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1.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 40(1): 13-6, 2020 Jan 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31930892

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture at Shaoze (SI 1) on breast milk volume and nutrient composition in postpartum hypogalactia. METHODS: A total of 62 women with postpartum hypogalactia were randomized into an observation group (31 cases, 3 cases dropped off) and a control group (31 cases, 3 cases dropped off). Electroacupuncture was exerted at Shaoze (SI 1) in the observation group and at Shangyang (LI 1) in the control group, 10 Hz in frequency, 30 min each time, once a day. The treatment for 5 times as one course and 3 courses of treatment were required totally. Separately, before treatment and at the end of 1 course and 3 courses of treatment, the breast milk volume was measured and the composition was analyzed. The breast milk volume, nutrient composition (lactose, fat and protein), breast milk energy and density were observed in the two groups. After treatment, the clinical effect was compared between the two groups. RESULTS: In the observation group, after 1 course of treatment, the breast milk volume and the values of lactose and protein in the breast milk were increased as compared with those before treatment, the breast milk energy and density were increased as compared with those before treatment (all P<0.05). After 3 courses of treatment, the breast milk volume and the values of nutrient composition (lactose, fat and protein) were improved as compared with those before treatment, and the breast milk energy and density were increased obviously as compared with those before treatment in the observation group (all P<0.05). In the control group, after 1 course and 3 courses of treatment, only breast milk volume was increased obviously as compared with that before treatment (both P<0.05). After 1 course of treatment, the nutrient composition (lactose and protein), breast milk energy and density in the observation group were higher than those in the control group (all P<0.05). After 3 courses of treatment, the levels of breast milk volume, nutrient composition (lactose, fat and protein), breast milk energy and density in the observation group were all higher than those in the control group (all P<0.05). The effective rate was 92.9% (26/28) in the observation group, which was higher than 17.9% (5/28) in the control group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Electroacupuncture at Shaozhe (SI 1) increases breast milk volume in patients with postpartum hypogalactia and promotes the production of the nutrient composition in breast milk, as well as the breast milk energy and density.


Assuntos
Eletroacupuntura , Transtornos da Lactação , Pontos de Acupuntura , Feminino , Humanos , Lactação , Transtornos da Lactação/terapia , Leite Humano , Período Pós-Parto
2.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 22(1): 82-86, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948530

RESUMO

There are various types of bioactive substances in human breast milk, such as active proteins, growth factors, cytokines, oligosaccharides, probiotics and cells. Many studies have shown that these bioactive substances in breast milk have important protective effects on infant growth and development, including anti-bacterial and anti-viral effects and the promotion of infant growth and development and immunologic maturation. They can also reduce the incidence rate of infectious diseases in infants, improve neural development in preterm infants, and reduce the risk of obesity and diabetes in future. However, there is still no clinical evidence for the effects of several active substances in breast milk, and their immunoregulatory mechanism remains unclear. Therefore, further studies are needed for clarification.


Assuntos
Leite Humano , Probióticos , Bactérias , Feminino , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro
3.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124677, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524616

RESUMO

Understanding the health implications of human exposure to mixtures of chemical contaminants is aided by analytical methods that can screen for a broad range of both expected and unexpected compounds. We performed a proof-of-concept analysis combining human breast milk, a biomonitoring matrix for determining contaminant exposure to mothers and infants, with a non-targeted method based on comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC/TOF-MS). A total of 172 presumably anthropogenic halogenated compounds and non-halogenated cyclic and aromatic compounds were tentatively identified in breast milk from San Diego, California through mass spectral database searches. Forty of the compounds were prioritized for confirmation based on halogenation or 100% frequency of detection, and the identities of 30 were verified using authentic standards. Thirty-four (85%) of the prioritized contaminants are not typically monitored in breast milk surveys, and 31 (77%) are regulated in at least one market worldwide, indicating breast milk may be a useful biomonitoring matrix for non-targeted analysis and the assessment of human exposure to future emerging or undiscovered contaminants.


Assuntos
/estatística & dados numéricos , Leite Humano/química , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , California , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Halogenação , Humanos
4.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 84(1): 17-24, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566084

RESUMO

Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) have drawn attention for their contribution to the explosive bifidobacterial growth in the intestines of neonates. We found that bifidobacteria can efficiently metabolize lacto-N-biose I (LNB), the major building blocks of HMOs, and we have developed a method to synthesize LNB by applying this system. We produced LNB on a kilogram scale by the method. This proved that, among the enterobacteria, only bifidobacteria can assimilate LNB, and provided the data that supported the explosive growth of bifidobacteria in neonates. Furthermore, we were also able to reveal the structure of LNB crystal and the low stability for heating at neutral pH, which has not been clarified so far. In this paper, using bifidobacteria and LNB as examples, I describe the research on oligosaccharide synthesis that was conducted by utilizing a sugar metabolism.Abbreviations: LNB: lacto-N-biose I; GNB: galacto-N-biose; HMOs: human milk oligosaccharides; GLNBP: GNB/LNB phosphorylase; NahK: N-acetylhexosamine 1-kinase; GalT: UDP-glucose-hexose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase; GalE: UDP-glucose 4-epimerase; SP: sucrose phosphorylase.


Assuntos
Acetilglucosamina/análogos & derivados , Bifidobacterium/metabolismo , Glucosiltransferases/química , Leite Humano/química , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Sacarose/química , Acetilglucosamina/síntese química , Acetilglucosamina/química , Acetilglucosamina/metabolismo , Resinas de Troca de Ânions/química , Bifidobacterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cristalização , Dissacaridases/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Recém-Nascido
5.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124829, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563722

RESUMO

In this study, we assessed the presence of four parabens in human milk of 120 mothers from Valencia (Spain) which took part in a human biomonitoring project (BETTERMILK). The detection frequency ranges of parabens were 41-60% and 61-89% for unconjugated- and total (unconjugated + conjugated)-parabens, respectively. The concentrations ranged from

Assuntos
/métodos , Aleitamento Materno/métodos , Leite Humano/química , Parabenos/química , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido
6.
Rev Environ Contam Toxicol ; 252: 97-129, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346776

RESUMO

Human milk may sometimes contain chemical contaminants, which could have adverse effects on neonates or nursing infants. Lead (Pb) is of considerable interest due to its toxicity and occurrence. Furthermore, it has been suggested that human milk is a significant potential source of lead exposure to nursing infants. A systematic literature search in PubMed, Science Direct, and Google Scholar databases was performed to identify relevant studies, published in English until 2017, that investigated and explored common factors affecting the level of lead in human milk among lactating women around the world. Forty-nine papers were rated and explored the effect of one or several factors on the level of lead in human milk from 28 countries and carried out over a wide time frame from 1983 to 2017 and through Europe, Asia, America, and Africa, reviewing more than 5,000 subjects. Place of residence, maternal age, stage of lactation, smoking habits, maternal dietary intakes, and parity were the mostly assessed factors among the studies and considered as the main factors affecting Pb levels in BM. Other factors were not studied well enough and considered minor because few surveys evaluated their impacts. However, the literature findings are very controversial.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Lactação , Chumbo/metabolismo , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(44): e17383, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689745

RESUMO

The risk of postnatal HIV transmission exists throughout the breastfeeding period. HIV shedding in breast milk beyond six months has not been studied extensively. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence and determinants of HIV shedding in breast milk during continued breastfeedingA cross-sectional study was nested in the PROMISE-PEP trial in Lusaka, Zambia to analyze breast milk samples collected from both breasts at week 38 post-partum (mid-way during continued breastfeeding). We measured concurrent HIV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and HIV ribonucleic acid (RNA) as proxies for cell-associated HIV (CAV) and cell-free HIV (CFV) shedding in breast milk respectively. Participants' socio-demographic date, concurrent blood test results, sub clinical mastitis test results and contraceptive use data were available. Logistic regression models were used to identify determinants of HIV shedding in breast milk (detecting either CAV or CFV).The prevalence of HIV shedding in breast milk at 9 months post-partum was 79.4% (95%CI: 74.0 - 84.0). CAV only, CFV only and both CAV and CFV were detectable in 13.7%, 17.3% and 48.4% mothers, respectively. The odds of shedding HIV in breast milk decreased significantly with current use of combined oral contraceptives (AOR: 0.37; 95%CI: 0.17 - 0.83) and increased significantly with low CD4 count (AOR: 3.47; 95%CI: 1.23 - 9.80), unsuppressed plasma viral load (AOR: 6.27; 95%CI: 2.47 - 15.96) and severe sub-clinical mastitis (AOR: 12.56; 95%CI: 2.48 - 63.58).This study estimated that about 80% of HIV infected mothers not on ART shed HIV in breast milk during continued breastfeeding. Major factors driving this shedding were low CD4 count, unsuppressed plasma viral load and severe sub-clinical mastitis. The inverse relationship between breast milk HIV and use of combined oral contraceptives needs further clarification. Continued shedding of CAV may contribute to residual postnatal transmission of HIV in mothers on successful ART.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Leite Humano/virologia , Adulto , Antirretrovirais , Aleitamento Materno , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres , Anticoncepcionais Orais Combinados/administração & dosagem , Estudos Transversais , DNA Viral , Feminino , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Modelos Logísticos , Mastite/epidemiologia , Mães , Prevalência , RNA Viral , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Carga Viral , Eliminação de Partículas Virais/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem , Zâmbia
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(50): 13922-13928, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746600

RESUMO

We compared phospholipids (PLs), PL fatty acid (FA) composition, and milk fat globule size and structure in human milk (n = 120) from mothers of full-term and preterm infants during lactation (colostrum, transition, 1 mo, 2 mo, and 3 mo) and 8 brands of infant formulas. The absolute quantification of PLs was analyzed using 31P NMR spectroscopy. Sphingomyelin was the dominant PLs (35.01 ± 3.31%) in human milk, whereas phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine were the dominant PLs in infant formulas. The PL content in preterm milk increased during lactation, whereas that in term milk remained stable. Saturated FAs (mainly 16:0 and 18:0) were the most abundant (>60%) PL FA in both preterm and term milk and increased throughout lactation. The mean diameter of milk fat globules in infant formulas was much smaller than that found in human milk (200 nm vs 5.63 µm). Significant differences were observed between human milk and infant formulas with regard to PLs, suggesting that more research is needed to mimic the PL profile in infant formulas.


Assuntos
Glicolipídeos/química , Glicoproteínas/química , Fórmulas Infantis/química , Leite Humano/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , Gravidez/metabolismo , Adulto , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Glicolipídeos/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactente , Lactação , Masculino , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo
9.
N Engl J Med ; 381(15): 1434-1443, 2019 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational data have shown that slow advancement of enteral feeding volumes in preterm infants is associated with a reduced risk of necrotizing enterocolitis but an increased risk of late-onset sepsis. However, data from randomized trials are limited. METHODS: We randomly assigned very preterm or very-low-birth-weight infants to daily milk increments of 30 ml per kilogram of body weight (faster increment) or 18 ml per kilogram (slower increment) until reaching full feeding volumes. The primary outcome was survival without moderate or severe neurodevelopmental disability at 24 months. Secondary outcomes included components of the primary outcome, confirmed or suspected late-onset sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and cerebral palsy. RESULTS: Among 2804 infants who underwent randomization, the primary outcome could be assessed in 1224 (87.4%) assigned to the faster increment and 1246 (88.7%) assigned to the slower increment. Survival without moderate or severe neurodevelopmental disability at 24 months occurred in 802 of 1224 infants (65.5%) assigned to the faster increment and 848 of 1246 (68.1%) assigned to the slower increment (adjusted risk ratio, 0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92 to 1.01; P = 0.16). Late-onset sepsis occurred in 414 of 1389 infants (29.8%) in the faster-increment group and 434 of 1397 (31.1%) in the slower-increment group (adjusted risk ratio, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.86 to 1.07). Necrotizing enterocolitis occurred in 70 of 1394 infants (5.0%) in the faster-increment group and 78 of 1399 (5.6%) in the slower-increment group (adjusted risk ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.68 to 1.16). CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant difference in survival without moderate or severe neurodevelopmental disability at 24 months in very preterm or very-low-birth-weight infants with a strategy of advancing milk feeding volumes in daily increments of 30 ml per kilogram as compared with 18 ml per kilogram. (Funded by the Health Technology Assessment Programme of the National Institute for Health Research; SIFT Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN76463425.).


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/prevenção & controle , Nutrição Enteral/métodos , Fórmulas Infantis , Doenças do Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Leite Humano , Pré-Escolar , Nutrição Enteral/efeitos adversos , Enterocolite Necrosante/prevenção & controle , Seguimentos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Tempo de Internação , Sepse/prevenção & controle
10.
Nutr. hosp ; 36(5): 1139-1149, sept.-oct. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184638

RESUMO

Introducción: la leche materna es el primer alimento fundamental de los neonatos y proporciona todas las fuentes de energía, nutrientes y protección inmunológica que necesitan durante sus primeros meses de vida. Lamentablemente, existen circunstancias específicas que implican que la madre no pueda alimentar correctamente a su bebé, ya que las necesidades nutricionales de la madre difieren en cierta medida durante los diversos periodos de la vida, especialmente en la lactancia, ya que se aumentan las necesidades nutricionales debido a la pérdida de nutrientes, primero por el calostro y luego a través de la leche materna. Objetivo: demostrar la influencia de la dieta de mujeres mexicanas sobre la calidad nutricional y la presencia de microorganismos benéficos en la leche humana. Métodos: se llevaron a cabo 70 encuestas descriptivas de nutrición y toma de muestras de leche a mujeres en estado lactante. Las leches fueron sometidas a diversos análisis bromatológicos y microbiológicos para evaluar su calidad nutricional y posible actividad probiótica. Resultados: se demostró que la ingesta de alimentos de la madre influye en la calidad nutricional de la leche. Asimismo, afecta el desarrollo y crecimiento de las bacterias lácticas. Se aislaron e identificaron diversas cepas en leche humana del género Lactobacillus, además de bacterias patógenas como el caso de Lodderomyces elongisporus, entre otros. Conclusiones: la alimentación de las madres se refleja directamente en la calidad nutricional de la leche. Se observó que la cantidad de nutrientes esenciales de la leche, como son los hidratos de carbono, lípidos y proteínas, varían conforme a la alimentación y el ritmo de vida de las madres, así como la disminución significativa de bacterias lácticas con potencial probiótico


Introduction: breast milk is the first fundamental food of newborns and it provides all the sources of energy, nutrients and the immunological protection they need during their first months of life. Unfortunately, there are specific circumstances that imply that the mother cannot feed her baby correctly, since the mother's nutritional needs differ to a certain extent during different periods of life. Especially in breastfeeding, since nutritional needs are increased, due to the loss of nutrients, first by colostrum and then by breast milk. Objective: to demonstrate the influence of the diet of Mexican women on the nutritional quality and the presence of beneficial microorganisms in human milk. Methods: seventy descriptive surveys of nutrition and sampling of milk to women in nursing state were carried out. The milks were subjected to various bromatological and microbiological analyzes to evaluate their nutritional quality and possible probiotic activity. Results: it was shown that the mother's food intake influences the nutritional quality of the milk. Likewise, it affects the development and growth of lactic acid bacteria. Several strains were isolated and identified in human milk of the genus Lactobacillus, as well as pathogenic bacteria such as Lodderomyces elongisporus among others. Conclusions: the mothers' nutrition is directly reflected in the nutritional quality of the milk. It was observed that the amount of essential nutrients of milk such as carbohydrates, lipids and proteins vary according to the diet and life rhythm of the mothers, as well as the significant decrease of lactic bacteria with probiotic potential


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Dieta , Leite Humano/microbiologia , Avaliação Nutricional , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Nutrientes , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Carboidratos , Proteínas
11.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46824

RESUMO

Uma equipe de especialistas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto (FMRP) da USP desenvolveu um aditivo, batizado de Lioneo, que enriquece o leite materno, concentrando nutrientes do próprio leite humano, para o que consideram ser o “padrão ouro” na alimentação dos prematuros. Com o diferencial de ser feito somente de leite humano – os produtos em uso atualmente são baseados em leite de vaca -, o preparo do aditivo usa técnicas simples como a liofilização, que transforma líquido em pó, sem alterar as características do leite e preservando a concentração dos nutrientes essenciais que somente existem no leite materno. Esse pó é adicionado ao leite materno e oferecido aos recém-nascidos.


Assuntos
Leite Humano , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Nutrição Materna
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505822

RESUMO

This study examined whether maternal nutritional intake and breast milk macronutrient content influence the weight of breastfed infants. We investigated 129 healthy mothers with singleton babies born from July 2016 to December 2017 in a university hospital in Tokyo, Japan. Information was obtained by a self-administered food frequency questionnaire at 1 (valid response n = 92; mean age, 34 years) and 3 (n = 57) months after delivery. Breast milk was sampled at 1 and 3 months and the macronutrient contents were analyzed. The average pre-pregnancy body mass index and weight gain during pregnancy were 20.7 ± 2.6 kg/m2 and 9.6 ± 3.7 kg, respectively. At 1 month, average maternal calorie intake was 1993 ± 417 kcal/day, which was lower than the intake recommended by Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes for breastfeeding mothers. There were no significant differences with regard to maternal calorie and protein intake, and breast milk macronutrient content between breastfed infants with weight above and below the 25th percentile of its distribution at both 1 and 3 months. This study suggests that suboptimal calorie intake by breastfeeding mothers and breast milk macronutrient content were not associated with weight of their infants at 1 and 3 months after delivery.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , Aleitamento Materno , Recém-Nascido/fisiologia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Leite Humano/química , Nutrientes/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desnutrição/etiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Tempo , Tóquio/epidemiologia
13.
Turk J Pediatr ; 61(1): 1-6, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559714

RESUMO

Konak M, Minici M, Tarakçi N, Altunhan H, Toker A, Örs R. Effects of the storage of breast milk at different temperatures on total antioxidant capacity, total oxidant status, and paraoxonase-1 level. Turk J Pediatr 2019; 61: 1-6. Breast milk is a well-balanced ideal nutritional source with high bioavailability for infants. As being a fresh, biological and dynamic product, changes in the breast milk during these storage periods have been the subject of ongoing research. This study aims to evaluate total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS), and paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) levels of fresh and freezestored breast milk. Ten cc of breast milk was obtained from the mothers as the days between 10 and 15 in the morning within a 1-hour period. TAC, TOS, and PON-1 levels were evaluated in the fresh breast milk. Collected breast milk samples were divided into two groups for storage at -20°C or -80°C. Stored samples were tested for TAC, TOS, and PON-1 levels after 72 hours. The highest TAC level was detected in fresh breast milk (p < 0.05). The TOS levels of fresh breast milk showed a statistically significant reduction in rate after storage. The TOS levels at -20°C and -80°C were significantly lower at -80°C (p < 0.05). Our study results show that oxidant and antioxidant activities are at the maximum level in the fresh breast milk. In terms of antioxidant status the effect of freezing temperatures hasn`t been determined. We conclude that it is more convenient to store the breast milk at -80°C than to store at -20°C in terms of preserving the storage TOS level.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Arildialquilfosfatase/análise , Temperatura Baixa , Criopreservação/métodos , Leite Humano/química , Oxidantes , Adulto , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Arildialquilfosfatase/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Extração de Leite , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Masculino , Oxidantes/sangue , Estresse Oxidativo
14.
Turk J Pediatr ; 61(1): 13-19, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559716

RESUMO

Akyüz-Ünsal AI, Key Ö, Güler D, Bekmez S, Sagus M, Akcan AB, Kurt-Omurlu I, Anik A, Oruç-Dündar S, Türkmen M. Retinopathy of prematurity risk factors: Does human milk prevent retinopathy of prematurity? Turk J Pediatr 2019; 61: 13-19. The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors for Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) development and the potential effect of human breast milk among these factors. For this purpose, infants admitted to a tertiary referral clinic for ROP screening and treatment between April 2013 and May 2015, were included in this retrospective study. The demographic data, accompanying diseases, previous surgery, type of feeding and duration of human breast milk intake were recorded. According to the ROP screening examination results, infants were divided into two groups as those with ROP (infants at any stage of ROP) and those without ROP. Relationship between the risk factors and ROP were evaluated. The comparison of 221 infants without ROP and 99 infants with ROP; revealed that gestational age at birth, birth weight, mechanical ventilation support, bronchopulmonary and cardiac diseases, hydrocephaly, any previous surgery, infections, steroid treatment percentages were high and human breast milk intake percentage was low among infants with ROP. Mean breast feeding time for infants with ROP (3.81 ± 2.33 month) was shorter than the infants without ROP (5.51 ± 1.43 month) (p < 0.001). In logistic regression analysis, the duration of breast feeding was inversely related with ROP (OR 0.744; 95% CI 0.621-0.891; p < 0,001). These results suggest that gestational age at birth and accompanying diseases are the main risk factors for the development of ROP. As the duration of the breast feeding of the infants without ROP was longer than the infants with ROP; breast feeding may have a preventive effect on ROP development.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/etiologia , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Leite Humano , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(44): 12237-12244, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560847

RESUMO

Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) maintain and promote infant health. Most of the current methods for HMOs quantitation require labor-intensive and time-consuming steps for sample preparation. This study presents two very simple and easy-to-operate pretreatment methods, requiring either ultrafiltration or centrifugation to separate free oligosaccharides from whole fat human milk and other milk matrix before oligosaccharides labeling for quantifying HMOs using ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. A single chromatography run quantified 15 sialylated and neutral HMOs with high sensitivity (with an LOD less than 8 pg for all HMOs tested: about 1 pg for 2'-fucosyllactose, 3-fucosyllactose, 4'-galactosyllactose, 3'-galactosyllactose, and 6'-galactosyllactose) and good linearity with coefficient of correlation above 0.999. Accuracy and precision were satisfactory for both pretreatment methods. Overall, the centrifugation pretreatment was efficient and reliable for samples with high levels of oligosaccharides, and the ultrafiltration pretreatment was especially suitable for samples with low oligosaccharide abundance.


Assuntos
Centrifugação/métodos , Leite Humano/química , Oligossacarídeos/análise , Oligossacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Ultrafiltração/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/instrumentação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Feminino , Humanos
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(38): 10702-10712, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490688

RESUMO

Human milk oligosaccharides are complex carbohydrates with multibiofunctional health benefits to newborns. Human milk free oligosaccharides (HMOs) are well characterized. However, changes in the N/O-glycome during lactation are poorly reported. Herein, we qualitatively and quantitatively investigated N/O-glycome profiles and their alteration in human milk at different lactation stages. N-Glycans were mainly fucosylated and nonsialylated, nonfucosylated throughout lactation. O-Glycans mainly consisted of sialylated and nonsialylated, nonfucosylated in colostrum and transitional milk, and fucosylated and nonfucosylated, nonsialylated in mature milk. Fucosylated and sialylated N-glycans gradually decreased and increased, respectively, as lactation progressed; O-glycans showed the reverse. Interestingly, changes in HMO abundance decreased during lactation, complementing HMG N/O-glycome changes. In conclusion, temporal HMG glycosylation changes provide the groundwork for developing infant formula that is closer to breast milk at different lactation stages.


Assuntos
Glicoproteínas/química , Lactação , Leite Humano/química , Adulto , Colostro/química , Feminino , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Glicosilação , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Oligossacarídeos/química , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo
17.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 2): 113142, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563777

RESUMO

Parabens, broad-spectrum antimicrobial preservatives widely used in various consumer products and food, are suspected to be linked with several adverse health effects in humans, especially newborn babies, infants, and young children. While human exposure to parabens has been frequently reported by measuring the concentration of parabens in urine, similar measurements in breast milk have rarely been made. To determine paraben concentrations in breast milk and possible sources of exposure, four major parabens, including methylparaben (MP), ethylparaben (EP), propylparaben (PP), and butylparaben (BP) were measured in breast milk samples collected from 260 lactating women in South Korea. Demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral factors associated with the presence of parabens in breast milk were determined. EP concentrations were detected at the highest levels in breast milk samples, followed by MP, PP, and BP. Pre-pregnancy BMI, parity, use of basic skin care products, use of cosmetics, canned beverage, and type of milk consumption were associated with higher frequencies of paraben detection. In addition, type of milk, parity, and drinking status were significantly associated with the concentration of EP. Multiple regression analyses showed that colostrum and transitional milk samples had higher levels of EP than mature milk samples. The estimated daily intake of parabens in infants via breastfeeding appears to be negligible when compared to the acceptable daily intake values set forth by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA); however, considering the vulnerability of breastfed infants and ubiquitous sources of exposure from daily use of household and personal toiletries, efforts to identify sources and mitigate exposure are warranted.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Parabenos/metabolismo , Adulto , Aleitamento Materno , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colostro/química , Cosméticos/análise , Demografia , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Lactação , Leite Humano/química , Parabenos/análise , Gravidez , Conservantes Farmacêuticos , Análise de Regressão , República da Coreia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553683

RESUMO

Perchlorate is a low molecular weight highly soluble anion. It occurs naturally in the environment, primarily near potash deposits and in arid regions. The determination of perchlorate in human milk is of interest in vulnerable populations such as infants and pregnant women. In this study, a sensitive and selective isotope dilution ion chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (ID IC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the determination of perchlorate in human milk samples collected from the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Study. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.27 µg·kg-1 for human milk. A total of 439 human milk samples were analysed with measurable levels of perchlorate in most of the milk samples, and the mean value was 7.62 ± 32.7 µg·kg-1. This project provided important information related to perchlorate levels in human milk collected across Canada and the extent to which pregnant women and their infants may be exposed to perchlorate. A dietary exposure assessment was also conducted in infants based on the measured values in human milk. The mean perchlorate probable daily intakes (PDIs) for infants consuming human milk were 0.31 ± 0.07 µg/kg bw/day for infants under 1 year and 0.17 ± 0.10 µg/kg bw/day for infants between 1 and 3 years old. None of the estimates exceeded the FAO/WHO provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) of 10 µg/kg bw/day.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Fórmulas Infantis/química , Leite Humano/química , Percloratos/análise , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 692: 1106-1115, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539942

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in breast milk samples from healthy primiparous mothers who had lived in Kampala capital city (urban area) and Nakaseke district (a rural area) for the last five years. Fifty samples were collected between March and June 2018 and were extracted by dispersive solid-phase extraction (SPE). Clean-up was performed on an SPE column and analysis was done using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Total (∑) PBDEs (BDE 28, 47, 49, 66, 77, 99, 100,138,153, 154, 183 and 209) ranged from 0.59 to 8.11 ng/g lipid weight (lw). The levels of PBDEs in samples from Kampala capital city were significantly higher than those from Nakaseke (p < 0.01, Mann-Whitney U test). The most dominant congeners were BDE-209 and -47 (contributed 37.1% and 20.2%, respectively to ∑PBDEs), suggesting recent exposure of mothers to deca-and penta-BDE formulations. Fish and egg consumption, plastics/e-waste recycling and paint fumes were associated with higher levels of BDE-47, -153 and -99, respectively, implying that diet and occupation were possible sources of the pollutants. Estimated dietary intakes (ng kg-1 body weight day-1) for BDE-47, -99 and -153 were below the US EPA reference doses for neurodevelopmental toxicity, suggesting minimal health risks to nursing infants who feed on the milk. Generally, the risk quotients for BDE-47, -99 and -153 were <1 in majority (96%) samples, indicating that the breast milk of mothers in Uganda was fit for human consumption.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/metabolismo , Exposição Materna , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Resíduo Eletrônico , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Bifenil Polibromatos , Uganda
20.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 120(9): 658-662, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475549

RESUMO

AIM: To analyse the dynamics of macronutrients in breast milk in Slovakian women and compare the dynamics between mothers of hospitalized newborns and donors of human breast milk relative to the gestational age of their babies. METHODS: Human milk samples were collected from 101 breastfeeding women and analysed once or repeatedly from September 2017 to August 2018. Group A consisted of 79 mothers of newborns hospitalized at the Neonatal Department of Intensive Medicine (NDIM) of whom 69 were mothers of premature newborns (subgroup A1) and 10 were mothers of term babies (subgroup A2). Group B consisted of 22 breast milk donors registered at the Human Milk Bank at National Institute of Children's Diseases (NICHD). Of these, 4 were mothers of premature newborns (subgroup B1) and 18 were mothers of term newborns (subgroup B2). From subgroup A1, we chose two mothers, one with a hypotrophic newborn and another with a eutrophic newborn. The results were obtained by using the MIRIS breast­milk analyzer. RESULTS: The overall dynamics of macronutrients correspond with other studies, however, we demonstrated that the level of macronutrients in individual cases were different. CONCLUSION: The determination of macronutrients in human milk is essential in neonatal care. It provides information about the nutritional value of breast milk and helps to optimise nutrition according to the individual needs of newborns (Fig. 10, Ref. 16).


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Leite Humano/química , Nutrientes/análise , Aleitamento Materno , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Bancos de Leite
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