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1.
Molecules ; 26(7)2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917637

RESUMO

The majority of snacks expanded by extrusion (SEE) are made with vegetable sources, to improve their nutritional content; it has been proposed to incorporate squid (Dosidicus gigas), due to its high protein content, low price and high availability. However, the interaction of proteins of animal origin with starch during extrusion causes negative effects on the sensory properties of SEE, so it is necessary to know the type of protein-carbohydrate interactions and their effect on these properties. The objective of this research was to study the interaction of proteins and carbohydrates of SEE elaborated with squid mantle, potato and corn. The nutritional composition and protein digestibility were evaluated, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) were used to study the formation of protein-starch complexes and the possible regions responsible for their interactions. The SEE had a high protein content (40-85%) and biological value (>93%). The melting temperature (Tm) was found between 145 and 225 °C; the Tm values in extruded samples are directly proportional to the squid content. The extrusion process reduced the amine groups I and II responsible for the protein-protein interaction and increased the O-glucosidic bonds, so these bonds could be responsible for the protein-carbohydrate interactions.


Assuntos
Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Decapodiformes/química , Proteínas/química , Lanches , Solanum tuberosum/química , Amido/química , Animais , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
2.
Molecules ; 26(5)2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669143

RESUMO

A new type of multigrain snack has been designed containing varied additions of Moldavian dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica L.) seeds. The antioxidant properties and the general health benefits of this plant material have already been widely acknowledged. The research discussed herein aimed to investigate the influence of the formulation and expansion method (frying) on the content of polyphenolic compounds, individual phenolic acids, and antiradical properties of innovative snacks enriched with dragonhead seeds. The highest content of polyphenols (0.685 mg GAE/mL), free phenolic acids (47.052 µg/g of dry matter), and highest radical scavenging activity (96.23% towards DPPH) were found in the fried snacks enriched with 22% of seeds. In these samples, 11 phenolic acids were detected. Strong positive correlations were seen between the addition of dragonhead and the polyphenol content (r = 0.989) and between the quantity of the enriching additive and the content of free phenolic acids (r = 0.953). The research has shown that such innovative snacks have the potential to supply health-benefiting free phenolic acids, e.g., salicylic, isoferulic, ferulic, p-coumaric, vanillic. Our studies provide an introduction to the development of a new range of functional foods.


Assuntos
Compostos de Bifenilo/análise , Alimento Funcional/análise , Hidroxibenzoatos/análise , Lamiaceae/química , Picratos/análise , Polifenóis/análise , Lanches , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Sementes/química
3.
Food Chem ; 352: 129323, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691210

RESUMO

In this study, functional snacks with addition of nanoenapsuated resveratrol were prepared to evaluate the nutraceutical and physical properties. The nanoencapsulated resveratrol was prepared from horse-chestnut (HRP), water-chestnut (WRP) and lotus-stem starch particles (LRP) and added to the wheat flour at the level of 0.4% for preparation of snacks by extrusing process. After extrusion, 43-53% and 5.42% of resveratrol was retained in snacks containing encapsulated and free resveratrol (FRP), respectively. The HRP, WRP and LRP showed significantly less peak viscosities and less elastic behaviour than native product (NP) which can influence the human sensory perception. The shift of few peaks towards higher wavelength and presence of additional peaks at 1384, 1229, 1513 and 1613 cm-1 depicts change in molecular pattern and presence of resveratrol in functional snacks. The functional snacks containing encapsulated resveratrol showed significantly higher antioxidant, anti-diabetic and anti-obesity properties than snacks containing no or free resveratrol.


Assuntos
Nanoestruturas/química , Resveratrol/química , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Lanches , Fármacos Antiobesidade/química , Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cápsulas , Farinha/análise , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Paladar , Triticum/química , Viscosidade
4.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 48, 2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757601

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many people exercise because they know it is good for their health. Although this is true, it can make us feel deserving of a reward and lead us to eat more indulgent, less healthy food than if we had not done any exercise. Generally, lower energy-dense (LED) foods are recognised as healthier choices than higher energy-dense (HED) options. Despite our intention to make healthy choices, seeing tempting higher-calorie foods on offer often side-tracks us. Priming is a psychological tool that makes specific changes to our environment that remind us of our motivation to be healthy. This makes it easier to choose a healthier option, by nudging us towards it without us even realising. However, it is currently unclear which method of priming achieves the best results. AIMS: Our study explores whether priming people to expect they will receive LED food leads them to make this healthier choice after exercise, even when also offered tempting less healthy HED foods at the moment of selection. METHODS: Our study observed the foods selected by university athletes after their sports matches. Before the match, half of the participants were primed by asking them to choose a LED snack from the options we offered, which they would receive after the match. The remaining half of participants were not asked this same question. To distract the athletes from our observation of their food choices, participants completed a task prior to choosing their snack, which was disguised as a 'thank you' for taking part. RESULTS: Overall, we found the priming group did not choose LED foods significantly more than the control group, hence priming did not increase LED food selection. CONCLUSION: Importantly, our results indicate that priming must be more noticeable to achieve its goal. Additionally, we demonstrated that priming may be less successful for young athletic individuals, compared to older and more overweight adults recruited in other studies. This highlights the importance of studying a broader demographic range of individuals from the general population. We support future research into this area, which will help us to tweak priming to achieve the best outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN Registry, ISRCTN74601698. Date registered: 02/10/2020 (retrospectively registered).


Assuntos
Preferências Alimentares , Lanches , Adulto , Comportamento de Escolha , Humanos , Motivação , Recompensa
5.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 42: 132-137, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33745566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ongoing outbreak of the novel coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID- 19) constitutes a major global pandemic health care system challenge. Shortly following the disease outbreak, like SARS-CoV virus, all affected countries are implementing various preventive and control measures to mitigate the spread of the disease. Optimizing public health system during COVID-19 pandemic requires not only advanced medical and biological sciences knowledge, but also all human sciences related to social, as well as nutritional behavior, and lifestyle practices. AIM: To investigate the effect of COVID-19- quarantine on healthy nutritional behavior and lifestyle practices among Jordanian population. METHODS: A cross-sectional study among Jordanian population was conducted using an online questionnaire between March and April 2020. Participants were kindly requested to answer a standardized and validated structured questionnaire. Demographic information (age, gender, place of residence, and occupation), anthropometric data (reported weight and height); nutritional behavior information (number of meals per day, snakes, water intake), and physical activity behavior were requested. RESULTS: A total of 4473 respondents were included in the study; obese (n = 1135), normal body weight (n = 1561), and underweight (n = 116). During COVID-19 quarantine, a significant increase in body weight (12.9% underweight, 28.5% normal body weight, 36.4% overweight' and 41.1% of obese (p < 0.001) was reported. Moreover, the number of snacks between meals (p < 0.001), number of main meals (p < 0.001), and the smoking rate was also increased significantly; however, there was no significant difference regarding physical activity among various weight status groups (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we have provided evidence, for the first time, that there were significant negative changes in healthy nutritional behavior among Jordanians during COVID-19 quarantine who encountered significantly increased body weight, appetite, and smoking. Hence, future larger cross-sectional studies are warranted.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Peso Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Jordânia , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Refeições , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Quarentena , Lanches , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ganho de Peso , Adulto Jovem
6.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 113(4): 984-992, 2021 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact that the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related early lockdown has had on dietary habits of the population and on food insecurity is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to document the change in diet quality and in food insecurity observed during the COVID-19-related early lockdown. We hypothesized that the lockdown was associated with a deterioration in overall diet quality and an increase in food insecurity. METHODS: Data are from a COVID-19 subsample of NutriQuébec, a web-based cohort destined to study temporal changes in dietary habits among adults in Quebec, Canada. Participants completed questionnaires before (between June 2019 and February 2020) and during (April to May 2020) early lockdown, including a validated web-based 24-h recall (n = 853) and a questionnaire on food security (n = 922). Primary study outcomes were temporal changes in diet quality measured by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2015 and in the prevalence of food insecurity. RESULTS: There was a small increase in the HEI-2015 during the COVID-19 early lockdown compared with baseline (+1.1 points; 95% CI: 0.6, 1.5), mostly due to small improvements in the intakes of whole grains, greens and beans, refined grains, total vegetables, total dairy, seafood and plant proteins, added sugar, and total protein subscores of the HEI-2015. Exploratory analyses suggested that individuals aged 18-29 y (+3.6 points; 95% CI: 2.4, 4.7), participants with lower education (+1.9 points; 95% CI: 1.3, 2.6), or with obesity (+3.8 points; 95% CI: 2.7, 4.8) showed particularly important increases in the HEI-2015. The prevalence of food insecurity was reduced from 3.8% at baseline to 1.0% during the early lockdown (prevalence ratio = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.08, 0.94). CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to our hypotheses, diet quality has slightly improved and prevalence of food insecurity was reduced in this sample of adults from Quebec during the COVID-19-related early lockdown. These results may be generalizable only to relatively healthy populations.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Dieta Saudável , Dieta/normas , Isolamento Social , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Refeições , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dados Preliminares , Quebeque , Lanches , Adulto Jovem
7.
Food Chem ; 347: 129026, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465694

RESUMO

Based on packed-fiber solid-phase extraction and HPLC-DAD, a simple analytical method for the determination of seven synthetic dyes has been successfully developed. Polystyrene/polypyrrole (PS/PPy) fibers were obtained via electro-spinning of polystyrene skeletal nanofibers, followed by the oxidation with FeCl3 to trigger the polymerization of pyrrole and the deposition of polypyrrole coatings on PS fibrous skeleton fibers. The relationship between the extraction performance of the fibers and the electrospinning process at different humidities was investigated based on morphologic study and BET surface area. In the extraction process, purification, concentration, and desorption could be accomplished in one step. The established method exhibited good sensitivity, selectivity, reproducibility, and good efficiency for synthetic dyes in casual snacks (preserved fruit, flavored yogurt, and fruity hard candy) samples. With optimal conditions, the LODs (S/N = 3) were 2.4 to 21.09 ng mL-1, and linearities were acceptable in liquid matrix and solid matrices. The recoveries were 93.9-103.9%.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Corantes/análise , Lanches , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Compostos Azo/análise , Benzenossulfonatos/análise , Eritrosina/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Limite de Detecção , Nanofibras/química , Naftalenossulfonatos/análise , Poliestirenos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tartrazina/análise
8.
Appetite ; 161: 105119, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused unprecedented disruptions to the lives of families. This study aimed to investigate the impact of pandemic-associated stress on food parenting practices including interactions surrounding snacks, and child diet. METHODS: Parents (N = 318) of 2-12-year old children completed a cross-sectional online survey assessing current COVID-19-specific stress, pre-COVID-19 stress, financial stress (e.g. food insecurity), food parenting practices, and child snack intake frequency. Structural Equation Modeling was used to model simultaneous paths of relationships and test direct and indirect effects. RESULTS: Stress, including financial hardship, was higher compared with before the crisis. The majority of children had regular mealtimes and irregular snack times. Higher COVID-19-specific stress was associated with more non-nutritive use of food and snacks (e.g. emotional and instrumental feeding), but also more structure and positive interactions (e.g. eating with or engaging with child around mealtimes). Higher COVID-19-specific stress was also associated with greater child intake frequency of sweet and savory snacks, with some evidence for mediation by snack parenting practices. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that stress associated with the COVID-19 pandemic may be linked to child snack intake with potential impacts on child obesity risk, and suggest several modifiable points of intervention within the family context.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Pandemias , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Lanches , Estresse Psicológico , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Refeições , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Appetite ; 161: 105082, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476651

RESUMO

The global coronavirus pandemic (Covid 19) resulted in national lockdowns where individuals were asked to isolate in their homes to stop the spread of the disease. Using a cross-sectional survey, the current paper aimed to examine self-reported changes in eating patterns and behaviour during the lockdown in the UK, and associations with BMI, demographic variables, eating styles, health anxiety, food insecurity and coping strategies. Participants (N = 620) were recruited online through social media advertising. The results showed that there were self-reported changes to food consumption during the lockdown across the sample. Increases in consumption of HED (high energy density) snack foods during the lockdown was associated with sex, pre-lockdown eating behaviour (emotional eating and uncontrolled eating), and Covid-specific health anxiety. Increases in positive eating practices such as eating more home prepared foods, and fruits and vegetables, were associated with adaptive coping strategies. Higher emotional eating (EE) during the lockdown was associated with a higher BMI, higher pre-lockdown EE and maladaptive coping strategies. Maladaptive coping strategies moderated the relationship between BMI and EE during the lockdown. In particular a higher BMI was associated with higher EE during the lockdown if an individual also had higher maladaptive coping strategies. These findings suggest that changes to eating behaviour may be part of a wider style of maladaptive or adaptive coping, particularly in those with a history of EE or uncontrolled eating. Preparing individuals to adopt more adaptive coping strategies during lockdown situations may be crucial to improving health during subsequent the lockdown events.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Autorrelato , Lanches , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
10.
Appetite ; 161: 105130, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33484787

RESUMO

COVID-19 triggered widespread disruption in the lives of university students across the United States. We conducted 9 online focus groups with 30 students from a large public university to understand the impact of COVID-19 on the food choices of those displaced from their typical residences due to the pandemic. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first qualitative research to examine the changes in food choice for US university students due to COVID-19 and offer insight into why these changes occurred. Students in this study reported significant, and often negative, changes in food choices during the pandemic compared to when on campus. Many students described changes in the foods they ate, the amount consumed, and increased snacking behaviors. We found food availability and household roles to be powerful factors influencing food choices. Most students had returned to family homes with many students taking a passive role in activities that shape food choices. Parents usually purchased groceries and prepared meals with students eating foods made available to them. Increased free time contributed to boredom and snacking for some students, while for a few students with increased skills and/or agency, additional free time was used to plan and prepare meals. About a third of the students attributed eating different foods at home to food availability issues related to the pandemic such as groceries being out of stock, purchasing non-perishable foods, or the inability to get to a store. This information may be helpful to researchers and health promotion professionals interested in the effects of COVID-19 on student nutrition and related food behaviors, including those interested in the relationship between context and food choice.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Preferências Alimentares , Pandemias , Estudantes , Adolescente , Comportamento do Consumidor , Características da Família , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Lanches , Estados Unidos , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
11.
Appetite ; 161: 105132, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493611

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic caused France to impose a strict lockdown, affecting families' habits in many domains. This study evaluated possible changes in child eating behaviors, parental feeding practices, and parental motivations when buying food during the lockdown, compared to the period before the lockdown. Parents of 498 children aged 3-12 years (238 boys; M = 7.32; SD = 2.27) completed an online survey with items from validated questionnaires (e.g., CEDQ, CEBQ, HomeSTEAD). They reported on their (child's) current situation during the lockdown, and retrospectively on the period before the lockdown. Many parents reported changes in child eating behaviors, feeding practices, and food shopping motivations. When changes occurred, child appetite, food enjoyment, food responsiveness and emotional overeating significantly increased during the lockdown. Increased child boredom significantly predicted increased food responsiveness, emotional overeating and snack frequency in between meals. When parents changed their practices, they generally became more permissive: less rules, more soothing with food, more child autonomy. They bought pleasurable and sustainable foods more frequently, prepared more home-cooked meals and cooked more with the child. Level of education and increased stress level predicted changes in parental practices and motivations. This study provides insights in factors that can induce positive and negative changes in families' eating, feeding and cooking behaviors. This can stimulate future studies and interventions.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Comportamento do Consumidor , Comportamento Alimentar , Pandemias , Poder Familiar , Adulto , Apetite , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Emoções , Feminino , França , Humanos , Hiperfagia , Masculino , Refeições , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Relações Pais-Filho , Lanches , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 76(1): 68-75, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483848

RESUMO

The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of feed moisture (13-17%, wb) and barrel temperature (120-160 °C) on physicochemical properties, and changes in the carotenoid profile of maize grits extruded snacks. The extrudates were obtained in a single-screw extruder, according to a 32 factorial design with two replicates. The linear coefficients of feed moisture and barrel temperature mainly affected the physicochemical properties. On the other hand, the interaction coefficient ß112 dominated the change in total carotenoids, lutein, zeaxanthin, and ß-carotene. The quadratic coefficients were also important for changes in total color (regarding feed moisture), and for ß-cryptoxanthin, specific mechanical energy, and volumetric expansion index (regarding barrel temperature). ß-cryptoxanthin and ß-carotene increased, whereas lutein and zeaxanthin decreased. The mathematical models developed from responses revealed two feasible operating regions under the domain explored. For a satisfactory process, from a technological and nutritional point of view, it is suggested to extrude at the operating conditions ranging between 13.2-13.7% feed moisture and 120-132 °C barrel temperature. Under these conditions, the specific mechanical energy input required was 410-450 kJ/kg, and extrudates with a volumetric expansion index greater than 12, a crispness work less than 0.4 N.mm, and with moderate increments in the levels of ß-carotene and ß-cryptoxanthin were produced. The use of richer cultivars in carotenoids could contribute to the production of healthier snacks.


Assuntos
Lanches , Zea mays , Carotenoides , Temperatura , beta Caroteno
13.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 68(1): 12-22, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33342932

RESUMO

Objectives In Japan, medical questionnaires on diet and lifestyle are administered during health checkups for children. Since the rate of health checkup participation is high, the information obtained from these questionnaires can be used for regional diagnoses. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between sweet snack eating habits (SSEHs) and lifestyle habits in toddlers using data from the questionnaires.Methods This study was conducted across 35 municipalities in Aichi Prefecture, Japan, where individual toddlers can be tracked at medical examinations at the age of 1 year 6 months (18 m) and 3 years (36 m). The subjects were 18,251 toddlers (9,393 boys [51.5%]) who participated in the health checkup in the same municipalities at 18 m in 2013 and 36 m in 2014-2015. Subjects were divided into four categories based on their SSEHs at 18 m and 36 m: N-N (no SSEH at either 18 m or 36 m); Y-N (no SSEH at 36 m only); N-Y (no SSEH at 18 m only); Y-Y (SSEH at both 18 m and 36 m). Other lifestyle habits were divided into two levels: good habits and bad habits. A multinomial logistic regression analysis was performed using the SSEH category as the dependent variable and lifestyle as the independent variable. The control groups were the Y-Y category and bad habit for the dependent and independent variables, respectively.Results The proportions of N-N, Y-N, N-Y, and Y-Y subjects were 27.7%, 8.6%, 24.1%, and 39.6%, respectively. At 18 m, 48.2% toddlers had an SSEH, which increased to 63.7% at 36 m. Most toddlers (82.2%) had a habit of sweet snacking at 18 m and habitually consumed sweet snacks at 36 m. The absence of nursing at bedtime at 18 m was positively associated with the N-N group (odds ratio [99% confidence interval]=1.25 [1.11-1.41]) and the Y-N group (1.28 [1.07-1.52]); however, no association was found with the N-Y group (0.99 [0.88-1.11]). Parental finish polishing at 18 m tended to show a positive association only with the N-N group (1.10 [0.99-1.23]).Conclusion Nearly half of toddlers had SSEHs by 18 m, and most of them continued to have the habit at 36 m. Oral hygiene behavior at 18 m was associated with SSEHs of toddlers up to 36 m. A regional diagnosis using the results of the health checkup for children is useful for identifying factors related to health problems.


Assuntos
Açúcares da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Nível de Saúde , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente/fisiologia , Estilo de Vida , Lanches , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Comportamento do Lactente , Japão , Masculino , Higiene Bucal/psicologia , Exame Físico
14.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(2): 638-647, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32691876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An antioxidant formula based on peanut skins and hulls was developed and characterized for total and single polyphenols, as well as antioxidant power, considering the contribution provided by each peanut by-product. Subsequently, it was evaluated for its effect on the sensory properties and aroma stability of peanut bars over a 100-day period. To this purpose, snacks fortified, or not, with the natural additive were experimentally produced. RESULTS: Peanut hulls contributed to a greater extent than skins with respect to boosting the content of bioactives and the antioxidnt activity of the antioxidant formula, which was marked by a phenol content of (approximately 807 mg gallic acid equivalents g-1 ) and a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl activity similar to that of butylated hydroxytoluene (85.96% and 89.30%, respectively). From a sensory perspective, the incorporation of the formulation in snacks caused only a slightly stronger perception of astringent and bitter notes. Pyrazines, phenol, furan and pyrrole derivatives defined the aroma of snacks, being more abundant in fortified than in conventional samples. Such volatiles faded over storage, with different trends in the examined products. For example, the sum of 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2-ethylpyrazine and 2,3-dimethylpyrazine was 9.49 and 8.87 ppm at day 15; 5.57 and 7.16 ppm at day 45; and 5.03 and 4.65 ppm at day 100, respectively, in fortified and conventional snacks. Hydroxymethylfurfural decreased constantly over storage in conventional samples and only after day 45 in fortified bars. CONCLUSION: Overall, the antioxidant formulation did not compromise the sensory desirability of peanut snacks and induced a preservative effect on their aroma, especially during the first 15 days of storage. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Arachis/química , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Odorantes/análise , Resíduos/análise , Arachis/metabolismo , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Humanos , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Lanches , Paladar
15.
Appetite ; 156: 104853, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038479

RESUMO

Eating, physical activity and other weight-related lifestyle behaviors may have been impacted by the COVID-19 crisis and people with obesity may be disproportionately affected. We examined weight-related behaviors and weight management barriers among UK adults during the COVID-19 social lockdown. During April-May of the 2020 COVID-19 social lockdown, UK adults (N = 2002) completed an online survey including measures relating to physical activity, diet quality, overeating and how mental/physical health had been affected by lockdown. Participants also reported on perceived changes in weight-related behaviors and whether they had experienced barriers to weight management, compared to before the lockdown. A large number of participants reported negative changes in eating and physical activity behavior (e.g. 56% reported snacking more frequently) and experiencing barriers to weight management (e.g. problems with motivation and control around food) compared to before lockdown. These trends were particularly pronounced among participants with higher BMI. During lockdown, higher BMI was associated with lower levels of physical activity and diet quality, and a greater reported frequency of overeating. Reporting a decline in mental health because of the COVID-19 crisis was not associated with higher BMI, but was predictive of greater overeating and lower physical activity in lockdown. The COVID-19 crisis may have had a disproportionately large and negative influence on weight-related behaviors among adults with higher BMI.


Assuntos
Dieta , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Alimentar , Saúde Mental , Obesidade , Pandemias , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperfagia/etiologia , Hiperfagia/psicologia , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/psicologia , Lanches , Isolamento Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
16.
Food Chem ; 334: 127511, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707367

RESUMO

The sustainable exploitation of fruit and cereal processing is being conducted to produce novel food products with promising nutritional properties and high content in added value compounds. Herein, three bilberry fruit-based snacks supplemented with edible petals and fruits were characterized for their nutritional properties and chemical composition. The phenolic profile, antioxidant, antibacterial and hepatotoxic properties were analyzed. Protein (3-4 g/100 g dw) and carbohydrates (94.3-94.8 g/100 g dw) represented the major macronutrients. The combination of bilberry fruits with edible petals, calendula and rose, improved the nutritional and phytochemical input in organic acids and tocopherols content, respectively. Also, the supplementation with apple and goji fruits provided higher content in phenolic acids and anthocyanins (up to a 9-fold higher concentration, 199.7 µg/g of extract), also resulting in a higher antioxidant and antibacterial activities. The results obtained can contribute for the development of novel sustainable and healthier snacks for the food industry.


Assuntos
Valor Nutritivo , Vaccinium myrtillus/química , Antocianinas/química , Antioxidantes/química , Carboidratos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Fenóis/análise , Lanches , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Tocoferóis/análise , Vaccinium myrtillus/metabolismo
17.
Food Chem ; 339: 127875, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866701

RESUMO

Gluten protein based snacks have been a major concern for allergen, low nutrition and physio-chemical properties. In this study, wheat flour (WF) was replaced with cassava starch (CS) at different levels [10, 20, 30, 40 and 50%(w/w)] to prepare fried snacks. The addition of CS significantly (P < 0.05) increased hardness and pasting properties while gluten network, oil uptake, water holding capacity, and expansion were decreased. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that the secondary structure of amide I, α-helix (1650-1660 cm-1), along with amide II region (1540 cm-1) changed when CS was added. Starch-protein complex was identified by X-ray diffraction analysis while no starch-protein-lipid complex was observed. The micrographs from scanning electron microscopy showed that starch-protein matrix was interrupted when ≥40%(w/w) CS was added. Furthermore, in vitro calcium bioavailability was decreased slightly with the addition of CS. The results suggest the feasibility of adding 40% CS as an alternative to WF in snacks.


Assuntos
Digestão , Glutens/química , Manihot/química , Lanches , Triticum/química , Farinha/análise , Dureza , Amido/química , Água/química
18.
Nutr. hosp ; 37(6): 1190-1196, nov.-dic. 2020. graf, mapas
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-195747

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: en plena crisis por la COVID-19, el consumo alimentario ha pasado a llevarse a cabo en su totalidad en el hogar y las visitas a los centros de distribución de alimentos se han visto reducidas. Asimismo, otros hábitos, como la práctica de ejercicio físico o las horas de sueño, se han visto también modificadas. OBJETIVOS: el objetivo de este trabajo ha sido evaluar los cambios producidos en los hábitos alimentarios y en el estilo de vida de la población gallega durante el período de confinamiento por la COVID-19. MÉTODOS: se elaboró una encuesta en Microsoft Forms para adultos residentes en Galicia y se distribuyó, de manera aleatoria, a través de un servicio de mensajería instantánea para móviles a través de Internet. RESULTADOS: el número de participantes fue de 1350 personas, mayores de edad, siendo el promedio de edad de 63,2 ± 8,1 años y estando la muestra compuesta por un 30 % de hombres y un 70 % de mujeres. Los datos muestran una tendencia hacia el consumo de alimentos saludables, como frutas y verduras, y un descenso de otros menos saludables, como son los alimentos procesados. Un 46 % de la población indicó estar comiendo más que antes del confinamiento, aumentando el picoteo entre horas (54 %) y la ansiedad por la comida, debido a situaciones de estrés o nervios, en un 40 % de los encuestados. Esto se ha traducido en un incremento del peso corporal, indicado por un 44 % de la muestra, siendo la media de kilos ganada de 2,8 ± 1,5. CONCLUSIONES: durante el confinamiento, los hábitos alimentarios y el estilo de vida de la población gallega se han visto modificados. El incremento de peso experimentado en una población que ya partía de un elevado porcentaje de sobrepeso y obesidad al inicio del confinamiento podría tener un impacto negativo en el desarrollo de patologías crónicas no transmisibles


INTRODUCTION: during the COVID-19 crisis food habits have changed among the population as food consumption is now carried out totally at home, and visits to groceries or food centers have decreased considerably. Likewise, other habits, such as physical activity or sleeping hours have also been modified. OBJECTIVES: the objective of this work was to evaluate the changes occurred in eating and lifestyle habits among the adult Galician population during the confinement period ordered in Spain during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: a survey was conducted using Microsoft Forms, and spread among the population using an instant messaging service for mobiles through the internet. RESULTS: a total of 1350 Galician adults completed the questionnaire; mean of age was 63.2 ± 8.1 years, 30 % were men, and 70 % were women. The obtained data show a trend towards consumption of healthy foods such as fruits and vegetables, and a decrease in less healthy ones such as processed foods. In total, 46 % of the population reported they were eating more than before the confinement, with an increase in snacking between meals (54 %) and in anxiety about food due to situations of stress or nervousness bieng reported by 40 % of respondents. This has resulted in an increase in body weight, reported by 44 % of participants, with the average gain being 2.8 ± 1.5 kg. CONCLUSIONS: during confinement, the eating and lifestyle habits of the Galician population have been modified. The weight gain observed in a population that already had a high level of overweight and obesity at confinement onset aggravates the present situation and may have a negative impact on the development of chronic, non-communicable diseases


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Pandemias , Comportamento Alimentar , Quarentena/psicologia , Exercício Físico , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Estilo de Vida , Sono , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários , Verduras , Ingestão de Alimentos , Lanches
19.
Nutr. hosp ; 37(6): 1232-1237, nov.-dic. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-195748

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: the COVID-19 pandemic, by restricting population mobility, may exacerbate the risk factors for weight gain associated with physical inactivity and increased consumption of calorie-dense foods. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the risk factors related to self-reported body weight gain among obese subjects. METHODS: the study involved a population of 284 adult obese subjects. After a 7-week confinement period starting on March 17, a telephone interview (May 4 through 7) was conducted. In this phone call, self-reported body weight gain and a number of factors were recorded. In order to obtain the baseline data of this population, biochemical and anthropometric parameters were collected from electronic medical records. RESULTS: mean age was 60.4 ± 10.8 years (range: 23-71) and mean body mass index (BMI) was 35.4 ± 4.7 kg/m2 (range: 30.6-41.2). Gender distribution was 211 females (74.3 %) and 73 males (25.7 %). Self-reported body weight gain was 1.62 ± 0.2 kg. Among patients who reported doing a lot of exercise self-reported body weight gain was lower (1.62 ± 0.2 vs 1.12 ± 0.3 kg; p = 0.02). Regarding eating habits, patients recognized snacking in 17 % of the sample. Patients who reported snacking had higher self-reported body weight gains (2.60 ± 0.36 vs 1.30 ± 0.17 kg; p = 0.001). The remaining variables did not influence self-reported body weight gain. In the multiple regression analysis with self-reported body weight gain as dependent variable, adjusted for age, sex, and physical activity, the snaking habit remained a risk factor: beta = 1.21 (95 % CI: 1.11-2.13; p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: the lockdown decreed during SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has produced an increase in self-reported body weight among obese subjects, which was related to the habit of taking snacks


OBJETIVO: la pandemia de COVID-19, al restringir la movilidad de la población, podría exacerbar los factores de riesgo del aumento de peso asociados a la inactividad física y un mayor consumo de alimentos ricos en calorías. El objetivo de este estudio transversal fue evaluar los factores de riesgo relacionados con el aumento de peso corporal autoinformado entre sujetos obesos. MÉTODOS: el estudio incluyó una muestra de 284 sujetos obesos adultos. Después de un período de reclusión de 7 semanas a partir del 17 de marzo, se realizó una entrevista telefónica (del 4 al 7 de mayo). En esta llamada telefónica se registraron el aumento de peso corporal autoinformado y diferentes factores asociados. Para obtener los datos basales de esta población, se registraron parámetros bioquímicos y antropométricos a partir de la historia clínica electrónica. RESULTADOS: la edad media fue de 60,4 ± 10,8 años (rango: 23-71) y el índice de masa corporal (IMC) medio de 35,4 ± 4,7 kg /m2 (rango: 30,6-41,2). La distribución por géneros fue de 211 mujeres (74,3 %) y 73 hombres (25,7 %). El aumento de peso corporal autoinformado fue de 1,62 ± 0,2 kg. Los pacientes que reconocieron que hacían mucho ejercicio informaron de que la ganancia de peso corporal había sido menor (1,62 ± 0,2 vs 1,12 ± 0,3 kg; p = 0,02). En cuanto a los hábitos alimentarios, los pacientes reconocieron practicar el picoteo en el 17 % de la muestra. Los pacientes que reconocieron picar entre horas presentaron una mayor ganancia de peso corporal autoinformada (2,60 ± 0,36 vs 1,30 ± 0,17 kg; p = 0,001). Las demás variables no influyeron en el aumento de peso corporal autoinformado. En el análisis de regresión múltiple, con la ganancia de peso corporal autoinformada como variable dependiente y ajuste de edad, sexo y actividad física, el hábito del picoteo permaneció como factor de riesgo: beta = 1,21 (IC 95 %: 1,11-2,13; p = 0,01). CONCLUSIONES: el encierro decretado durante la pandemia por el SARS-CoV-2 ha producido un aumento del peso corporal autoinformado en los sujetos obesos y este se ha relacionado con el hábito de picar entre horas


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Quarentena , Antropometria , Peso Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Comportamento Alimentar , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Comportamento Sedentário , Autorrelato , Lanches , Espanha/epidemiologia
20.
Nutrients ; 12(12)2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33322459

RESUMO

Prevalence of diet-related behaviors (i.e., breakfast consumption, eating with the family) and their association with a 17-point diet quality score, constructed on the basis of reported frequency (in days/week) of vegetable, fruit, sweets and sugar-sweetened beverages consumption, was investigated among 3525 adolescents (51.5% girls) aged 11, 13 and 15 years, who were participants in the Greek arm of the international Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) cross-sectional study, during 2018. Almost one-third (32.9%) of the sample had breakfast ≤1 day/weekdays, 20.2% rarely ate with the family, 26.1% had a meal while watching TV ≥5 days/week, 31.7% had a snack in front of a screen ≥5 days/week and 24.1% ate in fast-food restaurants at least once/week. Multivariable ordinal logistic regression revealed that eating breakfast ≤1 day/weekdays compared to 4-5 days/weekdays (Odds ratio (OR): 1.56, 95% con-fidence interval (CI): 1.34-1.82), eating rarely with the family compared to almost every day (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.13-1.60) and eating in fast-food restaurants ≥2 times/week vs. rarely (OR: 4.59, 95% CI: 3.14-6.70) were associated with higher odds of having poor diet quality. High frequency of having meals/snacks in front of a screen/TV was also associated with poor diet quality. Efforts to prevent or modify these behaviors during adolescence may contribute to healthier diet.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Dieta Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Alimentar , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Frutas , Grécia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Refeições , Lanches , Verduras
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