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1.
BMC Vet Res ; 20(1): 193, 2024 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38734661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bovine mastitis is a widespread disease affecting dairy cattle worldwide and it generates substantial losses for dairy farmers. Mastitis may be caused by bacteria, fungi or algae. The most common species isolated from infected milk are, among others, Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and non-aureus staphylococci and mammaliicocci. The aim of this paper is to determine the frequency of occurrence of bacterial species in milk samples from cows with mastitis from three regions of Poland: the north-east, the south-west and the south. To this end 203 milk samples taken from cows with a clinical form (CM) of mastitis (n = 100) and healthy animals (n = 103) were examined, which included culture on an appropriate medium followed by molecular detection of E. coli, S. aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus uberis, as one of the most common species isolated from mastitis milk. RESULTS: The results obtained indicated that S. uberis was the most commonly cultivated CM species (38%, n = 38), followed by S. aureus (22%, n = 22), E. coli (21%, n = 21) and S. agalactiae (18%, n = 18). Similar frequencies in molecular methods were obtained for S. uberis (35.1%) and S. aureus (28.0%). The variation of sensitivity of both methods may be responsible for the differences in the E. coli (41.0%, p = 0.002) and S. agalactiae (5.0%, p = 0.004) detection rates. Significant differences in composition of species between three regions of Poland were noted for E. coli incidence (p < 0.001), in both the culture and molecular methods, but data obtained by the PCR method indicated that this species was the least common in north-eastern Poland, while the culture method showed that in north-eastern Poland E. coli was the most common species. Significant differences for the molecular method were also observed for S. uberis (p < 0.001) and S. aureus (p < 0.001). Both species were most common in southern and south-western Poland. CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained confirm the need to introduce rapid molecular tests for veterinary diagnostics, as well as providing important epidemiological data, to the best of our knowledge data on Polish cows in selected areas of Poland is lacking.


Assuntos
Mastite Bovina , Leite , Streptococcus , Animais , Bovinos , Mastite Bovina/microbiologia , Mastite Bovina/epidemiologia , Polônia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Leite/microbiologia , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus/genética , Streptococcus/classificação , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/classificação , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Streptococcus agalactiae/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus agalactiae/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética
2.
Food Res Int ; 186: 114305, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38729687

RESUMO

Kefir is a traditional dairy beverage, usually made from cow or goat milk fermented with kefir grains, and has many health benefits. To elucidate the fermentation patterns of animal milk kefirs during the fermentation process and find the optimal milk types, cow, camel, goat, and donkey milk were fermented with kefir grains for 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 days. Volatile and non-volatile metabolites and microbial changes were dynamically monitored. The results showed that volatile flavor substances were massively elevated in four kefirs on days 1-3. Lipids and carbohydrates gradually decreased, while amino acids, small peptides, and tryptophan derivatives accumulated during fermentation in four kefirs. Besides, four kefirs had similar alterations in Lactobacillus and Acetobacter, while some distinctions existed in low-abundance bacteria. Association analysis of microorganisms and volatile and non-volatile metabolites also revealed the underlying fermentation mechanism. This study found that appropriately extending the fermentation time contributed to the accumulation of some functional nutrients. Furthermore, goat and donkey milk could be the better matrices for kefir fermentation.


Assuntos
Equidae , Fermentação , Cabras , Kefir , Leite , Animais , Kefir/microbiologia , Bovinos , Leite/microbiologia , Leite/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Paladar , Camelus , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Microbiota , Acetobacter/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/análise
3.
Vet Q ; 44(1): 1-9, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38733121

RESUMO

The gut microbiota (GM) is essential for mammalian health. Although the association between infant GM and breast milk (BM) composition has been well established in humans, such a relationship has not been investigated in horses. Hence, this study was conducted to analyze the GM formation of foals during lactation and determine the presence of low-molecular-weight metabolites in mares' BM and their role in shaping foals' GM. The fecal and BM samples from six pairs of foals and mares were subjected to 16S ribosomal RNA metagenomic and metabolomic analyses, respectively. The composition of foal GM changed during lactation time; hierarchical cluster analysis divided the fetal GM into three groups corresponding to different time points in foal development. The level of most metabolites in milk decreased over time with increasing milk yield, while threonic acid and ascorbic acid increased. Further analyses revealed gut bacteria that correlated with changes in milk metabolites; for instance, there was a positive correlation between Bacteroidaceae in the foal's gut microbiota and serine/glycine in the mother's milk. These findings help improve the rearing environment of lactating horses and establish artificial feeding methods for foals.


Assuntos
Animais Recém-Nascidos , Fezes , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Lactação , Leite , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Animais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Cavalos , Feminino , Leite/química , Leite/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/química , Animais Recém-Nascidos/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise
4.
Food Res Int ; 187: 114308, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38763625

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a significant public health threat, with the food production chain, and, specifically, fermented products, as a potential vehicle for dissemination. However, information about dairy products, especially raw ewe milk cheeses, is limited. The present study analysed, for the first time, the occurrence of AMRs related to lactic acid bacteria (LAB) along a raw ewe milk cheese production chain for the most common antimicrobial agents used on farms (dihydrostreptomycin, benzylpenicillin, amoxicillin and polymyxin B). More than 200 LAB isolates were obtained and identified by Sanger sequencing (V1-V3 16S rRNA regions); these isolates included 8 LAB genera and 21 species. Significant differences in LAB composition were observed throughout the production chain (P ≤ 0.001), with Enterococcus (e.g., E. hirae and E. faecalis) and Bacillus (e.g., B. thuringiensis and B. cereus) predominating in ovine faeces and raw ewe milk, respectively, along with Lactococcus (L. lactis) in whey and fresh cheeses, while Lactobacillus and Lacticaseibacillus species (e.g., Lactobacillus sp. and L. paracasei) prevailed in ripened cheeses. Phenotypically, by broth microdilution, Lactococcus, Enterococcus and Bacillus species presented the greatest resistance rates (on average, 78.2 %, 56.8 % and 53.4 %, respectively), specifically against polymyxin B, and were more susceptible to dihydrostreptomycin. Conversely, Lacticaseibacillus and Lactobacillus were more susceptible to all antimicrobials tested (31.4 % and 39.1 %, respectively). Thus, resistance patterns and multidrug resistance were reduced along the production chain (P ≤ 0.05). Genotypically, through HT-qPCR, 31 antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) and 6 mobile genetic elements (MGEs) were detected, predominating Str, StrB and aadA-01, related to aminoglycoside resistance, and the transposons tnpA-02 and tnpA-01. In general, a significant reduction in ARGs and MGEs abundances was also observed throughout the production chain (P ≤ 0.001). The current findings indicate that LAB dynamics throughout the raw ewe milk cheese production chain facilitated a reduction in AMRs, which has not been reported to date.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Queijo , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Lactobacillales , Leite , Animais , Queijo/microbiologia , Leite/microbiologia , Ovinos , Lactobacillales/genética , Lactobacillales/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactobacillales/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Fenótipo , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Genótipo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino
5.
BMC Vet Res ; 20(1): 212, 2024 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38764041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter lwoffii (A.lwoffii) is a serious zoonotic pathogen that has been identified as a cause of infections such as meningitis, bacteremia and pneumonia. In recent years, the infection rate and detection rate of A.lwoffii is increasing, especially in the breeding industry. Due to the presence of biofilms, it is difficult to eradicate and has become a potential super drug-resistant bacteria. Therefore, eradication of preformed biofilm is an alternative therapeutic action to control A.lwoffii infection. The present study aimed to clarify that baicalin could eradicate A.lwoffii biofilm in dairy cows, and to explore the mechanism of baicalin eradicating A.lwoffii. RESULTS: The results showed that compared to the control group, the 4 MIC of baicalin significantly eradicated the preformed biofilm, and the effect was stable at this concentration, the number of viable bacteria in the biofilm was decreased by 0.67 Log10CFU/mL. The total fluorescence intensity of biofilm bacteria decreased significantly, with a reduction rate of 67.0%. There were 833 differentially expressed genes (367 up-regulated and 466 down-regulated), whose functions mainly focused on oxidative phosphorylation, biofilm regulation system and trehalose synthesis. Molecular docking analysis predicted 11 groups of target proteins that were well combined with baicalin, and the content of trehalose decreased significantly after the biofilm of A.lwoffii was treated with baicalin. CONCLUSIONS: The present study evaluated the antibiofilm potential of baicalin against A.lwoffii. Baicalin revealed strong antibiofilm potential against A.lwoffii. Baicalin induced biofilm eradication may be related to oxidative phosphorylation and TCSs. Moreover, the decrease of trehalose content may be related to biofilm eradication.


Assuntos
Acinetobacter , Antibacterianos , Biofilmes , Flavonoides , Leite , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Acinetobacter/efeitos dos fármacos , Bovinos , Leite/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Feminino , Infecções por Acinetobacter/veterinária , Infecções por Acinetobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Acinetobacter/microbiologia
6.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0301477, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38768108

RESUMO

Food allergy is widely recognized as a significant health issue, having escalated into a global epidemic, subsequently giving rise to the development of numerous additional complications. Currently, the sole efficient method to curb the progression of allergy is through the implementation of an elimination diet. The increasing number of newly identified allergens makes it harder to completely remove or avoid them effectively. The immunoreactivity of proteins of bacterial origin remains an unexplored topic. Despite the substantial consumption of microbial proteins in our diets, the immunologic mechanisms they might induce require thorough validation. This stands as the primary objective of this study. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of bacterial proteins on the intestinal barrier and immune system parameters during hypersensitivity induction in both developing and mature organisms. The secondary objective was to evaluate the role of lipids in the immunoreactivity programming of these bacterial proteins. Notably, in this complex, comprehensively designed in vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo trial, the immunoreactivity of various bacterial proteins will be examined. In summary, the proposed study intends to address the knowledge gaps regarding the effects of Lactobacillus microbial proteins on inflammation, apoptosis, autophagy, and intestinal barrier integrity in a single study.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Lipídeos , Leite/microbiologia , Leite/imunologia , Camundongos , Lactobacillales/metabolismo , Lactobacillales/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia
7.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303872, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38771780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is among the top public health concerns in the globe. Estimating the prevalence of multidrug resistance (MDR), MDR index (MDR-I) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing lactose fermenting Enterobacteriaceae (LFE) is important in designing strategies to combat AMR. Thus, this study was designed to determine the status of MDR, MDR-I and ESBL-producing LFE isolated from the human-dairy interface in the northwestern part of Ethiopia, where such information is lacking. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study was conducted from June 2022 to August 2023 by analyzing 362 samples consisting of raw pooled milk (58), milk container swabs (58), milker's hand swabs (58), farm sewage (57), milker's stool (47), and cow's feces (84). The samples were analyzed using standard bacteriological methods. The antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and ESBL production ability of the LFE isolates were screened using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method, and candidate isolates passing the screening criteria were phenotypically confirmed by using cefotaxime (30 µg) and cefotaxime /clavulanic acid (30 µg/10 µg) combined-disk diffusion test. The isolates were further characterized genotypically using multiplex polymerase chain reaction targeting the three ESBL-encoding- genes namely blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M. RESULTS: A total of 375 bacterial isolates were identified and the proportion of MDR and ESBL-producing bacterial isolates were 70.7 and 21.3%, respectively. The MDR-I varied from 0.0 to 0.81 with an average of 0.30. The ESBL production was detected in all sample types. Genotypically, the majority of the isolates (97.5%), which were positive on the phenotypic test, were carrying one or more of the three genes. CONCLUSION: A high proportion of the bacterial isolates were MDR; had high MDR-I and were positive for ESBL production. The findings provide evidence that the human-dairy interface is one of the important reservoirs of AMR traits. Therefore, the implementation of AMR mitigation strategies is highly needed in the area.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Enterobacteriaceae , Lactose , beta-Lactamases , Humanos , Etiópia , beta-Lactamases/genética , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo , Enterobacteriaceae/genética , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Enterobacteriaceae/enzimologia , Lactose/metabolismo , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Estudos Transversais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Animais , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Bovinos , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Cefotaxima/farmacologia , Leite/microbiologia , Fermentação , Fezes/microbiologia
8.
Anim Sci J ; 95(1): e13959, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38769761

RESUMO

This study investigates the relationships between subclinical mastitis and milk quality with selected microRNAs in cow milk. California Mastitis Test (CMT)-positive (n = 20) and negative (n = 20) samples were compared (Experiment I). Additionally, samples with CMT-positive but microbiological-negative, as well as positive for only Staphylococcus subspecies (Staph spp.) and only Streptococcus subspecies (Strep spp.) were examined (Experiment II). Four groups were formed in Experiment II: Group I (CMT and microbiological-negative) (n = 20), Group II (CMT-positive but microbiological-negative) (n = 10), Group III (Staph spp.) (n = 5), Group IV (Strep spp.) (n = 5). While electrical conductivity, somatic cell count (SCC), malondialdehyde (MDA) increased, miR-27a-3p and miR-223 upregulated and miR-125b downregulated in the CMT-positive group in Experiment I. SCC and MDA were higher in CMT-positive groups. miR-27a-3p and miR-223 upregulated in Groups III and IV. While miR-155 is upregulated, miR-125b downregulated in Group IV. Milk fat is positively correlated with miR-148a and miR-223. As miR-27a-3p positively correlated with SCC and MDA, miR-125b negatively correlated with electrical conductivity and SCC. miR-148a and MDA were positively correlated. miR-155 was correlated with fat-free dry matter, protein, lactose, and freezing point. miR-223 was positively correlated with SCC and miR-148a. Results particularly highlight miR-27a-3p and miR-223 as potential biomarkers in subclinical mastitis, especially those caused by Staph spp. and Strep spp., while miR-148a, miR-155, and miR-223 stand out in determining milk quality.


Assuntos
Mastite Bovina , MicroRNAs , Leite , Animais , Leite/microbiologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Bovinos , Feminino , Mastite Bovina/microbiologia , Mastite Bovina/diagnóstico , Mastite Bovina/genética , Mastite Bovina/metabolismo , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Contagem de Células/veterinária , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/análise , Condutividade Elétrica , Infecções Assintomáticas
9.
BMC Vet Res ; 20(1): 200, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In dairy cattle, mastitis causes high financial losses and impairs animal well-being. Genetic selection is used to breed cows with reduced mastitis susceptibility. Techniques such as milk cell flow cytometry may improve early mastitis diagnosis. In a highly standardized in vivo infection model, 36 half-sib cows were selected for divergent paternal Bos taurus chromosome 18 haplotypes (Q vs. q) and challenged with Escherichia coli for 24 h or Staphylococcus aureus for 96 h, after which the samples were analyzed at 12 h intervals. Vaginal temperature (VT) was recorded every three minutes. The objective of this study was to compare the differential milk cell count (DMCC), milk parameters (fat %, protein %, lactose %, pH) and VT between favorable (Q) and unfavorable (q) haplotype cows using Bayesian models to evaluate their potential as improved early indicators of differential susceptibility to mastitis. RESULTS: After S. aureus challenge, compared to the Q half-sibship cows, the milk of the q cows exhibited higher PMN levels according to the DMCC (24 h, p < 0.001), a higher SCC (24 h, p < 0.01 and 36 h, p < 0.05), large cells (24 h, p < 0.05) and more dead (36 h, p < 0.001) and live cells (24 h, p < 0.01). The protein % was greater in Q milk than in q milk at 0 h (p = 0.025). In the S. aureus group, Q cows had a greater protein % (60 h, p = 0.048) and fat % (84 h, p = 0.022) than q cows. Initially, the greater VT of S. aureus-challenged q cows (0 and 12-24 h, p < 0.05) reversed to a lower VT in q cows than in Q cows (48-60 h, p < 0.05). Additionally, the following findings emphasized the validity of the model: in the S. aureus group all DMCC subpopulations (24 h-96 h, p < 0.001) and in the E. coli group nearly all DMCC subpopulations (12 h-24 h, p < 0.001) were higher in challenged quarters than in unchallenged quarters. The lactose % was lower in the milk samples of E. coli-challenged quarters than in those of S. aureus-challenged quarters (24 h, p < 0.001). Between 12 and 18 h, the VT was greater in cows challenged with E. coli than in those challenged with S. aureus (3-h interval approach, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: This in vivo infection model confirmed specific differences between Q and q cows with respect to the DMCC, milk component analysis results and VT results after S. aureus inoculation but not after E. coli challenge. However, compared with conventional milk cell analysis monitoring, e.g., the global SCC, the DMCC analysis did not provide refined phenotyping of the pathogen response.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli , Haplótipos , Mastite Bovina , Leite , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Staphylococcus aureus , Animais , Bovinos , Leite/microbiologia , Leite/citologia , Feminino , Mastite Bovina/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/fisiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Contagem de Células/veterinária , Temperatura Corporal , Vagina/microbiologia
10.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0301200, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38753608

RESUMO

Bovine mastitis is a widespread and costly disease that affects dairy farming globally, characterized by mammary gland inflammation. Bovine intramammary gland infection has been associated with more than 135 different pathogens of which Staphylococcus aureus is the main etiology of sub-clinical mastitis (SCM). The current study was designed to investigate the prevalence, antibiotic resistance pattern, and the presence of antibiotic resistance genes (mecA, tetK, aacA-aphD and blaZ) in S. aureus isolated from the raw milk of cows with subclinical mastitis. A total of 543 milk samples were collected from lactating cows such as Holstein Friesian (n = 79), Sahiwal (n = 175), Cholistani (n = 107), and Red Sindhi (n = 182) from different dairy farms in Pakistan. From the milk samples microscopic slides were prepared and the somatic cell count was assessed to find SCM. To isolate and identify S. aureus, milk was streaked on mannitol salt agar (MSA) plates. Further confirmation was done based on biochemical assays, including gram staining (+ coccus), catalase test (+), and coagulase test (+). All the biochemically confirmed S. aureus isolates were molecularly identified using the thermonuclease (nuc) gene. The antibiotic resistance pattern of all the S. aureus isolates was evaluated through the disc diffusion method. Out of 543 milk samples, 310 (57.09%) were positive for SCM. Among the SCM-positive samples, S. aureus was detected in 30.32% (94/310) samples. Out of 94 isolates, 47 (50%) were determined to be multidrug resistant (MDR). Among these MDR isolates, 11 exhibited resistance to Cefoxitin, and hence were classified as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The S. aureus isolates showed the highest resistance to Lincomycin (84.04%) followed by Ampicillin (45.74%), while the least resistance was shown to Sulfamethoxazole/Trimethoprim (3.19%) and Gentamycin (6.38%). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis revealed that 55.31% of the isolates carried blaZ gene, 46.80% carried tetK gene, 17.02% harbored the mecA gene, whereas, aacA-aphD gene was found in 13.82% samples. Our findings revealed a significant level of contamination of milk with S. aureus and half (50%) of the isolates were MDR. The isolated S. aureus harbored various antibiotic resistance genes responsible for the absorbed phenotypic resistance. The alarmingly high prevalence of MDR S. aureus isolates and MRSA strains in these cases possess a serious risk to public health, emphasizes the urgent need to address this issue to protect both human and animal health in Pakistan.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Mastite Bovina , Leite , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Staphylococcus aureus , Animais , Bovinos , Mastite Bovina/microbiologia , Mastite Bovina/epidemiologia , Leite/microbiologia , Feminino , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética
11.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 109: 102188, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38691873

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the bacterial burden and perform molecular characterization of Coxiella burnetii during shedding in pregnant (vaginal, mucus and feces) and postpartum (vaginal mucus, feces and milk) ewes from Saint Kitts. Positive IS1111 DNA (n=250) for C. burnetii samples from pregnant (n=87) and postpartum (n=74) Barbados Blackbelly ewes in a previous investigation were used for this study. Vaginal mucus (n=118), feces (n=100), and milk (n=32) positive IS1111 C. burnetii-DNA were analysed by real time qPCR (icd gene). For molecular characterization of C. burnetii, selected (n=10) IS1111 qPCR positive samples were sequenced for fragments of the IS1111 element and the 16 S rRNA gene. nBLAST, phylogenetic and haplotype analyses were performed. Vaginal mucus, feces and milk had estimated equal amounts of bacterial DNA (icd copies), and super spreaders were detected within the fecal samples. C. burnetii haplotypes had moderate to high diversity, were ubiquitous worldwide and similar to previously described in ruminants and ticks and humans.


Assuntos
Coxiella burnetii , DNA Bacteriano , Fezes , Leite , Filogenia , Período Pós-Parto , Febre Q , Doenças dos Ovinos , Vagina , Animais , Coxiella burnetii/genética , Coxiella burnetii/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Febre Q/veterinária , Febre Q/microbiologia , Gravidez , Fezes/microbiologia , Ovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Vagina/microbiologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Leite/microbiologia , Derrame de Bactérias , Carga Bacteriana , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Haplótipos
12.
N Z Vet J ; 72(4): 212-224, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38719198

RESUMO

AIMS: To describe the incidence, aetiology, treatment, and outcomes of farmer-reported clinical mastitis on New Zealand dairy sheep farms. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted on 20 spring-lambing New Zealand sheep milking farms over the 2022-2023 season. Clinical mastitis was defined as a change in the appearance of milk and/or signs of inflammation in the gland. Farmers were required to report all cases of clinical mastitis and collect information on affected ewes' demographics, clinical features, treatments (where applicable), and outcomes. Milk samples from mastitic glands were submitted for microbiological culture and identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF). RESULTS: Partial or complete clinical mastitis data were available for 236 cases from 221 ewes on 18/20 study farms. Clinical mastitis was diagnosed in 0-6% of ewes at the farm level, with an overall incidence of 1.8 (95% CI = 1.0-3.2)% using the study data, or 2.3 (95% CI = 1.6-3.3)% using the study data and farmer estimates that included unreported cases. Cases occurred mostly in early lactation, with 59% detected during the lambing period (August-October), at a median of 7 (IQR 3, 40) days in milk. The majority of cases featured clots in the milk (59%), swelling (55%), and unevenness (71%) of the glands. Pyrexia (rectal temperature ≥ 40.0°C) was diagnosed in 25% of cases and depression (lethargy, inappetence, or inability to stand) in 26% of cases. Treatment was given to 46% of cases, with tylosin being the most commonly used treatment (50% of treated cases). The most common outcome was immediate drying off to be culled without treatment (32%), followed by still milking and recovered but with lasting problems (25%). Nearly half of all the milk samples submitted were culture negative. Streptococcus uberis (14%), non-aureus staphylococci (12%), and Staphylococcus aureus (11%) were the most common isolates, found on 12, 8 and 8 of the 16 farms with microbiological data, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical mastitis affected up to 6% of ewes at the farm level. Systemic signs were observed in one quarter of affected ewes, suggesting a role for supportive treatment. Clinical mastitis can be severe and challenging to fully resolve in New Zealand dairy sheep. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This is the first systematic study of clinical mastitis in New Zealand dairy ewes. It provides baseline information specific to New Zealand conditions for farmers, veterinarians, and other advisors to guide the management of mastitis for the relatively new dairy sheep industry in New Zealand.


Assuntos
Indústria de Laticínios , Mastite , Doenças dos Ovinos , Animais , Ovinos , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Mastite/veterinária , Mastite/epidemiologia , Mastite/microbiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Incidência , Leite/microbiologia , Fazendeiros , Lactação
13.
BMC Vet Res ; 20(1): 169, 2024 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38698383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bovine mastitis is one of the most widespread diseases affecting cattle, leading to significant losses for the dairy industry. Currently, the so-called gold standard in mastitis diagnosis involves determining the somatic cell count (SCC). Apart from a number of advantages, this method has one serious flaw: It does not identify the etiological factor causing a particular infection, making it impossible to introduce targeted antimicrobial therapy. This can contribute to multidrug-resistance in bacterial species. The diagnostic market lacks a test that has the advantages of SCC and also recognizes the species of pathogen causing the inflammation. Therefore, the aim of our study was to develop a lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) based on elongation factor Tu for identifying most prevalent Gram-positive cocci responsible for causing mastitis including Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus. RESULTS: As a result, we showed that the assay for S. uberis detection demonstrated a specificity of 89.02%, a sensitivity of 43.59%, and an accuracy of 80.3%. In turn, the second variant - assay for Gram-positive cocci reached a specificity of 95.59%, a sensitivity of 43.28%, and an accuracy of 78.33%. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that EF-Tu is a promising target for LFIA and we have delivered evidence that further evaluation could improve test parameters and fill the gap in the mastitis diagnostics market.


Assuntos
Mastite Bovina , Streptococcus agalactiae , Streptococcus , Mastite Bovina/diagnóstico , Mastite Bovina/microbiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Streptococcus agalactiae/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Infecções Estreptocócicas/veterinária , Infecções Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Cocos Gram-Positivos/isolamento & purificação , Imunoensaio/veterinária , Imunoensaio/métodos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Leite/microbiologia , Leite/citologia
14.
BMC Vet Res ; 20(1): 168, 2024 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38698418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Digital dermatitis (DD) is a contagious hoof infection affecting cattle worldwide. The disease causes lameness and a reduction in animal welfare, which ultimately leads to major decreases in milk production in dairy cattle. The disease is most likely of polymicrobial origin with Treponema phagedenis and other Treponema spp. playing a key role; however, the etiology is not fully understood. Diagnosis of the disease is based on visual assessment of the feet by trained hoof-trimmers and veterinarians, as a more reliable diagnostic method is lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) on bulk tank milk samples testing for the presence of T. phagedenis antibodies as a proxy to assess herd prevalence of DD in Swedish dairy cattle herds. RESULTS: Bulk tank milk samples were collected in 2013 from 612 dairy herds spread across Sweden. A nationwide DD apparent prevalence of 11.9% (8.1-14.4% CI95%) was found, with the highest proportion of test-positive herds in the South Swedish regions (31.3%; 19.9-42.4% CI95%). CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals an underestimation of DD prevalence based on test results compared to hoof trimming data, highlighting the critical need for a reliable and accurate diagnostic method. Such a method is essential for disease monitoring and the development of effective control strategies. The novelty of ELISA-based diagnostic methods for DD, coupled with the disease's polymicrobial origin, suggests an avenue for improvement. Developing an expanded ELISA, incorporating antigens from various bacterial species implicated in the disease, could enhance diagnostic accuracy. The significance of this study is underscored by the extensive analysis of a substantial sample size (612). Notably, this investigation stands as the largest assessment to date, evaluating the application of ELISA on bulk tank milk for DD diagnosis at the herd level.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Dermatite Digital , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Leite , Treponema , Animais , Bovinos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Leite/microbiologia , Suécia/epidemiologia , Dermatite Digital/diagnóstico , Dermatite Digital/microbiologia , Treponema/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por Treponema/veterinária , Infecções por Treponema/diagnóstico , Infecções por Treponema/microbiologia , Prevalência , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/análise , Indústria de Laticínios
15.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38701797

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Four parameters of a decision tree for Selective Dry Cow Treatment (SDCT), examined in a previous study, were analyzed regarding their efficacy in detecting cows for dry cow treatment (DCT, use of intramammary antimicrobials). This study set out to review wether all parameters (somatic cell count [SCC≥ 200 000 SC/ml 3 months' milk yield recordings prior dry off (DO)], clinical mastitis history during lactation [≥1 CM], culturing [14d prior DO, detection of major pathogens] and California-Mastitis-Test [CMT, > rate 1/+ at DO]) are necessary for accurate decision making, whether there are possible alternatives to replace culturing, and whether a simplified model could replace the decision tree. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Records of 18 Bavarian dairy farms from June 2015 to August 2017 were processed. Data analysis was carried out by means of descriptive statistics, as well as employing a binary cost sensitive classification tree and logit-models. For statistical analyses the outcomes of the full 4-parameter decision tree were taken as ground truth. RESULTS: 848 drying off procedures in 739 dairy cows (CDO) were included. SCC and CMT selected 88.1%, in combination with CM 95.6% of the cows that received DCT (n=494). Without culturing, 22 (4.4%) with major pathogens (8x Staphylococcus [S.] aureus) infected CDO would have been misclassified as not needing DCT. The average of geometric mean SCC (within 100 d prior DO) for CDO with negative results in culturing was<100 000 SC/ml milk, 100 000-150 000 SC/ml for CDO infected with minor pathogens, and ≥ 150 000 SC/ml for CDO infected with major pathogens (excluding S.aureus). Using SCC during lactation (at least 1x > 200 000 SC/ml) and positive CMT to select CDO for DCT, contrary to the decision tree, 37 CDO (4.4%) would have been treated "incorrectly without" and 43 CDO (5.1%) "unnecessarily with" DCT. Modifications were identified, such as SCC<131 000 SC/ml within 100 d prior to DO for detecting CDO with no growth or minor pathogens in culturing. The best model for grading CDO for or against DCT (CDO without CM and SCC<200 000 SC/ml [last 3 months prior DO]) had metrics of AUC=0.74, Accuracy=0.778, balanced Accuracy=0.63, Sensitivity=0.92 and Specificity=0.33. CONCLUSIONS: Combining the decision tree's parameters SCC, CMT and CM renders suitable selection criteria under the conditions of this study. When omitting culturing, lower thresholds for SCC should be considered for each farm individually to select CDO for DCT. Nonetheless, the most accurate model could not replace the full decision tree.


Assuntos
Indústria de Laticínios , Árvores de Decisões , Mastite Bovina , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Mastite Bovina/microbiologia , Mastite Bovina/diagnóstico , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Alemanha , Leite/citologia , Leite/microbiologia , Lactação/fisiologia
16.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10349, 2024 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38710789

RESUMO

Mastitis is a multifactorial inflammatory disease. The increase in antibiotic resistance of bacteria that cause mastitis means that cattle breeders would prefer to reduce the use of antibiotics. Recently, therapies using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from various sources have gained significant interest in the development of regenerative medicine in humans and animals, due to their extraordinary range of properties and functions. The aim of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of an allogeneic stem cells derived from bone marrow (BMSC) and adipose tissue (ADSC) in treating mastitis in dairy cattle. The research material consisted of milk and blood samples collected from 39 Polish Holstein-Friesian cows, 36 of which were classified as having mastitis, based on cytological evaluation of their milk. The experimental group was divided into subgroups according to the method of MSC administration: intravenous, intramammary, and intravenous + intramammary, and according to the allogeneic stem cells administered: BMSC and ADSC. The research material was collected at several time intervals: before the administration of stem cells, after 24 and 72 h, and after 7 days. Blood samples were collected to assess hematological parameters and the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines, while the milk samples were used for microbiological assessment and to determine the somatic cells count (SCC). The administration of allogeneic MSCs resulted in a reduction in the total number of bacterial cells, Staphylococcus aureus, bacteria from the Enterobacteriaceae group, and a systematic decrease in SCC in milk. The therapeutic effect was achieved via intravenous + intramammary or intramammary administration.


Assuntos
Mastite Bovina , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Leite , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Mastite Bovina/terapia , Mastite Bovina/microbiologia , Leite/citologia , Leite/microbiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/métodos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Citocinas/sangue
17.
BMC Microbiol ; 24(1): 157, 2024 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38710998

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clostridium perfringens, a common environmental bacterium, is responsible for a variety of serious illnesses including food poisoning, digestive disorders, and soft tissue infections. Mastitis in lactating cattle and sudden death losses in baby calves are major problems for producers raising calves on dairy farms. The pathogenicity of this bacterium is largely mediated by its production of various toxins. RESULTS: The study revealed that Among the examined lactating animals with a history of mastitis, diarrheal baby calves, and acute sudden death cases in calves, C. perfringens was isolated in 23.5% (93/395) of the total tested samples. Eighteen isolates were obtained from mastitic milk, 59 from rectal swabs, and 16 from the intestinal contents of dead calves. Most of the recovered C. perfringens isolates (95.6%) were identified as type A by molecular toxinotyping, except for four isolates from sudden death cases (type C). Notably, C. perfringens was recovered in 100% of sudden death cases compared with 32.9% of rectal swabs and 9% of milk samples. This study analyzed the phylogeny of C. perfringens using the plc region and identified the plc region in five Egyptian bovine isolates (milk and fecal origins). Importantly, this finding expands the known data on C. perfringens phospholipase C beyond reference strains in GenBank from various animal and environmental sources. CONCLUSION: Phylogenetic analyses of nucleotide sequence data differentiated between strains of different origins. The plc sequences of Egyptian C. perfringens strains acquired in the present study differed from those reported globally and constituted a distinct genetic ancestor.


Assuntos
Infecções por Clostridium , Clostridium perfringens , Enterite , Variação Genética , Mastite Bovina , Leite , Filogenia , Animais , Clostridium perfringens/genética , Clostridium perfringens/isolamento & purificação , Clostridium perfringens/classificação , Clostridium perfringens/patogenicidade , Bovinos , Egito , Feminino , Infecções por Clostridium/microbiologia , Infecções por Clostridium/veterinária , Leite/microbiologia , Enterite/microbiologia , Enterite/veterinária , Mastite Bovina/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Fosfolipases Tipo C/genética , Indústria de Laticínios , Fazendas , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética
18.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 56(5): 165, 2024 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38753181

RESUMO

In herds of dairy goats, mastitis represents a major health and economic problem due to the multiresistance of some microorganisms. In this context, the study aimed to determine the potential of antimicrobial action and antibiofilm of the crude ethanolic extract (CEE) of Hymenaea martiana (jatobá) leaves, as well its fractions, on Staphylococcus sp isolated from bacterial cultures of goat milk. In vitro assays were performed to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC), as well as tests of the effect of CEE on biofilm formation and quantification and the consolidated biofilm. The experimental infection was performed in two groups, each consisting of five goat. Experimental Group 1 (G1) consisted of five females treated with an intramammary ointment based on the CEE, at a concentration of 5%. Experimental Group 2 (G2) consisted of five females treated with a commercial intramammary ointment based on gentamicin, once a day, for six consecutive days. The diagnosis of mastitis was performed using a bacterial culture. The dichloromethane fraction of CEE was the one with the lowest concentrations of MBC, ranging from 195.3 to 781 µg / ml. Concerning to the biofilm, interference of the tested extract was observed for two isolates. In the present study, the ointment prepared from H. martiana extract (jatobá) was able to reduce bacterial infection in mammary glands experimentally infected with S. aureus. Antibacterial activity may be related to the classes of secondary metabolites found.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Biofilmes , Doenças das Cabras , Cabras , Mastite , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Staphylococcus aureus , Animais , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/fisiologia , Mastite/veterinária , Mastite/tratamento farmacológico , Mastite/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/veterinária , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Leite/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/química
19.
Vet Microbiol ; 293: 110103, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38718528

RESUMO

Oxazolidinones are potent antimicrobial agents used to treat human infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-positive bacteria. The growing resistance to oxazolidinones poses a significant threat to public health. In August 2021, a linezolid-resistant Enterococcus faecium BN83 was isolated from a raw milk sample of cow in Inner Mongolia, China. This isolate exhibited a multidrug resistance phenotype and was resistant to most of drugs tested including linezolid and tedizolid. PCR detection showed that two mobile oxazolidinones resistance genes, optrA and poxtA, were present in this isolate. Whole genome sequencing analysis revealed that the genes optrA and poxtA were located on two different plasmids, designated as pBN83-1 and pBN83-2, belonging to RepA_N and Inc18 families respectively. Genetic context analysis suggested that optrA gene on plasmid pBN83-1 was located in transposon Tn6261 initially found in E. faecalis. Comprehensive analysis revealed that Tn6261 act as an important horizontal transmission vector for the spread of optrA in E. faecium. Additionally, poxtA-bearing pBN83-2 displayed high similarity to numerous plasmids from Enterococcus of different origin and pBN83-2-like plasmid represented a key mobile genetic element involved in movement of poxtA in enterococcal species. The presence of optrA- and poxtA-carrying E. faecium in raw bovine milk represents a public health concern and active surveillance is urgently warranted to investigate the prevalence of oxazolidinone resistance genes in animal-derived food products.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Enterococcus faecium , Leite , Oxazolidinonas , Animais , Bovinos , Enterococcus faecium/genética , Enterococcus faecium/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus faecium/isolamento & purificação , Leite/microbiologia , China/epidemiologia , Oxazolidinonas/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Plasmídeos/genética , Linezolida/farmacologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/veterinária , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/epidemiologia , Genes Bacterianos/genética
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(9)2024 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38731976

RESUMO

Increasing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) challenges conventional antibiotics, prompting the search for alternatives. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) from pasteurised cattle milk offer promise, due to their unique properties. This study investigates their efficacy against five pathogenic bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, aiming to combat AMR and to develop new therapies. EVs were characterised and tested using various methods. Co-culture experiments with S. aureus showed significant growth inhibition, with colony-forming units decreasing from 2.4 × 105 CFU/mL (single dose) to 7.4 × 104 CFU/mL (triple doses) after 12 h. Milk EVs extended lag time (6 to 9 h) and increased generation time (2.8 to 4.8 h) dose-dependently, compared to controls. In conclusion, milk EVs exhibit dose-dependent inhibition against S. aureus, prolonging lag and generation times. Despite limitations, this suggests their potential in addressing AMR.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares , Leite , Staphylococcus aureus , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Animais , Leite/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Bovinos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Pasteurização , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
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