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1.
Theriogenology ; 174: 121-123, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34428677

RESUMO

This study aims to evaluate the association between reproductive disorders and the main serogroups of Leptospira spp. in dairy herds. Blood samples from 216 cows from nine herds were collected for a Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT), and a reproductive follow-up with ultrasonography was carried out monthly for at least 12 months. A total of 75 (16.5%) cows were reactive, while seroreactivity to a herd level ranged from 16.0% to 52.8%. Out of the nine herds, in five (55.0%) Sejroe was found to be the predominant serogroup and in four (45.0%) it was Icterohaemorrhagiae. The major reproductive problems identified were embryonic death (ED) and abortions. All herds presented ED and abortion was observed in three (33.3%). Herds with high seroreactivity (>20%) had more reproductive problems. Those with a predominance of Sejroe were associated with ED (P < 0.05), while those with Icterohaemorrhagiae were associated with abortion. The results show that different leptospiral strains lead to different reproductive problems, as well as showing that the main problem - ED - is caused by leptospirosis, particularly for those determined by strains of the serogroup Sejroe.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Leptospira , Leptospirose , Aborto Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/veterinária , Gravidez , Sorogrupo
2.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 78: 101692, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352638

RESUMO

The understanding on the role of bats in the ecology of zoonotic diseases, especially its relevance as a carrier of pathogens, is important for the determination of preventive measures considering the One Health context. The present study aimed to investigate the presence of Brucella spp., Leptospira spp. and Salmonella spp. in blood (n = 163), liver (n = 35) and spleen (n = 62) samples from bats captured in Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Only Salmonella spp. was found in a blood sample of an insectivorous female bat of the species Lasiurus blossevilli, evidencing the capacity of this animal species to host this pathogen. In conclusion, our results in bats from Montes Claros indicate that they do not act as hosts for Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp., although being potential carriers of Salmonella spp. in a low prevalence.


Assuntos
Brucella , Quirópteros , Leptospira , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Salmonella
3.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 708739, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34277477

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is a neglected zoonosis, caused by pathogenic spirochetes bacteria of the genus Leptospira. The molecular mechanisms of leptospirosis infection are complex, and it is becoming clear that leptospires express several functionally redundant proteins to invade, disseminate, and escape the host's immune response. Here, we describe a novel leptospiral protein encoded by the gene LIC13086 as an outer membrane protein. The recombinant protein LIC13086 can interact with the extracellular matrix component laminin and bind plasminogen, thus possibly participating during the adhesion process and dissemination. Also, by interacting with fibrinogen and plasma fibronectin, the protein LIC13086 probably has an inhibitory effect in the fibrin clot formation during the infection process. The newly characterized protein can also bind molecules of the complement system and the regulator C4BP and, thus, might have a role in the evasion mechanism of Leptospira. Taken together, our results suggest that the protein LIC13086 may have a multifunctional role in leptospiral pathogenesis, participating in host invasion, dissemination, and immune evasion processes.


Assuntos
Leptospira interrogans , Leptospira , Leptospirose , Fibrina/metabolismo , Humanos , Leptospira interrogans/genética , Leptospira interrogans/metabolismo , Plasminogênio/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica
4.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 78: 101689, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225227

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is the most widespread zoonosis worldwide, and it can cause reproductive failures in livestock, while in humans may vary from a mild fever to multi-organ failure and death. Due to this, in this study, we evaluated the usefulness of the segment encoding LigB C-terminus region, only present in pathogenic as target for a diagnostic PCR. This new PCR yielded a 100 % positivity for pathogenic Leptospira species and no cross-reactivity was found with intermediate or non-pathogenic species, or with other microorganisms, demostrating its high analytical specificity. The estimated analytical sensitivity was higher in serum samples than in blood or urine samples (6-9 × 102 lept/mL and 6-9 × 105 and 6-9 × 106 lept/mL, respectively). Multiple sequence alignment of the target region from different pathogenic Leptospira species confirmed that this gene region is highly conserved among these species, with few single nucleotide polymorphisms. The ligb-ct PCR here developed appears as a useful tool for the molecular diagnosis of leptospirosis.


Assuntos
Leptospira , Leptospirose , Animais , Leptospira/genética , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Leptospirose/veterinária , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Zoonoses
5.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 677999, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34249775

RESUMO

The exact global impact of leptospirosis is unknown due to inadequate surveillance systems in place in most low-income countries. In this study, we analyzed the differences in mouse inflammatory signatures involved in pathogenic versus non-pathogenic Leptospira recognition at 24h and 72h post infection. Injection of C3H-HeJ mice with non-pathogenic L. biflexa increased circulation of a few chemokines (5/21, 24%) without secretion of cytokines in blood that resulted in engagement of resident macrophages, dendritic cells, neutrophils and NK cells without engagement of T cells. In contrast, pathogenic L. interrogans induced circulation of a much higher panel of chemokines (18/21, 86%) and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (11/19, 58%) in blood with a resulting signaling cascade leading to engagement of macrophages, dendritic cells, monocytes, NK cells and T cells without engagement of neutrophils. Although neutrophils do not appear to be engaged, a considerable number of chemokines that recruit other granulocytes such as eosinophils and basophils were also increased at 72h post infection with L. interrogans. Overall, the data suggest that prevention of dissemination of L. biflexa is associated with an early engagement of the innate immune response characterized by upregulation of a few chemokines that results in an efficacious phagocytic response without an overwhelming increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, when macrophages fail to clear a pathogenic serovar such as L. interrogans, the adaptive response (T cells) is engaged to help out, but the resulting chemo-cytokine storm mediates a robust but non-resolving inflammatory response to pathogenic Leptospira that results in dissemination, kidney colonization, pathology and disease.


Assuntos
Leptospira interrogans , Leptospira , Leptospirose , Animais , Quimiocinas , Imunidade Inata , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C3H
6.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 54: e00762021, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231771

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Leptospirosis and brucellosis cause immunosuppression that worsens the clinical condition of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). We investigated the serological profile and risk factors of PLWHA. METHODS: Serum samples (n=238) were researched for Brucella spp. antibodies using Rose Bengal and tube agglutination tests and Leptospira spp. antibodies using the microscopic agglutination test. RESULTS: All samples were negative for Brucella spp. For leptospirosis, four samples (1.69%) were positive, and Andamana was the prevalent serovar. CONCLUSIONS: Low or no detection of these zoonoses does not reduce their importance in PLWHA. Vigilant, educational, and preventive measures should be adopted.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Infecções por HIV , Leptospira , Leptospirose , Testes de Aglutinação , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Brucelose/complicações , Brucelose/epidemiologia , HIV , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hospitais , Humanos , Leptospirose/complicações , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Fatores de Risco
9.
J Vet Intern Med ; 35(4): 1789-1799, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endothelial dysfunction might contribute to the development of leptospiral pulmonary hemorrhage syndrome (LPHS). HYPOTHESIS: Serum concentrations of markers of endothelial activation and dysfunction are higher in dogs with leptospirosis and correlate with the occurrence of LPHS and a higher case fatality rate. ANIMALS: Clinically healthy dogs (n = 31; 10/31 dogs confirmed healthy based on no detected abnormalities on blood work), dogs with leptospirosis with LPHS (n = 17) and without LPHS (n = 15), dogs with acute kidney injury not due to leptospirosis (AKI-nL, n = 34). METHODS: Observational study. Serum concentrations of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) at admission were compared between groups. Correlations with outcome and the accuracy to predict LPHS were examined. RESULTS: Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM-1), VEGF, and Ang-2 concentrations were higher in dogs with AKI-nL (sICAM-1 34.7 ng/mL, interquartile range [IQR] = 24.4-75.5; VEGF 43.1 pg/mL, IQR = 12.3-79.2; Ang-2 8.5 ng/mL, IQR = 6.2-12.3), leptospirosis without LPHS (sICAM-1 45.1 ng/mL, IQR = 30.6-59.0; VEGF 32.4 pg/mL, IQR = 12.5-62.6; Ang-2 9.6 ng/mL, IQR = 6.9-19.3), and LPHS (sICAM-1 69.7 ng/mL, IQR = 42.1-89.1; VEGF 51.8 pg/mL, IQR = 26.3-96.7; Ang-2 8.0 ng/mL, IQR = 5.6-12.2) compared to controls (P < .001). In dogs with leptospirosis, VEGF and sICAM-1 were higher in nonsurvivors (sICAM-1 89.4 ng/mL, IQR = 76.5-101.0; VEGF 117.0 pg/mL, IQR = 90.3-232.4) than survivors (P = .004) and sICAM-1 predicted the development of LPHS. CONCLUSIONS: Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1, VEGF, and Ang-2 do not discriminate leptospirosis from AKI-nL. In dogs with leptospirosis, sICAM-1 and VEGF predict outcome and sICAM-1 might identify dogs at risk for LPHS.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Leptospira , Leptospirose , Pneumopatias , Animais , Biomarcadores , Cães , Hemorragia/veterinária , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular , Leptospirose/complicações , Leptospirose/veterinária , Pneumopatias/veterinária , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular
10.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 77: 101664, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091280

RESUMO

Leptospirosis, a zoonotic disease with worldwide distribution, is caused by spirochetes of the genus Leptospira. In dogs, this disease is frequently misdiagnosed. Few studies have attempted to associate the detection of Leptospira spp. infection with clinicopathological and renal histopathological findings using a multidisciplinary approach. The present study isolated and characterized Leptospira spp. obtained from naturally infected dogs and described relevant clinical and histopathological findings. Blood and urine were collected from 57 dogs with clinical symptomatology suggestive of leptospirosis; 38 cases were confirmed by PCR in urine or by culture or microscopic agglutination testing (titers ≥800). A total of 12 strains of pathogenic Leptospira were isolated from the studied dogs (seven in blood, four in urine and one in both blood and urine samples). All isolates were characterized as Leptospira interrogans serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae. Of the confirmed cases, almost one-third of the animals had been vaccinated. Our analysis of laboratory testing revealed that azotemia and proteinuria were statistically significant predictors of infection. The main histopathological findings seen in kidney tissues were necrosis, degeneration, tubular regeneration, mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate and congestion. A multidisciplinary approach involving clinicopathological and histopathological characterization of renal involvement can aid in the identification of acute leptospirosis infection.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Leptospira interrogans , Leptospira , Leptospirose , Animais , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Cães , Leptospira interrogans/genética , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Leptospirose/veterinária , Estudos Prospectivos , Sorogrupo
11.
J Int Med Res ; 49(5): 3000605211019665, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34044641

RESUMO

Pulmonary haemorrhage is an important complication of leptospirosis. We herein report an uncommon case of severe pulmonary haemorrhage and multiple organ failure caused by leptospirosis in a 49-year-old man who was previously healthy. He was a farm worker who was admitted to the hospital because of haemoptysis. He had worked in a paddy field 4 days prior to admission. Chest computed tomography revealed pulmonary haemorrhage, which rapidly deteriorated into haemorrhagic shock and multiple organ failure. Based on the patient's possible history of contact with contaminated water and the DNA sequence of Leptospira detected in his bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, the patient was diagnosed with pulmonary haemorrhagic leptospirosis. Despite the administration of a fluid bolus, norepinephrine, broad-spectrum antibiotics, and haemostatics, and even with administration of a blood transfusion and extracorporeal life support, the pulmonary haemorrhage could not be controlled effectively. The patient eventually died of haemorrhagic shock. Leptospirosis can be a life-threatening disease despite aggressive treatment, even with extracorporeal life support. Next-generation sequencing can provide important diagnostic clues for patients with atypical leptospirotic symptoms.


Assuntos
Leptospira , Leptospirose , Pneumopatias , Hemorragia/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemorragia/etiologia , Humanos , Leptospirose/complicações , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Pneumopatias/complicações , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/etiologia
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 488, 2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34044779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is a zoonotic illness caused by pathogenic spirochetes of the genus Leptospira. The disease spectrum ranges from a mild influenza-like presentation to a more serious Weil's syndrome. Leptospirosis rarely presents as a primary neurological syndrome. We report two cases of Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Tarasssovi presenting as aseptic meningitis in Sri Lanka. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe case reports of two patients presenting as symptomatic aseptic meningitis due to neuroleptospirosis. Both patients had significant neurological involvement at presentation in the absence of common clinical features of leptospirosis. These patients were initially managed as bacterial or viral meningitis and leptospirosis was suspected due to a history of exposure to contaminated water. Subsequently, they were diagnosed to have neuroleptospirosis by positive Leptospira serology and both patients gained full recovery. CONCLUSION: Our report highlights the importance of considering leptospirosis as a differential diagnosis in patients with aseptic meningitis in endemic settings. Obtaining a detailed occupational and recreational history is helpful in diagnosing neuroleptospirosis promptly. We report the association of Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar (sv.) Tarassovi (strain bakeri) in causing aseptic meningitis, which has not been reported to the best of our knowledge.


Assuntos
Leptospira/isolamento & purificação , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Meningite Asséptica/diagnóstico , Aciclovir/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Ceftriaxona/uso terapêutico , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Água Potável/microbiologia , Humanos , Leptospira/genética , Leptospirose/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Meningite Asséptica/tratamento farmacológico , Sorogrupo , Sri Lanka , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 77: 101673, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029859

RESUMO

The isolation of leptospires from buffaloes worldwide is still limited to a few strains. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe the first Leptospira isolate from buffalo urine, assigned to the Sejroe serogroup, which does not belong to the Wolffi subgroup, traditionally isolated in Brazil. A total of 244 urine samples of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) raised in the Brazilian Amazon were subjected to bacteriological culturing and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of leptospires. The obtained isolate was characterized by serogrouping using polyclonal antibodies, partial DNA sequencing, Hardjo-Bovis-specific PCR, multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA/VNTR) and experimental infection in hamsters. PCR was performed on the urine samples; 11/244 were positive (4.5 %) for Leptospira, and only one isolate was recovered (0.4 %). Regarding characterization, the isolate was assigned to the Sejroe serogroup with high titers (12,800) for the Saxkoebing and Sejroe serovar antisera. The isolate was negative for Hardjo-Bovis-specific PCR, and the species Leptospira borgpetersenii was identified by DNA sequencing. The MLVA results showed that the VNTR profile of the isolate was 1-2-5, compatible with that of serovars Sejroe/Istrica. In the experimental infection in hamsters, the animals did not develop clinical signs, and no macroscopic lesions were observed on the organs at necropsy; however, the strain was detected in the kidneys, uterus, and testicles of the animals. The isolate described herein highlights infection by Sejroe strains that may be overlooked in buffaloes and that may be different from those normally isolated and used in serological studies.


Assuntos
Leptospira , Leptospirose , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Búfalos , Feminino , Leptospira/genética , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/veterinária , Sorogrupo
14.
Vet Rec ; 188(9): e143, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33960475

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bovine leptospirosis is mainly characterized by reproductive disorders. Contamination of the oocyte was previously demonstrated in vitro, resulting in some apparent damage. However, it is not clear whether it occurs under natural conditions. The present study aimed to characterize the presence of pathogenic Leptospira DNA in the ovarian follicles of non-pregnant cows. METHODS: Follicular fluid samples were collected from 65 animals and subjected to lipL32 PCR and secY sequencing. RESULTS: In total, seven of 65 (10.8%) were positive, indicating a possible early infection of the oocyte. Moreover, secY sequencing identified L. interrogans and L. santarosai, both very closely related to bovine strains from the Sejroe serogroup (Hardjoprjitno and Guaricura). We demonstrated that ovarian follicles can also be infected. CONCLUSIONS: It was hypothesised that ovarian infection can contribute to embryonic death, causing reproductive failure and estrus repetition. In the present study, we show that the organism identified in the follicle is closely related to one that is known to be associated with reproductive disorders.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Líquido Folicular/microbiologia , Leptospira/genética , Leptospirose/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Leptospirose/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Sorogrupo
16.
J Vet Med Sci ; 83(7): 1059-1067, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33994428

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is an exacerbating factor responsible for the drastic decline of sloth bear population in India. In this study, a multipronged approach based on antigen detection using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) employing G1/G2 and LigBF/LigBR primers, antibody detection using Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT) and recombinant LigBCon1-5 antigen based Latex Agglutination Test (rLigBCon1-5 LAT), serum biochemistry using hepatic (serum glutamate oxalo acetic transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) and renal biomarkers (blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and Creatinine) and gross/histopathological evidence in liver and kidneys were employed to investigate leptospirosis in captive sloth bears. A total of 133 serum samples collected from Agra (n=113) and Bannerghatta (n=20) sloth bear rescue centers were screened using MAT and rLigBCon1-5 LAT. A total of 87 and 78 sera tested positive by MAT and LAT respectively. Pyrogenes was the leading serovar obtained using MAT followed by Icterohaemorrhagiae, Javanica, Grippotyphosa, Canicola and Tarassovi. The relative sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of rLigBCon1-5 LAT in comparison to MAT were 89.66%, 100% and 93.23% respectively. PCR performed on hepatic and renal tissues showed amplicon of 285 and 219 base pairs for G1/G2 and LigBF/LigBR primers respectively. Gross evidence (icteric liver, severely engorged hepatic sinusoids, congested kidneys with necrotic white spots on sub capsular surface), histopathology (severe hepatic degeneration and tubulointerstitial nephritis) and elevated hepatic/renal biomarkers were suggestive of leptospirosis. This study suggests that rLigBCon1-5 LAT can be employed as a pen-side test for detecting leptospirosis in sloth bears.


Assuntos
Leptospira , Leptospirose , Bichos-Preguiça , Ursidae , Testes de Aglutinação/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Índia , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Leptospirose/veterinária
17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(4): e0009320, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is a zoonotic, bacterial disease, posing significant health risks to humans, livestock, and companion animals around the world. Symptoms range from asymptomatic to multi-organ failure in severe cases. Complex species-specific interactions exist between animal hosts and the infecting species, serovar, and strain of pathogen. Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo strains HB203 and JB197 have a high level of genetic homology but cause different clinical presentation in the hamster model of infection; HB203 colonizes the kidney and presents with chronic shedding while JB197 causes severe organ failure and mortality. This study examines the transcriptome of L. borgpetersenii and characterizes differential gene expression profiles of strains HB203 and JB197 cultured at temperatures during routine laboratory conditions (29°C) and encountered during host infection (37°C). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: L. borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo strains JB197 and HB203 were isolated from the kidneys of experimentally infected hamsters and maintained at 29°C and 37°C. RNAseq revealed distinct gene expression profiles; 440 genes were differentially expressed (DE) between JB197 and HB203 at 29°C, and 179 genes were DE between strains at 37°C. Comparison of JB197 cultured at 29°C and 37°C identified 135 DE genes while 41 genes were DE in HB203 with those same culture conditions. The consistent differential expression of ligB, which encodes the outer membrane virulence factor LigB, was validated by immunoblotting and 2D-DIGE. Differential expression of lipopolysaccharide was also observed between JB197 and HB203. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Investigation of the L. borgpetersenii JB197 and HB203 transcriptome provides unique insight into the mechanistic differences between acute and chronic disease. Characterizing the nuances of strain to strain differences and investigating the environmental sensitivity of Leptospira to temperature is critical to the development and progress of leptospirosis prevention and treatment technologies, and is an important consideration when serovars are selected and propagated for use as bacterin vaccines as well as for the identification of novel therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Leptospira/genética , Sorogrupo , Temperatura , Transcriptoma , Animais , Cricetinae , Rim/microbiologia , Leptospira/isolamento & purificação , Leptospirose/microbiologia
18.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 100(3): 115369, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845305

RESUMO

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) test is widely used in molecular diagnostics as a point-of-care technique alternative to traditional PCR especially in resource-limited countries. LAMP has been recently used to diagnose leptospirosis. Therefore, we undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the accuracy of LAMP with PCR in the diagnosis of leptospirosis. Sixty-one studies were extracted from three international databases and analyzed throughout using the PRISMA guideline. The pooled sensitivity of LAMP and PCR technique was 0.80 (95% CI: 0.58-0.90) and 0.54 (95% CI: 0.35-0.67) respectively indicating that LAMP is more sensitive than PCR. The Q* value of LAMP and PCR-based technique is 274.61 and 397.95, respectively. Among the analyzed studies, significant heterogeneity was observed where I2 is 90.90% for LAMP-based and 86.18% for PCR-based. Our study suggests that LAMP has better diagnostic accuracy than PCR. However, future work should be carried out to reduce heterogeneity as well as to improve and develop effective intervention strategies.


Assuntos
Leptospira/isolamento & purificação , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Humanos , Leptospirose/microbiologia
19.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249987, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886632

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by the pathogenic Leptospira spp. Canine and human leptospirosis sometimes occur on Amami Oshima Island, located in the Nansei Archipelago, southwestern Japan; however, information on the causative Leptospira spp. on this island is quite limited. This study aimed to investigate the molecular and serological characteristics of Leptospira spp. isolated from wild animals and a dog in Amami Oshima Island. We obtained seven Leptospira strains by culturing kidney tissues of wild animals, such as black rats (2), wild boars (3), and rabbit (1) as well as blood from a symptomatic dog. Using flaB sequencing and microscopic agglutination test with antisera for 18 serovars, the isolates were identified as Leptospira borgpetersenii serogroups Javanica (black rat), L. interrogans serogroup Australis (black rat and dog), and L. interrogans serogroup Hebdomadis (wild boar and rabbit). The sequence type (ST) of L. borgpetersenii serogroup Javanica was determined to be ST143 via multilocus sequence typing (MLST) using seven housekeeping genes. For L. interrogans, MLST and multiple-locus variable-tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) revealed identical ST and MLVA types in rat and canine isolates, whereas two STs and MLVA types were identified in wild boar isolates. The STs and MLVA types of rabbit and one of the wild boars were identical. Bacterial culture and flaB-nested polymerase chain reaction demonstrated a high rate of Leptospira infection in wild boars (58.3%, 7/12), whereas Leptospira spp. were detected in 4.8% of black rats (2/42). This study revealed diverse Leptospira genotype and serotype maintenance in wild mammals on Amami Oshima Island. MLST and MLVA indicated that black rats were a source of canine infection. Wild boars carry L. interrogans and are considered an important maintenance host because antibodies against serogroup Hebdomadis were detected in human and canine leptospirosis patients on this island.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Flagelina/genética , Leptospira/classificação , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Japão/epidemiologia , Rim/microbiologia , Leptospira/genética , Leptospira/isolamento & purificação , Leptospirose/veterinária , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus/veterinária , Coelhos , Ratos , Sus scrofa
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802554

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is a worldwide-spread zoonosis causing disease and death in dogs and in humans. A Leptospiral infection has been recorded in several wild carnivore species in Europe, but tissue pathological changes were not commonly described. The Grey wolf (Canis lupus) has been expanding its distribution range in north-eastern Italy during the last decade. A young wolf, representing the first individual handled in the region, was found road-killed and then submitted to necropsy. Pathological changes included erosive lesions of gingival mucosa, mild liver enlargement, and multifocal degenerative-necrotic areas along with hyperemic reactive lesions; multifocal interstitial nephritis and multifocal lung hemorrhages were observed. A Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) able to detect pathogenic species of Leptospira performed on a kidney sample was positive. Serological reactions for serogroup Gryppotyphosa (1:6400), Pomona (1:800), and Icterohaemorrhagiae (1:200) were evidenced by MAT. Genotyping by Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) performed on detected Leptospira characterized it as belonging to Sequence Type (ST) 117, which refers to L. kirschneri, serogroup Pomona, serovar Mozdok. Regardless of the role of Leptospira infection as an eventual predisposing factor to the road killing of this wolf, to the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of Leptospira-induced pathology in a wolf in Europe. Surveys on Leptospira infection in free-ranging wildlife species should be pursued in order to achieve further epidemiological knowledge on the circulation of the Leptospira strain.


Assuntos
Leptospira , Leptospirose , Lobos , Animais , Cães , Exposição Ambiental , Europa (Continente) , Itália/epidemiologia , Leptospira/genética , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/veterinária , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Sorogrupo
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