Previous studies showed that alantolactone inhibits the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway by targeting the inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB) kinase. However, in the present study, we demonstrated that alantolactone selectively down-regulated the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor 1 (TNF-R1) in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. Alantolactone did not affect the expression of three adaptor proteins recruited to TNF-R1. The down-regulation of TNF-R1 expression by alantolactone was suppressed by an inhibitor of TNF-α-converting enzyme. Alantolactone increased the soluble forms of TNF-R1 that were released into the culture medium as an ectodomain. The structure-activity relationship of eight eudesmane derivatives revealed that an α-methylene-γ-lactone moiety was needed to promote TNF-R1 ectodomain shedding. In addition, parthenolide and costunolide, two sesquiterpene lactones with an α-methylene-γ-lactone moiety, increased the amount of soluble TNF-R1. Therefore, the present results demonstrate that sesquiterpene lactones with an α-methylene-γ-lactone moiety can down-regulate the expression of TNF-R1 by promoting its ectodomain shedding in A549 cells.


Assuntos
Regulação para Baixo , Lactonas , Receptores Tipo I de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral , Sesquiterpenos , Humanos , Células A549 , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/patologia , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactonas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Receptores Tipo I de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos/química , Sesquiterpenos de Eudesmano/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos de Eudesmano/química , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
6.
Bioresour Technol ; 401: 130753, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38685516

RESUMO

This work proposes a process design and techno-economic assessment for the production of γ-valerolactone from lignocellulosic derived fructose at industrial scale, with the aim of exploring its feasibility, identifying potential obstacles, and suggesting improvements in the context of France. First, the conceptual process design is developed, the process modelled and optimized. Second, different potential scenarios for the energy supply to the process are analyzed by means of a set of economic key performance indicators, aimed at highlighting the best potential profitability scenario for the sustainable exploitation of waste biomass in the context analyzed. The lowest Minimum Selling Price for GVL is obtained at 10 kt/y plant fueled by biomass, i.e. 1.89 €/kg, along with the highest end-of-live revenue, i.e. 113 M€. Finally, a sensitivity and uncertainties analysis, based on Monte Carlo simulations, are carried out on the results in order to test their robustness with respect to key input parameters.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Frutose , Lactonas , Lactonas/química , Frutose/química , Biotecnologia/métodos , Biotecnologia/economia , Método de Monte Carlo
7.
Eur J Pharm Sci ; 197: 106765, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38608735

RESUMO

Lipid-based formulations (LBFs) are an enabling-formulation approach for lipophilic poorly water-soluble compounds. In LBFs, drugs are commonly pre-dissolved in lipids, and/or surfactants/cosolvents, hereby avoiding the rate-limiting dissolution step. According to the Lipid formulation classification system, proposed by Pouton in 2006, in type II LBFs a surfactant with an HLB-value lower than 12 is added to the lipids. If high drug doses are required, e.g. for preclinical toxicity studies, supersaturated LBFs prepared at elevated temperatures may be a possibility to increase drug exposure. In the present study, the impact of digestion on drug absorption in rats was studied by pre-dosing of the lipase inhibitor orlistat. The lipid chain length of the type II LBFs was varied by administration of a medium-chain- (MC) and a long-chain (LC)-based formulation. Different drug doses, both non-supersaturated and supersaturated, were applied. Due to an inherent precipitation tendency of cinnarizine in supersaturated LBFs, the effect of the addition of the precipitation inhibitor Soluplus® was also investigated. The pharmacokinetic results were also evaluated by multiple linear regression. In most cases LC-based LBFs did not perform better in vivo, in terms of a higher area under the curve (AUC0-24 h) and maximal plasma concentration (Cmax), than MC-based LBFs. The administration of supersaturated LBFs resulted in increased AUC0-24 h (1.5 - 3.2-fold) and Cmax (1.1 - 2.6-fold)-values when compared to the non-supersaturated equivalents. Lipase inhibition led to a decreased drug exposure in most cases, especially for LC formulations (AUC0-24 h reduced to 47 - 67%, Cmax to 46 - 62%). The addition of Soluplus® showed a benefit to drug absorption from supersaturated type II LBFs (1.2 - 1.7-fold AUC0-24 h), due to an increased solubility of cinnarizine in the formulation. Upon dose-normalization of the pharmacokinetic parameters, no beneficial effect of Soluplus® could be demonstrated.


Assuntos
Cinarizina , Lipídeos , Cinarizina/química , Cinarizina/farmacocinética , Cinarizina/administração & dosagem , Animais , Masculino , Lipídeos/química , Solubilidade , Lactonas/química , Lactonas/farmacocinética , Lactonas/administração & dosagem , Ratos Wistar , Orlistate/administração & dosagem , Orlistate/farmacocinética , Absorção Intestinal , Ratos , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Polietilenoglicóis/farmacocinética , Lipase/antagonistas & inibidores , Polivinil/química , Precipitação Química , Tensoativos/química , Química Farmacêutica/métodos
8.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 60(40): 5302-5305, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38661549

RESUMO

Although structural information on sugars is wide, experimental studies on the oxidation products of sugars in the gas phase, free from solvent interactions, have been rarely reported. We present an experimental work on the changes in the structure and interactions of two products of glucose oxidation (D-glucono-1,5-lactone (GlcL) and D-glucurono-6,3-lactone (GlcurL)) with respect to their precursor. Features such as intramolecular interactions, ring puckering and tautomerism were observed.


Assuntos
Gluconatos , Glucose , Lactonas , Oxirredução , Glucose/química , Lactonas/química , Gluconatos/química , Estrutura Molecular
9.
Molecules ; 29(7)2024 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38611722

RESUMO

Podophyllotoxin, a cyclolignan natural product, has been the object of extensive chemomodulation to obtain better chemotherapeutic agents. Among the obtained podophyllotoxin derivatives, podophyllic aldehyde showed very interesting potency and selectivity against several tumoral cell lines, so it became our lead compound for further modifications, as described in this work, oriented toward the enlargement of the cyclolignan skeleton. Thus, modifications performed at the aldehyde function included nucleophilic addition reactions and the incorporation of the aldehyde carbon into several five-membered rings, such as thiazolidinones and benzo-fused azoles. The synthesized derivatives were evaluated against several types of cancer cells, and although some compounds were cytotoxic at the nanomolar range, most of them were less potent and less selective than the parent compound podophyllic aldehyde, with the most potent being those having the lactone ring of podophyllotoxin. In silico ADME evaluation predicted good druggability for most of them. The results indicate that the γ-lactone ring is important for potency, while the α,ß-unsaturated aldehyde is necessary to induce selectivity in these cyclolignans.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Podofilotoxina , Humanos , Podofilotoxina/farmacologia , Esqueleto , Hipertrofia , Aldeídos , Lactonas , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos
10.
Molecules ; 29(7)2024 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38611850

RESUMO

The traditional Chinese medicine toad venom (Venenum bufonis) has been extensively used to treat various diseases, including cancers, in China and other Southeast Asian countries. The major constituents of toad venom, e.g., bufadienolides and alkaloids, exhibit broad-spectrum pharmacological effects in cancers. Herein, two new bufadienolides (1 and 2), along with eleven known compounds (3-13) were successfully isolated from Bufo melanostictus Schneider. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic data and X-ray diffraction analysis. Furthermore, four lactam derivatives were synthesized through the transformation of bufadienolides lactones. The inhibitory effects of these compounds against human prostate cancer cell lines PC-3 and DU145 were evaluated. The outcomes indicated a notable trend, with a substantial subset displaying nanomolar range IC50 values against PC-3 and DU145 cells, underscoring their pronounced cytotoxicity. Moreover, a noteworthy distinction surfaces, wherein lactones consistently outperformed their lactam counterparts, further validating their heightened potency for the treatment of prostate cancer. This study contributes significant preclinical evidence substantiating the therapeutic viability of bufadienolides and toad venom as intervention strategies for prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Venenos de Anfíbios , Antineoplásicos , Bufanolídeos , Neoplasias da Próstata , Humanos , Masculino , Animais , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Venenos de Anfíbios/farmacologia , Bufanolídeos/farmacologia , Bufonidae , Lactamas , Lactonas
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612714

RESUMO

Strigolactones (SLs) are plant hormones that regulate several key agronomic traits, including shoot branching, leaf senescence, and stress tolerance. The artificial regulation of SL biosynthesis and signaling has been considered as a potent strategy in regulating plant architecture and combatting the infection of parasitic weeds to help improve crop yield. DL1b is a previously reported SL receptor inhibitor molecule that significantly promotes shoot branching. Here, we synthesized 18 novel compounds based on the structure of DL1b. We performed rice tillering activity assay and selected a novel small molecule, C6, as a candidate SL receptor inhibitor. In vitro bioassays demonstrated that C6 possesses various regulatory functions as an SL inhibitor, including inhibiting germination of the root parasitic seeds Phelipanche aegyptiaca, delaying leaf senescence and promoting hypocotyl elongation of Arabidopsis. ITC analysis and molecular docking experiments further confirmed that C6 can interact with SL receptor proteins, thereby interfering with the binding of SL to its receptor. Therefore, C6 is considered a novel SL receptor inhibitor with potential applications in plant architecture control and prevention of root parasitic weed infestation.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Ésteres , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis , Lactonas , Naftalenos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Ácidos Carboxílicos
12.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 320, 2024 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38654155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As a newly class of endogenous phytohormones, strigolactones (SLs) regulate crop growth and yield formation by interacting with other hormones. However, the physiological mechanism of SLs affect the yield by regulating the balance of endogenous hormones of Tartary buckwheat is still unclear. RESULTS: In this study, a 2-year field experiment was conducted on Tartary buckwheat (Jinqiao 2) to study the effects of different concentrations (0, 10, and 20 µmol/L) of artificial synthetic analogs of SLs (rac-GR24) and inhibitor of SL synthesis (Tis-108) on the growth, endogenous-hormone content, and yield of Tartary buckwheat. The main-stem branch number, grain number per plant, grain weight per plant, and yield of Tartary buckwheat continuously decreased with increased rac-GR24 concentration, whereas the main-stem diameter and plant height initially increased and then decreased. Rac-GR24 treatment significantly increased the content of SLs and abscisic acid (ABA) in grains, and it decreased the content of Zeatin (Z) + Zeatin nucleoside (ZR). Conversely, Tis-108 treatment decreased the content of SLs and ABA but increased the content of Z + ZR. Results of correlation analysis showed that the content of ABA and SLs, the ratio of SLs/(Z + ZR), SLs/ABA, and ABA/(Z + ZR) were significantly negatively correlated with the yield of Tartary buckwheat, and that Z + ZR content was significantly positively correlated with the yield. Regression analysis further showed that ABA/ (Z + ZR) can explain 58.4% of the variation in yield. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, by adjusting the level of endogenous SLs in Tartary buckwheat, the balance of endogenous hormones in grains can be changed, thereby exerting the effect on yield. The results can provide a new agronomic method for the high-yield cultivation of Tartary buckwheat.


Assuntos
Fagopyrum , Lactonas , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Fagopyrum/efeitos dos fármacos , Fagopyrum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fagopyrum/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Lactonas/metabolismo , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo
13.
Open Vet J ; 14(1): 225-241, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38633172

RESUMO

Background: Coccidiosis is one of the most economically significant poultry diseases worldwide, caused by the pathogenic Eimeria species, and is characterized by decreased weight gain (WG) and failure to grow due to malabsorption, low feed conversion rate, bloody diarrhea, and dehydration. Aim: This study investigated the effectiveness of licorice root extract (LRE) in controlling cecal coccidiosis to determine whether its combination with maduramicin could help alleviate the pathological, biochemical, and histopathological effects of cecal coccidiosis in Sasso broiler chicks. Methods: A total of 125 one-day-old Sasso broiler chicks were categorized into five equal groups (n = 25), each consisting of five replicates (n = 5 per replicate). G1-LE received a basal diet supplemented with LRE (3 g/kg); G2-ME received a basal diet containing maduramycin (0.5 g/kg); and G3-LME received a basal diet containing LRE and maduramicin together with the same rates. G4-E (positive control) and G5-N (negative control) received no additives in their feed. Birds in groups (G1-4) were challenged on day 14 of the experiment by orally intercropping a 1 ml suspension of Eimeria tenella sporulated oocysts. Results: Groups of birds fed on LRE and maduramicin separately or together appeared to be in good condition where no deaths or clinical abnormalities were observed, based on the analysis of clinicopathological examination. Compared with the G4-E positive control, the dropping scoring and oocyst shedding of groups G1-LE, G2-ME, and G3-LME along the 10th-day post-challenge (dpc), as well as macroscopic and microscopic lesions scoring at the 7th dpc, was considerably lower. The dual supplementation use of LRE and maduramicin in G3-LME's reduced the harmful effects of coccidian, which appeared only as a mononuclear cellular infiltration and a small number of oocysts invading the intestinal glands. Molecular docking revealed that LRE and maduramicin interacted with E. tenella DNA polymerase, E. tenella apical membrane antigen 1, and microneme protein binding sites resulting in reduced E. tenella replication and invasion. Conclusion: The inclusion of LRE and maduramicin, individually or in combination, in the diet might effectively mitigate the detrimental effects of coccidiosis.


Assuntos
Coccidiose , Eimeria tenella , Glycyrrhiza , Lactonas , Animais , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Galinhas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Coccidiose/patologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Oocistos
14.
J Nat Prod ; 87(4): 914-923, 2024 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587866

RESUMO

Fungal 10-membered lactones (TMLs), such as stagonolide A, herbarumin I, pinolidoxin, and putaminoxin, are promising candidates for the development of nature-derived herbicides. The aim of this study was to analyze the structure-activity relationships (SAR) of C-9-methyl-substituted TMLs with a multitarget bioassay approach to reveal compounds with useful (phytotoxic, entomotoxic, antimicrobial) or undesirable (cytotoxic) bioactivities. A new TML, stagonolide L (1), along with five known compounds (stagonolides D (2) and E (3), curvulides A (4) and B1/B2 (5a,b), and pyrenolide C (6)), were purified from cultures of the phytopathogenic fungus Stagonospora cirsii, and five semisynthetic derivatives of 3 and 4 (7-11) were obtained. The absolute configuration of 4 was revised to 2Z, 4S, 5S, 6R, and 9R. The identity of 5a,b and stagonolide H is discussed. The phytotoxicity of compound 4, the entomotoxicity of 5a,b, and nonselective toxicity of compound 6 are demonstrated. The latter confirms the hypothesis that the α,ß-unsaturated carbonyl group is associated with the high general toxicity of TML, regardless of its position in the ring and other substituents. The epoxide in compound 4 is important for phytotoxicity. The revealed SAR patterns will be useful for further rational design of TML-based herbicides including curvulide A analogs with a 4,5-epoxy group.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Lactonas , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Estrutura Molecular , Lactonas/química , Lactonas/farmacologia , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Herbicidas/química , Animais , Ascomicetos/química
15.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38676673

RESUMO

The review presents an analysis of experimental data on the study of neurobiological effects of ginkgolide B, which may find application in the therapy of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Ginkgolide B is a diterpene trilactone isolated from the leaves of the relict woody plant Ginkgo biloba L., which has been used for thousands of years in traditional Chinese medicine as a neuroprotective agent. In recent years, this compound has attracted attention because of its wide range of neurobiological effects. The neuroprotective effect of ginkgolide B on brain neurons when exposed to various neurotoxins has been established. This compound has also been shown to effectively protect neurons from the effects of beta-amyloid. Studies have revealed the ability of ginkgolide B to reduce microglia activity and regulate neurotransmitter release. In vivo experiments have shown that this substance significantly increases the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and improves cognitive functions, including memory and learning. It is concluded that ginkgolide B, apparently, may find application in the future as a multi-targeted agent of complex therapy of AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo , Ginkgo biloba , Ginkgolídeos , Lactonas , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Ginkgolídeos/farmacologia , Ginkgolídeos/uso terapêutico , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Lactonas/uso terapêutico , Lactonas/farmacologia , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Animais , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/metabolismo , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301981, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38626155

RESUMO

Orobanche foetida Poiret is the main constraint facing faba bean crop in Tunisia. Indeed, in heavily infested fields with this parasitic plant, yield losses may reach 90%, and the recent estimation of the infested area is around 80,000 ha. Identifying genes involved in the Vicia faba/O. foetida interaction is crucial for the development of effective faba bean breeding programs. However, there is currently no available information on the transcriptome of faba bean responding to O. foetida parasitism. In this study, we employed RNA sequencing to explore the global gene expression changes associated with compatible and incompatible V. faba/O. foetida interactions. In this perspective, two faba bean varieties (susceptible and resistant) were examined at the root level across three stages of O. foetida development (Before Germination (BG), After Germination (AG) and Tubercule Stage (TS)). Our analyses presented an exploration of the transcriptomic profile, including comprehensive assessments of differential gene expression and Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analyses. Specifically, we investigated key pathways revealing the complexity of molecular responses to O. foetida attack. In this study, we detected differential gene expression of pathways associated with secondary metabolites: flavonoids, auxin, thiamine, and jasmonic acid. To enhance our understanding of the global changes in V. faba response to O. foetida, we specifically examined WRKY genes known to play a role in plant host-parasitic plant interactions. Furthermore, considering the pivotal role of parasitic plant seed germination in this interaction, we investigated genes involved in the orobanchol biosynthesis pathway. Interestingly, we detected the gene expression of VuCYP722C homolog, coding for a key enzyme involved in orobanchol biosynthesis, exclusively in the susceptible host. Clearly, this study enriches our understanding of the V. faba/O. foetida interaction, shedding light on the main differences between susceptible and resistant faba bean varieties during O. foetida infestation at the gene expression level.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Lactonas , Orobanche , Vicia faba , Vicia faba/parasitologia , Orobanche/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Fabaceae/genética , Transcriptoma
17.
J Comput Aided Mol Des ; 38(1): 19, 2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38630341

RESUMO

Scaffold replacement as part of an optimization process that requires maintenance of potency, desirable biodistribution, metabolic stability, and considerations of synthesis at very large scale is a complex challenge. Here, we consider a set of over 1000 time-stamped compounds, beginning with a macrocyclic natural-product lead and ending with a broad-spectrum crop anti-fungal. We demonstrate the application of the QuanSA 3D-QSAR method employing an active learning procedure that combines two types of molecular selection. The first identifies compounds predicted to be most active of those most likely to be well-covered by the model. The second identifies compounds predicted to be most informative based on exhibiting low predicted activity but showing high 3D similarity to a highly active nearest-neighbor training molecule. Beginning with just 100 compounds, using a deterministic and automatic procedure, five rounds of 20-compound selection and model refinement identifies the binding metabolic form of florylpicoxamid. We show how iterative refinement broadens the domain of applicability of the successive models while also enhancing predictive accuracy. We also demonstrate how a simple method requiring very sparse data can be used to generate relevant ideas for synthetic candidates.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas , Distribuição Tecidual , Lactonas , Piridinas
18.
Physiol Plant ; 176(2): e14286, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38618752

RESUMO

Shoot branching fundamentally influences plant architecture and agricultural yield. However, research on shoot branching in Dendrobium catenatum, an endangered medicinal plant in China, remains limited. In this study, we identified a transcription factor DcERF109 as a key player in shoot branching by regulating the expression of strigolactone (SL) receptors DWARF 14 (D14)/ DECREASED APICAL DOMINANCE 2 (DAD2). The treatment of D. catenatum seedlings with GR24rac/TIS108 revealed that SL can significantly repress the shoot branching in D. catenatum. The expression of DcERF109 in multi-branched seedlings is significantly higher than that of single-branched seedlings. Ectopic expression in Arabidopsis thaliana demonstrated that overexpression of DcERF109 resulted in significant shoot branches increasing and dwarfing. Molecular and biochemical assays demonstrated that DcERF109 can directly bind to the promoters of AtD14 and DcDAD2.2 to inhibit their expression, thereby positively regulating shoot branching. Inhibition of DcERF109 by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) resulted in decreased shoot branching and improved DcDAD2.2 expression. Moreover, overexpression of DpERF109 in A. thaliana, the homologous gene of DcERF109 in Dendrobium primulinum, showed similar phenotypes to DcERF109 in shoot branch and plant height. Collectively, these findings shed new insights into the regulation of plant shoot branching and provide a theoretical basis for improving the yield of D. catenatum.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Dendrobium , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis , Lactonas , Dendrobium/genética , Agricultura , Plântula , Transdução de Sinais
19.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 49(5): 1260-1265, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621973

RESUMO

A variety of compounds in Artemisia annua were simultaneously determined to evaluate the quality of A. annua from multiple perspectives. A method based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry(UPLC-QQQ-MS/MS) was established for the simultaneous determination of seven compounds: amorpha-4,11-diene, artemisinic aldehyde, dihydroartemisinic acid, artemisinic acid, artemisinin B, artemisitene, and artemisinin, in A. annua. The content of the seven compounds in different tissues(roots, stems, leaves, and lateral branches) of A. annua were compared. The roots, stems, leaves, and lateral branches of four-month-old A. annua were collected and the content of seven artemisinin-related compounds in different tissues was determined. A multi-reaction monitoring(MRM) acquisition mode of UPLC-QQQ-MS/MS was used, with a positive ion mode of atmospheric pressure chemical ion source(APCI). Chromatographic separation was achieved on an Eclipse Plus RRHD C_(18) column(2.1 mm×50 mm, 1.8 µm). The gradient elution was performed with the mobile phase consisted of formic acid(0.1%)-ammonium formate(5 mmol·L~(-1))(A) and the methanol(B) gradient program of 0-8 min, 55%-100% B, 8-11 min, 100% B, and equilibrium for 3 min, the flow rate of 0.6 mL·min~(-1), the column temperature of 40 ℃, the injection volume of 5 µL, and the detection time of 8 min. Through methodological investigation, a method based on UPLC-QQQ-MS/MS was established for the simultaneous quantitative determination of seven representative compounds involved in the biosynthesis of artemisinin. The content of artemisinin in A. annua was higher than that of artemisinin B, and the content of artemisinin and dihydroartemisinic acid were high in all the tissues of A. annua. The content of the seven compounds varied considerably in different tissues, with the highest levels in the leaves and neither artemisinene nor artemisinic aldehyde was detected in the roots. In this study, a quantitative method based on UPLC-QQQ-MS/MS for the simultaneous determination of seven representative compounds involved in the biosynthesis of artemisinin was established, which was accurate, sensitive, and highly efficient, and can be used for determining the content of artemisinin-related compounds in A. annua, breeding new varieties, and controlling the quality of Chinese medicinal materials.


Assuntos
Artemisia annua , Artemisininas , Lactonas , Artemisia annua/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Melhoramento Vegetal , Artemisininas/análise , Aldeídos
20.
Chem Senses ; 492024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38591752

RESUMO

The scent of musk plays a unique role in the history of perfumery. Musk odorants comprise 6 diverse chemical classes and perception differences in strength and quality among human panelists have long puzzled the field of olfaction research. Three odorant receptors (OR) had recently been described for musk odorants: OR5AN1, OR1N2, and OR5A2. High functional expression of the difficult-to-express human OR5A2 was achieved by a modification of the C-terminal domain and the link between sensory perception and receptor activation for the trilogy of these receptors and their key genetic variants was investigated: All 3 receptors detect only musky smelling compounds among 440 commercial fragrance compounds. OR5A2 is the key receptor for the classes of polycyclic and linear musks and for most macrocylic lactones. A single P172L substitution reduces the sensitivity of OR5A2 by around 50-fold. In parallel, human panelists homozygous for this mutation have around 40-60-fold higher sensory detection threshold for selective OR5A2 ligands. For macrocyclic lactones, OR5A2 could further be proven as the key OR by a strong correlation between in vitro activation and the sensory detection threshold in vivo. OR5AN1 is the dominant receptor for the perception of macrocyclic ketones such as muscone and some nitromusks, as panelists with a mutant OR5A2 are still equally sensitive to these ligands. Finally, OR1N2 appears to be an additional receptor involved in the perception of the natural (E)-ambrettolide. This study for the first time links OR activation to sensory perception and genetic polymorphisms for this unique class of odorants.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados , Receptores Odorantes , Olfato , Humanos , Olfato/genética , Odorantes , Receptores Odorantes/metabolismo , Genótipo , Lactonas , Percepção
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