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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(43): e17660, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651891

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The term crossed aphasia in dextrals (CAD) describes aphasia following a right hemisphere lesion in right-handed subjects. The diagnostic criteria for CAD, defined on the basis of clinical cases observed over the years, are aphasia; lesion in right hemisphere; strong preference for right hand use without familial history of left handedness; structural integrity of left hemisphere; and absence of brain damage in childhood. The studies of CAD have mainly been focused on the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the functional neurocognitive lateralization and organization of the brain, such as a dissociation between language and handedness, language and praxis, or other cognitive functions.Patient concerns: We described a case of a patient affected by an aphasic syndrome following cerebral hemorrhage located in right hemisphere. DIAGNOSIS: Considering the correlation between clinical data and instrumental investigations such as magnetic resonance imaging, we diagnose the patient with non-fluent aphasia. Specifically, the patient came to our attention showing a trans-cortical mixed aphasia that, later, developed in a trans-cortical motor aphasia. Contrary to most cases of CAD, our patient does not show apraxia and visuo-spatial neglect. Interventions language and visual attention when latter functions are related to right hemisphere. INTERVENTIONS: The rehabilitation program consisted in exercises stimulating verbal fluency, comprehension, reading, and writing. OUTCOMES: After 5 months of rehabilitation patient showed significant improvement in comprehension and absence of echolalia. LESSONS: At present there is no agreement about pathogenesis of CAD and neural mechanism is still unclear. Considering the clinical symptomatology, we can argue that we observed a non-fluent aphasia. However, a more large sample should be studied to asses the role of brain circuits.


Assuntos
Afasia/etiologia , Afasia/reabilitação , Hemorragia Cerebral/complicações , Adulto , Afasia/fisiopatologia , Lateralidade Funcional , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia
2.
Exp Psychol ; 66(4): 310-317, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530249

RESUMO

This work aimed to assess the role of manual laterality in action coding strategies and, subsequently, in environmental features relevant for each hand's action. Relying on Eder and Hommel's (2013) proposal, we distinguished stimulus-related and end state-related consequences in a Simon paradigm where right-handed participants were divided into two groups, one responding with gloves and one without. Two objects were presented pictorially: one for which sensory consequences of grasping were negatively valenced (a chestnut burr), and one for which they were positively valenced (an apricot). By these means, stimulus and end-state effects could be assessed separately, along with the relevance of each feature of the experimental settings. Results showed that the use of one's dominant or non dominant hand gives rise to different repercussions of stimulus-related and end state-related effects on response: Responses made with the right (dominant) hand were based on an elaborated coding (representing features of stimulus-related and end state-related consequences of action). In contrast, responses made with the left (non dominant) hand seemed to be based on a less elaborated coding (not taking into account end-state consequences of an action).


Assuntos
Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
3.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(8): 1371-1378, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285616

RESUMO

There is compelling evidence that the human cerebellum is engaged in a wide array of motor and cognitive tasks. A fundamental question centers on whether the cerebellum is organized into distinct functional subregions. To address this question, we employed a rich task battery designed to tap into a broad range of cognitive processes. During four functional MRI sessions, participants performed a battery of 26 diverse tasks comprising 47 unique conditions. Using the data from this multi-domain task battery, we derived a comprehensive functional parcellation of the cerebellar cortex and evaluated it by predicting functional boundaries in a novel set of tasks. The new parcellation successfully identified distinct functional subregions, providing significant improvements over existing parcellations derived from task-free data. Lobular boundaries, commonly used to summarize functional data, did not coincide with functional subdivisions. The new parcellation provides a functional atlas to guide future neuroimaging studies.


Assuntos
Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Cerebelo/fisiologia , Atlas como Assunto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Córtex Cerebelar/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebelar/fisiologia , Movimentos Oculares , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Movimento/fisiologia , Neuroimagem , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Zool Res ; 40(5): 449-455, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343856

RESUMO

Investigations on manual laterality in non-human primates can help clarify human evolutionary origins of hand preference and cerebral cognition. Although body posture can influence primate hand preference, investigations on how posture affects hylobatid manual laterality are still in their infancy. This study focused on how spontaneous bipedal behavioral tasks affect hand preference in Hylobatidae. Ten captive northern white-cheeked gibbons (Nomascus leucogenys) were chosen as focal subjects. Unimanual grooming during sitting posture and supported bipedal posture were applied as behavioral tasks. The gibbons displayed a modest tendency on left-hand preference during sitting posture and right-hand preference during supported bipedal posture, although no group-level hand preference was detected for either posture. From the sitting to supported bipedal posture, 70% of individuals displayed different degrees of right-side deviation trends. The strength of manual laterality in the supported bipedal posture was higher than that in the sitting posture. We found significant sex differences in manual laterality during supported bipedal posture but not during sitting posture. Thus, to a certain degree, bipedal posture in N. leucogenys facilitates stronger hand preference, elicits a rightward trend in manual laterality, and produces sex-specific hand preference.


Assuntos
Lateralidade Funcional , Asseio Animal/fisiologia , Hylobates/fisiologia , Postura , Animais , Feminino , Masculino
5.
J Clin Neurosci ; 68: 97-100, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327590

RESUMO

Indirect targeting of the Ventralis Intermedius Nucleus (Vim) is widely used for functional neurosurgical procedures to treat essential tremor (ET). Here, we review if the laterality of the Vim depends on the diameter of the third ventricle and if a targeting approach that incorporates this correlation can facilitate targeting and yields accurate lead placement. We analyzed 15 consecutive ET patients. Vim targeting was adapted according to the width of the third ventricle and the lateral distance to the internal capsule (IC). Postoperative outcome was assessed 12 months post-OP based on the Bain-Findley score. Application of this targeting approach resulted in mean target coordinates of LAT 12.8 ±â€¯1.5; AP -3.6 ±â€¯1.0 and VERT 0 ±â€¯0 mm and which projected onto the Vim. The laterality of IC and Vim are correlated to the width of the third ventricle. The mean postoperative tremor reduction was 63.0%. In summary, adjusting the lateral coordinate according to the width of the third ventricle leads to accurate targeting and effective tremor reduction.


Assuntos
Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/métodos , Tremor Essencial/diagnóstico por imagem , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Técnicas Estereotáxicas , Núcleos Ventrais do Tálamo/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Tremor Essencial/terapia , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
Behav Processes ; 166: 103897, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271769

RESUMO

Measuring personality is being used to improved nonhuman primate welfare. To expand its use, it is important to identify traits that are shared between species and that measures are reliable, easy to use and less time consuming. Combining personality and other indicators strong validation of the results can be obtained. In the present study, we sought to determine if there is a link between physiological stress response (fecal cortisol metabolites), personality (ratings made by animal keepers and reaction to novel objects) and lateralization of the brain (hand preferences) on eight species of nonhuman primates: Callithrix jacchus, Callithrix geoffroyi, Cebuella Pygmaea, Saguinus imperator, Saguinus oedipus, Leontopithecus rosalia, Pithecia pithecia and Nycticebus pygmaeus. Personality assessments achieved good levels of interrater reliability and revealed three components of personality in our sample: fearfulness, activeness and aggressiveness. More exploratory individuals were more active, aggressive and showed higher cortisol metabolite levels. Right-handed subjects inspected novel objects sooner and the strength of the lateralization was linked with individual stress and the aggressiveness component. Our results highlight that there is a relation between personality, lateralization and physiological indicators in nonhuman primates, but although some aspects can be generalized across species and/or sexes others are species/sex dependent.


Assuntos
Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Hidrocortisona/análise , Personalidade/fisiologia , Primatas/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Animais , Fezes/química , Feminino , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
7.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 198: 102871, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220770

RESUMO

In a study by Zwaan and Yaxley (2003, Cognition, 87, B79-B86), participants judged the semantic relatedness of word pairs presented one above the other either in the left or right visual field with all related pairs requiring right-handed responses. If the vertical orientation of the word pairs matched their referents' typical vertical orientation ("roof" above "basement") a match effect was observed, but only when the word pair was presented in the left visual field. We replicated this study with response side as an additional factor and found a main effect of match, as well as a Simon effect with faster responses when the required response matched the visual field in which the word pair was presented. We did not, however, observe an interaction between the match effect and the visual field. This challenges the assumption that coarse semantic representations, including spatial properties of objects, are mainly processed in the right hemisphere.


Assuntos
Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Julgamento/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Semântica , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 198: 102850, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238176

RESUMO

According to the metaphoric mapping hypothesis, people code time in terms of space. Consistent with this hypothesis, several reaction time studies have demonstrated that participants respond faster with a left (right) response to stimuli that convey temporal information about the past (future) than when this stimulus-response mapping is reversed (past → right, future → left). The present experiment examines whether the side of the response key or of the (visual) action effect elicited by the response is the crucial factor of this space-time congruency effect. In a response-effect (R-E) compatible group, a response to a temporal stimulus produced a visual action effect on the same side as the response location (left response → left action effect, right response → right action effect). In an R-E incompatible group, however, response and action effect occurred on opposite sides (left response → right action effect, right response → left action effect). A typical space-time congruency effect was obtained in the R-E compatible group, but the congruency effect interacted with group and was descriptively reversed in the R-E incompatible group. This result pattern suggests that the typical congruency effect is determined by the location of the action consequences rather than the location of the response key. Based on this result, we suggest that the space-time congruency effect is based on an abstract spatial mental representation that embraces action events in the external space.


Assuntos
Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Percepção do Tempo/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional , Humanos , Masculino
9.
Doc Ophthalmol ; 139(2): 161-168, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161576

RESUMO

PURPOSE: It is desirable to make VEP-based acuity estimates match standard subjective acuity numerically, as the latter is familiar to ophthalmologists and optometrists. This is achieved by applying an empirical conversion factor, and previous studies found the resulting values to be within ±1 octave of subjective acuity. This leaves room for improvement. In the present study, we tested for the case of a monocular acuity deficit whether the known difference between subjective and objective acuity in the trusted fellow eye can be used to get a more precise objective estimate in the eye of which the acuity is to be estimated. In other words, we tested whether it would make sense to determine a patient-specific conversion factor. METHODS: In 19 subjects, we obtained monocular objective and subjective acuity estimates with both eyes. Normal vision and artificially degraded vision were tested. Subjective acuity was taken as the veridical value. We computed the differences between objective and subjective acuity and reasoned that if these were correlated between eyes and acuity levels, the valid information from the trusted healthy eye could be used to improve the precision of the acuity estimate in the other, potentially impaired, eye. RESULTS: The difference between objective and subjective acuity values was neither correlated significantly between eyes, nor was it correlated significantly between acuity levels. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge about the discrepancy between objective and subjective acuity values in one eye does not help improving the accuracy of acuity estimates in the other eye. The lack of a significant correlation between eyes even at the same acuity level suggests that a major part of the discrepancies between subjective acuity and VEP-based acuity is not the result of factors that would equally apply to both eyes, such as cortical morphology.


Assuntos
Potenciais Evocados Visuais/fisiologia , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Eletrorretinografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Visão Ocular/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2783, 2019 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239458

RESUMO

The left hemisphere's dominance in processing social communication has been known for over a century, but the mechanisms underlying this lateralized cortical function are poorly understood. Here, we compare the structure, function, and development of each auditory cortex (ACx) in the mouse to look for specializations that may underlie lateralization. Using Fos brain volume imaging, we found greater activation in the left ACx in response to vocalizations, while the right ACx responded more to frequency sweeps. In vivo recordings identified hemispheric differences in spectrotemporal selectivity, reinforcing their functional differences. We then compared the synaptic connectivity within each hemisphere and discovered lateralized circuit-motifs that are hearing experience-dependent. Our results suggest a specialist role for the left ACx, focused on facilitating the detection of specific vocalization features, while the right ACx is a generalist with the ability to integrate spectrotemporal features more broadly.


Assuntos
Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Animais , Córtex Auditivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Percepção Auditiva , Lateralidade Funcional , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos CBA
11.
BMC Neurol ; 19(1): 132, 2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Convexal subarachnoid hemorrhage (cSAH) is characterized by isolated bleeding in one or a few adjacent sulci and has diverse etiologies and symptoms. Acute ischemic stroke co-occurring with cSAH has been infrequently reported. Nearly all cases of cSAH have been described to occur on the side with acute ischemic stroke, and it is unusual for cSAH to occur on the opposite side of the infarct territory. CASE PRESENTATION: Our report presents two cases of acute ischemic stroke associated with contralateral cSAH. The first patient had left atherosclerotic internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion with developing right parietal cSAH. The other patient developed left parietal cSAH in the setting of right ICA occlusion caused by cardiogenic embolism with acute right cerebral hemisphere infarction. Both patients remained clinically stable with good prognosis after antithrombotic treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our report suggest that cSAH may simultaneously occur on the opposite side of an infarction. Although there is no consensus on the etiology and treatment of this rare phenomenon, cSAH did not lead to a poor outcome in our patients.


Assuntos
Lateralidade Funcional , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/etiologia , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/patologia , Idoso , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
J Sports Sci ; 37(19): 2243-2252, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170881

RESUMO

This study modelled children's gross motor coordination, investigated sex-differences and identified the effects of fixed and dynamic correlates on motor coordination development. A total of 344 Portuguese children (170 girls), from 6 age cohorts (5 to 9 years of age), were followed consecutively for three years (age range 5 to 11 years) using a mixed-longitudinal cohort design. Birth weight, hand dominance and socioeconomic status (SES) were identified. Gross motor coordination, body mass index, physical fitness (PF) and physical activity (PA) were assessed annually. A sequence of multilevel hierarchical linear models were developed. Model 1 found that age, age2, sex, sex-by-age and sex-by-age2 were significant predictors (p < 0.05) of gross motor coordination. Boys outperformed girls from 6 years of age onwards. Model 2 found a cohort effect (p < 0.05). Model 3 found that right handers were more coordinated (p < 0.05). When the confounders of body mass index, PF and PA were added to the model (Model 4) it was found that boys and girls had parallel trajectories in their gross motor coordination development. In conclusion children with increasing body mass index were less coordinated, while those who were stronger and more agile had steeper trajectories of gross motor coordination with age.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Peso ao Nascer , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exercício , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Aptidão Física , Portugal , Fatores Socioeconômicos
13.
Rinsho Shinkeigaku ; 59(5): 282-285, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31061302

RESUMO

A 47-year-old man presented with left shoulder pain and muscle weakness in the left limbs on November 2017. On the next day, he experienced dysesthesia of the right limbs and hypohidrosis of the left limbs and developed thermal hypoalgesia in right side of body and muscle weakness of the left upper and lower limbs progressed. He was diagnosed with acute myelitis and Brown-Séquard syndrome, based on cervical MRI scan. Muscle strength improved after steroid therapy and plasma exchange. He experienced complications of intraabdominal abscess in the right side during immunological therapy, although he only had a symptom of left abdominal pain, without pain in the right side. It is noteworthy that abdominal hypoalgesia can be associated with Brown-Séquard syndrome. Characteristically, MRI revealed bilateral lesions at the C3/4 cervical spine level. This report shows that in Brown-Séquard syndrome associated with bilateral spinal lesions, the abdominal visceral sensory pathway, in addition to the somatosensory pathway, could be impaired bilaterally, resulting in aggravation of abdominal hypoalgesia.


Assuntos
Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Abscesso/etiologia , Agnosia/etiologia , Síndrome de Brown-Séquard/complicações , Doenças do Ceco/etiologia , Hipo-Hidrose/etiologia , Doenças do Íleo/etiologia , Mielite/complicações , Parestesia/etiologia , Doença Aguda , Lateralidade Funcional , Humanos , Hipo-Hidrose/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parestesia/fisiopatologia
14.
C R Biol ; 342(3-4): 97-100, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036514

RESUMO

Under visual guidance, healthy subjects usually misbisect radial lines farther than, and vertical lines above the true center. It was suggested that radial and vertical misbisection depended on the presence of an attentional bias toward far/upper space. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether such attentional bias depends on a single mechanism or on separate mechanisms. Ninety participants were asked to bisect lines radially and vertically oriented. The results confirmed the presence of a consistent bisection bias farther than (radial lines), and above (vertical lines) the true center. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between radial and vertical bisection errors. These findings suggest that a single neural mechanism is involved in producing the attentional bias toward far/upper space.


Assuntos
Viés de Atenção , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Dimensão Vertical , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
15.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 123: 43-46, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063947

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic systemic diseases seen in children. The increasing prevalence of Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) among children is alarming. Although olfaction has been found to be altered in some adult T1DM subjects, it is unknown whether this is the case in children and, if so, whether the dysfunction adversely influences their quality of life (QOL). METHODS: Using the Pediatric Smell Wheel® (PSW), we measured the olfactory function of 30 T1DM patients and 30 healthy controls [mean ages = 13.1 & 13.0, respectively]. The Turkish version of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) was also administered. RESULTS: The PSW scores were lower in the T1DM patients than in the controls (9.17 vs 10.37; p < 0.0001), although, in both cases, the scores fell within the normal range for individuals of their age (i.e., at or above 80%). Interestingly, such scores were lower in left-handed than in right-handed patients (8.00 vs 9.46; p = 0.001). Lower QOL indices were also found for the T1DM than for the controls for the domains of Emotional Function (p = 0.02), Social Function (p = 0.014), School Function (p = 0.011), and Psychosocial Status (p = 0.002). No significant associations were evident between PSW scores and disease duration and QOL scales. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates, for the first time, that modest decrements in smell function are evident in children with TIDM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/fisiopatologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Limiar Sensorial , Olfato , Adolescente , Criança , Emoções , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) ; 79(1): 25-38, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038483

RESUMO

Here, we evaluated the P3b potential evoked in a visual two-stimulus oddball paradigm. The experiment was conducted in 20 healthy students (23.1±1.1 years, 10 women), using a 32 channel electroencephalography (EEG) montage system. The paradigm included geometric figures; a black square on a white background as a target and a white circle on a black background as a standard stimulus. We examined the maximal amplitude and latency of the P3b component at 18 electrode sites, as well as, temporal changes of scalp voltage distribution. We observed a non-equal spatial distribution of the visual ERP (event related potentials) waveforms on the scalp surface, with the highest P3b waveform observed over midline parietal areas and the lowest over frontal regions. Moreover, the spatial distribution of ERP signal on the scalp surface was more lateralized towards the right side in men and more centralized in women. Gender-related differences in P3b amplitude and latency were observed only in left hemisphere. Differences in P3b between men and women observed in our study arose not only from different P3b amplitudes and latencies, but also from the speed and character of P3b waveform fall, resulting in spatio-temporal amplitude changes. Moreover, the spatial distribution of the P200 potential also changed on the scalp differently in men and women. These results suggest that gender-related differences evoked in visual two-stimulus oddball paradigm, which engage attention processes, are complex and include spatio-temporal changes in P3b waveform generation, distribution, and suppression across the scalp.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico , Potencial Evocado P300/fisiologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Análise de Regressão , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Adulto Jovem
17.
Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) ; 79(1): 53-72, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038485

RESUMO

Pain catastrophizing - defined as a tendency to exaggerate the threat value or seriousness of experienced pain ­ has been shown to be a risk factor for pain chronification. However, the neural basis of pain catastrophizing remains unclear and requires thorough investigation. This study aimed to explore the relationship between pain catastrophizing and effective connectivity of the pain systems in healthy participants. EEG data were collected during an induced state of pain­related negative, depressive, positive and neutral mental imagery conditions, and pain catastrophizing tendencies were measured by the Pain Catastrophizing Scale. The Directed Transfer Function, a method based on Granger causality principles, was used to assess the effective connectivity. Linear mixed effects analyses revealed a negative relationship between pain catastrophizing and beta information flow from the right temporal cortex to the frontal regions and a positive relationship between pain catastrophizing and increased beta information flow from the right somatosensory cortices to the right temporal cortices when thinking about pain. These patterns were not found in other imagery conditions. Taken together, this study suggests that individual differences in pain catastrophizing might be related to an altered frontotemporal regulatory loop and increased connectivity between pain and affective systems. Our study reveals connectivity patterns related to pain catastrophizing tendencies that are detectable even in pain­free, healthy individuals.


Assuntos
Catastrofização/fisiopatologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Imaginação/fisiologia , Dor/psicologia , Afeto/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Dor/fisiopatologia , Medição da Dor , Estimulação Física , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) ; 79(1): 73-85, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038486

RESUMO

Preconditioning with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or opioid antagonists has a neuroprotective effect in ischemic insults. However, the co­preconditioning effect of toll­like receptor ligands and opioid antagonists has not been investigated. In this study we examined the neuroprotective effect of LPS and naltrexone (NTX) preconditioning and co­preconditioning in unilateral selective hippocampal ischemia in rats to assess for possible synergistic protective effects. LPS and NTX were injected unilaterally into the left cerebral ventricle of male rats. Forty­eight hours after LPS and twenty­four hours after NTX injection, ipsilateral selective hippocampal ischemia was induced using a modified version of the photothrombotic method. Protective effects for LPS and NTX were assessed by evaluating infarct volume (using 2,3,5­triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining), and cognitive function (using radial arm water maze and passive avoidance tests). Animals in the ischemic group had an infarct lesion and considerable cognitive impairment, compared with the sham group. LPS or NTX preconditioning significantly reduced the infarct size and improved cognitive function. Moreover, co­preconditioning with LPS and NTX increased the protective effect compared with preconditioning with LPS or NTX alone. Our data showed that LPS and NTX preconditioning resulted in a neuroprotective effect in hippocampal ischemia. Furthermore, co­preconditioning with LPS and NTX resulted in a synergistic protective effect.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Hipocampo/patologia , Precondicionamento Isquêmico/métodos , Lipopolissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Naltrexona/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/administração & dosagem , Animais , Aprendizagem da Esquiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hipocampo/irrigação sanguínea , Injeções Intraventriculares , Transtornos de Aprendizagem/etiologia , Transtornos de Aprendizagem/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Estimulação Luminosa/efeitos adversos , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Tempo de Reação/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Clin Neuropharmacol ; 42(3): 73-76, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085946

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Central poststroke pain (CPSP) is the neuropathic pain in areas of the body corresponding to stroke lesions. It is often refractory to treatment, reduces quality of life, and impedes rehabilitation. The pharmacological treatment of CPSP is challenging. Duloxetine, a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, is known to be effective against neuropathic pain. The current study describes the efficacy of duloxetine in reducing pain severity in CPSP patients. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: For the purpose of this study, CPSP was defined as spontaneous pain within an area of the body corresponding to the brain lesion that emerged at or after stroke onset. Any previously prescribed medical therapy for the patients was not changed or stopped; duloxetine 30 mg was added to their ongoing treatment. Pain was assessed at baseline and thereafter at 1 and 3 weeks using Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) and Short-form MC Gill Pain Questionnaire scores. At the first follow-up, scores were reviewed and dose was doubled if no improvement or adverse effects were observed. RESULTS: From a total of 37 patients, 4 were withdrawn because of adverse effects including nausea, agitation, and somnolence. The mean elapsed time of observed symptoms since stroke onset was 3.1 ± 4.1 years. There was a significant difference between the mean values of Short-form MC Gill Pain Questionnaire and NRS scores at baseline and those at the follow-up assessment. Twenty-six (70.3%) of the patients showed at least 30% reduction of NRS compared with baseline at the third week. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that duloxetine can be effective for managing CPSP.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Crônica/etiologia , Cloridrato de Duloxetina/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Idoso , Dor Crônica/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Lateralidade Funcional/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Behav Neurol ; 2019: 9278270, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31093303

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the time-dependent effects of acupuncture on the excitability and long-term potentiation- (LTP-) like plasticity induced by paired-associative stimulation (PAS) over the primary motor cortex (M1). The present examination is the first to report the influence of acupuncture on the motor-evoked potential (MEP) throughout the treatment process, including baseline (before acupuncture), the needle in situ, and the needle removal. Subsequently, the LTP-like plasticity induced by paired-associative stimulation (PAS) was explored, which consisted of 200 pairs of electrical stimulation of the ulnar nerve at the first dorsal interosseous (FDI), followed by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the bilateral M1. TMS-MEP amplitudes over the bilateral M1 in resting conditions were measured throughout the whole treatment process. Finally, we confirmed the behavioral measurements. Significant changes were found in both the contralateral and ipsilateral acupuncture sizes as compared to the baseline values. Our results indicated that acupuncture modulated the excitability of M1, and the synaptic plasticity was time-dependent. We concluded that acupuncture should be combined with rehabilitation techniques to improve the motor function in stroke patients. Therefore, we put forward the combined application of the acupuncture timing and rehabilitation for higher therapeutic effectiveness. This trial was registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (registration no. ChiCTR-IPR-1900020515).


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura/métodos , Potenciação de Longa Duração/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , China , Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Eletromiografia/métodos , Potencial Evocado Motor/fisiologia , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional , Mãos , Humanos , Masculino , Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/métodos
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