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1.
Nutrients ; 14(7)2022 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35405937

RESUMO

Night shift workers experience circadian misalignment and sleep disruption, which impact hunger and food consumption. The study aim was to assess the impact of chronotype on hunger and snack consumption during a night shift with acute sleep deprivation. Seventy-two (36f, 36m) healthy adults participated in a laboratory study. A sleep opportunity (03:00-12:00) was followed by a wake period (12:00-23:00) and a simulated night shift (23:00-07:00). Subjective measures of hunger, prospective consumption, desire to eat fruit, and desire to eat fast food were collected before (12:20, 21:50) and after (07:20) the night shift. Snack opportunities were provided before (15:10, 19:40) and during (23:50, 03:30) the night shift. A tertile split of the dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) distribution defined early (20:24 ± 0:42 h), intermediate (21:31 ± 0:12 h), and late chronotype (22:56 ± 0:54 h) categories. There were no main effects of chronotype on any subjective measure (p = 0.172-0.975), or on snack consumption (p = 0.420), and no interactions between chronotype and time of day on any subjective measure (p = 0.325-0.927) or on snack consumption (p = 0.511). Differences in circadian timing between chronotype categories were not associated with corresponding differences in hunger, prospective consumption, desire to eat fruit, desire to eat fast food, or snack consumption at any measurement timepoint.


Assuntos
Melatonina , Privação do Sono , Adulto , Ritmo Circadiano , Humanos , Fome , Estudos Prospectivos , Sono , Lanches , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado
2.
Nutrients ; 14(7)2022 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35405983

RESUMO

Emotional eating (EE) is food consumption in response to feelings rather than hunger. EE is related to unhealthy food intake and abdominal obesity (AO). However, little evidence exists about the association between EE and dietary patterns (DPs) and EE-AO interaction related to DPs. DPs allow describing food combinations that people usually eat. We analyzed the association of EE with DPs in adults (≥18 years) with AO (WC ≥ 80/90 cm in women/men, respectively; n = 494; 66.8% women;) or without AO (n = 269; 74.2% women) in a cross-sectional study. Principal component analysis allowed identifying four DPs from 40 food groups (validated with a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire). Among the subjects presenting AO, being "emotional/very-emotional eater" (emotional eating questionnaire) was negatively associated with the "Healthy" DP (fruits, vegetables, olive oil, oilseeds, legumes, fish, seafood) (OR:0.53; 95% CI: 0.33, 0.88, p = 0.013) and positively with the "Snacks and fast food" DP (sweet bread, breakfast cereal, corn, potato, desserts, sweets, sugar, fast food) (OR:1.88; 95% CI: 1.17, 3.03, p = 0.010). Emotional eaters with AO have significantly lower fiber intake, folic acid, magnesium, potassium, vitamin B1, and vitamin C, while they had a higher intake of sodium, lipids, mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids, and saturated fats. In non-AO participants, EE was not associated with any DP (p > 0.05). In conclusion, EE is associated with unhealthy DPs in subjects with AO.


Assuntos
Dieta , Obesidade Abdominal , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Emoções , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade , Lanches , Verduras
3.
Nutrients ; 14(7)2022 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35406076

RESUMO

Protein is considered the most satiating macronutrient, and its effect on satiety and food intake is source-dependent. For the first time, we compared the effect of the administration of an insect or almond preload, both containing 20 g of protein, on appetite and food intake in human subjects. Participants consumed both foods and a vehicle as a liquid preload on three separate days. They were then offered a breakfast and lunch buffet meal at which food intake was measured. Visual analogue scale (VAS) questionnaires were completed following the three preloads to assess appetite and other sensations. At breakfast, reduced energy intake was observed for both preloads compared with vehicle. At lunch, food intake only differed in the insect group, which consumed more than the vehicle. Insect preload increased the total amount of protein ingested with a slight increase in total energy consumed, differently than almond, which significantly increased total protein and energy consumed. There was no correlation between indigestion-sensation ratings and food intake. Moreover, the insect preload resulted in lower sleepiness and tiredness ratings compared with the almond preload. Thus, insect-derived protein may be suitable as a safe ingredient for snacks intended for elderly or infirm patients who require increased protein intake.


Assuntos
Prunus dulcis , Idoso , Animais , Apetite , Estudos Cross-Over , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ingestão de Energia , Humanos , Insetos , Saciação , Lanches , Adulto Jovem
4.
Appetite ; 174: 106044, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35430297

RESUMO

There has been a prolonged increase in the sale and consumption of ultra-processed, discretionary foods and ultra-processed milks for toddlers, which display numerous on-pack claims that influence health perceptions. This study investigated the relative impact of different regulated and unregulated claims on parent perceptions of the healthiness of a toddler snack food and milk in Australia. Participants aged 18+ years completed an online survey, including discrete choice experiments for an ultra-processed, discretionary toddler snack food and an ultra-processed toddler milk, which displayed combinations of claims across nutrition, health, and other domains. Participants were asked to choose the 'most and least healthy' products between three alternatives over seven choice sets. Data were analysed using an ordinal logistic regression model. Likelihood-ratio tests revealed the most important contribution was variation in regulated nutrition-content claims. For the toddler snack, participants were nearly 14 times more likely to perceive a product with the regulated nutrition-content claim "no added sugar, no added salt" as most healthy (OR 13.71, p < 0.001), compared to when no regulated nutrition-content claim was present. For the toddler milk, participants were more than two and a half times more likely to choose a product that contained the regulated nutrition-content claim "2 serves = up to 50% of RDI recommended dietary intake of 14 vitamins and minerals" as most healthy (OR 2.65, p < 0.001) compared to when no regulated nutrition-content claim was present. In Australia, regulated nutrition-content claims can be displayed on packaged foods regardless of healthiness. These results indicate that such claims increase perceptions of healthiness of ultra-processed, discretionary toddler snack foods and ultra-processed toddler milks. Further controls are required to regulate the use of nutrition-content and health claims to facilitate informed consumer choice.


Assuntos
Rotulagem de Alimentos , Lanches , Animais , Pré-Escolar , Dieta , Fast Foods , Rotulagem de Alimentos/métodos , Humanos , Leite , Valor Nutritivo
5.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 98, 2022 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35410301

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research evidence suggests that physiological state of hunger might affect preference for female body weight, such that hungrier, compared to satiate, men prefer heavier body weight and rate as more attractive heavier female figures. Here, we seek to extend these findings by comparing the effects of fasting and snack on aesthetics judgements of the bodies and faces of conspecifics and of objects in a sample of female and male participants. METHODS: Forty-four participants (women: n = 21, mean age = 23.70 yrs ± 0.62) provided aesthetic liking judgments of round and slim human bodies, faces and objects, under at least 12 h of overnight fasting and immediately after having eaten a snack (i.e., bananas). An anthropometric measure of adiposity (i.e., Body Mass Index, BMI) was also collected from each observer. RESULTS: Overall, we found that participants' aesthetic judgements were higher for slim stimuli compared to round ones. However, after fasting, participants rated round stimuli as more attractive compared to when they had a snack. This hunger-based shift in ratings not only was apparent when stimuli depicted a human body or face, but also when they depicted an object, thus suggesting a general modification of observers' aesthetic preference related to hunger. Importantly, this effect was modulated by participants' BMI so that only participants with a high BMI provided higher aesthetic judgements for round stimuli after fasting than after a snack. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that both the modification of the physiological state and the individual differences in adiposity level of the observers might affect the aesthetic appreciation of the external world.


Assuntos
Corpo Humano , Fome , Adulto , Estética , Feminino , Humanos , Fome/fisiologia , Masculino , Obesidade , Lanches , Adulto Jovem
6.
Food Res Int ; 155: 111022, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35400422

RESUMO

Successful salt (NaCl) reduction strategies are required to reduce the salt content of snacks while maintaining saltiness perception and consumer acceptance. Previous research suggests that particle physicochemical design rules (small particle size, low density, low hydrophobicity, optimised particle shape) can be leveraged to produce salt particles that enhance saltiness perception. This study aimed to validate these design rules by applying optimised model salts to unsalted potato crisps at a 30% reduced salt content to produce prototype products. A selection of commercial products were also chosen to represent the salt content and crisp style of the broader market, with the aim to investigate the potential of other salt reduction strategies including; direct salt removal without compensation for loss of salt content and increasing time in mouth, while exploring the impact of consumer mouth behaviour type on consumer product preference. Nine products varying in salt content (6 standard, 1 crinkle-cut, 1 thick-cut batch-fried, 1 baked reconstituted potato) were subject to descriptive sensory analysis with a trained panel (n = 11). A subset (seven products) were assessed for consumer acceptance (n = 93). A salt reduction of 30% was achieved while maintaining saltiness perception and consumer acceptance using model salts, while direct removal of salt without perceptual impact was only achievable by 15%. To investigate key drivers of liking, consumers were segmented based on product liking and mouth behaviour. Results suggested that whilst salt content was the primary driver, specific texture profiles were polarising. However, mouth behaviour had minimal influence on preference. These results validate previously described physicochemical design rules for developing novel salt particles for salt reduction and inform ingredient design for the food and flavour industries.


Assuntos
Cloreto de Sódio , Solanum tuberosum , Sais , Lanches , Cloreto de Sódio/análise , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/análise , Solanum tuberosum/química , Percepção Gustatória
7.
Nutrients ; 14(7)2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35406090

RESUMO

Overconsumption of energy provided by energy-dense, nutrient-poor (EDNP) food and drinks increases the risk of unhealthy weight gain and of obesity-related health outcomes. The aim of this study was to develop a nutrient profiling model for classifying EDNP food and drinks and to estimate the amount of discretionary energy for EDNP food and drinks in a recommended diet. A stepwise approach was used first to develop a nutrient profiling model for classifying EDNP food and drinks and then to estimate the amount of discretionary energy in a recommended diet using diet modeling. The nutrition profiling model comprised 24 macro- and micronutrients and energy density. The model classified 67% of 1482 foods and 73% of 161 drinks correctly as EDNP food and drinks compared with an expert-adjusted model. Sweets, chocolate, cake, cookies and biscuits, sweet and salty snacks, sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened drinks, and alcoholic drinks were classified as EDNP food and drinks. The estimated amount of discretionary energy for EDNP food and drinks was 4-6% of the energy requirements for 4-75-year-old Danes. It seems prudent to have special attention on EDNP food and drinks in dietary guidelines and future public health initiatives to avoid overconsumption of energy.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia , Edulcorantes , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dieta , Alimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nutrientes , Lanches , Adulto Jovem
8.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 51(1): 32-38, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35341491

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe shift in snacking behavior among Chinese female adults aged 18 to 49 years old in 2004-2015, and to analyze the contribution of snacks to energy and nutrients among them. METHODS: The present study used data from "China Health and Nutrition Health" where a multistage stratified cluster design was employed to select a stratified probability sample. A total of 12 523 female participants aged 18-49 years old who participated in surveys conducted in 2004-2015 with completed data of demographic characteristics and dietary measurementswere selectedas subjects. There were 2376, 2149, 2142, 2844 and 3012 subjects in waves of 2004, 2006, 2009, 2011, and 2015, respectively. Multivariate Logistic regression model was used to analyze the relationship between socioeconomic factors and snack consumption. Generalized linear model was used to analyze the energy and nutrient intake of snack consumers and non-snack consumers, as well as the contribution of snacks to energy and nutrients. RESULTS: The consumption rate of snacking for women aged 18 to 49 years old had an increasing trend over time(P<0.05), and the rate was 14.24% in 2015, 3.5 times as high as that in 2004. Participants aged 18 to 29 years old whose snake consumption rates were relatively higher compared to those of other aged groups in general waves; also, female adults from the higher education group, the higher yearly income group, and the higher urbanicity index group, and those with the history of smoking or the alcohol use tended to consumed snacks. The change of the influential factors in relation to the consumption of the participant's snack was observed, and age, income level, education level, living area, and the behavior of smoking and drinking were all important factors of snacking. The daily energy and nutrient intake of female snack consumers aged 18 to 49 years old was higher than that of non-snack consumers. The contribution rate of snacks to energy and nutrients varies significantly between survey years; and the contribution of snacks to energy and main nutrients was more than 20% in 2011. CONCLUSION: Snacks have become an important part of the diet of Chinese women aged 18 to 49 years old. Future health promotion programs should be targeted on nutrition education and intervention to guide a reasonable diet structure.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Lanches , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , China , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
9.
Int J Eat Disord ; 55(3): 406-414, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35229327

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Approximately 11% of the U.S. population experiences food insecurity (FI; insufficient access to healthy food due to financial constraints). FI is associated with detrimental health outcomes, including the development of eating disorders (EDs). However, additional studies are needed, particularly in adolescence when EDs are likely to emerge. The current study will utilize an experimental ad libitum snack paradigm to investigate snack consumption, acquisition (i.e., taking snacks home), and associated disordered eating behaviors among racially, ethnically, and financially diverse adolescents living with FI and food security (FS). METHOD: Sixty-four adolescents will be recruited and randomized into one of two conditions: prior knowledge condition (i.e., participants will know prior to snacking that they can take any remaining food home) and no prior knowledge condition (i.e., participants will not know ahead of time that they can take snacks home). RESULTS: We expect youth with FI to show increased eating and acquisition behaviors compared to youth with FS across both conditions. DISCUSSION: This study, utilizing a novel experimental design, is an important step in understanding how FI impacts adolescent eating behaviors among youth from marginalized backgrounds, who have historically been excluded from research.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Lanches , Adolescente , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Insegurança Alimentar , Segurança Alimentar , Humanos
10.
Nutrients ; 14(3)2022 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35276777

RESUMO

In the present work the feasibility of Tannat grape skin (TGS) as a functional ingredient in the formulation of two snacks (yogurt and biscuits) was studied. The research provided novel information on the effects of the food matrix and digestion process, under simulated human oral gastrointestinal conditions, in the bioaccessibility of TGS bioactive compounds composing of the snacks with health promoting properties (antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic). TGS polyphenolic profile was analyzed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) finding mainly flavonoids, phenolic acids, and anthocyanins, which may exert antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and carbohydrase inhibition capacities. TGS digest showed antioxidant and antidiabetic potential compared to the undigested sample (p < 0.05). Yogurt and biscuits with TGS were developed with the nutrition claims "no-added sugars" and "source of fiber" and were digested in vitro to evaluate the bioaccessibility of compounds with health promoting properties after food processing and digestion. After in vitro simulation of digestion, bioactive properties were enhanced for control and TGS snacks which may be attributed to the formation/release of compounds with health-promoting properties. Biscuits showed significant increase in ABTS antioxidant capacity and yogurt showed increased α-glucosidase inhibition capacity by the addition of TGS (p < 0.05). Polyphenols from TGS and bioactive peptides from snacks which may be released during digestion might be responsible for the observed bioactivities. Consumer's acceptance of TGS yogurt and biscuits showed scores of 6.3 and 5.1 (scale 1-9), respectively, showing TGS yogurt had higher overall acceptance. Sensory profile assessed by check-all-that-apply + just-about-right (CATA+JAR) showed most of the attributes were evaluated as "just about right", supporting good food quality. The developed yogurt presented adequate shelf-life parameters for 28 days. TGS yogurt with higher acceptability showed reduced ROS formation (p < 0.05) induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (1 mM) in CCD-18Co colon cells and RAW264.7 macrophages when pre-treated with concentrations 500-1000 and 100-500 µg/mL of the digests, respectively. Moreover, TGS yogurt digest pre-treatment reduced nitric oxide (NO) production (p < 0.05) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 macrophages, showing anti-inflammatory potential. Bioactive peptides generated during lactic fermentation and digestion process may be contributors to intracellular effects. In conclusion, yogurt and biscuits with Tannat grape skin addition were obtained with nutrition claims "no-added sugars" and "source of fiber" with the potential to modulate key biochemical events associated with diabetes pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Vitis , Antocianinas , Humanos , Lanches , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Vitis/química
11.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 19(1): 26, 2022 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35292047

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Integrated patterns of energy balance-related behaviours of preschool children in Asia are sparse, with few comparative analyses. PURPOSE: Using cohorts in Singapore (GUSTO) and France (EDEN), we characterized lifestyle patterns of children and investigated their associations with family-focused contextual factors. METHODS: Ten behavioural variables related to child's diet, walking, outdoor play and screen time were ascertained by parental questionnaires at age 5-6 years. Using principal component analysis, sex-specific lifestyle patterns were derived independently for 630 GUSTO and 989 EDEN children. Contextual variables were organised into distal (family socio-economics, demographics), intermediate (parental health, lifestyle habits) and proximal (parent-child interaction factors) levels of influence and analysed with hierarchical linear regression. RESULTS: Three broadly similar lifestyle patterns were identified in both cohorts: "discretionary consumption and high screen time", "fruit, vegetables, and low screen time" and "high outdoor playtime and walking". The latter two patterns showed small differences between cohorts and sexes. The "discretionary consumption and high screen time" pattern was consistently similar in both cohorts; distal associated factors were lower maternal education (EDEN boys), no younger siblings (GUSTO boys) and Malay/Indian ethnicity (GUSTO), while intermediate and proximal associated factors in both cohorts and sexes were poor maternal diets during pregnancy, parents allowing high child control over food intake, snacking between meals and having television on while eating. CONCLUSIONS: Three similar lifestyle patterns were observed among preschool children in Singapore and France. There were more common associated proximal factors than distal ones. Cohort specific family-focused contextual factors likely reflect differences in social and cultural settings. Findings will aid development of strategies to improve child health.


Assuntos
Estilo de Vida , Mães , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Lanches , Televisão
12.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 140: 105718, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35286991

RESUMO

Orexin-A, a hormone secreted by orexin neurons, is involved in caloric-intake regulation. Current understanding is based primarily on animal studies. Studies of orexin in humans are scarce, and to our knowledge there are no prior studies in adolescents. We studied fasting Orexin-A levels related to energy intake at breakfast and a subsequent snack in adolescents (n = 668) from a longitudinal study in Chile. Body-Mass Index (BMI), components of the metabolic syndrome and fasting blood levels of leptin, insulin, ghrelin, and orexin-A were measured. Energy intake was calculated based on food weights before and after the standardized breakfast and subsequent snack. High energy intake was defined as ≥ 75th percentile. We assessed the relationship between orexin-A and high energy intake, adjusting for confounders. Higher orexin levels were associated with high breakfast energy intake (OR: 1.21; 95%CI: 0.98-1.49). Conversely, those with higher orexin levels showed a non-significant trend for lower odds of high energy intake for the snack (OR: 0.87; 95%CI: 0.70-1.07). There was a significant interaction between high breakfast energy intake and orexin levels. Those who ate more calories at breakfast displayed a lower inhibitory effect of orexin on eating at the snack (p < 0.05). There was no significant interaction between weight status and orexin. In conclusion, orexin-A levels were associated with breakfast energy intake and inversely related with subsequent snack energy intake in participants whose caloric intake at breakfast was within the normal range. Based on these findings, it appears that the association of orexin-A with energy intake depends on eating behavior.


Assuntos
Desjejum , Jejum , Adolescente , Animais , Chile , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Orexinas , Lanches
13.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 138: 105679, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35182924

RESUMO

Orexin-A, a hormone secreted by orexin neurons, is involved in caloric-intake regulation. Current understanding is based primarily on animal studies. Studies of orexin in humans are scarce, and to our knowledge there are no prior studies in adolescents. We studied fasting Orexin-A levels related to energy intake at breakfast and a subsequent snack in adolescents (n = 668) from a longitudinal study in Chile. Body-Mass Index (BMI), components of the metabolic syndrome and fasting blood levels of leptin, insulin, ghrelin, and orexin-A were measured. Energy intake was calculated based on food weights before and after the standardized breakfast and subsequent snack. High energy intake was defined as ≥ 75th percentile. We assessed the relationship between orexin-A and high energy intake, adjusting for confounders. Higher orexin levels were associated with high breakfast energy intake (OR: 1.21; 95%CI: 0.98-1.49). Conversely, those with higher orexin levels showed a non-significant trend for lower odds of high energy intake for the snack (OR: 0.87; 95%CI: 0.70-1.07). There was a significant interaction between high breakfast energy intake and orexin levels. Those who ate more calories at breakfast displayed a lower inhibitory effect of orexin on eating at the snack (p < 0.05). There was no significant interaction between weight status and orexin. In conclusion, orexin-A levels were associated with breakfast energy intake and inversely related with subsequent snack energy intake in participants whose caloric intake at breakfast was within the normal range. Based on these findings, it appears that the association of orexin-A with energy intake depends on eating behavior.


Assuntos
Desjejum , Ingestão de Energia , Jejum , Orexinas , Adolescente , Chile , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Orexinas/sangue , Lanches
14.
Nutrients ; 14(4)2022 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35215446

RESUMO

The consumption of wholegrains (WG) is encouraged worldwide, but the lack of a common legal definition of such products leads to an unclear classification and identification on the grocery store shelf. In Italy, several products are generally sold as WG, but it cannot be determined if they are made entirely with all WG cereal(s) or if they are partially produced with WG ingredients (PWG). The aims of this study were to (a) survey the number of cereal-based food items formulated with WG, PWG, or refined (RG) present on the Italian market; and (b) analyse the nutritional quality, intended as nutrition facts, of WG products in comparison to PWG and RG. Nutritional information and declarations were retrieved from packs of 3040 products belonging to five different categories: breakfast cereals, biscuits, sweet snacks, bread, and bread substitutes. A descriptive analysis of the products and comparison of energy, macronutrients, fibre and salt among RG, PWG and WG products within each category was performed. In all categories, a major portion of the products did not contain WG ingredients. Results showed that the nutritional quality of RG, PWG, and WG products varied in relation to the product category and that WG inclusion cannot be always considered a marker of the overall nutritional quality of foods. Instead, it is necessary to evaluate the global product characteristics, and it is important to pay attention to differences between WG and PWG products that can be perceived by consumers as equivalent.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível , Grãos Integrais , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Grão Comestível/química , Valor Nutritivo , Lanches
15.
Nutrients ; 14(4)2022 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35215530

RESUMO

"Loss of control, LOC" eating is a major contributor to the development of obesity. Dietary protein is known to promote satiety, but little attention has been paid to the ability of protein, consumed in close proximity to snacking (20 min), to reduce the intake of ultra-processed, low-protein snack foods. We hypothesized that a high-protein preload (HP, 8 g of protein) consumed in close proximity to eating an ultra-processed snack food would reduce intake of the snack food as compared to a low-protein preload (LP, 1.2 g of protein). Two laboratory test meals were conducted, and the intake of ice cream (1.99 kcal/gram) after consuming dairy-based liquid preloads was measured. Habitual physical activity, a potential modulator of satiety, was assessed by a self-reporting questionnaire. Thirty (responders) out of 50 participants reduced their intake of ice cream after the HP preload, with a significant difference in intake observed between the responders and non-responders (-30 ± 25 and 18 ± 18 g, F (1, 49) = 54.36, p < 0.001 for responders and non-responders, respectively). Our data demonstrate that protein consumed in close proximity to ultra-processed snack food can reduce caloric intake by ~60 kcal, which could potentially reduce body weight by at least 5 pounds per year.


Assuntos
Saciação , Açúcares , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ingestão de Energia , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Lanches
16.
Molecules ; 27(1)2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35011541

RESUMO

This study investigated the effect of co-ingesting Natal plums (Carissa macrocarpa) and Marula nuts (Sclerocarya birrea) on the bioaccessibility and uptake of anthocyanins, antioxidant capacity, and the ability to inhibit α-glucosidase. A Natal plum-Marula nut bar was made by mixing the raw nuts and the fruit pulp in a ratio 1:1 (v/v). The cyanidin-3-O-sambubioside (Cy-3-Sa) and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside content (Cy-3-G) were quantified using the ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC/Q-TOF-MS). Inclusion of Natal plum in the Marula nut bar increased the Cy-3-Sa, Cy-3-G content, antioxidants capacity and α-glucosidase inhibition compared to ingesting Marula nut separately at the internal phase. Adding Natal plum to the Marula nut bar increased bioaccessibility of Cy-3-Sa, Cy-3-G, quercetin, coumaric acid, syringic acid and ferulic acid to 80.2% and 71.9%, 98.7%, 95.2%, 51.9% and 89.3%, respectively, compared to ingesting the Natal plum fruit or nut separately.


Assuntos
Anacardiaceae/química , Nozes/química , Fenóis/análise , Prunus domestica/química , Lanches , Antocianinas/análise , Antocianinas/química , Antioxidantes/química , Digestão , Ingestão de Alimentos , Análise de Alimentos , Suco Gástrico/metabolismo , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/análise , Polifenóis , Saliva/metabolismo
17.
J Nutr Gerontol Geriatr ; 41(1): 92-101, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35023824

RESUMO

The present study aimed to determine if providing sensory-enhanced, fortified snacks changed nutrient consumption among nursing home residents. Nursing home residents were provided typical facility snacks or sensory-enhanced, fortified snacks across two separate 8-week time blocks. The enhanced snack supplements included quick-dissolving (transitional-state) crisps, puree dips, and dry soup blends that are intended to be accessible for individuals with a wide range of masticatory and swallowing abilities (e.g., oral frailty). Snacks were weighed before and after sessions using a food scale. Calories, fat, carbohydrates, protein, sodium, sugar, and fiber consumed were calculated daily. Despite consuming a smaller percentage of snack weight, participants consumed increased protein and fat, and fewer carbohydrates and sugar in the enhanced snack condition, with no significant difference in caloric intake. Sensory-enhanced, fortified snacks may be viable options for increasing the quality of nutritional intake among nursing home residents, particularly in light of decreased quantity of intake.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Lanches , Fibras na Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Humanos , Casas de Saúde
18.
Geriatr Nurs ; 44: 39-47, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35065364

RESUMO

For many nursing home residents, particularly those on texture-modified diets, nutritional needs remain unmet. There is growing recognition of the benefits of increased eating frequency. However, we have yet to systematically investigate resident perceptions of in-between meal snacks. The primary purpose of this study was to identify residents' snacking preferences and barriers encountered. Ten residents engaged in a total of 17 semi-structured interviews. There was converging support for the significance of snacking. The themes revealed across the interviews highlighted: (a) that desired snack qualities vary across individuals, (b) the valuable non-nutritive contributions of snacks, (c) barriers for getting snacking needs met, and (d) potential benefits of sensory-enhanced snacks. Overall, a disconnect between the food-related emotional "wants" and physical needs of residents likely contributes to malnutrition risk. To improve intake and quality of life, we must better attend to the meaning of food and the individual needs of our residents.


Assuntos
Desnutrição , Lanches , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Casas de Saúde , Qualidade de Vida
19.
Public Health Nutr ; 25(3): 689-701, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168120

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterise different meal types by examining the contribution of specific meals to the total intakes and the nutritional quality of each meal. DESIGN: A cross-sectional analysis was conducted based on dietary data collected using 4-d dietary record. Diet quality was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index-2015 and Nutrient-Rich Food Index 9.3. SETTING: Japan. PARTICIPANTS: Adults aged 20-81 years (n 639). RESULTS: Diet quality was, on average, highest for dinner, followed, in order, by lunch, breakfast and snacks. Breakfast, lunch, dinner and snacks, on average, accounted for 21 %, 32 %, 40 % and 11 % of total energy intake, respectively. For many nutrients, the percentage contribution to total intake did not vary within each meal, broadly in line with that for energy: 18-24 % for breakfast, 26-35 % for lunch, 35-49 % for dinner and 4-15 % for snacks. However, intakes of many foods largely depended on one meal type. The foods mainly eaten at dinner were potatoes, pulses, total vegetables, fish, meat and alcoholic beverages (52-70 %), in contrast to noodles (58 %) at lunch and bread (71 %) and dairy products (50 %) at breakfast. The foods mainly eaten at snacks were confectioneries (79 %) and sugar-sweetened beverages (52 %). Conversely, rice and eggs were more evenly distributed across three main meals (19-41 % and 30-38 %, respectively), while fruit and non-energetic beverages were more evenly distributed across all meal types (17-30 % and 19-35 %, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide the background information on each meal type in Japanese and may help inform the development of meal-based guidelines and public health messages.


Assuntos
Almoço , Lanches , Desjejum , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Japão , Refeições
20.
Public Health Nutr ; 25(1): 1-12, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34693900

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare and evaluate the prevalence of food and beverage marketing on the livestreaming platforms Twitch, Facebook Gaming and YouTube Gaming, as well as examine growth of food and beverage marketing on these platforms over a 17-month period of data collection. DESIGN: Cross-sectional data were analysed across three livestreaming platforms and six food and beverage categories: alcohol, candy, energy drinks, snacks, sodas and restaurants. SETTING: Stream titles of livestreamed events as well as corresponding hours watched on Twitch, Facebook Gaming and YouTube Gaming. PARTICIPANTS: None. RESULTS: There were significant differences between the use of food and beverage brand mentions in stream titles across all three studied platforms (P < 0·05), as well as hours watched across platforms (P < 0·05). Energy drinks dominated food and beverage brand mentions across platforms, followed by restaurants, soda and snacks. All platforms demonstrated growth over the 17-month data collection period. Post-hoc analyses revealed that the COVID-19 pandemic impacted both immediate and sustained growth across all platforms, with the greatest impact observed on the Twitch platform. CONCLUSIONS: Food and beverage marketing as measured through stream titles is widely prevalent across the three most popular livestreaming platforms, particularly for energy drinks. Food marketing on these platforms experienced growth over the past 17 months which was accelerated substantially by the COVID-19 pandemic. Future work should assess the sustained impact this growth may have on marketing practices and eating behaviour.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Bebidas Energéticas , Mídias Sociais , Jogos de Vídeo , Bebidas , Doces , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Marketing , Pandemias , Prevalência , Restaurantes , SARS-CoV-2 , Lanches
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