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1.
Nanotechnology ; 35(17)2024 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38334120

RESUMO

Here, we demonstrate hydrothermally grown bismuth sulfide (Bi2S3) micro flowers decorated nickel foam (NF) for electrochemical detection of melamine in bottled milk samples. The orthorhombic phase of hydrothermally grown Bi2S3is confirmed by the detailed characterization of x-ray diffraction and its high surface area micro flowers-like morphology is investigated via field emission scanning electron microscope. Furthermore, the surface chemical oxidation state and binding energy of Bi2S3/NF micro flowers is analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies. The sensor exhibits a wide linear range of detection from 10 ng l-1to 1 mg l-1and a superior sensitivity of 3.4 mA cm-2to melamine using differential pulse voltammetry technique, with a lower limit of detection (7.1 ng l-1). The as-fabricated sensor is highly selective against interfering species of p-phenylenediamine (PPDA), cyanuric acid (CA), aniline, ascorbic acid, glucose (Glu), and calcium ion (Ca2+). Real-time analysis done in milk by the standard addition method shows an excellent recovery percentage of Ì´ 98%. The sensor's electrochemical mechanism studies reveal that the high surface area bismuth sulfide micro flowers surface interacts strongly with melamine molecules through hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces, resulting in a significant change in the sensor's electrical properties while 3D skeletal Nickel foam as a substrate provides stability, enhances its catalytic activity by providing a more number /of active sites and facilitates rapid electron transfer. The work presented here confirms Bi2S3/NF as a high-performance electrode that can be used for the detection of other biomolecules used in clinical diagnosis and biomedical research.


Assuntos
Bismuto , Leite , Níquel , Sulfetos , Triazinas , Animais , Níquel/química , Leite/química , Glucose/análise , Técnicas Eletroquímicas
2.
Nutrients ; 16(3)2024 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38337698

RESUMO

Due to its very early introduction, cow's milk is one of the first foods that can cause adverse reactions in human beings. Lactose intolerance (LI) and cow's milk allergy (CMA) are the most common adverse reactions to cow's milk. While LI is due to insufficient small intestinal lactase activity and/or a large quantity of ingested lactose, CMA is an aberrant immune reaction to cow's milk proteins, particularly casein or ß-lactoglobulin. However, the clinical manifestations of LI and CMA, particularly their gastrointestinal signs and symptoms, are very similar, which might lead to misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis as well as nutritional risks due to inappropriate dietary interventions or unnecessary dietary restriction. Formula-fed infants with LI should be treated with formula with reduced or no lactose, while those with CMA should be treated with formula containing extensive hydrolyzed cow's milk protein or amino acids. This review is therefore written to assist clinicians to better understand the pathophysiologies of LI and CMA as well as to recognize the similarities and differences between clinical manifestations of LI and CMA.


Assuntos
Intolerância à Lactose , Hipersensibilidade a Leite , Lactente , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Humanos , Intolerância à Lactose/complicações , Leite/efeitos adversos , Caseínas , Alérgenos , Hidrolisados de Proteína , Proteínas do Leite
3.
Microb Pathog ; 188: 106570, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38341108

RESUMO

High-concentrate diet induce subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) and cause liver damage in ruminants. It has been reported that forkhead box protein A2 (FOXA2) can enhance mitochondrial membrane potential but its function in mitochondrial dysfunction induced by high concentrate diets is still unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of high-concentrate (HC) diet on hepatic FOXA2 expression, mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt), mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. A total of 12 healthy mid-lactation Holstein cows were selected and randomized into 2 groups: the low concentrate (LC) diet group (concentrate:forage = 4:6) and HC diet group (concentrate:forage = 6:4). The trial lasted 21 d. The rumen fluid, blood and liver tissue were collected at the end of the experiment. The results showed that the rumen fluid pH level was reduced in the HC group and the pH was lower than 5.6 for more than 4 h/d, indicating that feeding HC diets successfully induced SARA in dairy cows. Both FOXA2 mRNA and protein abundance were significantly reduced in the liver of the HC group compared with the LC group. The activity of antioxidant enzymes (CAT, G6PDH, T-SOD, Cu/Zn SOD, Mn SOD) and mtDNA copy number in the liver tissue of the HC group decreased, while the level of H2O2 significantly increased, this increase was accompanied by a decrease in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). The balance of mitochondrial division and fusion was disrupted in the HC group, as evidenced by the decreased mRNA level of OPA1, MFN1, and MFN2 and increased mRNA level of Drp1, Fis1, and MFF. At the same time, HC diet downregulated the expression level of SIRT1, SIRT3, PGC-1α, TFAM, and Nrf 1 to inhibit mitochondrial biogenesis. The HC group induced UPRmt in liver tissue by upregulating the mRNA and protein levels of CLPP, LONP1, CHOP, Hsp10, and Hsp60. In addition, HC diet could increase the protein abundance of Bax, CytoC, Caspase 3 and Cleaved-Caspase 3, while decrease the protein abundance of Bcl-2 and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Overall, our study suggests that the decreased expression of FOXA2 may be related to UPRmt, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in the liver of dairy cows fed a high concentrate diet.


Assuntos
Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Doenças Mitocondriais , Animais , Feminino , Bovinos , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Fígado/metabolismo , Lactação , Estresse Oxidativo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas , Doenças Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Leite/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ração Animal
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3600, 2024 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38351055

RESUMO

In forensic investigations involving the identification of unknown deceased individuals, isotope analysis can provide valuable provenance information. This is especially pertinent when primary identifiers (i.e., DNA, dactyloscopy, etc.) fail to yield matches. The isotopic composition of human tissues is linked to that of the food consumed, potentially allowing the identification of regions of origin. However, the isotopic composition of deceased newborns and infants fed with milk formula may be influenced by that of the prepared milk. The findings contribute towards the possibility to isotopically identify bottle-fed infants. More importantly, the data convincingly show that the Sr isotope composition of the prepared milk is determined by that of the formula and not the (local) tap water, thereby limiting the potential of Sr isotope analysis for determining the geological or geographical origin in formula-fed babies in medico-legal cases.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Leite , Lactente , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Animais , Isótopos , Leite Humano
5.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 78(2): 386-413, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38374567

RESUMO

A previous guideline on cow's milk allergy (CMA) developed by the European Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) was published in 2012. This position paper provides an update on the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of CMA with focus on gastrointestinal manifestations. All systematic reviews and meta-analyses regarding prevalence, pathophysiology, symptoms, and diagnosis of CMA published after the previous ESPGHAN document were considered. Medline was searched from inception until May 2022 for topics that were not covered in the previous document. After reaching consensus on the manuscript, statements were formulated and voted on each of them with a score between 0 and 9. A score of ≥6 was arbitrarily considered as agreement. Available evidence on the role of dietary practice in the prevention, diagnosis, and management of CMA was updated and recommendations formulated. CMA in exclusively breastfed infants exists, but is uncommon and suffers from over-diagnosis. CMA is also over-diagnosed in formula and mixed fed infants. Changes in stool characteristics, feeding aversion, or occasional spots of blood in stool are common and in general should not be considered as diagnostic of CMA, irrespective of preceding consumption of cow's milk. Over-diagnosis of CMA occurs much more frequently than under-diagnosis; both have potentially harmful consequences. Therefore, the necessity of a challenge test after a short diagnostic elimination diet of 2-4 weeks is recommended as the cornerstone of the diagnosis. This position paper contains sections on nutrition, growth, cost, and quality of life.


Assuntos
Gastroenterologia , Hipersensibilidade a Leite , Lactente , Criança , Animais , Feminino , Bovinos , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/prevenção & controle , Qualidade de Vida , Aleitamento Materno , Leite/efeitos adversos
6.
Anim Sci J ; 95(1): e13926, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38348633

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of milking cessation under different inflammatory conditions on the changes in antimicrobial components in milk and the process of mammary gland involution. Twenty udder halves were divided into two groups: those with (LPS) and without (control) lipopolysaccharide infusion, followed by cessation of milking for 8 weeks. Milk samples were collected weekly. Udder tissue was collected 4 weeks after milking cessation to measure the area of the lobule and connective tissue. After milking cessation, the somatic cell count (SCC) in the control group increased, whereas that in the LPS group did not. Lactoferrin (LF) and cathelicidin (Cath)-2 concentrations increased in both groups, whereas only LF was significantly lower in the LPS group than in the control group at week 4. The Cath-7 and S100A8 concentrations were significantly lower in the LPS group than in the control group. The lobule area was higher, and the connective tissue area was lower in the LPS group than in the control group. These results indicate that inflammation at milking cessation decreased the concentrations of some antimicrobial components and interfered with mammary gland involution. Therefore, animals with mastitis should recover prior to the onset of the dry period.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Doenças das Cabras , Feminino , Animais , Leite , Lactação , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Glândulas Mamárias Animais , Cabras , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Inflamação/veterinária , Contagem de Células/veterinária
7.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3684, 2024 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38355653

RESUMO

Vegetable drinks offer a convenient way to increase the daily intake of vegetables containing vitamins, antioxidants, and fiber. In this study, we discovered that mungbean milk serves as a carbohydrate source during fermentation using lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and enhances the nutritional value of vegetable yoghurt. Mungbean milk reduces pH while titratable acidity increases faster than soybean milk during fermentation. M0S, Soybean milk 100% with added sucrose exhibited the highest titratable acidity after 16 h of fermentation. The acetic acid content of all samples did not show significant changes during fermentation, but the lactic acid content increased. Proximate analysis showed no significant change during fermentation, regardless of the fermentation time and mixing ratio of mungbean to soybean milk. The sucrose content of samples except M0S decreased after 16 h of fermentation. Mungbean milk exhibited high antioxidant activity both before and after fermentation, while M0S showed the lowest antioxidant activity. The results of this study demonstrated the potential application of mungbean milk to improve fermented vegetable drinks using LAB functionally. Fermented mungbean milk yoghurt can be a valuable addition to a healthy and balanced diet for those who consume plant-based diets.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Lactobacillales , Animais , Antioxidantes/análise , Iogurte/microbiologia , Vitaminas/análise , Carboidratos/análise , Verduras , Leite/química , Sacarose/análise , Fermentação
8.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0291157, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38359002

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Uterine leiomyoma (UL), the most prevalent benign gynecologic tumor among reproductive-aged women, lacks sufficient research on the potential association between dietary intake and its occurrence in Korean women. Addressing this research gap, this study aims to evaluate the potential link between dietary intake and the prevalence of UL in Korean women. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a cohort of 672 women, aged 23 to 73, were enrolled, with 383 (57%) being premenopausal. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and UL presence was determined through ultrasonography. The analysis focused exclusively on items within ten categories, including vegetables/fruit, vegetables, fruits, red meat, processed meat, poultry, fish, dairy product, milk, and alcohol. Multiple logistic regression models were employed to explore the relationship between dietary intake and the prevalence of UL, calculating odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) while adjusting for confounding factors. RESULTS: Within the total cohort, 220 (32.7%) women were diagnosed with UL. High intakes of fish and poultry showed an association with higher UL prevalence. Odds ratios (95% CIs) for the upper quartiles compared to the lower quartiles were 1.68 (1.01-2.81; p trend = 0.05) for fish intake and 1.87 (1.11-3.17; p trend = 0.06) for poultry intake. Conversely, an inverse relationship emerged between dairy product intake and UL prevalence, with an odds ratio of 0.58 (95% CI 0.35-0.96; p trend = 0.05). Stratifying the analysis by menopausal status revealed a parallel pattern, with heightened UL prevalence with fish intake and reduced prevalence with dairy product intake. However, the link between poultry intake and UL prevalence was primarily observed among postmenopausal women. Among premenopausal women, elevated vegetable intake was linked to a decreased UL prevalence (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.21-0.97 for top vs. bottom quartiles; p trend = 0.01). CONCLUSION: We found that high consumption of fish and poultry, coupled with low intake of dairy products, correlated with an elevated prevalence of UL. Furthermore, vegetable intake exhibited an inverse relationship with UL prevalence, particularly among premenopausal women.


Assuntos
Dieta , Leiomioma , Animais , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Transversais , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Frutas , Verduras , Ingestão de Alimentos , Leiomioma/epidemiologia , Leite , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
9.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 40(3): 99, 2024 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38363373

RESUMO

Koumiss, a five-thousand-year-old fermented mare's milk beverage, is widely recognized for its beneficial nutrient and medicinal properties. The microbiota of Chinese and Mongolian koumiss have been largely characterized in recent years, but little is known concerning Kazakh koumiss despite this drink historically originates from the modern Kazakhstan territory. In addition, while koumiss is regarded as a drink with therapeutic potential, there are also no data on koumiss anti-Candida activity. In this context, the aims of the present study were to investigate the bacterial diversity and anti-Candida albicans activity of homemade Kazakh koumiss samples as well as fermented whey and cow's milk, derived from koumiss and propagated for several months. Koumiss bacterial communities were largely dominated by lactic acid bacteria including Lactobacillus sensu lato spp. (69% of total reads), Streptococcus (8.0%) and Lactococcus (6.1%), while other subdominant genera included Acetobacter (2.6%), Enterobacter (2.4%), and Klebsiella (1.5%). Several but not all koumiss samples as well as fermented whey and cow's milk showed antagonistic activities towards C. albicans. Linear discriminant effect size (LEfSe) analysis showed that their bacterial communities were characterized by a significantly higher abundance of amplicon sequence variants (ASV) belonging to the genus Acetobacter. In conclusion, this study allowed to identify the key microorganisms of Kazakh koumiss and provided new information on the possible underestimated contribution of acetic acid bacteria to its probiotic properties.


Assuntos
Kumis , Lactobacillales , Bovinos , Animais , Cavalos , Feminino , Kumis/análise , Kumis/microbiologia , Candida albicans/genética , Bactérias/genética , Leite/microbiologia , Lactobacillales/genética
10.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 56(2): 72, 2024 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38326674

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess the impact of adding forage cactus as an additive to the production of corn silage without the cob on the performance of feedlot sheep and subsequent silage losses. The experimental design was completely randomized, consisting of three treatments: corn silage without cob; 0% = 100% corn plant without the cob; 10% = 90% corn plant without cob + 10% forage cactus; 20% = 80% corn plant without cob + 20% forage cactus. Significant effects were observed for dry matter intake (P = 0.0201), organic matter (P = 0.0152), ether extract (P = 0.0001), non-fiber carbohydrates (P = 0.0007). Notably, nutrient digestibility showed significant differences in organic matter (P = 0.0187), ether extract (P = 0.0095), neutral detergent fiber (P = 0.0005), non-fiber carbohydrates (P = 0.0001), and metabolizable energy (P = 0.0001). Performance variables, including total weight gain (P = 0.0148), average daily weight gain (P = 0.0148), feeding efficiency, and rumination efficiency of dry matter (P = 0.0113), also exhibited significant effects. Consequently, it is recommended to include 20% forage cactus in corn silage, which, based on natural matter, helps meet animals' water needs through feed. This inclusion is especially vital in semi-arid regions and aids in reducing silage losses during post-opening silo disposal.


Assuntos
Cactaceae , Zea mays , Animais , Feminino , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta , Digestão , Éteres , Lactação , Leite , Extratos Vegetais , Rúmen , Ovinos , Silagem/análise , Aumento de Peso
12.
J Dairy Sci ; 107(1): 288-300, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38353472

RESUMO

A systematic literature review of in vitro studies was performed to identify methane (CH4) mitigation interventions with a potential to reduce CH4 emission in vivo. Data from 277 peer-reviewed studies published between 1979 and 2018 were reviewed. Individual CH4 mitigation interventions were classified into 14 categories of feed additives based on their type, chemical composition, and mode of action. Response variables evaluated were absolute CH4 emission (number of treatment means comparisons = 1,325); total volatile fatty acids (n = 1,007), acetate (n = 783), propionate (n = 792), and butyrate (n = 776) concentrations; acetate to propionate ratio (n = 675); digestibility of dry matter (n = 489), organic matter (n = 277), and neutral detergent fiber (n = 177). Total gas production was used as an explanatory variable in the model for CH4 production. Relative mean difference between treatment and control means reported in the studies was calculated and used for statistical analysis. The robust variance estimation method was used to analyze the effects of CH4 mitigation interventions. In vitro CH4 production was decreased by antibodies (-38.9%), chemical inhibitors (-29.2%), electron sinks (-18.9%), essential oils (-18.2%), plant extracts (-14.5%), plant inclusion (-11.7%), saponins (-14.8%), and tannins (-14.5%). Overall effects of direct-fed microbials, enzymes, macroalgae, and organic acids supplementation did not affect CH4 production in the current meta-analysis. When considering the effects of individual mitigation interventions containing a minimum number of 4 degrees of freedom within feed additives categories, Enterococcus spp. (i.e., direct-fed microbial), nitrophenol (i.e., electron sink), and Leucaena spp. (i.e., tannins) decreased CH4 production by 20.3%, 27.1%, and 23.5%, respectively, without extensively, or only slightly, affecting ruminal fermentation and digestibility of nutrients. It should be noted, however, that although the total number of publications (n = 277) and treatment means comparisons (n = 1,325 for CH4 production) in the current analysis were high, data for most mitigation interventions were obtained from less than 5 observations (e.g., maximum number of observations was 4, 7, and 22 for nitrophenol, Enterococcus spp., and Leucaena spp., respectively), because of limited data available in the literature. These should be further evaluated in vitro and in vivo to determine their true potential to decrease enteric CH4 production, yield, and intensity. Some mitigation interventions (e.g., magnesium, Heracleum spp., nitroglycerin, ß-cyclodextrin, Leptospermum pattersoni, Fructulus Ligustri, Salix caprea, and Sesbania grandiflora) decreased in vitro CH4 production by over 50% but did not have enough observations in the database. These should be more extensively investigated in vitro, and the dose effect must be considered before adoption of mitigation interventions in vivo.


Assuntos
Dieta , Leite , Feminino , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Leite/química , Lactação , Propionatos/metabolismo , Metano/metabolismo , Taninos/farmacologia , Rúmen/metabolismo , Acetatos/análise , Nitrofenóis/análise , Nitrofenóis/metabolismo , Nitrofenóis/farmacologia , Fermentação , Digestão , Ração Animal/análise
13.
Food Res Int ; 179: 113978, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38342529

RESUMO

The central objective of this research was to develop an ultrasound-assisted pulsed ohmic heating (POH) system for inactivation of food-borne pathogens in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and milk with 0-3.6% fat and investigate its bactericidal effect. Combining ultrasound with POH did not significantly affect the temperature profile of samples. Both POH alone and ultrasound-assisted POH took 120 s to heat PBS 60℃. Milk with 0, 1, and 3.6% fat was heated to 60℃ by POH alone and ultrasound-assisted POH after 335, 475, and 525 s, respectively. This is because the electrical conductivity of the samples was the same for POH alone and ultrasound-assisted POH. Despite identical temperature profiles, ultrasound-assisted POH exerted a synergistic effect on the reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus. In particular, the inactivation level of S. Typhimurium in PBS subjected to ultrasound-assisted POH treatment for 120 s corresponding to a treatment temperature of 60℃ was 3.73 log units higher than the sum of each treatment alone. A propidium iodide assay, intracellular protein measurements, and scanning electron microscopy revealed that ultrasound-assisted POH treatment provoked lethal cell membrane damage and leakage of intracellular proteins. Meanwhile, fat in milk reduced the efficacy of the bacterial inactivation of the ultrasound-assisted POH system due to its low electrical conductivity and sonoprotective effect. After ultrasound-assisted POH treatment at 60℃, there were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in the pH, color, and apparent viscosity of milk between the untreated and treated group.


Assuntos
Calefação , Leite , Animais , Leite/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Temperatura Alta , Temperatura
14.
Food Res Int ; 179: 113989, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38342531

RESUMO

Milk is widely recognized as an important food source with health benefits. Different consumer groups have different requirements for the content and proportion of milk fat; therefore, it is necessary to investigate the differential metabolites and their regulatory mechanisms in milk with high and low milk fat percentages (MFP). In this study, untargeted metabolomics was performed on milk samples from 13 cows with high milk fat percentage (HF) and 13 cows with low milk fat percentage (LF) using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Forty-eight potential differentially labeled compounds were screened using the orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) combined with the weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) method. Amino acid metabolism was the key metabolic pathway with significant enrichment of L-histidine, 5-oxoproline, L-aspartic acid, and L-glutamic acid. The negative correlation with MFP differentiated the HF and LF groups. To further determine the potential regulatory role of these amino acids on milk fat metabolism, the expression levels of marker genes in the milk fat synthesis pathway were explored. It was noticed that L-histidine reduced milk fat concentration primarily by inhibiting the triglycerides (TAG) synthesis pathway. L-aspartic acid and L-glutamic acid inhibited milk fat synthesis through the fatty acid de novo and TAG synthesis pathways. This study provides new insights into the mechanism underlying milk fat synthesis and milk quality improvement.


Assuntos
Leite , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Feminino , Animais , Bovinos , Leite/química , Ácido Glutâmico/análise , Ácido Aspártico/análise , Ácido Aspártico/metabolismo , Histidina/análise , Histidina/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo
15.
Food Res Int ; 179: 114006, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38342533

RESUMO

To distinguish Chinese milks from different regions, 13 milk samples were gathered from 13 regions of China in this study: Inner Mongolia (IM), Xinjiang (XJ), Hebei (HB), Shanghai (SH), Beijing (BJ), Sichuan (SC), Ningxia (NX), Henan (HN), Tianjin (TJ), Qinghai (QH), Yunnan (YN), Guangxi (GX), and Tibet (XZ). Headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) combined with the electronic nose (E-nose) technology, was used to detect and analyze the volatile compounds in these milk samples. The qualitative and quantitative results identified 29 volatile chemicals, and we established a database of flavor profiles for the main milk-producing regions in China. E-nose analysis revealed variations in the odor of milk across different areas. Furthermore, results from partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and odor activity values (OAVs) suggested that seven volatile compounds: decane, 2-heptanone, 2-undecanone, 2-nonanone, 1-hexadecanol, 1-octen-3-ol, and (E)-2-nonenal, could be considered as key flavor compounds in Chinese milk products.


Assuntos
Leite , Odorantes , Animais , Leite/química , China , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Odorantes/análise , Análise Discriminante
16.
Food Res Int ; 179: 113949, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38342518

RESUMO

This study investigated the individual and combined effects of ĸ-Casein (ĸ-CN; AA, AB, BB), ß-Casein (ß-CN; A1A1, A1A2, A2A2) and high and low ratios of glycosylated ĸ-CN to total ĸ-CN, referred to as the glycosylation degree (GD), on bovine cream whipping properties. The genetic variants of individual cows were identified using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and verified through liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). A previously discovered relationship between days-in-milk and GD was validated and used to obtain high and low GD milk. Whipped creams were created through the mechanical agitation of fat standardised cream from milk of different ĸ-CN, ß-CN, and GD combinations, and whipping properties (the ability to whip, overrun, whipping time and firmness) were evaluated. No significant correlation was measured in whipping properties for cream samples from milks with different ĸ-CN and ß-CN genetic variants. However, 80 % of samples exhibiting good whipping properties (i.e., the production of a stiffened peak) were from milk with low GD suggesting a correlation between whipping properties and levels of glycosylation. Moreover, cream separated from skim milk of larger casein micelle size showed superior whipping properties with shorter whipping times (<5 min), and higher firmness and overrun. Milk fat globule (MFG) size, on the other hand, did not affect whipping properties. Results indicate that the GD of κ-CN and casein micelle size may play a role in MFG adsorption at the protein and air interface of air bubbles formed during whipping; hence, they govern the dynamics of fat network formation and influencing whipping properties.


Assuntos
Caseínas , Micelas , Animais , Feminino , Bovinos , Caseínas/química , Glicosilação , Leite/química
17.
Food Res Int ; 179: 114010, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38342535

RESUMO

Thermal processing is a widely used method to ensure the microbiological safety of milk. Predictive microbiology plays a crucial role in quantifying microbial growth and decline, providing valuable guidance on the design and optimization of food processing operations. This study aimed to investigate the thermal inactivation kinetics of Listeria monocytogenes in milk under both isothermal and dynamic conditions. The thermal inactivation of L. monocytogenes was conducted under isothermal and non-isothermal conditions in sterilized and pasteurized milk, with and without background microbiota, respectively. Furthermore, a secondary model was developed between the shoulder effect and temperature, which was then integrated into the dynamic model. The results showed that L. monocytogenes grown in Tryptic Soy Yeast Extract Broth (TSBYE) prior to thermal inactivation exhibited higher heat resistance compared to cells grown in sterilized milk at isothermal temperatures of 60.0, 62.5, and 65℃. Moreover, the presence of background microbiota in milk significantly enhanced the heat resistance of L. monocytogenes, as evidenced by the increased D-values from 1.13 min to 2.34 min, from 0.46 min to 0.53 min, and from 0.25 min to 0.34 min at 60.0, 62.5, and 65 °C, respectively, regardless of whether the background microbiota was inactivated after co-growth or co-inactivated with L. monocytogenes. For non-isothermal inactivation, the one-step dynamic model based on the log-linear with shoulder model effectively described the microbial inactivation curve and exhibited satisfactory model performance. The model developed contributes to improved risk assessment, enabling dairy processors to optimize thermal treatment and ensure microbiological safety.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos , Listeria monocytogenes , Animais , Leite/microbiologia , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Temperatura Alta
18.
Food Res Int ; 179: 114017, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38342539

RESUMO

This study produced pH-sensing carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) films functionalized with bioactive compounds obtained by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of grape peel to monitor the freshness of pork and milk. A semi-continuous PLE was conducted using hydroethanolic solution (70:30, v/v) at a flow rate of 5 mL/min, 15 MPa, and 60 °C. The films were produced by the casting technique using CMC (2.5 %, w/v), glycerol (1 %, v/v), and functionalized with 10, 30, and 50 % (v/v) grape peel extract. From the results obtained, LC-MS/MS revealed that PLE extracted twenty-seven phenolic compounds. The main phenolic compounds were kaempferol-3-glucoside (367.23 ± 25.88 µg/mL), prunin (270.23 ± 3.62 µg/mL), p-coumaric acid (236.43 ± 26.02 µg/mL), and procyanidin B1 (117.17 ± 7.29 µg/mL). The CMC films presented suitable color and mechanical properties for food packaging applications. The addition of grape peel extract promoted the pH-sensing property, showing the sensitivity of anthocyanins to pH changes. The films functionalized with grape peel extract presented good release control of bioactive compounds, making them suitable for food packaging applications. When applied to monitor the freshness of pork and milk, the films exhibited remarkable color changes associated with the pH of the food during storage. In conclusion, PLE is a sustainable approach to obtaining bioactive compounds from the grape peel, which can be applied in the formulation of pH-sensing films as a promising sustainable material to monitor food freshness during storage.


Assuntos
Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Vitis , Animais , Suínos , Carboximetilcelulose Sódica/química , Carne Vermelha/análise , Leite , Antocianinas/química , Cromatografia Líquida , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Fenóis
19.
Food Res Int ; 179: 114021, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38342541

RESUMO

Sheep milk is rich in fat, protein, vitamins and minerals and is also one of the most important sources of natural bioactives. Several biopeptides in sheep milk have been reported to possess antibacterial, antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties, and they may prevent type 2 diabetes (T2D), disease and cancer. However, the precise mechanism(s) underlying the protective role of sheep milk against T2D development remains unclear. Therefore, in the current study, we investigated the effect of sheep milk on insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice, by conducting intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests, metabolic cage studies, genomic sequencing, polymerase chain reaction, and biochemical assays. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp-based experiments revealed that mice consuming sheep milk exhibited lower hepatic glucose production than mice in the control group. These findings further elucidate the mechanism by which dietary supplementation with sheep milk alleviates HFD-induced systemic glucose intolerance.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Intolerância à Glucose , Resistência à Insulina , Ovinos , Camundongos , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Intolerância à Glucose/metabolismo , Intolerância à Glucose/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Leite/metabolismo
20.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(2): e2355465, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38345819

RESUMO

Importance: The introduction of solid or semisolid foods alongside breast milk plays a vital role in meeting nutritional requirements during early childhood, which is crucial for child growth and development. Understanding the prevalence of zero-food children (defined for research purposes as children aged 6 to 23 months who did not consume animal milk, formula, or solid or semisolid food during the last 24 hours) is essential for targeted interventions to improve feeding practices. Objective: To estimate the percentage of zero-food children in 92 low- and middle-income countries. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study analyzed nationally representative cross-sectional household data of children aged 6 to 23 months from the Demographic and Health Surveys and the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys conducted between May 20, 2010, and January 27, 2022. Data were obtained from 92 low- and middle-income countries. Standardized procedures were followed to ensure data comparability and reliability. Both percentage and number of zero-food children were estimated. Main Outcomes and Measures: The outcome studied was defined as a binary variable indicating children aged 6 to 23 months who had not been fed any animal milk, formula, or solid or semisolid foods during the 24 hours before each survey, as reported by the mother or caretaker. Results: A sample of 276 379 children aged 6 to 23 months (mean age, 14.2 months [95% CI, 14.15-14.26 months]) in 92 low- and middle-income countries was obtained, of whom 51.4% (95% CI, 51.1%-51.8%) were boys. The estimated percentage of zero-food children was 10.4% (95% CI, 10.1%-10.7%) in the pooled sample, ranging from 0.1% (95% CI, 0%-0.6%) in Costa Rica to 21.8% (95% CI, 19.3%-24.4%) in Guinea. The prevalence of zero-food children was particularly high in West and Central Africa, where the overall prevalence was 10.5% (95% CI, 10.1%-11.0%), and in India, where the prevalence was 19.3% (95% CI, 18.9%-19.8%). India accounted for almost half of zero-food children in this study. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study of 276 379 children aged 6 to 23 months, substantial disparities in the estimates of food consumption across 92 low- and middle-income countries were found. The prevalence of zero-food children underscores the need for targeted interventions to improve infant and young child feeding practices and ensure optimal nutrition during this critical period of development. The issue is particularly urgent in West and Central Africa and India.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Leite , Lactente , Masculino , Feminino , Animais , Criança , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Prevalência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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