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1.
Physiol Behav ; 276: 114483, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38331375

RESUMO

The increasing prevalence of diabetes is of particular concern in women of childbearing age because of the short and long-term consequences of maternal diabetes for the health of the offspring, such as a greater risk of developing metabolic impairments and cognitive deficits. In addition, maternal diet during pregnancy and lactation might contribute to preventing or ameliorating adverse offspring outcomes. Recently, we described that access to snacks exacerbates glucose intolerance in mildly hyperglycemic pregnant dams. Therefore, we hypothesized that these offspring would show greater impairment in metabolic and behavioral outcomes across the lifespan. Neonatal STZ treatment was employed to induce maternal mild hyperglycemia in females. After mating, normo- and hyperglycemic dams were given access either to standard chow or standard show plus snacks. Male and female offspring were evaluated on postnatal days (PND) 30, 90, and 360. Offspring behavior was assessed in the marble burying task, the open-field test, the elevated-plus maze, and sucrose preference. Glucose tolerance and morphometric analyses were also carried out. Maternal hyperglycemia increased body weight and fat deposition only on PND 30, while retroperitoneal fat deposition was reduced in the offspring of snack-fed dams. However, maternal snack intake reduced offspring body weight and length on PND 90. Fasting glucose was increased in females born to hyperglycemic, snack-fed dams on PND 90. Glucose clearance was altered by both maternal conditions in male offspring on PND 30, however, this sex difference was reversed on PND 90, with maternal hyperglycemia impairing glucose clearance only in females. In addition, maternal hyperglycemia reduced anxiety-like behavior in female offspring on PND 30, especially in the offspring of snack-fed dams, while maternal snack intake reduced sucrose preference in both males and females in adulthood. These results suggest that the effects of maternal hyperglycemia during pregnancy and lactation on offspring outcomes were not exacerbated by snack intake. Although additive effects of the two maternal conditions were hypothesized, the absence of such effects could be related to the mild maternal hyperglycemia induced by STZ treatment even when combined with snack intake. While maternal hyperglycemia alone impaired some offspring outcomes, its association with snack intake did not aggravate those impairments but rather resulted in outcomes more similar to those of offspring born to normoglycemic dams. Finally, females were found to be more susceptible to both the effects of maternal hyperglycemia and snack intake on metabolism and behavior.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Intolerância à Glucose , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Masculino , Humanos , Lanches , Longevidade , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Peso Corporal , Glucose , Sacarose , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna
2.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0297620, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38329981

RESUMO

Crispness contributes to the pleasantness and enjoyment of eating foods and is popular with people of wide ages in many countries. Hence, a quantitative evaluation method for crispness is required for food companies developing new food products. In this study, the effects of different sensory combinations on crispness were investigated through sensory evaluation, and a Gaussian process regression model was used to predict the evaluation values of crispness. First, four crispness descriptors in Japanese were selected, and sensory evaluations were conducted with ten participants using commercially available snack foods under three different sensory combinations of force, vibration, and sound to confirm the effects of the three senses. An instrumental system also measured force, vibration, and sound for snack foods under the same conditions. The Gaussian process regression model determined the relationship between the sensory and measurement data and predicted the sensory evaluation values from the measurement data. Cross-validation verified that the Gaussian process regression model accurately predicted the food texture evaluation values from the measurement data even in conditions with different sensory components.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Mecânicos , Sensação , Humanos , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Vibração , Lanches
3.
Cad Saude Publica ; 40(2): e00009923, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38381863

RESUMO

The habit of eating specific meals has been addressed in several studies, but the evaluation of meal patterns has received less attention. This study aimed to describe the meal patterns of the Brazilian population. A complex sampling design was used to select the 46,164 ≥ 10-year-old individuals examined in the Brazilian National Dietary Survey. Food consumption was assessed by two non-consecutive 24-hour recalls applied throughout a one-week period. The exploratory data analysis approach was used to determine the meal patterns, i.e., how individuals combined the main meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner) and snacks (morning, afternoon, evening/night) throughout the day. The most common meal patterns were three main meals + one snack, reported by 25.1% of the individuals, and three main meals + two snacks (24.6%). Other meal patterns identified were: three main meals + three snacks (18.5%); three main meals and no snacks (10.9%); one or two main meals + two snacks (7.4%); one or two main meals + one snack (6.9%); one or two main meals + three snacks (4.2%); and one or two main meals and no snacks (2.3%). Meal patterns varied according to gender and age group, and on typical versus atypical food consumption days. We found that eight patterns characterized the daily meal consumption in Brazil. Furthermore, around 80% of the population had three main meals every day and about 13% did not report having any snacks. The characterization of meal habits is important for tailoring and targeting health promotion actions.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar , Refeições , Lanches , Humanos , Brasil , Dieta , População da América do Sul
4.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1347825, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38379679

RESUMO

Background: Although resistance training (RT) is essential to preserve musculoskeletal fitness and maintain a healthy, independent life into old age, few women perform RT. We investigated whether resistance exercise snacking (RES) could be an efficient training approach for the workplace health promotion (WHP) to minimize barriers for participation and facilitate RT in women in order to improve musculoskeletal fitness. Methods: This pilot-study followed a prospective, controlled intervention design. Female employees with sedentary occupations doing RT on less than 2 days/week before study participation were included. Participants self-selected for either intervention (IG) or control group (CG). While the IG [N = 15, mean age 42.1 (SD = 11.1) years] did 10 min of RES on working days for 12 weeks, the CG [N = 15, mean age 49.9 (SD = 9.7) years] was instructed to maintain their habitual physical activity. Primary endpoint was change in muscle mass. Secondary endpoint was change in maximum isometric strength. Balance, cardiovascular fitness, perceived health, and general life satisfaction was assessed for exploratory purpose. Measurements were taken before and after the intervention. Results: 12 participants of IG and 14 of CG completed the study. Muscle mass improved significantly more in the IG [+0.42 (SD = 0.54) kg] compared to the CG [-0.16 (SD = 0.51) kg] (p = 0.01, ƞ2p = 0.24). Strength did not change significantly between groups. Nevertheless, there was a trend for greater improvements in the IG compared to the CG for trunk extension, trunk flexion, and upper body push but not upper body pull. Regarding exploratory endpoints, no significant between-group changes were found. Despite their poor fitness, both groups perceived their health as good and had high life satisfaction before and after the intervention. Conclusion: RES could be an effective approach for the WHP to promote RT in inactive women with sedentary occupations and improve their muscle mass.


Assuntos
Treinamento de Força , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aptidão Física , Lanches , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Universidades , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Músculos
5.
Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf ; 23(1): e13260, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38284574

RESUMO

Thermal processing techniques can lead to the formation of heat-induced toxic substances. Acrylamide is one contaminant that has received much scientific attention in recent years, and it is formed essentially during the Maillard reaction when foods rich in carbohydrates, particularly reducing sugars (glucose, fructose), and certain free amino acids, especially asparagine (ASN), are processed at high temperatures (>120°C). The highly variable free ASN concentration in raw materials makes it challenging for food businesses to keep acrylamide content below the European Commission benchmark levels, while avoiding flavor, color, and texture impacts on their products. Free ASN concentrations in crops are affected by environment, genotype, and soil fertilization, which can also influence protein content and amino acid composition. This review aims to provide an overview of free ASN and acrylamide quantification methods and mitigation strategies for acrylamide formation in foods, focusing on adding pulse flours to cereal-based snacks and bakery products. Overall, this review emphasizes the importance of these mitigation strategies in minimizing acrylamide formation in plant-based products and ensuring safer and healthier food options.


Assuntos
Asparagina , Grão Comestível , Asparagina/análise , Asparagina/química , Asparagina/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/química , Acrilamida/análise , Acrilamida/química , Acrilamida/toxicidade , Lanches , Carboidratos/análise , Carboidratos/química , Aminoácidos/análise
6.
Nutrients ; 16(2)2024 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38257147

RESUMO

School is one of the main settings where it is useful to guarantee health promotion actions, as it is well known that diet and eating habits that are shaped in the early stages of life are maintained through adulthood. The objective of this study was to carry out the "Healthy Snack" project to promote nutritional education in primary schools in the Province of Belluno in the 2022-2023 school year, in which 925 students were enrolled, and to evaluate the intervention in terms of changes in eating habits during their school breaks. Following the workshops performed by the healthcare workers (HCWs), medals were awarded, taking into account the quality of the participating students' mid-morning snacks, considering the food pyramid. The results collected in the annual survey period were related to the type and quantity of snacks consumed at school, and allowed students to gain a final score, comparing the period before and after the educational intervention to demonstrate the effectiveness of the actions promoted by HCWs and the increased nutritional quality of meals. In light of this evidence, public health strategies must continue to emphasize the importance of implementing health promotion interventions and actions aimed at children in order to prevent weight gain in this age group, and the potential development of cardiometabolic pathologies over their lifetime.


Assuntos
Distinções e Prêmios , Lanches , Criança , Humanos , Refeições , Instituições Acadêmicas , Comportamento Alimentar
7.
Nutrients ; 16(2)2024 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38257169

RESUMO

Snacks and beverages are often sold in addition to meals in U.S. schools ("competitive foods"), but their current nutritional quality and compliance with national Smart Snacks standards are unknown. This study assessed competitive foods in a national sample of 90 middle and high schools. Differences in compliance by school characteristics were measured using mixed methods analysis of variance. Overall, 80% of the schools in the sample sold competitive foods; but they were less commonly available in schools with universal free school meal (UFSM) policies. A total of 840 unique products were documented and, on average, 75% were compliant with Smart Snacks standards. A total of 56% aligned with recommended added sugar limits (<10% of calories); and 340 unique products (40%) aligned with both sugar and Smart Snacks standards. Approximately one-fifth of competitive foods contained synthetic dyes, and 31% of beverages contained artificial sweeteners. Smart Snacks standards compliance was greater when competitive foods were overseen by food service departments, in comparison with others (e.g., principals, student organizations, or outside vendors [77% vs. 59% compliance; p = 0.003]). Therefore, district wellness policies should consider requiring food service departments to oversee competitive foods. Federal and state policies should limit added sugars, artificial sweeteners, and synthetic dyes. This appears to be highly feasible, given the substantial number of products that meet these criteria. UFSM policies should also be considered to support healthier school meal environments more broadly.


Assuntos
Corantes , Lanches , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo , Política de Saúde , Açúcares , Edulcorantes
8.
Nutrients ; 16(2)2024 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38257185

RESUMO

Fruit snacks have become a popular and convenient snacking choice and have the potential to contribute to a well-balanced diet. However, the nutritional quality of fruit snack products has not yet been studied. The objective of the present study is to provide a nutritional assessment of the fruit snack product category. This study used the Mintel Global New Product Database to collect data about fruit snack products launched in the United States from 2017 to 2022. Fruit snack products (n = 2405) are divided into nine product categories based on product characteristics. Nutrition composition was assessed using a comprehensive score, Nutrient Rich Food (NRF) model, and by examining individual components (added sugar and fiber). The results show that dried fruit has the highest nutrient density, fiber content, and the lowest added sugar content. Conversely, fruit-flavored snacks have the lowest nutrient density, fiber content, and added sugar content. Currently, fruit puree, canned fruit with juice, and dried fruit are the only fruit snacks that meet the current recommendations set by the USDA Dietary Guidelines. Future directions for the fruit snack category should consider decreasing the added sugar content, increasing the fiber content, and enhancing their sensory profile to improve the overall nutrient density.


Assuntos
Lanches , Açúcares , Estados Unidos , Frutas , Nutrientes , Estado Nutricional
9.
Cien Saude Colet ; 29(1): e14712022, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38198326

RESUMO

Longitudinal study, whose objective was to present a better strategy and statistical methods, and demonstrate its use with the data across the 2013-2015 period in schoolchildren aged 7 to 11 years, covered with the same food questionnaire (WebCAAFE) survey in Florianopolis, southern Brazil. Six meals/snacks and 32 foods/beverages yielded 192 possible combinations denominated meal/snack-Specific Food/beverage item (MSFIs). LASSO algorithm (LASSO-logistic regression) was used to determine the MSFIs predictive of overweight/obesity, and then binary (logistic) regression was used to further analyze a subset of these variables. Late breakfast, lunch and dinner were all associated with increased overweight/obesity risk, as was an anticipated lunch. Time-of-day or meal-tagged food/beverage intake result in large number of variables whose predictive patterns regarding weight status can be analyzed by machine learning such as LASSO, which in turn may identify the patterns not amenable to other popular statistical methods such as binary logistic regression.


Assuntos
Sobrepeso , Criança , Humanos , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Obesidade , Lanches , Aprendizado de Máquina
10.
Food Funct ; 15(2): 930-952, 2024 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38170559

RESUMO

The nutritional quality of third-generation snacks prepared from rice flour by extrusion can be improved by the addition of polyphenols such as catechins, which are known to be more stable at high temperatures. However, the extrusion parameters can impact the breakdown and release of bioactive compounds and decrease the catechin bioaccessibility. Accordingly, this study investigated the impact of different extrusion parameters, including different extrusion temperatures (110, 135, and 150 °C) and moisture content prior to extrusion (27 and 31%), on the breakdown and bioaccessibility of catechin-enriched snacks during in vitro dynamic digestion using the Human Gastric Simulator (HGS). The extrusion parameters did not significantly impact most measured variables by themselves, indicating that within the tested ranges, any of the processing conditions could be used to produce a product with similar digestive behavior. However, the interaction of extrusion parameters (temperature and moisture content) played a significant role in the snack behavior during digestion. For example, the combination of 27% moisture content and 150 °C extrusion temperature had higher catechin bioaccessibility and higher starch hydrolysis than the other treatments. Overall, these findings suggest that the processing conditions of third generation snacks enriched with catechin can be optimized within certain ranges with limited modifications in the digestive properties.


Assuntos
Catequina , Lanches , Humanos , Temperatura , Amido/metabolismo
11.
Appetite ; 192: 107111, 2024 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37951503

RESUMO

The objective of this study is to examine whether the presence of peers has an impact on children's snack purchasing decisions. In particular, the research analyzes whether the company of a classmate or friend influences children's brand awareness and price perception, and how these factors affect their snack purchases. An incentive-based discrete choice experiment was conducted with snacks varying in price, brand, and healthiness, using the presence or absence of peers as a between-subject treatment. The data was analyzed using mixed logit models and a multinomial logit model. A total of 128 primary school children aged 8 to 10 years were included in the final data analysis. The findings show that the presence of peers strongly influences children's snack purchase decisions, particularly with respect to product type and price. The results highlight that children tend to conform to the group's decision, highlighting that social influence plays a crucial role in shaping children's decision-making processes. This study is the first to investigate the influence of peers on children's actual purchase decisions, thereby extending previous knowledge of the impact of peers on primary school children to the market domain.


Assuntos
Preferências Alimentares , Lanches , Humanos , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Grupo Associado , Comportamento do Consumidor
12.
Appetite ; 193: 107167, 2024 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38113983

RESUMO

Each year, 2.8 million people die because of comorbidities associated with being overweight. Snacking substantially contributes to people's calorie intake. One way to nudge consumers towards healthier alternatives is the implementation of nutritional labeling. This study reports on a controlled field experiment that evaluates the effect of two nutritional labels on free snack choices (n = 739). Participants at a conference could choose between nuts, cookies, and candy bars as a snack, presented at the bar at six different locations across 2 bar counters. The labels were set up in front of each snack in three conditions: no labeling (control), a calorie label, or a traffic light label (i.e., the Nutri-Score). The location of the snacks on the counter (Either side of the counter; Center, Right, Left) and the time-of-day (Morning (=reference) vs Afternoon) were statistically controlled for. The results show that calorie labels could not successfully nudge consumers toward healthier snack choices (nuts instead of candy bars or cookies). In contrast, the Nutri-Score label significantly increased the probability of choosing nuts over candy bars. The Nutri-Score also increased the chance of choosing nuts over cookies, but the difference was not significant. No prior studies to our knowledge have directly compared calorie labels to the Nutri-Score. This study suggests that the Nutri-Score label can be a more successful intervention than calorie labels to nudge consumers towards healthier choices in situations were free snacks are offered, like many modern workplaces. Changing snacking behavior is challenging and naturalistic field experiments like this one are needed to translate the theory from previous laboratory studies to real-life settings.


Assuntos
Rotulagem de Alimentos , Lanches , Adulto , Humanos , Rotulagem de Alimentos/métodos , Preferências Alimentares , Ingestão de Energia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Comportamento do Consumidor , Comportamento de Escolha , Valor Nutritivo
13.
J Nutr ; 154(2): 691-696, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38101520

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dietary guidance is set on the basis of age and life stage and defines older adults as ≥60 y. Yet, little is known about if and/or how diet quality differs beyond the age of 60. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the dietary intakes of 60-69 (n = 2079), 70-79 (n = 1181), and 80+ y old (n = 644) noninstitutionalized men and women in the United States using the Healthy Eating Index 2015 (HEI) and the What We Eat in America food categories. METHODS: Data were obtained from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2015-2016 and 2017-March 2020. HEI and component scores were calculated using the population ratio method. Population estimates for dietary intake were calculated as the average reported over 2 separate nonconsecutive 24-h dietary recalls. RESULTS: In men and women, the reported energy intake was lower among the 80+ y olds (kcal/d men-80+: 1884 ± 30, 70-79: 2022 ± 33, 60-69: 2142 ± 39; women-80+: 1523 ± 36; 70-79: 1525 ± 33, 60-69: 1650 ± 25; P-trend < 0.001). Total HEI scores did not differ significantly across the 3 age categories, but the 80+ y olds had significantly lower scores for the green vegetables and beans component than the 60-69 y olds [men-mean (95% confidence interval): 2.0 (1.5, 2.5) compared with 3.4 (2.6, 4.1); women-2.3 (1.8, 2.8) compared with 4.4 (3.7, 5.0)]. In women, the percentage of daily calories from protein was significantly lower in the 80+ y olds than in the 60-69 and 70-79 y olds (12.9% ± 0.6%, compared with 17.0% ± 0.9% and 15.6% ± 0.6%, respectively). Protein intake did not differ significantly among the 3 age groups in men. The 80+ y old men and women reported consuming a significantly higher percentage of calories from snacks and sweets compared with the 60-69 y olds (men-80+: 18.1% ± 0.8%, 60-69: 15.4% ± 0.7%; women-80+: 19.6% ± 0.8%, 60-69: 15.5% ± 0.7%). CONCLUSION: The diet of 80+ y olds differed from that of 60-69 y olds in some key components, including energy, snacks and sweets, protein, and green vegetables. Future research is needed to determine if there are health-related consequences to these differences.


Assuntos
Dieta , Vida Independente , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Estados Unidos , Idoso , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Lanches , Ingestão de Alimentos
14.
J Sci Food Agric ; 104(1): 83-92, 2024 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37566724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tomato is an indispensable ingredient of the Mediterranean diet. Reformulation of traditional Mediterranean products to increase the adherence of consumers is becoming popular. In this study, a tomato snack bar enriched with olive powder and pea protein was developed by using microwave-vacuum drying. Formulations also included tomato powder (TP) and low-methoxylated pectin (LMP) as a structuring agent. RESULTS: The moisture content of microwave-vacuum-dried samples varied in the range 13.6-19.8% and water activity (aw ) values were ~0.6. LMP and TP concentrations affected the color of microwave-vacuum-dried samples. However, the color mainly changed in conventionally dried samples due to browning. In microwave-vacuum-dried samples, lycopene content decreased with increasing LMP, but increased with increasing TP. Textural properties of microwave-vacuum-dried snack bars increased with increasing LMP and TP. CONCLUSION: Both texture and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results indicated that there was a network formation due to the contribution of protein and pectin; however, the type of interaction was highly dependent on the drying mechanism. Nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry data showed that microwave-vacuum-dried samples had a more uniform water distribution. Besides its time and energy efficiency, microwave-vacuum drying improved the color and textural properties of tomato snack bars compared to conventionally dried ones. © 2023 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Solanum lycopersicum , Micro-Ondas , Vácuo , Pós , Lanches , Dessecação/métodos , Água , Pectinas
15.
J Sci Food Agric ; 104(2): 916-931, 2024 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37705305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) plays an important role in the trendy market of dried snacks because of its exceptional flavor and texture. In addition to the health benefits, there is also a general disposition to consume organic and do-it-yourself products. RESULTS: Three different drying temperatures, 65, 75, and 85 °C, were tested using a commercial ventilated drying oven in 'Royal Gala' and 'Golden Delicious' cultivars. Physical changes, including texture, color, shrinkage ratio, and microstructure, were evaluated for the temperatures and cultivars considered. Based on the results, particularly in terms of shrinkage, hardness, and crispiness, a drying temperature of 75 °C was selected to perform texture profile analyses throughout the drying period. Storability conditions were evaluated to determine the best moment to maintain the physical properties of the dried snacks during storage. Considered the more important property related to consumer preferences, crispiness was followed with puncture tests. CONCLUSION: The storage of apple chips, dried at the various temperatures, that must be performed in 5-10 min after removing from the drying oven, was assessed over the course of a month. Both the drying process and the subsequent storage proved effective in preserving the desired texture of the apple snacks, regardless of the specific cultivar or drying temperature used. Through this study, with a refined understanding of the changes occurring during the drying process and the optimization of storage conditions, we can confidently offer consumers the best combination of crispy and healthy snacks that meet their expectations. © 2023 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Malus , Malus/química , Temperatura , Lanches , Dessecação/métodos
16.
Nutrients ; 15(24)2023 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38140310

RESUMO

Metabolic syndrome (MetSx) and its chronic disease consequences are major public health concerns worldwide. Between-meal snacking may be a modifiable risk factor. We hypothesized that consuming tree nuts as snacks, versus typical carbohydrate snacks, would reduce risk for MetSx in young adults. A prospective, randomized, 16-week parallel-group diet intervention trial was conducted in 84 adults aged 22-36 with BMI 24.5 to 34.9 kg/m2 and ≥1 MetSx clinical risk factor. Tree nuts snacks (TNsnack) were matched to carbohydrate snacks (CHOsnack) for energy (kcal), protein, fiber, and sodium content as part of a 7-day eucaloric menu. Difference in change between groups was tested by analysis of covariance using general linear models. Multivariable linear regression modeling assessed main effects of TNsnack treatment and interactions between TNsnack and sex on MetSx score. Age, BMI, and year of study enrollment were included variables. There was a main effect of TNsnack on reducing waist circumference in females (mean difference: -2.20 ± 0.73 cm, p = 0.004) and a trend toward reduced visceral fat (-5.27 ± 13.05 cm2, p = 0.06). TNsnack decreased blood insulin levels in males (-1.14 ± 1.41 mIU/L, p = 0.05) and multivariable modeling showed a main effect of TNsnack on insulin. Main effects of TNsnack on triglycerides and TG/HDL ratio were observed (p = 0.04 for both) with TG/HDL ratio reduced ~11%. A main effect of TNsnack (p = 0.04) and an interaction effect between TNsnack and sex (p < 0.001) on total MetSx score yielded 67% reduced MetSx score in TNsnack females and 42% reduced MetSx score in TNsnack males. To our knowledge, this is the first randomized parallel-arm study to investigate cardiometabolic responses to TNsnacks versus typical CHOsnacks among young adults at risk of MetSx. Our study suggests daily tree nut consumption reduces MetSx risk by improving waist circumference, lipid biomarkers, and/or insulin sensitivity-without requiring caloric restriction.


Assuntos
Insulinas , Síndrome Metabólica , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Nozes , Síndrome Metabólica/prevenção & controle , Lanches , Estudos Prospectivos , Carboidratos
17.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 2550, 2023 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38129799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unhealthy snacking behaviors and body weight misperception are both significant concerns in adolescent health. Weight misperception are common among youth and may influence their motivation to engage in health-related behaviors, however, the effect on snacking patterns choice remains unclear. Our study aimed to examine the relationship between body weight misperception and snacking pattern choice among school adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted using an online survey platform. Body weight misperception was defined based on perceived body weight and true weight. Snack intake was measured using a qualitative food-frequency questionnaire. Factor analysis was used to identify snacking patterns, and multiple linear regression was employed to examine the association between body weight misperception and snacking patterns. RESULTS: 190,296 students with the average age of 13.3 ± 1.0 years was included, and 44.5% of students misperceived their weight. Overestimation was more prevalent than underestimation. Two snacking patterns, namely a high-calorie snacking pattern and a healthy snacking pattern, were identified with eigenvalues > 1. Weight underestimation was positively linked to high-calorie snacking pattern scores for both normal weight students (ß: 0.16, 95% CI: 0.11, 0.21) and students with overweight/obesity (ß: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.35, 0.52), and to healthy snacking scores for students with overweight/obesity (ß: 0.28, 95% CI: 0.22, 0.33), but negatively linked to healthy snacking pattern scores for normal weight students (ß: -0.12, 95% CI: -0.15, -0.09). Conversely, weight overestimation was negatively linked to both high-calorie and healthy snacking pattern scores for normal weight students (ß: -0.07, 95% CI: -0.11, -0.04 and ß: -0.13, 95% CI: -0.15, -0.10), but positively linked to healthy snacking scores for underweight students (ß: 0.15, 95% CI: 0.08, 0.21). Interactions were found between sex, grade, accommodation, only child, primary guardians, parental education level and weight misperception to snacking patterns. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents with normal weight and overweight/obesity who misperceived their weight exhibited less healthy snacking patterns, whereas underweight students who misperceived their weight displayed healthier snacking patterns. Comprehensive programs are crucial to educate and guide adolescents in understanding their weight status and making healthier snack choices, involving families, schools, and society.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal , Comportamento Alimentar , Obesidade , Sobrepeso , Magreza , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Lanches
19.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 2274, 2023 11 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37978364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food diets are complex and a policy targeting one item of a person's diet does not affect their nutritional intake in a solely additive or subtractive manner. Policies tackling unhealthy diets are more likely to be adopted by governments if there is robust evidence to support them. To evaluate dietary policies, it is important to understand the correlations and interdependencies between food groups, as these can lead to unintended negative consequences. We aimed to see whether reductions in consumption of a particular group is related to a net improvement in nutritional intake, after taking into account patterns of consumption and substitution across food groups. METHODS: Detailed dietary data was collected using a 24-h online dietary assessment from the UK Biobank and Oxford Web Q (n = 185,611). We used panel data fixed effects methods to estimate changes in energy, saturated fat, total sugar, and fibre following a 100gram reduction across 44 food groups. We compare these estimates against the average nutritional value of that food group from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey. RESULTS: We find evidence of variation in whether a food is compensated between the main confectionery products. Crisps, savoury snacks, and sugar confectionery are less likely to be compensated, whereas chocolate confectionery, biscuits, and buns/cakes/pastries and pies are compensated. The result is particularly striking for chocolate confectionery which shows that while chocolate confectionery often has a high energy content, eating less chocolate confectionery is not associated with an equal reduction in energy. Instead, we find individuals switch or compensate for their reduction in chocolate confectionery consumption with other high energy food items. CONCLUSIONS: We find that sugar confectionery and crisps and savoury snacks are less likely to result in substitution than chocolate confectionery. This would suggest that food policies aiming to reduce the consumption of these food groups are more likely to result in overall lower consumption of unhealthy foods.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Humanos , Dieta , Lanches , Açúcares , Reino Unido , Ingestão de Energia
20.
PLoS One ; 18(10): e0291579, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37824450

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between night shifts and snacking behaviors during pregnancy using Japanese maternal-infant longitudinal data from a large-scale study. METHODS: This study used the Japan Environment and Children's Study dataset jecs-ta-20190930, released in October 2019. After simple analysis using analysis of variance and multiple comparisons, crude odds ratios (cOR) and adjusted odds ratios (aORs) were calculated. To evaluate eating habits, we examined habitual fast food and snacks (e.g., potato chips, corn puffs and tortilla chips) consumption, midnight snacks, and regular missing breakfast. RESULTS: There was no significant association between inappropriate weight gain during pregnancy and night shift work in early pregnancy. The aOR for consuming snacks more than once a week after noticing pregnancy for shift workers was 1.34 (95% confidence interval 1.27-1.41; p < 0.001) compared with worker without night shiftwork. The aOR for shift workers consuming fast food more than three times a week during pregnancy was 1.40 (95% confidence interval 0.79-2.33; p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant night shift workers did not show excessive weight gain but had an increased frequency of consumption of snack foods compared with pregnant dayshift workers.


Assuntos
Jornada de Trabalho em Turnos , Lanches , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Criança , Jornada de Trabalho em Turnos/efeitos adversos , Japão , Comportamento Alimentar , Aumento de Peso
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