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1.
PLoS Biol ; 18(2): e3000622, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108181

RESUMO

Circadian (daily) regulation of metabolic pathways implies that food may be metabolized differentially over the daily cycle. To test that hypothesis, we monitored the metabolism of older subjects in a whole-room respiratory chamber over two separate 56-h sessions in a random crossover design. In one session, one of the 3 daily meals was presented as breakfast, whereas in the other session, a nutritionally equivalent meal was presented as a late-evening snack. The duration of the overnight fast was the same for both sessions. Whereas the two sessions did not differ in overall energy expenditure, the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) was different during sleep between the two sessions. Unexpectedly, this difference in RER due to daily meal timing was not due to daily differences in physical activity, sleep disruption, or core body temperature (CBT). Rather, we found that the daily timing of nutrient availability coupled with daily/circadian control of metabolism drives a switch in substrate preference such that the late-evening Snack Session resulted in significantly lower lipid oxidation (LO) compared to the Breakfast Session. Therefore, the timing of meals during the day/night cycle affects how ingested food is oxidized or stored in humans, with important implications for optimal eating habits.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Refeições/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Desjejum , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/fisiologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxirredução , Troca Gasosa Pulmonar/fisiologia , Sono/fisiologia , Lanches
2.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0227996, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32084133

RESUMO

Jujube (Ziziphus lotus L.) fruit has multiple functional properties and represents an interesting source of bioactive compounds. The purpose of this study was to improve the functionality and the sensory properties of sponge cake enriched with Z. lotus fruit. The polyphenols and flavonoids levels in the sponge cake and its antioxidant potential increased with the addition of 0-10 g of jujube powder/100 g of wheat flour. The crumb color parameters, L* and b*, decreased with the addition of jujube powder, whereas the a* value increased. In the texture analysis, addition of jujube powder resulted in an increase of the hardness and chewiness, but the springiness was reduced. The sensory evaluation showed that supplementation of jujube powder did not manifest any undesirable organoleptic response and showed satisfactory consumer acceptability. Overall, the addition at 5% jujube powder showed the finest sensory properties of the sponge cake.


Assuntos
Sensação/fisiologia , Lanches , Ziziphus/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Cor , Flavonoides/análise , Frutas/química , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/análise , Pós
3.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 122, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many young people form unhealthy behavioural habits, such as low intake of fruit and vegetables, high intake of energy-dense snack foods, and excessive sedentary screen-based behaviours. However, there is a shortage of parent-and home-focused interventions to change multiple health behaviours in children. METHODS: Kids FIRST was a 12-week, home- and school-based pilot randomised controlled trial to reduce screen-time and unhealthy snacking with assessments at pre- (baseline) and post-intervention. Four UK schools were randomised to control or one of three interventions targeting reductions in (1) screen-time and unhealthy snacking (ST + Sn), (2) screen-time (ST only), (3) unhealthy snacking (Sn only), and parents with children aged 9-11 years were recruited via schools. Intervention group parents received four online 'sessions' and four packages of resources tailored to each group. Children received four 30-min lessons during school time. Children and parents reported their own screen-time behaviours, children reported their own snacking behaviours. Descriptive analyses were undertaken using principles of intention to treat. RESULTS: Initial feasibility was shown in that this study successfully recruited schools and families into all four study arms and retained them over a period of 13 weeks (retention rate ≥ 74%). Seventy-five children and 64 parents provided full baseline questionnaire data. Reductions in children's school day and weekend day TV/DVD viewing and computer game use were found in the ST + Sn and ST groups, while self-reported smartphone use increased in these groups. Similar results were found for parents' TV/DVD, computer and smartphone use in these groups. Little to no changes were found in reports of the dietary variables assessed in any intervention group for children or parents. CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary findings show some promise for the Kids FIRST intervention. Based on these findings, a future full trial should recruit a more diverse sample of families and optimise the intervention and intervention resources to more fully engage parents with the dietary-based components of the intervention programme, where fewer changes were seen. Although most parents reporting receiving the intervention resources, further development work is required to achieve higher levels of engagement. This might include greater parent and child engagement work early in the development of the project. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Retrospectively registered in June 21st 2019 with ClinicalTrials.gov (number NCT03993652).


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Tempo de Tela , Lanches/psicologia , Criança , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho , Projetos Piloto , Autorrelato , Fatores de Tempo , Reino Unido
4.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(3): 1213-1219, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680253

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this article the relationship between lipophilic grape seed proanthocyanidin (LGSP) and acrylamide formation in potato-based products was investigated. The acrylamide, reducing sugar, asparagine, and 3-aminopropionamide contents were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Sensory evaluation was used to evaluate the quality of the products. RESULTS: The results showed that LGSP presented greater inhibition effect on the acrylamide formation than the commonly used commercial antioxidants. Furthermore, 81.5% and 84.7% of acrylamide was reduced in potato crisps and French fries after adding 0.1% and 0.05% LGSP (w/w) in palm oil, respectively. When the concentrations of LGSP were less than 0.1%, there was no significant difference between LGSP-treated samples and control sample for sensory evaluation. CONCLUSION: Thus, LGSP is effective in reducing the level of acrylamide and maintaining the reasonable sensory attributes of potato fried foods. The results indicate that LGSP may be used as a potential additive for reducing acrylamide formation in fried foods. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Acrilamida/química , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/química , Proantocianidinas/química , Culinária , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Oxirredução , Lanches , Solanum tuberosum/química , Paladar
5.
Food Chem ; 302: 125330, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404872

RESUMO

This study assessed compliance between declared and analysed values on prepacked foods, considering the tolerance limits for salt, fat and saturated fatty acids. Foods were distributed by food categories (e.g. snacks, ready-to-eat meals, potato and potato-products, bakery and pastry products) and a total of 209 products were analysed. Only half of the samples with a declared value ≥1.25 g/100 g were within tolerance limits for salt content. The lowest number of samples outside tolerance limits was observed for fat content; for saturated fatty acids, 27% of the samples were outside of tolerance limits. Only amongst "cereal products" were 100% of products compliant for fat and salt declarations. It is of utmost importance that manufacturers update continuously values declared for prepacked foods, because this information is crucial for consumers and food policy-makers as well as being a legal requirement.


Assuntos
Rotulagem de Alimentos/normas , Nutrientes/análise , Política Nutricional , Grão Comestível , União Europeia , Fast Foods/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Embalagem de Alimentos/normas , Lanches , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/análise
6.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1702, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A common recommendation is to reduce the consumption of snack food and replace this consumption with nutrient-dense foods. The objective was to assess whether in Colombian children and adults there were changes in the consumption of the snack dietary pattern (SP) in the 5 years 2010-2015. In addition, this study aimed to establish the relationship between the SP and some biological, socioeconomic, and geographic variables in Colombia, South America. METHODS: Based on a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) applied both in 2010 and 2015 in the national nutritional situation surveys, the adherence to the snack consumption pattern was established through factor analysis. The change in the adherence of consumption to the SP was established for the five-year period [2015 minus 2010], using multiple linear regression models. Crude and adjusted differences were estimated by the following covariables: sex, age, marital status, food security, wealth index, ethnicity, education of the head of the household, area and region. In total, 37,981 subjects were analyzed. In 2010, 10,150 children (5 to 17 years old) and 5145 adults (18 to 64 years old) were included, and in 2015, 13,243 children and 9443 adults. RESULTS: In children, the adjusted difference in the adherence to SP was - 0.37 (95% CI: - 0.42, - 0.32). In adults, the adjusted difference in the adherence to SP was - 0.27 (95% CI: - 0.31, - 0.24). In all categories of covariables, consumption decreased, for all p < 0.0001. In children, the decrease in consumption was inversely associated with height-age. The decrease was smaller at the extremes of the BMI distribution, Z < -2 and Z > 2. The decrease in consumption was directly associated with the level of food security in the home and the wealth index. In adults, the decrease in consumption was inversely related to age and was directly related to the level of food security of the household, wealth index, and education level. The BMI decrease was greater in subjects with 18.5-24.9. In subjects with 30+, it was lower than in subjects with 25.0-29.9. CONCLUSIONS: In the 5 years 2010-2015, snack consumption is decreasing. The region, the richest subjects, those with adequate BMI, and in households with more educated heads of household, achieved a greater decrease in SP.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Lanches/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colômbia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
7.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1342, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640640

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of consuming fast foods and non-nutritious snacks is progressively increasing among adolescents. This study aimed to explore factors behind snack consumption at school among Iranian high-school students. METHODS: This descriptive qualitative study was conducted in 2017 in four boys' and four girls' high-schools located in Isfahan, Khorramabad, and Tehran, Iran. Data were collected through 42 in-depth semi-structured interviews and four focus groups with male and female students, their parents, and their school teachers and administrators. The conventional content analysis approach was used for data analysis. Trustworthiness was applied to the study through prolonged engagement, maximum variation sampling, and member checking techniques. RESULTS: Factors behind students' snack consumption came into two main groups, namely influential behaviors, and influential emotions and perceptions. Influential behaviors included the behaviors of students, their family members, peers, school administrators, and snack sellers. Moreover, influential emotions and perceptions included positive and negative feelings towards healthy snacks, fear over the consequences of unhealthy snacks, and perceived positive outcomes of healthy snacks. CONCLUSIONS: Students' snack consumption at school is affected not only by their own behaviors, emotions, and perceptions, but also by significant others' behaviors and environmental factors. School administrators need to make environmental modifications to turn school environment into a pleasant place for healthy snack consumption and make healthy snack consumption a pleasurable experience for students.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Lanches/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Infuência dos Pares , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 17(6): 515-522, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641701

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of sugar-free snacks on caries-related factors in 6- to 9-year-old schoolchildren. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred seventy-one children at risk for caries as measured through the Cariogram were randomly assigned to three groups consuming twice-daily snacks containing Stevia, maltitol or sugar for 42 days. Parents filled out a standardised questionnaire regarding personal, medical and oral behavioural information. Bleeding on probing, plaque pH and salivary mutans streptococchi (MS) and lactobacilli (LB) were assessed at baseline (t0), 42 days of snack use (t1) and 120 days after the end of use (t2). The Cariogram calculation was repeated at t1. Treatment effects were estimated using linear mixed-effects regression models. RESULTS: At t2, a decrease in cariogenic bacteria (MS X2 = 8.01, p < 0.01 and LB X2 = 4.60, p = 0.03) and an increase of the minimum pH (F = 4.48, p < 0.01), maximum pH (F = 2.88 p < 0.01) and pH drop (F = 2.95 p < 0.01) was recorded in the Stevia group compared to baseline. In the maltitol group, an improvement effect was noted: LB concentration decreased (p = 0.04) and maximum pH (F = 3.16 p < 0.01) increased. Subjects classified by the Cariogram as have a low probability of developing caries increased in the Stevia and maltitol groups (X2(4) = 25.44, p < 0.01, C*sV = 0.38 and X2(4) = 12.85, p = 0.01, C*sV = 0.27, respectively). Regression analysis underlines the effect of Stevia snacks on the cariogenic microflora, mainly on MS and plaque pH variations. CONCLUSION: The short-term administration of Stevia or maltitol snacks improves some important factors related to caries. This preventive strategy might be an additional means of combatting this common childhood disease.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Stevia , Criança , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Maltose/análogos & derivados , Saliva , Lanches , Streptococcus mutans , Álcoois Açúcares , Edulcorantes
9.
BMJ ; 366: l4786, 2019 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484641

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the potential impact on body mass index (BMI) and prevalence of obesity of a 20% price increase in high sugar snacks. DESIGN: Modelling study. SETTING: General adult population of the United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS: 36 324 households with data on product level household expenditure from UK Kantar FMCG (fast moving consumer goods) panel for January 2012 to December 2013. Data were used to estimate changes in energy (kcal, 1 kcal=4.18 kJ=0.00418 MJ) purchase associated with a 20% price increase in high sugar snacks. Data for 2544 adults from waves 5 to 8 of the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2012-16) were used to estimate resulting changes in BMI and prevalence of obesity. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The effect on per person take home energy purchases of a 20% price increase for three categories of high sugar snacks: confectionery (including chocolate), biscuits, and cakes. Health outcomes resulting from the price increase were measured as changes in weight, BMI (not overweight (BMI <25), overweight (BMI ≥25 and <30), and obese (BMI ≥30)), and prevalence of obesity. Results were stratified by household income and BMI. RESULTS: For income groups combined, the average reduction in energy consumption for a 20% price increase in high sugar snacks was estimated to be 8.9×103 kcal (95% confidence interval -13.1×103 to -4.2×103 kcal). Using a static weight loss model, BMI was estimated to decrease by 0.53 (95% confidence interval -1.01 to -0.06) on average across all categories and income groups. This change could reduce the UK prevalence of obesity by 2.7 percentage points (95% confidence interval -3.7 to -1.7 percentage points) after one year. The impact of a 20% price increase in high sugar snacks on energy purchase was largest in low income households classified as obese and smallest in high income households classified as not overweight. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing the price of high sugar snacks by 20% could reduce energy intake, BMI, and prevalence of obesity. This finding was in a UK context and was double that modelled for a similar price increase in sugar sweetened beverages.


Assuntos
Comércio , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Lanches , Açúcares/efeitos adversos , Impostos , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Econômicos , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487809

RESUMO

Corners stores in low-income communities are a promising setting to intervene in youth whole grain intake. One strategy that may encourage whole grain intake is if corner stores were to pair and sell whole grain snacks in combination with either a liked fruit or vegetable and an optional condiment (i.e., a whole grain snack pack). This study examined youth in terms of their (1) liking of fruits, vegetables, and whole grain snacks; (2) perceptions about which fruits and vegetables pair best with whole grain snacks; and (3) willingness to pay for a whole grain snack pack. One-time intercept surveys were conducted with 10-18-year-olds (n = 402) who visited a New York City (NYC) corner store (n = 34) participating in the City Harvest Healthy Retail Program. On average, youth were willing to spend $2.38 (SD $4.32) on a whole grain snack pack. Higher overall liking scores for vegetables and whole grain snacks were associated with willingness to spend 24.4% (95% confidence interval (CI): 11.5-38.7%) and 21.6% (95%CI: 5.2-40.6%) more on whole grain snack packs, respectively. In conclusion, youth are receptive to purchasing whole grain snack packs from NYC corner stores participating in a healthy retail program.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Promoção da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Lanches/psicologia , Grãos Integrais/economia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Verduras
13.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480245

RESUMO

Snack foods can be substantial contributors to daily energy intake, with different types of snacks exerting potentially different effects on satiety per calorie consumed. The present research compared the effect of consuming almonds as a mid-morning snack compared to an energy and weight-matched comparator snack (savoury crackers) or the equivalent weight of water (zero energy control). In a crossover design, 42 female participants (age: 26.0 ± 7.9, BMI: 22.0 ± 2.0) consumed a fixed breakfast then a mid-morning snack. Appetite, 24-h energy intake, food hedonics, and consumer perceptions of the snack foods were assessed under laboratory conditions. AUC analyses revealed a lower overall hunger drive after consuming almonds compared to crackers or water. There was no difference in 24-h energy intake in the almond compared to the cracker or the zero-energy control condition, however participants consumed more energy in the cracker condition compared to the zero-energy control condition. In addition, almonds suppressed hedonic preference (implicit wanting) for consuming high-fat foods and demonstrated a higher satiety quotient (SQ) than crackers. Almonds were perceived to have a more favourable consumer profile aligned with successful weight management. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that in the context of a 24-h period of objectively measured energy intake, raw almonds are effective for controlling appetite compared to an energy matched alternative snack. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov [NCT02480582].


Assuntos
Apetite , Filosofia , Prunus dulcis , Saciação , Lanches/psicologia , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Desjejum , Estudos Cross-Over , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Fome , Percepção , Alimentos Crus , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Food Sci ; 84(10): 2995-3008, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546280

RESUMO

An olive pomace (pâté) obtained from virgin olive oil production, was used for the fortification of pasta, bread, and granola bar. For each food, a control (without pâté) and a fortified sample (with pâté, 7% in pasta and 5% in bread and granola bar) were manufactured. Descriptive analysis showed that pâté strongly affected the appearance of pasta and bread and increased the bitterness of bread and granola bar but not pasta. Granola bar was less affected in general, likely because of its higher ingredient complexity. In a central location test with 175 Californian consumers, both the control and the fortified samples of all three foods were well accepted overall, with only the mean liking of the appearance of the fortified pasta falling below the "neither like nor dislike" mark. Approximately 30% of consumers preferred the fortified sample over the control for each food and 50% were willing to pay more for the fortified products. The percentage of phenols from pâté recovered in the prepared samples was such that 63 g of pasta, 18 g of bread, and 12 g of granola bar would be sufficient to meet the EFSA health claim for olive oil phenols. This study demonstrates that pâté can be used for fortification of foods for human consumption, thus adding potential economic value to the virgin olive oil production chain and allowing for a higher daily intake of phenols from Olea europaea L., whose beneficial health properties are well recognized. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The dried olive oil pomace (pâté) that we developed and tested in this research can be used to fortify pasta, bread, and granola bars with health-beneficial phenols with only slight alterations of their sensory profiles and slight reduction in consumer acceptance. Virgin olive oil producers can use this byproduct and gain further economic value from olive oil production.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Paladar , Adulto , Pão/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Olea/química , Azeite de Oliva/análise , Fenóis/análise , Lanches/psicologia , Triticum/química , Resíduos/análise , Adulto Jovem
15.
Nutr. hosp ; 36(4): 905-911, jul.-ago. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-184717

RESUMO

Introduction: therapeutic lifestyles changes including frequent consumption of legumes have resulted in improved metabolic control and decreased blood pressure in type 2 diabetes-mellitus (T2DM) patients. Objective: this was a quasi-experimental-28-week crossover-study that assessed the effect of daily consumption of the legume Lupinus mutabilis (LM) on metabolic control of T2DM patients under hypoglycemic oral treatment. Material and methods: we recruited 79 adult male and female patients that were followed for 14-weeks without LM consumption and then received increasing doses of a LM-based-snack for other 14-weeks. Results: there was a significant decrease in blood pressure and a significant increase in HDL-cholesterol by the end of the study period. While patients with A1C concentrations > 8 and ≤ 10 did not significantly improve their metabolic control, patients with serum A1C concentrations ≤ 8.0% reduced significantly their A1C after the intervention and 71% achieved a target concentration of 6.5%. Conclusion: patients with T2DM could benefit with the addition of LM-snack to their conventional treatment


Introducción: los cambios recomendados sobre los estilos de vida, incluido el consumo frecuente de leguminosas, han resultado en un mejor control metabólico y disminución de la presión arterial en pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DMT2). Objetivo: este fue un estudio casi experimental cruzado de 28 semanas que evaluó el efecto del consumo diario de la leguminosa Lupinus mutabilis Sweet (LM) en el control metabólico de pacientes con DMT2 con tratamiento oral hipoglucemiante. Material y métodos: inicialmente se reclutaron 79 pacientes adultos, hombres y mujeres, que fueron seguidos durante 14 semanas sin consumo de LM y luego recibieron dosis crecientes de un tentempié de LM durante otras 14 semanas. Resultados: se observó una disminución significativa en la presión arterial y un aumento significativo en el colesterol-HDL después del consumo de LM. Mientras que los pacientes con concentraciones de A1C sérica > 8 y ≤ 10 no mejoraron significativamente su control metabólico, los pacientes con concentraciones séricas de A1C ≤ 8,0% redujeron significativamente su A1C después de la intervención y el 71% de estos pacientes llegó a la meta de tratamiento ≤ 6,5%. Conclusión: los pacientes con DMT2 podrían beneficiarse con la adición de un tentempié de LM a su tratamiento convencional


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/dietoterapia , Lupinus , Resultado do Tratamento , Fabaceae , Lanches , Fitoterapia , Valor Nutritivo , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , HDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Pressão Arterial/efeitos dos fármacos , Gluconeogênese , Índice Glicêmico , Equador , Antropometria , Proteínas na Dieta , Sementes
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(32): 8725-8734, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295997

RESUMO

Texture perception is conceptualized as an emergent cognitive response to food characteristics that comprise several physical and chemical properties. Contemporary oral processing research focuses on revealing the relationship between the sensory perceptions and food properties, with the goal of enabling rational product design. One major challenge is associated with revealing the complex molecular and biocolloidal interactions underpinning even simple texture percepts. Here, we introduce in vitro oral processing, which considers oral processing in terms of discrete units of operation (first bite, comminution, granulation, bolus formation, and tribology). Within this framework, we systematically investigate the material properties that govern each specific oral processing unit operation without being impacted by the biological complexity of the oral environment. We describe how this framework was used to rationally design a low-fat potato chip with improved sensory properties by investigating the impact from adding back, to a low-fat potato chip, a small amount of oil mixed with the surface-active agent polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR). The relevance of instrumental measures is validated by sensory assessment, whereby panelists ranked the perceived oiliness of three different types of potato chips. The sensory results indicate that perceived oiliness was higher when a low-fat potato chip was supplemented with an additional 0.5% (w/w) topical coating (the coating comprised 15%, w/w, PGPR in oil) compared to the unaltered low-fat potato chip. The perceived difference in oiliness is hypothesized to correspond to the dynamic friction measured in vitro with a saliva-coated substrate in the presence and absence of PGPR. The study illustrates how dividing oral processing into distinct units provides a rational approach to food product design focused on controlling key sensory attributes.


Assuntos
Gorduras/análise , Boca/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Gorduras/metabolismo , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Reologia , Saliva/metabolismo , Lanches , Solanum tuberosum/química
17.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 139(7): 1047-1054, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257251

RESUMO

In 2015, Japan's Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare released a report on the need for pharmacies to support public health, although the details of such a service was left to each pharmacy. Consequently, pharmacists had to determine the nature of such services. We considered the services that pharmacists could offer to improve people's lifestyles. This study tests such a service at a pharmacy. We prepared a lifestyle self-review test. From September 2015 to February 2016, pharmacists interviewed members of the community using the test, and pharmacists at 50 pharmacies in Aichi prefecture, Japan, set goals for lifestyle improvement. We analyzed 289 tests. The number of people who had a dietary goal concerning snacking was reduced from 19 people who snacked every day to 11. The number of people who had a goal to reduce their drinking was reduced from 7 people who drank every day to 4. The number of people who had an exercise goal was reduced from 17 people who did not exercise every day to 7. The people who had a sleep goal increased the number of days in which they got adequate rest. Those who had specific, tangible goals for walking achieved their goal at a higher rate than did those who had a goal but no tangible elements, such as time spent or number of steps achieved. Overall, the lifestyle self-review at the pharmacy was effective for lifestyle improvement. Pharmacists should help people set goals with tangible elements to improve their lifestyle more effectively.


Assuntos
Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia , Promoção da Saúde , Estilo de Vida , Farmacêuticos , Farmácia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Papel Profissional , Lanches , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Food Sci ; 84(8): 2209-2221, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313319

RESUMO

High-protein bars are popular snack items that can have significant processing issues like sticking, clogging, and cold flow. These issues are primarily problematic during formulation development because current predictive testing is reliant on highly empirical bench tests or pilot plant testing, which is expensive and time-consuming. Wear testing, which has been used in the medical field to evaluate the lifetime of soft materials used in joint replacements, may have promise in evaluating food processing ability. Wear and rheological testing were used to better understand high-protein bar processing ability. The objective of this study was to determine bench-level instrumental tests that would be able to predict processing ability for a given formulation. Two response surface designs were used for formulations of model bar systems comprising whey protein isolate (WPI), high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), and either canola oil or vegetable shortening. Ingredient formulation affected processing ability, wear behaviors, and rheological behaviors. Formulations with high ratios of WPI to HFCS and either shortening or oil exhibited good processing ability, lower wear rates, and increased elastic-type behavior, indicating that processing ability is related to formulation. The results of this study indicated that material mechanical and wear behaviors were related to processing ability; both were controlled by formulation. Because it was shown to be a good indicator of high-protein bar processing ability, wear testing of food has potential significance in benchtop testing. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Understanding of how high-protein bar formulations impact their mechanical behaviors can help streamline their formulation development and scaling from bench to industrial production. Processing ability may be predicted with a quick wear test, providing a rapid testing method that requires little sample for evaluating bar formulations.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Lanches , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Manipulação de Alimentos , Reologia
19.
Nutr Hosp ; 36(4): 905-911, 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291739

RESUMO

Introduction: Introduction: therapeutic lifestyles changes including frequent consumption of legumes have resulted in improved metabolic control and decreased blood pressure in type 2 diabetes-mellitus (T2DM) patients. Objective: this was a quasi-experimental-28-week crossover-study that assessed the effect of daily consumption of the legume Lupinus mutabilis (LM) on metabolic control of T2DM patients under hypoglycemic oral treatment. Material and methods: we recruited 79 adult male and female patients that were followed for 14-weeks without LM consumption and then received increasing doses of a LM-based-snack for other 14-weeks. Results: there was a significant decrease in blood pressure and a significant increase in HDL-cholesterol by the end of the study period. While patients with A1C concentrations > 8 and ≤ 10 did not significantly improve their metabolic control, patients with serum A1C concentrations ≤ 8.0% reduced significantly their A1C after the intervention and 71% achieved a target concentration of 6.5%. Conclusion: patients with T2DM could benefit with the addition of LM-snack to their conventional treatment.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/dietoterapia , Lupinus , Fitoterapia/métodos , Lanches , Glicemia , Determinação da Pressão Arterial , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Estudos Cross-Over , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
Molecules ; 24(13)2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269663

RESUMO

This study aimed to obtain a second-generation snack by extrusion from the by-product of rice milling enriched with amaranth. The raw material used was amaranth flour (AF), rice starch (NS) and modified rice starch (MS), which were evaluated by the analysis of substitution degree (SD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), viscosity (RVA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The snacks were expanded by extrusion and microwave oven, as a reference method. The samples were evaluated in hardness (D), expansion index (EI), apparent density (DAP), and protein content (P). Afterward, the optimized samples were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and resistant starch (RS). During the thermal characterization, a clear trend in the decrement in gelatinization temperatures was observed (78.35 to 63.90 °C in NS and MS respectively). The curves obtained in RVA analyses showed typical behavior of native (6.35 Pa.s) and extruded starches (2.88 Pa.s), with a significant decrease in viscosity peak. Through the analysis of FT-IR, the introduction of the functional acetyl group (stretching at a wavelength of 1735 cm-1) was corroborated. Snack samples results showed a maximum hardness in MS, with a value of 121 N, and the NS (100%) presented the highest EI value (1.41). The lowest DAP values were obtained for the MS (0.48 g/cm3, 100%) and AF (0.49 g/cm3, 100%) samples. P increased to a higher concentration of AF. In the optimum formulation, the SEM image showed that the expanded microwave sample increased the porosity and obtained an RS value of 8.2%. The formulation obtained in the present study presents high characteristics to be used in the development of a healthy snack.


Assuntos
Amaranthus/química , Oryza/química , Lanches , Amido/química , Acetilação , Amilose/química , Cor , Cristalização , Dureza , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Propriedades de Superfície , Temperatura , Viscosidade , Difração de Raios X
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