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1.
Molecules ; 29(9)2024 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38731596

RESUMO

This work aimed to develop gluten-free snacks such as crispbread based on beetroot pomace (Beta vulgaris L.) and golden linseed (Lini semen). Beetroot is attracting more and more consumer attention because of its nutritional and health properties. The use of beet pomace contributes to waste management. Linseed, known as a superfood with many health-promoting properties, was used to produce crispbreads as an alternative to cereals, which are allergens. Beetroot pomace and whole or ground linseed were used in different proportions to produce crispbread snacks. Chemical and physical analyses were performed including water activity, dry matter, betalains, and polyphenols content, as well as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). A sensory evaluation and microstructure observations were also performed. The obtained snacks were characterized by low water activity (0.290-0.395) and a high dry matter content (93.43-97.53%), which ensures their microbiological stability and enables longer storage. Beetroot pomace provided betalains-red (14.59-51.44 mg betanin/100 g d.m.) and yellow dyes (50.02-171.12 mg betanin/100 g d.m.)-while using linseed enriched the product with polyphenols (730-948 mg chlorogenic acid/100 g d.m.). FTIR analysis showed the presence of functional groups such as the following: -OH, -C-O, -COOH, and -NH. The most desired overall consumer acceptability was achieved for snacks containing 50% beetroot pomace and 50% linseed seeds. The obtained results confirmed that beetroot pomace combined with linseed can be used in the production of vegetable crispbread snacks.


Assuntos
Beta vulgaris , Linho , Lanches , Beta vulgaris/química , Linho/química , Verduras/química , Betalaínas/química , Betalaínas/análise , Polifenóis/análise , Polifenóis/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Dieta Livre de Glúten , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Glutens/análise , Glutens/química
2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(5): e249438, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38717775

RESUMO

Importance: Point-of-sale food messaging can encourage healthier purchases, but no studies have directly compared multiple interventions in the field. Objective: To examine which of 4 food and beverage messages would increase healthier vending machine purchases. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized trial assessed 13 months (February 1, 2019, to February 29, 2020) of vending sales data from 267 machines and 1065 customer purchase assessments from vending machines on government property in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Data analysis was performed from March 5, 2020, to November 8, 2022. Interventions: Study interventions were 4 food and beverage messaging systems: (1) beverage tax posters encouraging healthy choices because of the Philadelphia tax on sweetened drinks; (2) green labels for healthy products; (3) traffic light labels: green (healthy), yellow (moderately healthy), or red (unhealthy); or (4) physical activity equivalent labels (minutes of activity to metabolize product calories). Main Outcomes and Measures: Sales data were analyzed separately for beverages and snacks. The main outcomes analyzed at the transaction level were calories sold and the health status (using traffic light criteria) of each item sold. Additional outcomes were analyzed at the monthly machine level: total units sold, calories sold, and units of each health status sold. The customer purchase assessment outcome was calories purchased per vending trip. Results: Monthly sales data came from 150 beverage and 117 snack vending machines, whereas 1065 customers (558 [52%] male) contributed purchase assessment data. Traffic light labels led to a 30% decrease in the mean monthly number of unhealthy beverages sold (mean ratio [MR], 0.70; 95% CI, 0.55-0.88) compared with beverage tax posters. Physical activity labels led to a 34% (MR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.51-0.87) reduction in the number of unhealthy beverages sold at the machine level and 35% (MR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.50-0.86) reduction in mean calories sold. Traffic light labels also led to a 30-calorie reduction (b = -30.46; 95% CI, -49.36 to -11.56) per customer trip in the customer purchase analyses compared to physical activity labels. There were very few significant differences for snack machines. Conclusions and Relevance: In this 13-month randomized trial of 267 vending machines, the traffic light and physical activity labels encouraged healthier beverage purchases, but no change in snack sales, compared with a beverage tax poster. Corporations and governments should consider such labeling approaches to promote healthier beverage choices. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT06260176.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Distribuidores Automáticos de Alimentos , Humanos , Distribuidores Automáticos de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Bebidas/economia , Philadelphia , Masculino , Feminino , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Comércio , Adulto , Rotulagem de Alimentos/métodos , Lanches , Alimentos/economia
3.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 21(1): 60, 2024 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38773586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The retail market for toddler-specific packaged foods is growing. Many of these products are ultra-processed and high in nutrients of concern for health, yet marketed in ways that may make them appear wholesome. This study aims to assess parents' responses to claims on unhealthy, ultra-processed toddler food products and test whether removing such claims promotes more accurate product perceptions and healthier product preferences. METHODS: Parents of toddlers aged 12 to < 36 months (N = 838) were recruited for an online experiment testing four on-pack claim conditions: control (no claim); 'contains "good" ingredient'; 'free from "bad" ingredient'; and unregulated 'child-related' claim. Participants were randomly assigned to one condition, then viewed images of toddler food products that varied in nutrition content and the claims displayed. Participants completed tasks assessing product preferences (unhealthy product displaying claim vs. a healthier option with no claim, across four food categories (banana bars, strawberry snacks, blueberry yogurt snacks and veggie snacks)), purchase intentions and product perceptions. Poisson regression (count variable) and linear regression (continuous outcomes) analyses were employed to test for mean differences by marketing claim conditions. RESULTS: For the overall sample, brief exposure to 'free from "bad" ingredient' claims increased participant's intentions to purchase unhealthy food products for their toddlers, but there was no clear evidence that 'contains "good" ingredient' claims and 'child-related' claims significantly impacted parent's preferences, purchase intentions and perceptions of toddler foods. However, certain claims influenced particular parent subgroups. Notably, parents with three or more children chose more unhealthy products when these products displayed 'contains "good" ingredient' or 'free from "bad" ingredient' claims; the latter claims also promoted stronger purchase intentions and enhanced product perceptions among this subgroup. CONCLUSIONS: Findings indicate that 'free from "bad" ingredient' claims on unhealthy toddler foods are of most concern, as they boost the appeal of these products to parents. 'Contains "good" ingredient' claims and 'child-related' claims showed limited effects in this study. Considering available evidence, we recommend claims should not be permitted on child-oriented foods, as they may promote inaccurate product perceptions and unhealthy product choices by parents, that can detract from their children's diets and health.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Preferências Alimentares , Marketing , Pais , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Marketing/métodos , Adulto , Intenção , Percepção , Valor Nutritivo , Comportamento de Escolha , Lanches , Alimentos Infantis
4.
Nutr J ; 23(1): 50, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Meals differ in terms of food items and nutritional quality. The aim of the present study was to propose a scale to measure the meals quality of schoolchildren according to food processing degree, perform a preliminary evaluation of the scale's validity and reliability and apply the scale to a representative sample of schoolchildren in a city in southern Brazil. METHODS: A methodological study based on the generalized graded unfolding model (GGUM) of item response theory (IRT) with analysis of secondary data was carried out in 6,399 schoolchildren of 6-15y-old attending 2nd to 5th grades of public elementary schools in Florianópolis, Brazil, in 2013-2015 who answered the validated Food Intake and Physical Activities of Schoolchildren (WebCAAFE) questionnaire. Meal quality was the latent trait. The steps for the development of the scale included: latent trait definition; item generation; dimensionality analysis; estimation of item parameters; scale levels definition; assessment of validity and reliability; and assessment of the meal quality of a subsample of schoolchildren aged 7 to 12 years (n = 6,372). RESULTS: Eleven out of eighteen items had adequate parameters, without differential item functioning for sex or age. Meal quality was categorized into three levels: healthy, mixed, and unhealthy. Higher scores indicate a greater prevalence of ultra-processed foods in daily meals. Most schoolchildren had mixed (40.6%) and unhealthy (41%) meal patterns. CONCLUSIONS: IRT analysis allowed the development of the scale, which measures the quality of meals and snacks based on the degree of food processing. At all snack times, there was a higher frequency of ultra-processed foods consumption, therefore foods consumed as snacks are a potential focus for nutritional interventions.


Assuntos
Refeições , Lanches , Humanos , Criança , Feminino , Masculino , Adolescente , Brasil , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Valor Nutritivo , Avaliação Nutricional , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Instituições Acadêmicas
5.
Appetite ; 198: 107366, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38648954

RESUMO

Emotional eating (EE) is defined as eating in response to negative emotions (e.g., sadness and boredom). Child temperament and parental feeding practices are predictive of child EE and may interact to shape child EE. Previous research has demonstrated that children eat more when they are experiencing sadness, however, boredom-EE (despite how common boredom is in children) has yet to be explored experimentally using remote methodologies. The current study explores whether feeding practices and child temperament interact with mood to predict children's snack selection in an online hypothetical food choice task. Using online experimental methods, children aged 6-9-years (N = 347) were randomised to watch a mood-inducing video clip (control, sadness, or boredom). Children completed a hypothetical food choice task from images of four snacks in varying portion sizes. The kilocalories in children's online snack choices were measured. Parents reported their feeding practices and child's temperament. Results indicated that the online paradigm successfully induced feelings of boredom and sadness, but these induced feelings of boredom and sadness did not significantly shape children's online food selection. Parental reports of use of restriction for health reasons (F = 8.64, p = .004, n2 = 0.25) and children's negative emotionality (F = 6.81, p = .009, n2 = 0.020) were significantly related to greater total kilocalorie selection by children. Three-way ANCOVAs found no evidence of any three-way interactions between temperament, feeding practices, and mood in predicting children's online snack food selection. These findings suggest that children's hypothetical snack food selection may be shaped by non-responsive feeding practices and child temperament. This study's findings also highlight different methods that can be successfully used to stimulate emotional experiences in children by using novel online paradigms, and also discusses the challenges around using online methods to measure children's intended food choice.


Assuntos
Tédio , Comportamento de Escolha , Preferências Alimentares , Lanches , Temperamento , Humanos , Lanches/psicologia , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Emoções , Afeto , Internet
6.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 188: 114683, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38670304

RESUMO

Malondialdehyde (MDA), which is composed when n-6 and n-3 PUFAs are peroxidized, has been utilized as an indicator of lipid peroxidation and has been considered neurotoxic, cytotoxic, and mutagenic. This study aimed to determine the bioaccessibility level of MDA in diet bars sold as healthy snacks in the market using in vitro gastrointestinal digestive model. In our study, 28 different diet bar samples were bought from markets in Istanbul. MDA contents of the products were determined by the HPLC-FLD method. The investigation showed that diet bars had an average MDA concentration of 116.25 µg/100 g before digestion, while the average MDA concentration was 90.50 µg/100 g after in vitro digestion. In line with these data, the average MDA bioaccessibility of 28 diet bar samples was calculated as 77.3%. For this reason, more studies are needed to understand the relationship between both the MDA content and the reaction and nutritional components.


Assuntos
Digestão , Malondialdeído , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Humanos , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Disponibilidade Biológica , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Dieta , Lanches
7.
J Hum Nutr Diet ; 37(3): 737-748, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38558169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to investigate the type and timing of ultra-processed foods (UPF) consumption and its association with dietary intake (DI) and physical activity (PA) in women with obesity living in poverty. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was employed. Obesity was defined by at least two criteria (body mass index, waist circumference or % fat mass). Poverty was defined as the three lowest classes of the Brazilian Economic Classification Criterion. PA was measured with triaxial accelerometers and DI was assessed with three 24-h dietary recalls. Foods were categorised according to the NOVA classification, with UPF classified into five subgroups, as well as the timing of consumption into six meals. RESULTS: In total, 56 adult women were included. Overall energy intake was 1653.21 (503.22) kcal/day. UPF intake was 21.62% (11.94%) kcal/day, being higher at breakfast (4.91% kcal/day), afternoon snack (5.39% kcal/day) and dinner (5.01% kcal/day). Only UPF subgroup 4 (sandwich biscuits, sweets, or treats) showed a positive association with energy intake (ß = 54.40 [27.6, 81.10] kcal/day) and a negative association with protein intake (ß = -0.31% [-0.48%, -0.14%] kcal/day). UPF consumption in morning (ß = -0.41% [-0.79%, -0.02%] kcal/day) and afternoon (ß = -0.18% [-0.33%, -0.04%] kcal/day) snacks was associated with lower protein intake. Furthermore, lunchtime UPF consumption was positively associated with walking time (ß = 0.16% [0.02%; 0.30%]) and steps/hour (ß = 8.72 [1.50; 15.94] steps/h). CONCLUSIONS: Women with obesity living in poverty consume more UPF during breakfast, afternoon snack and dinner. Physical activity is positively associated with UPF consumption at lunch. UPF, such as sandwich biscuits, sweets or treats, contribute to increasing energy intake and reducing protein intake.


Assuntos
Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Exercício Físico , Fast Foods , Obesidade , Pobreza , Humanos , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Adulto , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta/métodos , Refeições , Índice de Massa Corporal , Comportamento Alimentar , Lanches , Fatores de Tempo , Circunferência da Cintura , Alimento Processado
8.
Clin Nutr ; 43(5): 1073-1078, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38579369

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIM: In hospitalized patients, daily protein intake remains far below WHO requirements for healthy adults (0.8 g·kg-1·d-1) as well as ESPEN guidelines for patients (1.2-1.5 g·kg-1·d-1). Providing access to a pre-sleep protein dense snack between dinner and going to bed may serve as a great opportunity to increase daily energy and protein intake in hospitalized patients. However, it remains to be assessed whether protein provision prior to sleep effectively increases protein intake, or may reduce food intake throughout the remainder of the day(s). The present study evaluated the impact of giving access to a pre-sleep snack on daily energy and protein intake in patients throughout their hospitalization. METHODS: Patients admitted to the surgical wards of the Maastricht University Medical Centre+ were randomly allocated to usual care (n = 51) or given access to a pre-sleep snack (n = 50). The pre-sleep snack consisted of 103 g cheese cubes (30 g protein) provided between 7:30 and 9:30 PM, prior to sleep. All food provided and all food consumed was weighed and recorded throughout (2-7 days) hospitalization. Daily energy and protein intake and distribution were calculated. Data were analyzed by independent T-Tests with P < 0.05 considered as statistically significant. RESULTS: Daily energy intake was higher in the pre-sleep group (1353 ± 424 kcal d-1) when compared to the usual care group (1190 ± 402 kcal·d-1; P = 0.049). Providing patients access to a pre-sleep snack resulted in a 17% (11 ± 9 g) higher daily protein intake (0.81 ± 0.29 g·kg-1·d-1) when compared to the usual care group (0.69 ± 0.28 g·kg-1·d-1; P = 0.045). Protein intake at breakfast, lunch, and dinner did not differ between the pre-sleep and usual care groups (all P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Providing access to a pre-sleep protein snack, in the form of protein dense food items such as cheese, represents an effective dietary strategy to increase daily energy and protein intake in hospitalized patients. Patients consuming pre-sleep protein snacks do not compensate by lowering energy or protein intake throughout the remainder of the days. Pre-sleep protein dense food provision should be implemented in hospital food logistics to improve the nutritional intake of patients. TRIAL REGISTER NO: NL8507 (https://trialsearch.who.int/).


Assuntos
Proteínas Alimentares , Ingestão de Energia , Hospitalização , Sono , Lanches , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Proteínas Alimentares/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Sono/fisiologia , Adulto
9.
Food Res Int ; 184: 114268, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609245

RESUMO

Insects intended for human consumption are considered Novel Foods according to EU legislation. marketed in form of powders, bars, snacks are increasingly available on the EU market, especially on e-commerce. The commercial form and the way of distribution make IBPs particularly prone to mislabeling. Literature concerning the mislabeling occurrence in IBPs is extremely scarce. In this study, 46 processed IBPs were collected on nine EU e-commerce platforms (e-CO) to be authenticated by metabarcoding. A 200 bp region from 16S rRNA gene was used as molecular target. Sequencing data were processed using DADA2 R package, and sequences were taxonomically assigned through BLAST analysis against GenBank. Procedural blanks and positive controls were included in the analysis, and threshold values were established to filter the final data. The mislabeling rate (i. e. the mismatch between the species declared on the IBP label and the species identified by metabarcoding) was calculated. Overall, a high mislabeling rate (33.3 %) was observed, although this percentage is influenced by the e-CO platform and the insect species, with A. domesticus particularly involved. The use of species not listed in authorized Novel Food (e. g. Gryllus locorojo), and/or the partial replacement of high value species with lower value species was highlighted for the first time in processed IBPs. The presence of insect pests was also detected. Metabarcoding was confirmed as an effective tool for IBPs authentication. Also, outcomes from this study can provide useful data on the main issues involving the EU IBPs' market, that can represent an incentive to reinforce both official controls and FBO's self-controls on these poorly investigated products.


Assuntos
Agamaglobulinemia , Humanos , Animais , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Comércio , Insetos , Lanches
10.
J Texture Stud ; 55(2): e12832, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38613251

RESUMO

Puffed-grain food is a crispy snack whose consumer satisfaction depends on snack crispness and crunchiness, which can be characterized by the sound and the acoustic signals of food breaking. This study aimed to evaluate whether acoustic characteristics can be used to predict the crispness of various puffed-grain food. Sensory evaluation was performed on puffed-grain products with varying hygroscopic durations and different types. The relation between sensory evaluation and acoustic characteristics of nine different types of food was examined. The Hilbert-Huang transform was used to perform energy segmentation of the acoustic signal of puffed-grain food and observe its energy migration process. The results showed that energy release was more concentrated in the low-frequency range for grain-puffed foods with different hygroscopic durations. No notable correlation was observed between the low-frequency interval and sensory crispness for the different types of puffed-grain foods. However, the acoustic features extracted from their inherent low-frequency intervals showed a significantly improved correlation with sensory crispness. Therefore, it provides a theoretical reference for applying acoustic characteristics to describe food texture.


Assuntos
Acústica , Som , Grão Comestível , Fenômenos Físicos , Lanches
11.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1062, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urbanization influences food culture, particularly in low- and middle-income countries where there is an increasing consumption of processed and pre-packaged foods. This shift is contributing to a rise in non-communicable diseases. Food labelling standards are crucial for regulating manufacturing practices and helping consumers make healthy food choices. We aimed to assess the compliance of local and imported pre-packaged snacks with Tanzanian and international labelling standards in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 180 snack products. A checklist based on Tanzanian and Codex labelling standards was used to evaluate adherence. We also examined factors influencing adherence, such as product origin, price, category, purchase location, and package size. RESULTS: The majority of the snacks demonstrated partial adherence to Tanzania (n = 97; 54%) and International (Codex) (n = 120; 67%) labelling standards. Imported products showed significantly better adherence to both Tanzanian (n = 46; 53%) and international (n = 42; 48%) standards. Notably, more than half (n = 110; 66.7%) of the products used English for labelling, and infrequently (n = 74; 41.4%) used the recommended World Health Organization Front-of-Pack Nutrition Labelling. Product category, origin, and package size were significantly associated with higher levels of international standard adherence (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The inadequate adherence to mandatory labelling standards and the scarce use of Swahili and FoPL highlight the need to strengthen labelling practices and potential challenges faced by consumers in understanding nutritional information. Thus, strengthening and emphasizing good labelling practices are urgently needed as we seek to address diet-related noncommunicable diseases.


Assuntos
Rotulagem de Alimentos , Lanches , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Tanzânia , Dieta , Valor Nutritivo
12.
Public Health Nutr ; 27(1): e115, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38571384

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the selection of foods and beverages in children's sports arenas in Norway. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study design with a digital questionnaire was used. Descriptive statistics were used to present the results. Moreover, Pearson's χ2 tests examined the factors that could aid in distinguishing clubs with healthy or unhealthy consumables. SETTING: Children's sports clubs in Norway. PARTICIPANTS: Representatives from 301 children's sports clubs in Norway answered the questionnaire between September and November 2021. RESULTS: In total, 89·4% of the participating sports clubs (n 301) offered soda drinks with sugar. Most of the sports clubs (88 %) reported to offer batter-based cakes such as pancakes and waffles and 63·8 % offered cakes. Furthermore, 47·5% sold hot dishes with processed meat, such as hamburgers and hot dogs. More than 80% of the sports clubs offered sweets and snacks, while 44·5% did not offer fruits, vegetables and/or berries. Notably, the important factors that distinguished sports clubs with healthier food selections from those with unhealthier selections were the presence of guidelines for the food offered and purchase agreements with food suppliers. CONCLUSIONS: Educational, governmental guidelines for the promotion of healthy eating and establishing agreements with suppliers of healthier foods could help to overcome barriers to unhealthy food selection.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Noruega , Criança , Bebidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Feminino , Esportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Dieta Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos , Lanches , Comportamento de Escolha
13.
Nutrients ; 16(8)2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38674804

RESUMO

Cariogenic microorganisms are crucial pathogens contributing to the development of early childhood caries. Snacks provide fermentable carbohydrates, altering oral pH levels and potentially affecting microorganism colonization. However, the relationship between snack intake and cariogenic microorganisms like Candida and Streptococcus mutans in young children is still unclear. This study aimed to assess this association in a prospective underserved birth cohort. Data from children aged 12 to 24 months, including oral microbial assays and snack intake information, were analyzed. Sweet and non-sweet indices based on the cariogenic potential of 15 snacks/drinks were created. Mixed-effects models were used to assess the associations between sweet and non-sweet indices and S. mutans and Candida carriage. Random forest identified predictive factors of microorganism carriage. Higher non-sweet index scores were linked to increased S. mutans carriage in plaques (OR = 1.67, p = 0.01), potentially strengthening with age. Higher sweet index scores at 12 months were associated with increased Candida carriage, reversing at 24 months. Both indices were top predictors of S. mutans and Candida carriage. These findings underscore the associations between snack intake and cariogenic microorganism carriage and highlight the importance of dietary factors in oral health management for underserved young children with limited access to dental care and healthy foods.


Assuntos
Candida , Cárie Dentária , Boca , Lanches , Streptococcus mutans , Humanos , Lactente , Feminino , Masculino , Pré-Escolar , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Streptococcus mutans/isolamento & purificação , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Prospectivos , Boca/microbiologia , Classe Social , Baixo Nível Socioeconômico
14.
Vet Rec ; 194(5): 177, 2024 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38427432

Assuntos
Felicidade , Lanches , Animais
15.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1365355, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38496396

RESUMO

Introduction: Socioeconomic level is one of the important factors determining diet quality. Snack preferences are affected by socioeconomic level. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of socioeconomic levels on diet quality and snack preferences among adolescents from different socioeconomic backgrounds. Methods: The study involved 118 adolescents aged between 10-18 years residing in Istanbul. A questionnaire prepared by the researchers was used to obtain information on the adolescents' dietary habits, consumption of main meals and snacks, habits, and food consumption records. The participants' food consumption was assessed using the retrospective 24-hour recall method, and diet quality was evaluated using the calculated nutrient adequacy ratio (NAR) and mean adequacy ratio (MAR). Results: The mean age of the adolescents was 16.42±0.89 years. The number of snacks consumed in private schools was found to be higher than in public schools (p < 0.05). The NAR score for vitamin C consumption was significantly higher in private schools compared to public schools (p < 0.05). Although the MAR scores of adolescents in private schools were higher than those in public schools, this difference was not statistically significant. The majority of adolescents in private schools regularly consumed fresh fruit (67.2%), milk (60.3%), yogurt (60.3%), and nuts (56.9%) as snacks. In contrast, 45% of adolescents in public schools regularly consumed pastries (p < 0.05). Discussion: It was observed that adolescents studying in public schools had a lower tendency to prefer healthy foods for snacks compared to those in private schools. Socioeconomic level was identified as an important factor influencing eating habits during adolescence. Considering that the level of income is significantly different between the adolescents studying at private and public schools, the higher consumption of snacks by the adolescents studying at private school may be associated with higher income.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia , Lanches , Humanos , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Retrospectivos , Dieta , Instituições Acadêmicas
16.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2024: 1406858, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38505371

RESUMO

Chocolate products on the market are generally in the form of chocolate bars as snacks made from cocoa powder. Fat and powder are separated first through a pressing process to obtain the cocoa powder. Cocoa powder loses most of its fat content during processing. Therefore, the study aimed to determine the effect of steaming time on the cocoa bean content of fatty acids, free fatty acids, proximate levels, and antioxidant activity of snack bar products made from steamed cocoa beans. Seven steaming time intervals for cocoa beans were studied. The results showed that a longer steaming time affects the fatty acids, saturated fatty acids, antioxidants, and proximate in cocoa beans. Steaming time treatment at 45 minutes increased oleic acid, palmitic acid, and antioxidant activity. In addition, reducing free fatty acids represents a quality improvement that meets international Codex Alimentarius standards, offering a competitive advantage in the market. The food industry can adopt this steaming technique to develop snack bars and new products that are healthier and more sustainable by using steaming as an effective processing method in maintaining and increasing the nutritional value of products.


Assuntos
Cacau , Chocolate , Antioxidantes , Ácidos Graxos , Lanches
17.
Appetite ; 197: 107300, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38462053

RESUMO

Geometric and textural properties of food, like unit size, have previously been shown to influence energy intake. While mechanism(s) driving this effect are unclear, unit size may relate to intake by affecting eating microstructure (e.g., eating rate, bite size). In a randomized crossover study, we investigated relationships between unit size, eating microstructure, and intake. Adults (n = 75, 75% women) consumed an ad libitum snack three times in our laboratory. This snack was a 70-g portion (∼2.5 servings) of one of three sizes of pretzel (small, medium, large). Intake was measured in grams by difference in weight before and after the snack. Each session was video recorded to measure eating microstructure; snack duration (min) and number of bites were annotated and used to calculate mean eating rate (g/min) and mean bite size (g/bite). Results revealed unit size influenced intake (grams and kcal; both p's ≤ 0.001), such that participants consumed 31% and 22% more of the large pretzels (16.9 ± 2.3 g) compared to the small (12.9 ± 2.3 g) and medium sizes (13.8 ± 2.3 g), respectively. Unit size also influenced eating rate and bite size (both p's < 0.001); the largest pretzel size yielded the fastest eating rate and largest mean bite size. Further analysis revealed that after accounting for eating microstructure, the effects of unit size on intake were no longer significant, suggesting eating microstructure was driving these effects. Together, these findings indicate that unit size influences intake by affecting eating microstructure and that food properties like unit size can be leveraged to moderate snack intake.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Lanches , Adulto , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Cross-Over , Ingestão de Energia
18.
Public Health Nutr ; 27(1): e107, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38504524

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Individuals often use self-directed strategies to manage intake of tempting foods, but what these strategies are and whether they are effective is not well understood. This study assessed the frequency of use and subjective effectiveness of self-directed strategies in relation to BMI and snack intake. DESIGN: A cross-sectional and prospective study with three time points (T1: baseline, T2: 3 months and T3: 3 years). At T1, demographics, frequency of use and subjective effectiveness of forty-one identified strategies were assessed. At T2 and T3, current weight was reported, and at T2 frequency of snack intake was also recorded. SETTING: Online study in the UK. PARTICIPANTS: Data from 368 participants (Mage = 34·41 years; MBMI = 25·06 kg/m2) were used for analysis at T1, n = 170 (46·20 % of the total sample) at T2 and n = 51 (13·59 %) at T3. RESULTS: Two strategy factors were identified via principal axis factoring: (1) diet, exercise, reduction of temptations, and cognitive strategies, and (2) planning, preparation and eating style. For strategy 1, frequency of use, but not subjective effectiveness, was positively related to BMI at T1. Subjective effectiveness predicted an increase in BMI from T1 and T2 to T3. No relationship to snack intake was found. For strategy 2, frequency of use was negatively related to BMI at T1. Neither frequency of use nor subjective effectiveness were related to changes in BMI over time, but subjective effectiveness was negatively correlated with unhealthy snack intake. CONCLUSION: Self-directed strategies to reduce the intake of tempting foods are not consistently related to BMI or snack intake.


Assuntos
Dieta , Lanches , Humanos , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Prospectivos , Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia
19.
Rev. esp. nutr. comunitaria ; 30(1): 1-10, ene.-mar. 2024. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-232674

RESUMO

Fundamentos: La escuela puede ser un contexto favorecedor para prevenir la obesidad infantil, por lo que pautar meriendas escolares puede contribuir a adoptar hábitos saludables. El objetivo de este estudio fue doble: a) analizar el grado de cumplimiento de las meriendas pautadas; b) comparar las características de las meriendas según si eran o no pautadas. Métodos: Estudio transversal donde han participado centros escolares de las ciudades de Vigo y Pontevedra. Para el análisis comparativo se clasificó y categorizó cada una de las meriendas de los centros con y sin pauta. Asimismo, se comparó la composición de las meriendas establecidas, dependiendo si habían cumplido o no la pauta. Resultados: Se analizaron 1259 meriendas establecidas y 1363 sin pauta. El 81,2% de las meriendas recogidas cumplían con los requisitos pautados. Las meriendas no establecidas incluyeron un número de alimentos significativamente superior (p<0,001), así como un mayor porcentaje de alimentos ultraprocesados. En los centros con pauta, los niños cumplidores incluían más fruta y embutido, mientras que los no cumplidores llevaban más ultraprocesados. Conclusiones: Pautar meriendas escolares en educación infantil es una estrategia efectiva para asegurar una nutrición variada y una menor ingesta de alimentos ultraprocesados. (AU)


Background: The school can be a favorable context to prevent childhood obesity, so that the pattern of school snacks can contribute to the adoption of healthy habits. The aim of this study was twofold: a) to analyze the degree of compliance with the prescribed snacks; b) to compare the characteristics of the snacks according to whether they were prescribed or not. Methods: Cross-sectional study in which schools in the cities of Vigo and Pontevedra participated. For the comparative analysis, we classified and categorized each of the snacks in the schools with and without guidelines. Likewise, the composition of the established snacks was compared, depending on whether or not they had complied with the guideline. Results: A total of 1259 established snacks and 1363 without guidelines were analyzed. Of the snacks collected, 81.2% complied with the requirements established. The non-established snacks included a significantly higher number of foods (p<0.001), as well as a higher percentage of ultra-processed foods. In guideline centers, compliant children included more fruit and sausage, while non-compliant children had more ultra-processed foods. Conclusions: The school snack program in early childhood education is an effective strategy to ensure avaried nutrition and a lower intake of ultra-processed foods. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Lanches/etnologia , Educação Alimentar e Nutricional , Comportamento Alimentar , Programas de Nutrição Aplicada , Espanha
20.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0298984, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38446775

RESUMO

The Western diet has undergone a massive switch since the second half of the 20th century, with the massive increase of the consumption of refined carbohydrate associated with many adverse health effects. The physiological mechanisms linked to this consumption, such as hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinemia, may impact non medical traits such as facial attractiveness. To explore this issue, the relationship between facial attractiveness and immediate and chronic refined carbohydrate consumption estimated by glycemic load was studied for 104 French subjects. Facial attractiveness was assessed by opposite sex raters using pictures taken two hours after a controlled breakfast. Chronic consumption was assessed considering three high glycemic risk meals: breakfast, afternoon snacking and between-meal snacking. Immediate consumption of a high glycemic breakfast decreased facial attractiveness for men and women while controlling for several control variables, including energy intake. Chronic refined carbohydrate consumption had different effects on attractiveness depending on the meal and/or the sex. Chronic refined carbohydrate consumption, estimated by the glycemic load, during the three studied meals reduced attractiveness, while a high energy intake increased it. Nevertheless, the effect was reversed for men concerning the afternoon snack, for which a high energy intake reduced attractiveness and a high glycemic load increased it. These effects were maintained when potential confounders for facial attractiveness were controlled such as age, age departure from actual age, masculinity/femininity (perceived and measured), BMI, physical activity, parental home ownership, smoking, couple status, hormonal contraceptive use (for women), and facial hairiness (for men). Results were possibly mediated by an increase in age appearance for women and a decrease in perceived masculinity for men. The physiological differences between the three meals studied and the interpretation of the results from an adaptive/maladaptive point of view in relation to our new dietary environment are discussed.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Hiperglicemia , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Refeições , Desjejum , Lanches , Anticoncepcionais , Dispositivos Anticoncepcionais
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