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1.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(5): e0011637, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38713648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in resource-limited endemic regions is currently based on serological testing with rK39 immunochromatographic tests (ICTs). However, rK39 ICT frequently has suboptimal diagnostic accuracy. Furthermore, treatment monitoring and detection of VL relapses is reliant on insensitive and highly invasive tissue aspirate microscopy. Miniature direct-on-blood PCR nucleic acid lateral flow immunoassay (mini-dbPCR-NALFIA) is an innovative and user-friendly molecular tool which does not require DNA extraction and uses a lateral flow strip for result read-out. This assay could be an interesting candidate for more reliable VL diagnosis and safer test of cure at the point of care. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: The performance of mini-dbPCR-NALFIA for diagnosis of VL in blood was assessed in a laboratory evaluation and compared with the accuracy of rK39 ICTs Kalazar Detect in Spain and IT LEISH in East Africa. Limit of detection of mini-dbPCR-NALFIA was 650 and 500 parasites per mL of blood for Leishmania donovani and Leishmania infantum, respectively. In 146 blood samples from VL-suspected patients from Spain, mini-dbPCR-NALFIA had a sensitivity of 95.8% and specificity 97.2%, while Kalazar Detect had a sensitivity of 71.2% and specificity of 94.5%, compared to a nested PCR reference. For a sample set from 58 VL patients, 10 malaria patients and 68 healthy controls from Ethiopia and Kenya, mini-dbPCR-NALFIA had a pooled sensitivity of 87.9% and pooled specificity of 100% using quantitative PCR as reference standard. IT LEISH sensitivity and specificity in the East African samples were 87.9% and 97.4%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Mini-dbPCR-NALFIA is a promising tool for simplified molecular diagnosis of VL and follow-up of treated patients in blood samples. Future studies should evaluate its use in endemic, resource-limited settings, where mini-dbPCR-NALFIA may provide an accurate and versatile alternative to rK39 ICTs and aspirate microscopy.


Assuntos
Leishmania donovani , Leishmaniose Visceral , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Humanos , Leishmania donovani/genética , Leishmania donovani/isolamento & purificação , Imunoensaio/métodos , Leishmania infantum/genética , Leishmania infantum/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Espanha , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Adolescente , Criança , Adulto Jovem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , África Oriental , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA de Protozoário/sangue , Pré-Escolar
2.
Parasite Immunol ; 46(5): e13037, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38720446

RESUMO

The treatment for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) causes toxicity in patients, entails high cost and/or leads to the emergence of resistant strains. No human vaccine exists, and diagnosis presents problems related to the sensitivity or specificity of the tests. Here, we tested two phage clones, B1 and D11, which were shown to be protective against Leishmania infantum infection in a murine model as immunotherapeutics to treat mice infected with this parasite species. The phages were used alone or with amphotericin B (AmpB), while other mice received saline, AmpB, a wild-type phage (WTP) or WTP/AmpB. Results showed that the B1/AmpB and D11/AmpB combinations induced polarised Th1-type cellular and humoral responses, which were primed by high levels of parasite-specific IFN-γ, IL-12, TNF-α, nitrite and IgG2a antibodies, which reflected in significant reductions in the parasite load in distinct organs of the animals when analyses were performed 1 and 30 days after the treatments. Reduced organic toxicity was also found in these animals, as compared with the controls. In conclusion, preliminary data suggest the potential of the B1/AmpB and D11/AmpB combinations as immunotherapeutics against L. infantum infection.


Assuntos
Anfotericina B , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Imunoterapia , Leishmania infantum , Leishmaniose Visceral , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Leishmaniose Visceral/imunologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anfotericina B/uso terapêutico , Anfotericina B/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Leishmania infantum/imunologia , Leishmania infantum/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Feminino , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Antiprotozoários/administração & dosagem , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Carga Parasitária , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Técnicas de Visualização da Superfície Celular , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Th1/imunologia
3.
Parasite Immunol ; 46(5): e13036, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38720445

RESUMO

Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) has been associated with several diseases including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's and multiple sclerosis. ApoE also has documented immunomodulatory functions. We investigated gene expression in circulating monocytes and in bone marrows of patients with visceral leishmaniasis (VL) living in an endemic area in Bihar, India, and contrasted these with control healthy subjects or other diagnostic bone marrows from individuals in the same region. Samples from VL patients were obtained prior to initiating treatment. Our study revealed significant upregulated expression of the apoE transcript in patients with VL. Furthermore, the levels of ApoE protein were elevated in serum samples of subjects with VL compared with healthy endemic controls. These observations may provide clues regarding the complex interactions between lipid metabolism and immunoregulation of infectious and inflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteínas E , Leishmaniose Visceral , Monócitos , Regulação para Cima , Leishmaniose Visceral/imunologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/sangue , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Humanos , Monócitos/imunologia , Monócitos/metabolismo , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Feminino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Medula Óssea/parasitologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Criança
4.
Commun Biol ; 7(1): 524, 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38702419

RESUMO

A large proportion of HIV-coinfected visceral leishmaniasis (VL-HIV) patients exhibit chronic disease with frequent VL recurrence. However, knowledge on immunological determinants underlying the disease course is scarce. We longitudinally profiled the circulatory cellular immunity of an Ethiopian HIV cohort that included VL developers. We show that chronic VL-HIV patients exhibit high and persistent levels of TIGIT and PD-1 on CD8+/CD8- T cells, in addition to a lower frequency of IFN-γ+ TIGIT- CD8+/CD8- T cells, suggestive of impaired T cell functionality. At single T cell transcriptome and clonal resolution, the patients show CD4+ T cell anergy, characterised by a lack of T cell activation and lymphoproliferative response. These findings suggest that PD-1 and TIGIT play a pivotal role in VL-HIV chronicity, and may be further explored for patient risk stratification. Our findings provide a strong rationale for adjunctive immunotherapy for the treatment of chronic VL-HIV patients to break the recurrent disease cycle.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Infecções por HIV , Leishmaniose Visceral , Humanos , Leishmaniose Visceral/imunologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/complicações , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Coinfecção/imunologia , Masculino , Adulto , Feminino , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Crônica , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Etiópia
5.
Res Vet Sci ; 172: 105256, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38613921

RESUMO

Infection and clinical cases of leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum in cats have been increasingly reported in several countries, including Brazil. In this study, we used an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and an immunochromatographic test (ICT) based on a recombinant antigen (rKDDR-plus) to detect anti-Leishmania antibodies in cats from an animal shelter in northeastern Brazil. We compared the results with an ELISA using L. infantum crude antigen (ELISA-CA). We also investigated the presence of Leishmania DNA in blood or ocular conjunctival samples as well as the association between Leishmania PCR positivity and serological positivity to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and Toxoplasma gondii. Concerning serological assays, a higher positivity was detected using the ICT-rKDDR-plus (7.5%; 7/93) as compared to ELISA-rKDDR-plus (5.4%; 5/93) and ELISA-CA (4.3%; 4/93). Upon PCR testing, 52.7% (49/93) of the ocular conjunctival swabs and 48.3% (44/91) of the blood samples were positive. Together, PCR and serological testing revealed overall positivities of 73.1% (68/93) and 12.9% (12/93), respectively. Among PCR-positive samples, 45.5% (31/68) showed co-infection with FIV, 17.6% (12/68) with FeLV, and 82.3% (56/68) with T. gondii. More than half of the PCR-positive cats showed at least one clinical sign suggestive of leishmaniasis (58.8%; 40/68) and dermatological signs were the most frequent ones (45.5%; 31/68). Both tests employing the recombinant antigen rKDDR-plus (i.e., ICT-rKDDR-plus and ELISA-rKDDR-plus) detected more positive cats than the ELISA-CA but presented low overall accuracy. PCR testing using either blood or ocular conjunctival samples detected much more positive cats than serological tests.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Coinfecção , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina , Leishmania infantum , Vírus da Leucemia Felina , Proteínas Recombinantes , Gatos , Animais , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Doenças do Gato/sangue , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina/isolamento & purificação , Coinfecção/veterinária , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Leishmania infantum/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Leucemia Felina/genética , Vírus da Leucemia Felina/imunologia , Masculino , Feminino , Toxoplasma , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/sangue , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/sangue
6.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0289578, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38630746

RESUMO

In Nepal, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has been targeted for elimination as a public health problem by 2026. Recently, increasing numbers of VL cases have been reported from districts of doubtful endemicity including hills and mountains, threatening the ongoing VL elimination program in Nepal. We conducted a multi-disciplinary, descriptive cross-sectional survey to assess the local transmission of Leishmania donovani in seven such districts situated at altitudes of up to 1,764 meters in western Nepal from March to December 2019. House-to-house surveys were performed for socio-demographic data and data on past and current VL cases. Venous blood was collected from all consenting individuals aged ≥2 years and tested with the rK39 RDT. Blood samples were also tested with direct agglutination test, and a titer of ≥1:1600 was taken as a marker of infection. A Leishmania donovani species-specific PCR (SSU-rDNA) was performed for parasite species confirmation. We also captured sand flies using CDC light traps and mouth aspirators. The house-to-house surveys documented 28 past and six new VL cases of which 82% (28/34) were without travel exposure. Overall, 4.1% (54/1320) of healthy participants tested positive for L. donovani on at least one serological or molecular test. Among asymptomatic individuals, 17% (9/54) were household contacts of past VL cases, compared to 0.5% (6/1266) among non-infected individuals. Phlebotomus argentipes, the vector of L. donovani, was found in all districts except in Bajura. L. donovani was confirmed in two asymptomatic individuals and one pool of sand flies of Phlebotomus (Adlerius) sp. We found epidemiological and entomological evidence for local transmission of L. donovani in areas previously considered as non-endemic for VL. The national VL elimination program should revise the endemicity status of these districts and extend surveillance and control activities to curb further transmission of the disease.


Assuntos
Leishmania donovani , Leishmaniose Visceral , Phlebotomus , Psychodidae , Animais , Humanos , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Nepal/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Leishmania donovani/genética , Phlebotomus/parasitologia
7.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(4): e0012085, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the Mediterranean basin, three Leishmania species have been identified: L. infantum, L. major and L. tropica, causing zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL), zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and anthroponotic CL, respectively. Despite animal models and genomic/transcriptomic studies provided important insights, the pathogenic determinants modulating the development of VL and CL are still poorly understood. This work aimed to identify host transcriptional signatures shared by cells infected with L. infantum, L. major, and L. tropica, as well as specific transcriptional signatures elicited by parasites causing VL (i.e., L. infantum) and parasites involved in CL (i.e., L. major, L. tropica). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: U937 cells differentiated into macrophage-like cells were infected with L. infantum, L. major and L. tropica for 24h and 48h, and total RNA was extracted. RNA sequencing, performed on an Illumina NovaSeq 6000 platform, was used to evaluate the transcriptional signatures of infected cells with respect to non-infected cells at both time points. The EdgeR package was used to identify differentially expressed genes (fold change > 2 and FDR-adjusted p-values < 0.05). Then, functional enrichment analysis was employed to identify the enriched ontology terms in which these genes are involved. At 24h post-infection, a common signature of 463 dysregulated genes shared among all infection conditions was recognized, while at 48h post-infection the common signature was reduced to 120 genes. Aside from a common transcriptional response, we evidenced different upregulated functional pathways characterizing L. infantum-infected cells, such as VEGFA-VEGFR2 and NFE2L2-related pathways, indicating vascular remodeling and reduction of oxidative stress as potentially important factors for visceralization. CONCLUSIONS: The identification of pathways elicited by parasites causing VL or CL could lead to new therapeutic strategies for leishmaniasis, combining the canonical anti-leishmania compounds with host-directed therapy.


Assuntos
Leishmania infantum , Leishmania major , Leishmania tropica , Leishmaniose Cutânea , Leishmaniose Visceral , Animais , Humanos , Leishmania tropica/genética , Leishmania infantum/genética , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Macrófagos
8.
Curr Oncol ; 31(4): 2274-2277, 2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38668071

RESUMO

Maintenance chemotherapy is a standard treatment in patients with non-progressive advance staged IV non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer after induction therapy. Here, we report the case of a 53-year-old man undergoing a maintenance monotherapy with pemetrexed who presented prolonged pancytopenia despite filgrastim injections. A bone marrow aspiration revealed a macrophage activation syndrome with Leishmania amastigotes. A Polymerase Chest Reaction testing confirmed the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. Treatment with liposomal amphotericin B was started. Oncologists should bear in mind that visceral leishmaniasis in endemic areas can potentially induce severe and prolonged pancytopenia in immunosuppressed patients, during chemotherapy in particular.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Visceral , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Pancitopenia , Humanos , Pancitopenia/induzido quimicamente , Leishmaniose Visceral/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Pemetrexede/uso terapêutico , Pemetrexede/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Anfotericina B/uso terapêutico
9.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301217, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564571

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis are a group of diseases caused by more than 20 species of the protozoan that are transmitted through the bite of female sand fly. The disease is endemic to 98 countries of the world. It affects most commonly the poorest of the poor and mainly males. Several research has been conducted to propose disease control strategies. Effective medical care, vector control, environmental hygiene, and personal protection are the mainstays of the current preventative and control methods. The mathematical models for the transmission dynamics of the disease studied so far did not consider the sex-biased burden of the disease into consideration. METHODOLOGY: Unlike the previous VL works, this study introduces a new deterministic sex-structured model for understanding the transmission dynamics of visceral leishmaniasis. Basic properties of the model including basic reproduction number ([Formula: see text]), and conditions for the existence of backward bifurcation of the model are explored. Baseline parameter values were estimated after the model was fitted to Ethiopia's VL data. Sensitivity analysis of the model was performed to identify the parameters that significantly impact the disease threshold. Numerical simulations were performed using baseline parameter values, and scenario analysis is performed by changing some of these parameters as appropriate. CONCLUSION: The analysis of the model shows that there is a possibility for a backward bifurcation for [Formula: see text], which means bringing [Formula: see text] to less than unity may not be enough to eradicate the disease. Our numerical result shows that the implementation of disease-preventive strategies, as well as effectively treating the affected ones can significantly reduce the disease prevalence if applied for more proportion of the male population. Furthermore, the implementation of vector management strategies also can considerably reduce the total prevalence of the disease. However, it is demonstrated that putting more effort in treating affected reservoir animals may not have any significant effect on the overall prevalence of the disease as compared to other possible mechanisms. The numerical simulation infers that a maximum of 60% of extra preventative measures targeted to only male population considerably reduces the total prevalence of VL by 80%. It is also possible to decrease the total prevalence of VL by 69.51% when up to 50% additional infected males receive treatment with full efficacy. Moreover, applying a maximum of 15% additional effort to reduce the number of vectors, decreases the total VL prevalence by 57.71%. Therefore, in order to reduce the disease burden of visceral leishmaniasis, public health officials and concerned stakeholders need to give more emphasis to the proportion of male humans in their intervention strategies.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Visceral , Phlebotomus , Psychodidae , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas , Humanos , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/prevenção & controle , Modelos Teóricos , Saúde Pública
10.
J Vector Borne Dis ; 61(1): 143-148, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38648417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND OBJECTIVES: In Brazil, one of the visceral leishmaniasis control measures in urban environments is the elimination of Lutzomyia longipalpis, which occurs through the application of pyrethroid insecticides with residual action in homes and outbuildings. Due to the loss of sensitivity of this vector to these insecticides, the search for more efficient insecticide compounds against L. longipalpis has been intensified. The objective of this work was to evaluate the toxicity of Trixis vauthieri essential oil on adult sandflies of the species L. longipalpis, and identify the phytochemical composition of these essential oils. METHODS: Essential oils from leaves collected from T. vauthieri at different times were obtained at concentrations of 5, 10 and 20 mg/mL. Twenty sandflies were exposed to the essential oils and the mortality was evaluated after 1, 2, 4, 16, 24, 48 and 72 h. The chemical constituents of the essential oil were also identified. RESULTS: The essential oils of T. vauthieri at a concentration of 20 mg/mL were the most toxic to sandflies, reaching a mortality rate of 98.33% and 95%, respectively, after 72 h of exposure. The analysis of chemical constituents revealed the presence of triterpenes and/or steroids, tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins and coumarins. INTERPRETATION CONCLUSION: The results obtained suggest that T. vauthieri essential oil is fairly promising as an insecticidal potential against L. longipalpis. A more detailed analysis of the oil's phytochemical composition is necessary to identify active and pure compounds that can be used in vector control of visceral leishmaniasis.


Assuntos
Insetos Vetores , Inseticidas , Leishmaniose Visceral , Óleos Voláteis , Psychodidae , Animais , Psychodidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/prevenção & controle , Leishmaniose Visceral/transmissão , Brasil , Insetos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/química , Feminino , Óleos de Plantas/farmacologia , Óleos de Plantas/química
11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 78(Supplement_2): S175-S182, 2024 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38662705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neglected tropical diseases are responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality in low-income populations. International efforts have reduced their global burden, but transmission is persistent and case-finding-based interventions rarely target asymptomatic individuals. METHODS: We develop a generic mathematical modeling framework for analyzing the dynamics of visceral leishmaniasis in the Indian sub-continent (VL), gambiense sleeping sickness (gHAT), and Chagas disease and use it to assess the possible contribution of asymptomatics who later develop disease (pre-symptomatics) and those who do not (non-symptomatics) to the maintenance of infection. Plausible interventions, including active screening, vector control, and reduced time to detection, are simulated for the three diseases. RESULTS: We found that the high asymptomatic contribution to transmission for Chagas and gHAT and the apparently high basic reproductive number of VL may undermine long-term control. However, the ability to treat some asymptomatics for Chagas and gHAT should make them more controllable, albeit over relatively long time periods due to the slow dynamics of these diseases. For VL, the toxicity of available therapeutics means the asymptomatic population cannot currently be treated, but combining treatment of symptomatics and vector control could yield a quick reduction in transmission. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the uncertainty in natural history, it appears there is already a relatively good toolbox of interventions to eliminate gHAT, and it is likely that Chagas will need improvements to diagnostics and their use to better target pre-symptomatics. The situation for VL is less clear, and model predictions could be improved by additional empirical data. However, interventions may have to improve to successfully eliminate this disease.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas , Doença de Chagas , Leishmaniose Visceral , Modelos Teóricos , Doenças Negligenciadas , Humanos , Doenças Negligenciadas/prevenção & controle , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Doença de Chagas/prevenção & controle , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/prevenção & controle , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/transmissão , Leishmaniose Visceral/tratamento farmacológico , Tripanossomíase Africana/prevenção & controle , Tripanossomíase Africana/epidemiologia , Tripanossomíase Africana/transmissão , Tripanossomíase Africana/tratamento farmacológico , Índia/epidemiologia , Animais
12.
mBio ; 15(5): e0085924, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38639536

RESUMO

Visceral leishmaniasis is a deadly infectious disease and is one of the world's major neglected health problems. Because the symptoms of infection are similar to other endemic diseases, accurate diagnosis is crucial for appropriate treatment. Definitive diagnosis using splenic or bone marrow aspirates is highly invasive, and so, serological assays are preferred, including the direct agglutination test (DAT) or rK39 strip test. These tests, however, are either difficult to perform in the field (DAT) or lack specificity in some endemic regions (rK39), making the development of new tests a research priority. The availability of Leishmania spp. genomes presents an opportunity to identify new diagnostic targets. Here, we use genome data and a mammalian protein expression system to create a panel of 93 proteins consisting of the extracellular ectodomains of the Leishmania donovani cell surface and secreted proteins. We use these panel and sera from murine experimental infection models and natural human and canine infections to identify new candidates for serological diagnosis. We observed a concordance between the most immunoreactive antigens in different host species and transmission settings. The antigen encoded by the LdBPK_323600.1 gene can diagnose Leishmania infections with high sensitivity and specificity in patient cohorts from different endemic regions including Bangladesh and Ethiopia. In longitudinal sampling of treated patients, we observed reductions in immunoreactivity to LdBPK_323600.1 suggesting it could be used to diagnose treatment success. In summary, we have identified new antigens that could contribute to improved serological diagnostic tests to help control the impact of this deadly tropical infectious disease. IMPORTANCE: Visceral leishmaniasis is fatal if left untreated with patients often displaying mild and non-specific symptoms during the early stages of infection making accurate diagnosis important. Current methods for diagnosis require highly trained medical staff to perform highly invasive biopsies of the liver or bone marrow which pose risks to the patient. Less invasive molecular tests are available but can suffer from regional variations in their ability to accurately diagnose an infection. To identify new diagnostic markers of visceral leishmaniasis, we produced and tested a panel of 93 proteins identified from the genome of the parasite responsible for this disease. We found that the pattern of host antibody reactivity to these proteins was broadly consistent across naturally acquired infections in both human patients and dogs, as well as experimental rodent infections. We identified a new protein called LdBPK_323600.1 that could accurately diagnose visceral leishmaniasis infections in humans.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Antígenos de Protozoários , Leishmania donovani , Leishmaniose Visceral , Proteínas de Protozoários , Testes Sorológicos , Leishmania donovani/genética , Leishmania donovani/imunologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/imunologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Cães , Antígenos de Protozoários/genética , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/imunologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/imunologia , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia
13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(4): e0012134, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38669211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently available treatment options are mostly effective in achieving long-term cure in visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients. However, there have been reports of recurrence of this illness in both immunosuppressed and immunocompetent patients. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the first case of recurrent VL relapse in a 19-year-old immunocompetent female with functional hypopituitarism (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with central hypothyroidism) from Bangladesh, who has been treated three times previously with optimal dosage and duration- liposomal amphotericin B (LAmB) alone and in combination with miltefosine. We treated the patient successfully with a modified treatment regimen of 10 mg/kg body weight LAmB for two consecutive days along with oral miltefosine for seven days as loading dose. For secondary prophylaxis, the patient received 3 mg/kg body weight LAmB along with oral miltefosine for seven days monthly for five doses followed by hormonal replacement. The patient remained relapse free after 12 months of her treatment completion. CONCLUSION: In the absence of protective vaccines against Leishmania species and standard treatment regimen, this modified treatment regimen could help the management of recurrent relapse cases.


Assuntos
Anfotericina B , Antiprotozoários , Hipopituitarismo , Leishmaniose Visceral , Fosforilcolina , Recidiva , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Anfotericina B/uso terapêutico , Anfotericina B/administração & dosagem , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Antiprotozoários/administração & dosagem , Bangladesh , Hipopituitarismo/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmaniose Visceral/tratamento farmacológico , Fosforilcolina/análogos & derivados , Fosforilcolina/uso terapêutico , Fosforilcolina/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto
14.
PLoS Pathog ; 20(4): e1012181, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38656959

RESUMO

Addressing the challenges of quiescence and post-treatment relapse is of utmost importance in the microbiology field. This study shows that Leishmania infantum and L. donovani parasites rapidly enter into quiescence after an estimated 2-3 divisions in both human and mouse bone marrow stem cells. Interestingly, this behavior is not observed in macrophages, which are the primary host cells of the Leishmania parasite. Transcriptional comparison of the quiescent and non-quiescent metabolic states confirmed the overall decrease of gene expression as a hallmark of quiescence. Quiescent amastigotes display a reduced size and signs of a rapid evolutionary adaptation response with genetic alterations. Our study provides further evidence that this quiescent state significantly enhances resistance to treatment. Moreover, transitioning through quiescence is highly compatible with sand fly transmission and increases the potential of parasites to infect cells. Collectively, this work identified stem cells in the bone marrow as a niche where Leishmania quiescence occurs, with important implications for antiparasitic treatment and acquisition of virulence traits.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leishmania infantum , Animais , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/parasitologia , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Humanos , Leishmania donovani/fisiologia , Macrófagos/parasitologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
15.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 9870, 2024 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38684845

RESUMO

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an infectious disease caused by Leishmania infantum. Clinically, VL evolves with systemic impairment, immunosuppression and hyperactivation with hypergammaglobulinemia. Although renal involvement has been recognized, a dearth of understanding about the underlying mechanisms driving acute kidney injury (AKI) in VL remains. We aimed to evaluate the involvement of immunoglobulins (Igs) and immune complexes (CIC) in the occurrence of AKI in VL patients. Fourteen VL patients were evaluated between early treatment and 12 months post-treatment (mpt). Anti-Leishmania Igs, CIC, cystatin C, C3a and C5a were assessed and correlated with AKI markers. Interestingly, high levels of CIC were observed in VL patients up to 6 mpt. Concomitantly, twelve patients met the criteria for AKI, while high levels of cystatin C were observed up to 6 mpt. Plasmatic cystatin C was positively correlated with CIC and Igs. Moreover, C5a was correlated with cystatin C, CIC and Igs. We did not identify any correlation between amphotericin B use and kidney function markers in VL patients, although this association needs to be further explored in subsequent studies. Our data reinforce the presence of an important renal function impairment during VL, suggesting the involvement of Igs, CIC, and C5a in this clinical condition.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Complexo Antígeno-Anticorpo , Leishmaniose Visceral , Humanos , Leishmaniose Visceral/imunologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/sangue , Injúria Renal Aguda/sangue , Injúria Renal Aguda/imunologia , Injúria Renal Aguda/parasitologia , Masculino , Feminino , Complexo Antígeno-Anticorpo/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cistatina C/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Anfotericina B/uso terapêutico , Leishmania infantum/imunologia
16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(4): e0011635, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38626228

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a dermatosis which can occur after successful treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and is a public health problem in VL endemic areas. We conducted a systematic scoping review to assess the characteristics of published PKDL clinical studies, understand the scope of research and explore the feasibility and value of developing a PKDL individual patient data (IPD) platform. METHODS: A systematic review of published literature was conducted to identify PKDL clinical studies by searching the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, Ovid Embase, Web of Science Core Collection, WHO Global Index Medicus, PASCAL, Clinicaltrials.gov, Ovid Global Health, Cochrane Database and CENTRAL, and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. Only prospective studies in humans with PKDL diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up measurements between January 1973 and March 2023 were included. Extracted data includes variables on patient characteristics, treatment regimens, diagnostic methods, geographical locations, efficacy endpoints, adverse events and statistical methodology. RESULTS: A total of 3,418 records were screened, of which 56 unique studies (n = 2,486 patients) were included in this review. Out of the 56 studies, 36 (64.3%) were from India (1983-2022), 12 (21.4%) from Sudan (1992-2021), 6 (10.7%) were from Bangladesh (1991-2019), and 2 (3.6%) from Nepal (2001-2007). Five (8.9%) studies were published between 1981-1990 (n = 193 patients), 10 (17.9%) between 1991-2000 (n = 230 patients), 10 (17.9%) between 2001-2010 (n = 198 patients), and 31 (55.4%) from 2011 onwards (n = 1,865 patients). Eight (14.3%) were randomised clinical trials, and 48 (85.7%) were non-randomised studies. The median post-treatment follow-up duration was 365 days (range: 90-540 days) in 8 RCTs and 360 days (range: 28-2,373 days) in 48 non-randomised studies. Disease diagnosis was based on clinical criterion in 3 (5.4%) studies, a mixture of clinical and parasitological methods in 47 (83.9%) and was unclear in 6 (10.7%) studies. Major drugs used for treatment were miltefosine (n = 636 patients), liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) (n = 508 patients), and antinomy regimens (n = 454 patients). Ten other drug regimens were tested in 270 patients with less than 60 patients per regimen. CONCLUSIONS: Our review identified studies with very limited sample size for the three major drugs (miltefosine, L-AmB, and pentavalent antimony), while the number of patients combined across studies suggest that the IPD platform would be valuable. With the support of relevant stakeholders, the global PKDL community and sufficient financing, a PKDL IPD platform can be realised. This will allow for exploration of different aspects of treatment safety and efficacy, which can potentially guide future healthcare decisions and clinical practices.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários , Leishmaniose Cutânea , Leishmaniose Visceral , Humanos , Leishmaniose Visceral/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmaniose Cutânea/tratamento farmacológico , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Estudos de Viabilidade , Resultado do Tratamento , Índia/epidemiologia , Bangladesh/epidemiologia
17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(4): e0012078, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38640118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the current treatment options for visceral leishmaniasis (VL), recrudescence of the parasite is seen in a proportion of patients. Understanding parasite dynamics is crucial to improving treatment efficacy and predicting patient relapse in cases of VL. This study aimed to characterize the kinetics of circulating Leishmania parasites in the blood, during and after different antileishmanial therapies, and to find predictors for clinical relapse of disease. METHODS: Data from three clinical trials, in which Eastern African VL patients received various antileishmanial regimens, were combined in this study. Leishmania kinetoplast DNA was quantified in whole blood with real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) before, during, and up to six months after treatment. An integrated population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model was developed using non-linear mixed effects modelling. RESULTS: Parasite proliferation was best described by an exponential growth model, with an in vivo parasite doubling time of 7.8 days (RSE 12%). Parasite killing by fexinidazole, liposomal amphotericin B, sodium stibogluconate, and miltefosine was best described by linear models directly relating drug concentrations to the parasite elimination rate. After treatment, parasite growth was assumed to be suppressed by the host immune system, described by an Emax model driven by the time after treatment. No predictors for the high variability in onset and magnitude of the immune response could be identified. Model-based individual predictions of blood parasite load on Day 28 and Day 56 after start of treatment were predictive for clinical relapse of disease. CONCLUSION: This semi-mechanistic pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model adequately captured the blood parasite dynamics during and after treatment, and revealed that high blood parasite loads on Day 28 and Day 56 after start of treatment are an early indication for VL relapse, which could be a useful biomarker to assess treatment efficacy of a treatment regimen in a clinical trial setting.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários , Leishmaniose Visceral , Nitroimidazóis , Fosforilcolina/análogos & derivados , Leishmaniose Visceral/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Humanos , Antiprotozoários/farmacocinética , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Adulto , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , África Oriental , Anfotericina B/farmacocinética , Anfotericina B/uso terapêutico , Anfotericina B/farmacologia , Recidiva , DNA de Cinetoplasto/genética , Carga Parasitária , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Criança , Gluconato de Antimônio e Sódio/uso terapêutico , Gluconato de Antimônio e Sódio/farmacocinética , Pré-Escolar , DNA de Protozoário/genética
18.
BMJ Case Rep ; 17(3)2024 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38479831

RESUMO

We present a rare case of recurrent leishmaniasis infection in a female in her 80s who re-presented with a pleural effusion. The patient was initially investigated as an outpatient for cytopenia and underwent a bone marrow biopsy which subsequently diagnosed visceral leishmaniasis. Following full treatment, and apparent recovery, she re-presented with pleural effusion, hypoalbuminaemia and cytopenia. Leishmania was eventually isolated in a pleural fluid sample obtained on therapeutic drainage, and she was treated for a recurrence at a tertiary infectious disease unit. This interesting and challenging case demonstrates the importance of suspecting leishmaniasis recurrence in previously treated cases and the diagnostic benefit of pleural fluid analysis in the context of suspected leishmaniasis.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Visceral , Derrame Pleural , Humanos , Feminino , Leishmaniose Visceral/complicações , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/tratamento farmacológico , Derrame Pleural/diagnóstico por imagem , Derrame Pleural/etiologia , Derrame Pleural/patologia , Exsudatos e Transudatos , Medula Óssea/patologia
19.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 119: e230182, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38511814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leishmaniases encompass a spectrum of neglected diseases caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania, grouped in two forms: tegumentary and visceral leishmaniasis. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we propose Friend Virus B NIH Jackson (FVB/NJ) mouse strain as a new experimental model of infection with Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, the second most prevalent agent of tegumentary leishmaniasis in Brazil. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed in vitro infections of FVB/NJ macrophages and compared them with BALB/c macrophages, showing that BALB/c cells have higher infection percentages and a higher number of amastigotes/cell. Phagocytosis assays indicated that BALB/c and FVB/NJ macrophages have similar capacity to uptake parasites after 5 min incubations. We also investigated promastigotes' resistance to sera from FVB/NJ and BALB/c and observed no difference between the two sera, even though FVB/NJ has a deficiency in complement components. Finally, we subcutaneously infected FVB/NJ and BALB/c mice with 2 × 106 parasites expressing luciferase. Analysis of lesion development for 12 weeks showed that FVB/NJ and BALB/c mice have similar lesion profiles and parasite burdens. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: This work characterises for the first time the FVB/NJ mouse as a new model for tegumentary leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (L.) amazonensis.


Assuntos
Leishmania , Leishmaniose Cutânea , Leishmaniose Visceral , Leishmaniose , Camundongos , Animais , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Macrófagos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
20.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(3): e0011938, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38446789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), or kala-azar, is a vector-borne tropical disease caused by a group of intracellular hemoflagellate protozoa belonging to the family of Trypanosomatide and the genus Leishmania. The disease is distributed around the world and transmitted via the bite of infected female Phlebotomine sandflies, and there is variation in the diagnostic accuracy. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the pooled global sensitivity and specificity of the rk-39 test and to evaluate if there is a difference between the different parts of the world. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis have been conducted on the diagnostic accuracy of dermoscopy. After setting eligibility criteria, literature was searched in four databases and one searching engine. Articles were screened, critically appraised, and extracted independently by two reviewers, and any disagreements were resolved with the involvement of a third person. The quality of the included studies had been assessed by the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS 2) tool. Pooled sensitivity and specificity were determined by bivariate random effect analysis. Heterogeneity was assessed by Higgins's I2, and when it was present, mitigation was conducted by using sensitivity analysis. RESULT: A total of 409 studies were identified, and finally 18 articles were eligible for the review with a total sample size of 5, 253. The bivariate random effect meta-analysis of the 7 diagnostic accuracy studies showed a pooled sensitivity of 0.89 (0.76-0.95) and specificity of 0.86 (0.72-0.94). The +LR was 6.32 (95% CI: 2.85-14.02), the-LR was 0.13 (95% CI: 0.06-0.30), and the diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) was 47.8 (95% CI: 11.3-203.2). Abdel-Latif (2018) was both an outlier and influential for sensitivity, and Walter (2011) was both an outlier and influential for specificity, and removing them from sensitivity and specificity, respectively, was beneficial for reducing the heterogeneity. CONCLUSION: Rk-39 is found to have highly accurate measures in the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. Both sensitivity and specificity were found to be highly accurate in the diagnosis of leishmaniasis, with a pooled sensitivity of 0.91 (0.88-0.93) and a pooled specificity of 0.89 (0.85-0.91). ETHICAL CONSIDERATION: As we will use secondary data for the systematic review and meta-analysis, ethical concerns are not necessary.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Visceral , Testes Sorológicos , Humanos , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Razão de Chances
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