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1.
Neurocirugía (Soc. Luso-Esp. Neurocir.) ; 31(4): 158-164, jul.-ago. 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193896

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: Los tumores neuroepiteliales disembrioplásicos (DNET) son un tipo de neoplasia glioneuronal benigna de localización típicamente temporal que producen crisis epilépticas resistentes al tratamiento farmacológico en niños y adultos jóvenes. OBJETIVO: Se muestran 4 casos valorando la utilidad de la resonancia magnética funcional en el estudio prequirúrgico de pacientes con tumores neuroepiteliales disembrionarios. Para la obtención de imágenes se utilizó un equipo de resonancia magnética Philipps Intera de 3.0 Tesla y la técnica Blood Oxygenation Level-Dependent, permitiendo localizar las áreas elocuentes de lenguaje y motora mediante la aplicación de paradigmas específicos. RESULTADOS: En un caso el tumor se encontraba adyacente al área de Broca, en 2 casos coincidía con Wernicke, en un paciente estaba menos de 1cm del área motora de la mano y en otro próximo a la memoria. Solo 2 de los pacientes fueron operados, no produciéndose déficit funcional postoperatorio. Se observó activación hemisférica contralateral al tumor sugestivo de neuroplasticidad en uno de los pacientes. CONCLUSIONES: La resonancia magnética funcional supone un método no invasivo que permite evaluar la proximidad de las lesiones a las áreas elocuentes, clave en la evaluación del riesgo quirúrgico. Además, ha permitido detectar probable neuroplasticidad en un caso, la cual ha garantizado el éxito de la cirugía


INTRODUCTION: Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumours (DNET) are a type of benign glioneuronal neoplasia of typically temporal location that produce drug-resistant epileptic seizures in children and young adults. OBJECTIVE: This work aims to assess the usefulness of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the preoperative study in four patients with DNET. A Philips Intera 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner and the Blood-Oxygen-Level-Dependent (BOLD) technique were used to obtain the images, making it possible to locate the eloquent areas for language and motor areas through the application of specific paradigms. RESULTS: In one case the tumour was adjacent to Broca's area, in two cases it coincided with Wernicke's area, in one patient it was < 1cm from the motor area for the hand and in another close to memory. Only two of the patients were operated on, without postoperative functional deficit. Hemispheric activation contralateral to the tumour suggestive of neuroplasticity was observed in one of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: fMRI is a non-invasive method that allows us to assess the proximity of lesions to eloquent areas, which is key in the evaluation of surgical risk. In addition, it allowed the detection of probable neuroplasticity in one case, which guaranteed the success of the surgery


Assuntos
Humanos , Neoplasias Neuroepiteliomatosas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Neuroepiteliomatosas/fisiopatologia , Encefalopatias/patologia , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Neuroimagem Funcional/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/instrumentação , Área de Wernicke/diagnóstico por imagem , Encefalopatias/fisiopatologia
2.
Neuron ; 107(3): 580-589.e6, 2020 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778224

RESUMO

To induce brain plasticity in humans, we casted the dominant upper extremity for 2 weeks and tracked changes in functional connectivity using daily 30-min scans of resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI). Casting caused cortical and cerebellar regions controlling the disused extremity to functionally disconnect from the rest of the somatomotor system, while internal connectivity within the disused sub-circuit was maintained. Functional disconnection was evident within 48 h, progressed throughout the cast period, and reversed after cast removal. During the cast period, large, spontaneous pulses of activity propagated through the disused somatomotor sub-circuit. The adult brain seems to rely on regular use to maintain its functional architecture. Disuse-driven spontaneous activity pulses may help preserve functionally disconnected sub-circuits.


Assuntos
Córtex Motor/diagnóstico por imagem , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Restrição Física , Atividades Cotidianas , Moldes Cirúrgicos , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional , Neuroimagem Funcional , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Extremidade Superior
3.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236423, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Use of functional MRI (fMRI) in pre-surgical planning is a non-invasive method for pre-operative functional mapping for patients with brain tumors, especially tumors located near eloquent cortex. Currently, this practice predominantly involves task-based fMRI (T-fMRI). Resting state fMRI (RS-fMRI) offers an alternative with several methodological advantages. Here, we compare group-level analyses of RS-fMRI vs. T-fMRI as methods for language localization. PURPOSE: To contrast RS-fMRI vs. T-fMRI as techniques for localization of language function. METHODS: We analyzed data obtained in 35 patients who had both T-fMRI and RS-fMRI scans during the course of pre-surgical evaluation. The RS-fMRI data were analyzed using a previously trained resting-state network classifier. The T-fMRI data were analyzed using conventional techniques. Group-level results obtained by both methods were evaluated in terms of two outcome measures: (1) inter-subject variability of response magnitude and (2) sensitivity/specificity analysis of response topography, taking as ground truth previously reported maps of the language system based on intraoperative cortical mapping as well as meta-analytic maps of language task fMRI responses. RESULTS: Both fMRI methods localized major components of the language system (areas of Broca and Wernicke) although not with equal inter-subject consistency. Word-stem completion T-fMRI strongly activated Broca's area but also several task-general areas not specific to language. RS-fMRI provided a more specific representation of the language system. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate several advantages of classifier-based mapping of language representation in the brain. Language T-fMRI activated task-general (i.e., not language-specific) functional systems in addition to areas of Broca and Wernicke. In contrast, classifier-based analysis of RS-fMRI data generated maps confined to language-specific regions of the brain.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Área de Broca/patologia , Glioblastoma/diagnóstico , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Adulto , Idoso , Atenção/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Área de Broca/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Frontal/patologia , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Glioblastoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Glioblastoma/patologia , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Descanso/fisiologia , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Temporal/patologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Codas ; 32(3): e20190040, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609223

RESUMO

PURPOSE: to investigate the variability of the Dichotic Sentence Test through the test and retest in normal-hearing adults. METHOD: We evaluated thirty-six individuals aged 19 to 44 years old, right-handed and with normal hearing thresholds. We performed the basic audiological evaluation and then we applied the Dichotic Digit Test and Dichotic Sentence Test. The test and retest had two sessions, with an interval from 30 to 40 days, in the same shift. RESULTS: In the integration task, there was an advantage of the right ear in both evaluation sessions. There was no significant difference between the measures obtained in the right ear in the two evaluation sessions, while in the left ear, we found a significant difference. In the analysis of the differences in ears between the test and the retest, we found that 64% of the individuals kept the same result in the right ear, while in the left one, only 36% of the individuals kept the same result in both stages and 44% showed a 10% difference between the two evaluations. We observed moderate positive correlation for both the right ear (r=0.420) and the left ear (r=0.550), with a tendency to improve retest scores. In the separation task, there was a small variability only in the left ear, also with improved retest scores. CONCLUSION: There was a significant difference between the measures obtained in the test and retest only in the integration task in the left ear, but there was a moderate positive correlation between the measures obtained in the two evaluation sessions, showing a tendency to improve scores in the second evaluation session.


Assuntos
Testes com Listas de Dissílabos , Idioma , Adulto , Orelha , Face , Lateralidade Funcional , Audição , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
5.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235311, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628734

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to define the prevalence and predictors of non-right-handedness and its link to long-term neurodevelopmental outcome and early neuroimaging in a cohort of children born extremely preterm (<28 weeks gestation). METHODS: 179 children born extremely preterm admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of our tertiary centre from 2006-2013 were included in a prospective longitudinal cohort study. Collected data included perinatal data, demographic characteristics, neurodevelopmental outcome measured by the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development at 2 years and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children at 5 years, and handedness measured at school age (4-8 years). Magnetic resonance imaging performed at term-equivalent age was used to study overt brain injury. Diffusion tensor imaging scans were analysed using tract-based spatial statistics to assess white matter microstructure in relation to handedness and neurodevelopmental outcome. RESULTS: The prevalence of non-right-handedness in our cohort was 22.9%, compared to 12% in the general population. Weaker fine motor skills at 2 years and paternal non-right-handedness were significantly associated with non-right-handedness. Both overt brain injury and fractional anisotropy of white matter structures on diffusion tensor images were not related to handedness. Fractional anisotropy measurements showed significant associations with neurodevelopmental outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that non-right-handedness in children born extremely preterm occurs almost twice as frequently as in the general population. In the studied population, non-right-handedness is associated with weaker fine motor skills and paternal non-right-handedness, but not with overt brain injury or microstructural brain development on early magnetic resonance imaging.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão/estatística & dados numéricos , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
7.
World Neurosurg ; 139: 762-774, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32689697

RESUMO

Though frequently effective in the management of medically refractory seizures, epilepsy surgery presents numerous challenges. Selection of the appropriate candidate patients who are likely to benefit from surgery is critical to achieving seizure freedom and avoiding neurocognitive morbidity. Identifying the seizure focus and mapping epileptogenic networks involves an interdisciplinary team dedicated to formulating a safe and effective surgical plan. Various strategies can be employed either to eliminate the epileptic focus or to modulate network activity, including resection of the focus with open surgery or laser interstitial thermal therapy; modulation of epileptogenic firing patterns with responsive neurostimulation, deep brain stimulation, or vagus nerve stimulation; or non-invasive disconnection of epileptic circuits with focused ultrasound, which is also discussed in greater detail in the subsequent chapter in our series. We review several challenges of epilepsy surgery that must be thoughtfully addressed in order to ensure its success.


Assuntos
Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/cirurgia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Seleção de Pacientes , Fatores Etários , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/terapia , Eletroencefalografia , Encefalite/cirurgia , Técnicas de Ablação Endometrial , Lateralidade Funcional , Neuroimagem Funcional , Humanos , Neuroestimuladores Implantáveis , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Magnetoencefalografia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Implantação de Prótese , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único , Falha de Tratamento , Esclerose Tuberosa/cirurgia
8.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233843, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497147

RESUMO

The vestibular system is essential to produce adequate postural responses enabling voluntary movement. However, how the vestibular system influences corticospinal output during postural tasks is still unknown. Here, we examined the modulation exerted by the vestibular system on corticospinal output during standing. Healthy subjects (n = 25) maintained quiet standing, head facing forward with eyes closed. Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) was applied bipolarly and binaurally at different delays prior to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) which triggered motor evoked potentials (MEPs). With the cathode right/anode left configuration, MEPs in right Soleus (SOL) muscle were significantly suppressed when GVS was applied at ISI = 40 and 130ms before TMS. With the anode right/cathode left configuration, no significant changes were observed. Changes in the MEP amplitude were then compared to changes in the ongoing EMG when GVS was applied alone. Only the decrease in MEP amplitude at ISI = 40ms occurred without change in the ongoing EMG, suggesting that modulation occurred at a premotoneuronal level. We further investigated whether vestibular modulation could occur at the motor cortex level by assessing changes in the direct corticospinal pathways using the short-latency facilitation of the SOL Hoffmann reflex (H-reflex) by TMS. None of the observed modulation occurred at the level of motor cortex. Finally, using the long-latency facilitation of the SOL H-reflex, we were able to confirm that the suppression of MEP at ISI = 40ms occurred at a premotoneuronal level. The data indicate that vestibular signals modulate corticospinal output to SOL at both premotoneuronal and motoneuronal levels during standing.


Assuntos
Eletromiografia/métodos , Tratos Piramidais/fisiologia , Posição Ortostática , Vestíbulo do Labirinto/fisiologia , Adulto , Potencial Evocado Motor/fisiologia , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Reflexo H/fisiologia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Neurônios Motores/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana , Adulto Jovem
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2839, 2020 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503986

RESUMO

Proper speech production requires auditory speech feedback control. Models of speech production associate this function with the right cerebral hemisphere while the left hemisphere is proposed to host speech motor programs. However, previous studies have investigated only spectral perturbations of the auditory speech feedback. Since auditory perception is known to be lateralized, with right-lateralized analysis of spectral features and left-lateralized processing of temporal features, it is unclear whether the observed right-lateralization of auditory speech feedback processing reflects a preference for speech feedback control or for spectral processing in general. Here we use a behavioral speech adaptation experiment with dichotically presented altered auditory feedback and an analogous fMRI experiment with binaurally presented altered feedback to confirm a right hemisphere preference for spectral feedback control and to reveal a left hemisphere preference for temporal feedback control during speaking. These results indicate that auditory feedback control involves both hemispheres with differential contributions along the spectro-temporal axis.


Assuntos
Cérebro/fisiologia , Retroalimentação Sensorial/fisiologia , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Fala/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(25): 14057-14065, 2020 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513702

RESUMO

Humans demonstrate a prototypical hemispheric functional segregation pattern, with language and praxis lateralizing to the left hemisphere and spatial attention, face recognition, and emotional prosody to the right hemisphere. In this study, we used fMRI to determine laterality for all five functions in each participant. Crucially, we recruited a sample of left-handers preselected for atypical (right) language dominance (n = 24), which allowed us to characterize hemispheric asymmetry of the other functions and compare their functional segregation pattern with that of left-handers showing typical language dominance (n = 39). Our results revealed that most participants with left language dominance display the prototypical pattern of functional hemispheric segregation (44%) or deviate from this pattern in only one function (35%). Similarly, the vast majority of right language dominant participants demonstrated a completely mirrored brain organization (50%) or a reversal for all but one cognitive function (32%). Participants deviating by more than one function from the standard segregation pattern showed poorer cognitive performance, in line with an oft-presumed biological advantage of hemispheric functional segregation.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Lateralidade Funcional , Adolescente , Adulto , Atenção , Emoções , Reconhecimento Facial , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Nível de Percepção Sonora , Percepção Espacial
11.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234665, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544204

RESUMO

Dichotic-listening paradigms are widely accepted as non-invasive tests of hemispheric dominance for language processing and represent a standard diagnostic tool for the assessment of developmental auditory and language disorders. Despite its popularity in research and clinical settings, dichotic paradigms show comparatively low reliability, significantly threatening the validity of conclusions drawn from the results. Thus, the aim of the present work was to design and evaluate a novel, highly reliable dichotic-listening paradigm for the assessment of hemispheric differences. Based on an extensive literature review, the paradigm was optimized to account for the main experimental variables which are known to systematically bias task performance or affect random error variance. The main design principle was to minimize the relevance of higher cognitive functions on task performance in order to obtain stimulus-driven laterality estimates. To this end, the key design features of the paradigm were the use of stop-consonant vowel (CV) syllables as stimulus material, a single stimulus pair per trial presentation mode, and a free recall (single) response instruction. Evaluating a verbal and manual response-format version of the paradigm in a sample of N = 50 healthy participants, we yielded test-retest intra-class correlations of rICC = .91 and .93 for the two response format versions. These excellent reliability estimates suggest that the optimal paradigm may offer an effective and efficient alternative to currently used paradigms both in research and diagnostic.


Assuntos
Testes com Listas de Dissílabos/métodos , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Adulto , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
12.
J Rehabil Med ; 52(6): jrm00072, 2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488286

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the clinical and functional characteristics associated with contralateral spatial neglect in right compared with left subacute stroke, and to investigate the correlations between neglect severity and stroke severity, functional ability and outcome. METHODS: Cross-sectional study comparing neurological impairment and disability. The same data-set was used in part 2 of this study. RESULTS: Contralateral neglect was present in 79.7% of right stroke and 68.3% of left stroke rehabilitants, and was, on average, equally mild. Left stroke rehabilitants with neglect had higher stroke severity, cognitive and total disability and dependence level and more impaired sphincter control than right stroke rehabilitants with neglect, while the occurrence of depression, motor and sensory impairment was similar. Rehabilitants with neglect, irrespective of stroke side, had higher stroke severity, cognitive, motor and total disability and dependence level than rehabilitants without neglect. CONCLUSION: In left and right stroke rehabilitants with equally mild neglect, those with left stroke had higher stroke severity, cognitive and total disability and dependence level. Neglect severity correlated with right or left stroke severity and functional ability, moderate to severe neglect correlated significantly more with functioning. Neglect severity was independently associated with functional outcome in right stroke.


Assuntos
Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos da Percepção/complicações , Transtornos da Percepção/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234382, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584824

RESUMO

A brief session of rightward prismatic adaptation (R-PA) has been shown to alleviate neglect symptoms in patients with right hemispheric damage, very likely by switching hemispheric dominance of the ventral attentional network (VAN) from the right to the left and by changing task-related activity within the dorsal attentional network (DAN). We have investigated this very rapid change in functional organisation with a network approach by comparing resting-state connectivity before and after a brief exposure i) to R-PA (14 normal subjects; experimental condition) or ii) to plain glasses (12 normal subjects; control condition). A whole brain analysis (comprising 129 regions of interest) highlighted R-PA-induced changes within a bilateral, fronto-temporal network, which consisted of 13 nodes and 11 edges; all edges involved one of 4 frontal nodes, which were part of VAN. The analysis of network characteristics within VAN and DAN revealed a R-PA-induced decrease in connectivity strength between nodes and a decrease in local efficiency within VAN but not within DAN. These results indicate that the resting-state connectivity configuration of VAN is modulated by R-PA, possibly by decreasing its modularity.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Lesões Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões Encefálicas/fisiopatologia , Lesões Encefálicas/terapia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Conectoma , Óculos , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Neuroimagem Funcional , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Dispositivos Ópticos , Transtornos da Percepção/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos da Percepção/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Percepção/terapia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 34(6): 696-701, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32538558

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the effect of the surgeon's handedness on the distribution of prosthesis during primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 86 patients (100 knees) with primary TKA completed by the same right-handed surgeon between December 2016 and December 2018, including 72 cases of single knee and 14 of bilateral knees. The patients were divided into dominant group (right side) and non-dominant group (left side) according to the operating position of the surgeon and each group had 50 knees. There was no significant difference in gender, age, body mass index, disease duration, clinical diagnosis, preoperative Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) score, and other general data between the two groups ( P>0.05). The operation time and complications were recorded in both groups. The function of knee was evaluated by HSS score. Hip-knee-ankle angle (HKA), mechanical lateral distal femoral angle (mLDFA), and mechanical medial proximal tibial angle (mMPTA) were measured by using X-ray film of full-length lower extremity before TKA and at 2 weeks after TKA that were used to evaluate the coronal position of the prosthesis. Posterior distal femoral angle (PDFA) and posterior proximal tibial angle (PPTA) were measured by using lateral X-ray films at 3 months after operation that were used to evaluate the sagittal position of the prosthesis. Results: There was no significant difference in operation time between the two groups ( t=-1.128, P=0.262). One case of posterior tibial artery thrombosis occurred in the dominant group, and 1 case of poor healing of the incision occurred in each of the dominant group and the non-dominant group. Patients in both groups were followed up 12-34 months with an average of 22.0 months. The HSS scores at last follow-up were 87.2±4.3 in the dominant group and 86.8±5.0 in the non-dominant group. There was no significant difference between the two groups ( t=0.471, P=0.639). No complications such as periprosthetic infection, prosthetic loosening, or periprosthetic fracture occurred during follow-up. There was no significant difference in the HKA, mLDFA, and mMPTA between the two groups before and after operation ( P>0.05). The differences in the incidence of sagittal femoral prosthesis malposition and PDFA between the two groups were significant ( P<0.05); however, there was no significant difference in the PPTA, the rate of femoral prosthesis distributed in the neutral position, the incidence of over-flexed femoral prosthesis, and the incidence of anterior femoral notch ( P>0.05). Conclusion: The surgeon's handedness is one of the factors affecting the placement of the sagittal femoral prosthesis in primary TKA. The incidence of sagittal femoral prosthesis malposition could increase when the surgeon performs on the non-dominant side.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho , Lateralidade Funcional , Cirurgiões , Artroplastia do Joelho/normas , Artroplastia do Joelho/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho , Prótese do Joelho/normas , Osteoartrite do Joelho , Estudos Retrospectivos , Cirurgiões/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 75: e1468, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401966

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Unilateral spatial neglect (USN) results in a consistent and exaggerated spatial asymmetry in the processing of information about the body or space due to an acquired brain injury. There are several USN tests for clinical diagnosis, but none of them are validated in Brazil. The aim was to obtain normative values from a healthy sample in Brazil and to evaluate the effects of demographic variables on USN tests. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study performed with 150 neurologically healthy individuals. USN was evaluated using the line cancelation (LC), star cancelation (SC), and line bisection (LB) tests in the A3 (29.7 x 42.0 cm) sheet format. RESULTS: In LC, 143 participants had 0 omissions, and the occurrence of failure was significantly associated with aging (OR=1.1[1.02-1.2]; p=0.012). In SC, 145 participants had fewer than 1 omission, and the occurrence of failure was significantly associated with aging (OR=1.07[1.03-1.11]; p<0.001). In LB, deviations were the lowest for those with the highest level of education (r=0.20; p=0.015), and the deviation was 9.5 mm. CONCLUSION: The cutoff points presented in this study may be indicative of USN, but due to performance differences based on age, we suggest using different norm scores for different age groups. These norm scores can be used in the clinic immediately for USN diagnosis.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Percepção , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Biol Lett ; 16(5): 20190870, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396786

RESUMO

Laterality, the division of brain functions into separate hemispheres, is widespread across animal taxa. Lateralized individuals exhibit cognitive advantages yet substantial variation in laterality exists, particularly between the sexes. Why variation is maintained is unknown as few studies consider differences in lateralized behaviours between the sexes, and their underlying selection pressures, across different contexts. We investigated if Poecilia reticulata exhibited sex differences in the direction, strength and consistency of lateralization. We assessed the turning preferences of individuals detouring around a barrier to view visual stimuli representative of different behavioural contexts: an artificial object of familiar colour, an opposite sex conspecific and a no stimulus control. While no sex differences were evident in the direction or strength of laterality, consistency in the strength of laterality varied between the sexes. Individuals of both sexes consistently detoured in one direction, but the strength of laterality exhibited by males was more predictable than females across contexts. This suggests that predictability of lateralization across ecologically relevant scenarios represents a key, but previously unexplored, source of variation between the sexes.


Assuntos
Poecilia , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais , Comportamento Social
17.
Nat Neurosci ; 23(7): 892-902, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451483

RESUMO

Organisms must learn new strategies to adapt to changing environments. Activity in different neurons often exhibits synchronization that can dynamically enhance their communication and might create flexible brain states that facilitate changes in behavior. We studied the role of gamma-frequency (~40 Hz) synchrony between prefrontal parvalbumin (PV) interneurons in mice learning multiple new cue-reward associations. Voltage indicators revealed cell-type-specific increases of cross-hemispheric gamma synchrony between PV interneurons when mice received feedback that previously learned associations were no longer valid. Disrupting this synchronization by delivering out-of-phase optogenetic stimulation caused mice to perseverate on outdated associations, an effect not reproduced by in-phase stimulation or out-of-phase stimulation at other frequencies. Gamma synchrony was specifically required when new associations used familiar cues that were previously irrelevant to behavioral outcomes, not when associations involved new cues or for reversing previously learned associations. Thus, gamma synchrony is indispensable for reappraising the behavioral salience of external cues.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Aprendizagem por Associação/fisiologia , Ritmo Gama/fisiologia , Interneurônios/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Animais , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional , Masculino , Camundongos , Parvalbuminas/metabolismo , Recompensa
19.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232123, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324801

RESUMO

The purpose of the present study was to: (a) assess centripetal force (CentF) and changes of direction (COD) in elite soccer players according to playing position (central defender, CD; lateral defender, LD; central midfielder, CM; lateral midfielder, LM; forward, FW), laterality (right-footed vs. left-footed) and field zone (central vs. lateral), and (b) analyze the relationship between anthropometric characteristics (age, weight, height, body mass and fat mass) and non-linear locomotion workload. Thirty professional soccer players (age: 26.57±5.56 years) were tracked during the 2017-2018 season during friendly, national and international matches (38 total games) using inertial measurement devices. CentF and COD were the variables extracted for analysis. A one-way ANOVA was used for playing position comparison, a t-test for laterality and field zone, and Pearson's correlation coefficient to analyze relationships between anthropometric characteristics and dependent variables. There were differences by playing position in COD (556.33-to-412.18), R20COD (484.36-to-354.81) and R60COD (48.38-to-38.61) (p < .01; ωp2 = 0.03-to-0.05; CD>CM>LD>LM = FW); in CODHIA (49.75-to-37.11), R20CODHIA (16.04-to-9.11) and R60CODHIA (10.64-to-9.11) (p < .01; ωp2 = 0.03-to-0.07; CM>FW>LM>CD = LD); in CODSPRINT (14.56-to-8.40) and R20CODSPRINT (3.29-to-1.40) (p < .01; ωp2 = 0.03-to-0.04; FW = LM = CM>CD = LD); and in CentFMAX both in clockwise (992.04-to-902.09N) and counterclockwise (999.24-to-872.61N) directions (p < .02; ωp2 = 0.02-to-0.07; FW = CD>CM = LM = LD). The highest values of counterclockwise CentF were performed by left-footed players in the central zone (p < .001; d = 0.71-to-1.44) and clockwise CentF by right-footed players (p < .001; d = 0.04-to-0.55) in the lateral field zone. Moderate correlations were found between age, body mass and high intensity/sprints COD and repeated COD ability (p < .05; r = 0.235-to-0.383). Therefore, team staff should consider anthropometric characteristics, playing position, laterality and field zone to individualize training workload related to non-linear locomotion in soccer.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Futebol/fisiologia , Acelerometria , Adulto , Antropometria , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232128, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324834

RESUMO

The social interactions that we experience from early infancy often involve actions that are not strictly instrumental but engage the recipient by eliciting a (complementary) response. Interactive gestures may have privileged access to our perceptual and motor systems either because of their intrinsically engaging nature or as a result of extensive social learning. We compared these two hypotheses in a series of behavioral experiments by presenting individuals with interactive gestures that call for motor responses to complement the interaction ('hand shaking', 'requesting', 'high-five') and with communicative gestures that are equally socially relevant and salient, but do not strictly require a response from the recipient ('Ok', 'Thumbs up', 'Peace'). By means of a spatial compatibility task, we measured the interfering power of these task-irrelevant stimuli on the behavioral responses of individuals asked to respond to a target. Across three experiments, our results showed that the interactive gestures impact on response selection and reduce spatial compatibility effects as compared to the communicative (non-interactive) gestures. Importantly, this effect was independent of the activation of specific social scripts that may interfere with response selection. Overall, our results show that interactive gestures have privileged access to our perceptual and motor systems, possibly because they entail an automatic preparation to respond that involuntary engages the motor system of the observers. We discuss the implications from a developmental and neurophysiological point of view.


Assuntos
Gestos , Relações Interpessoais , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção de Movimento , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
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