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1.
PeerJ ; 12: e17096, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38699181

RESUMO

Background: Leptospirosis is a water-related zoonotic disease. The disease is primarily transmitted from animals to humans through pathogenic Leptospira bacteria in contaminated water and soil. Rivers have a critical role in Leptospira transmissions, while co-infection potentials with other waterborne bacteria might increase the severity and death risk of the disease. Methods: The water samples evaluated in this study were collected from four recreational forest rivers, Sungai Congkak, Sungai Lopo, Hulu Perdik, and Gunung Nuang. The samples were subjected to next-generation sequencing (NGS) for the 16S rRNA and in-depth metagenomic analysis of the bacterial communities. Results: The water samples recorded various bacterial diversity. The samples from the Hulu Perdik and Sungai Lopo downstream sampling sites had a more significant diversity, followed by Sungai Congkak. Conversely, the upstream samples from Gunung Nuang exhibited the lowest bacterial diversity. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Acidobacteria were the dominant phyla detected in downstream areas. Potential pathogenic bacteria belonging to the genera Burkholderiales and Serratia were also identified, raising concerns about co-infection possibilities. Nevertheless, Leptospira pathogenic bacteria were absent from all sites, which is attributable to its limited persistence. The bacteria might also be washed to other locations, contributing to the reduced environmental bacterial load. Conclusion: The present study established the presence of pathogenic bacteria in the river ecosystems assessed. The findings offer valuable insights for designing strategies for preventing pathogenic bacteria environmental contamination and managing leptospirosis co-infections with other human diseases. Furthermore, closely monitoring water sample compositions with diverse approaches, including sentinel programs, wastewater-based epidemiology, and clinical surveillance, enables disease transmission and outbreak early detections. The data also provides valuable information for suitable treatments and long-term strategies for combating infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Leptospirose , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Rios , Microbiologia da Água , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/microbiologia , Leptospirose/transmissão , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rios/microbiologia , Leptospira/genética , Leptospira/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/classificação , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Animais
2.
Wiad Lek ; 77(3): 608-612, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38691808

RESUMO

A case report of Jarisch-Herxheimer (JHR) reaction on a 10th day of Leptospirosis caused by Leptospira Pomona. JHR occurs as a complication of an antibiotic treatment of various spirochetes and may lead to respiratory distress syndrome, renal failure, hepatic insufficiency, and multiple organ failure. This case represents a skin and cardio-vascular form of JHR with no lung involvement. The patient was treated with benzylpenicillin and low dexamethasone doses for 5th day of the disease with a shift to ceftriaxone and high doses of methylprednisolone. The fastest diagnosis of a sporadic zoonotic disease, early start of antibiotic therapy, and adequate doses of corticosteroids are key to the successful treatment of leptospirosis.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Leptospirose , Humanos , Leptospirose/tratamento farmacológico , Leptospirose/complicações , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Leptospira/isolamento & purificação , Ceftriaxona/uso terapêutico , Ceftriaxona/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Metilprednisolona/administração & dosagem , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Dexametasona/efeitos adversos
3.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 717: 150057, 2024 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38718568

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is a widespread zoonotic infectious disease of human and veterinary concern caused by pathogenic spirochetes of the genus Leptospira. To date, little progress towards understanding leptospiral pathogenesis and identification of virulence factors has been made, which is the main bottleneck for developing effective measures against the disease. Some leptospiral proteins, including LipL32, Lig proteins, LipL45, and LipL21, are being considered as potential virulence factors or vaccine candidates. However, their function remains to be established. LipL45 is the most expressed membrane lipoprotein in leptospires, upregulated when the bacteria are transferred to temperatures resembling the host, expressed during infection, suppressed after culture attenuation, and known to suffer processing in vivo and in vitro, generating fragments. Based on body of evidence, we hypothesized that the LipL45 processing might occur by an auto-cleavage event, deriving two fragments. The results presented here, based on bioinformatics, structure modeling analysis, and experimental data, corroborate that LipL45 processing probably includes a self-catalyzed non-proteolytic event and suggest the participation of LipL45 in cell-surface signaling pathways, as the protein shares structural similarities with bacterial sigma regulators. Our data indicate that LipL45 might play an important role in response to environmental conditions, with possible function in the adaptation to the host.


Assuntos
Leptospira , Lipoproteínas , Lipoproteínas/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas/química , Lipoproteínas/genética , Leptospira/metabolismo , Leptospira/química , Fator sigma/metabolismo , Fator sigma/química , Fator sigma/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Modelos Moleculares , Leptospirose/metabolismo , Leptospirose/microbiologia
4.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 266(Pt 2): 131371, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580013

RESUMO

Bacterial caseinolytic protease-chaperone complexes participate in the elimination of misfolded and aggregated protein substrates. The spirochete Leptospira interrogans possess a set of Clp-chaperones (ClpX, ClpA, and ClpC), which may associate functionally with two different isoforms of LinClpP (ClpP1 and ClpP2). The L. interrogans ClpC (LinClpC) belongs to class-I chaperone with two active ATPase domains separated by a middle domain. Using the size exclusion chromatography, ANS dye binding, and dynamic light scattering analysis, the LinClpC is suggested to undergo nucleotide-induced oligomerization. LinClpC associates with either pure LinClpP1 or LinClpP2 isoforms non-preferentially and with equal affinity. Regardless, pure LinClpP isoforms cannot constitute an active protease complex with LinClpC. Interestingly, the heterocomplex LinClpP1P2 in association with LinClpC forms a functional proteolytic machinery and degrade ß-casein or FITC-casein in an energy-independent manner. Adding either ATP or ATPγS further fosters the LinClpCP1P2 complex protease activity by nurturing the functional oligomerization of LinClpC. The antibiotic, acyldepsipeptides (ADEP1) display a higher activatory role on LinClpP1P2 protease activity than LinClpC. Altogether, this work illustrates an in-depth study of hetero-tetradecamer LinClpP1P2 association with its cognate ATPase and unveils a new insight into the structural reorganization of LinClpP1P2 in the presence of chaperone, LinClpC to gain protease activity.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias , Proteínas de Choque Térmico , Leptospira , Multimerização Proteica , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Endopeptidase Clp/metabolismo , Endopeptidase Clp/química , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/química , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Leptospira/metabolismo , Leptospira/enzimologia , Leptospira interrogans/enzimologia , Leptospira interrogans/metabolismo , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Chaperonas Moleculares/química , Ligação Proteica , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Isoformas de Proteínas/química , Proteólise
5.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 109: 102171, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38598876

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is a (re) emerging zoonosis that occurs worldwide. This study aimed to assess seroprevalence of leptospirosis and to identify the most common reactive serovars and risk factors for seropositivity in apparently healthy stray dogs of unknown vaccination status in the Sarajevo region of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Positive microscopic agglutination test titres (≥ 1:25) were detected in 3.87% (156/4028) of samples and most of the sera reacted against one serovar (85.9%). Dogs were most commonly reactive to Canicola (40.4%) and Hardjo (33.3%), followed by Pomona (15.4%) Tarassovi (14.7%), Icterohaemorrhagiae (8.3%), Grippotyphosa (5.8%), Bratislava (1.3%) and Saxkoebing (0.6%). Dogs older than one year had higher odds of seropositivity compared to younger dogs. The seropositivity was higher in spring and autumn than in summer. These results advocate for the need of a control strategy for this zoonosis in the country, which should include sero-surveillance, monitoring, and the inclusion of additional serovars in the testing.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Doenças do Cão , Leptospira , Leptospirose , Animais , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/veterinária , Leptospirose/microbiologia , Cães , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Bósnia e Herzegóvina/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Leptospira/imunologia , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Fatores de Risco , Masculino , Feminino , Estações do Ano , Sorogrupo , Testes de Aglutinação/veterinária , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(4): e0011671, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is the world's most common zoonotic disease. Mitigation and control rely on pathogen identification and understanding the roles of potential reservoirs in cycling and transmission. Underreporting and misdiagnosis obscure the magnitude of the problem and confound efforts to understand key epidemiological components. Difficulties in culturing hamper the use of serological diagnostics and delay the development of DNA detection methods. As a result, especially in complex ecosystems, we know very little about the importance of different mammalian host species in cycling and transmission to humans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We sampled dogs from five indigenous Kichwa communities living in the Yasuní National Park in the Ecuadorian Amazon basin. Blood and urine samples from domestic dogs were collected to assess the exposure of these animals to Leptospira and to identify the circulating species. Microscopic Agglutination Tests with a panel of 22 different serovars showed anti-leptospira antibodies in 36 sampled dogs (75%), and 7 serogroups were detected. Two DNA-based detection assays revealed pathogenic Leptospira DNA in 18 of 19 dog urine samples (94.7%). Amplicon sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA and SecY genes from 15 urine samples revealed genetic diversity within two of three different Leptospira species: noguchii (n = 7), santarosai (n = 7), and interrogans (n = 1). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The high prevalence of antibodies and Leptospira DNA provides strong evidence for high rates of past and current infections. Such high prevalence has not been previously reported for dogs. These dogs live in the peridomestic environment in close contact with humans, yet they are free-ranging animals that interact with wildlife. This complex web of interactions may explain the diverse types of pathogenic Leptospira observed in this study. Our results suggest that domestic dogs are likely to play an important role in the cycling and transmission of Leptospira. Future studies in areas with complex ecoepidemiology will enable better parsing of the significance of genotypic, environmental, and host characteristics.


Assuntos
Leptospira , Leptospirose , Animais , Cães , Humanos , Ecossistema , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/veterinária , Animais Selvagens , DNA , Mamíferos
7.
J Vector Borne Dis ; 61(1): 43-50, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38648405

RESUMO

BACKGROUND OBJECTIVES: Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic infection that has caused significant mortality and morbidity worldwide. This disease is endemic in Malaysia and as a developing tropical country, leptospirosis is concerning as it threatens Malaysian public health and the country's economic sectors. However, there is limited information on leptospirosis in Malaysia, especially regarding leptospiral seroepidemiology among carriers in Malaysia. Therefore, more epidemiological information on the source of the disease and reservoir are needed for better disease control and source intervention. The objectives of this study are to gather information on Leptospira infection and the carrier status of rats captured from selected wet markets of Kuala Lumpur metropolitan city in Malaysia. METHODS: Live rat trappings were performed in four major wet markets in Kuala Lumpur, namely, Pudu, Chow Kit, Datuk Keramat, and Petaling Street. Animal samplings were performed for 12 months in 2017, where blood and kidney samples were collected and tested for anti-leptospiral antibodies via Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT) and pathogenic Leptospira screening via Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplification offlaB gene. RESULTS: MAT showed that 34.7% (n = 50/144) of the captured rats were positive for anti-leptospiral antibody of which the most prominent serovar was Malaya followed by a local strain, IMR LEP 175. In parallel, 50 rats were also positive for pathogenic Leptospira DNA. INTERPRETATION CONCLUSION: This study showed that there are persistent Leptospira infections among rats in Kuala Lumpur wet markets and these rats are important reservoir hosts for the bacteria.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Leptospira , Leptospirose , Animais , Malásia/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/veterinária , Leptospirose/microbiologia , Ratos , Leptospira/genética , Leptospira/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Portador Sadio/microbiologia , Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Masculino , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/microbiologia , Feminino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Testes de Aglutinação
8.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0300523, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38598501

RESUMO

Rodents are recognized as the main reservoirs of Leptospira spp. Rats, in particular, serve as hosts for the widely predominant Leptospira interrogans serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae, found worldwide. Several studies have shown the importance of other reservoirs, such as mice or hedgehogs, which harbor other leptospires' serovars. Nevertheless, our knowledge of circulating Leptospira spp. in reservoirs other than rats remains limited. In this context, we proposed an eco-health approach to assess the health hazard associated with leptospires in urban green spaces, where contacts between human/small mammals and domestic animals are likely. We studied the prevalence, the diversity of circulating strains, and epidemiology of pathogenic Leptospira species in small terrestrial mammal communities (rodents and shrews), between 2020-2022, in two parks in Lyon metropolis, France. Our study showed a significant carriage of Leptospira spp. in small terrestrial mammals in these parks and unveiled a global prevalence rate of 11.4%. Significant variations of prevalence were observed among the small mammal species (from 0 to 26.1%), with Rattus norvegicus exhibiting the highest infection levels (26.1%). We also observed strong spatio-temporal variations in Leptospira spp. circulation in its reservoirs. Prevalence seems to be higher in the peri-urban park and in autumn in 2021 and 2022. This is potentially due to differences in landscape, abiotic conditions and small mammal communities' composition. Our study suggests an important public health relevance of rats and in a lesser extent of other rodents (Apodemus spp., Clethrionomys glareolus and Mus musculus) as reservoirs of L. interrogans, with rodent species carrying specific serogroups/serovars. We also emphasize the potential hazard associated between the shrew Crocidura russula and L. kirschneri. Altogether, these results improve our knowledge about the prevalence of leptospirosis in an urban environment, which is an essential prerequisite for the implementation of prevention of associated risks.


Assuntos
Leptospira , Leptospirose , Humanos , Ratos , Camundongos , Animais , Leptospira/genética , Parques Recreativos , Prevalência , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/veterinária , Roedores , Musaranhos , França , Variação Genética
9.
Mol Biol Evol ; 41(4)2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573174

RESUMO

Transcriptomic analyses across large scales of evolutionary distance have great potential to shed light on regulatory evolution but are complicated by difficulties in establishing orthology and limited availability of accessible software. We introduce here a method and a graphical user interface wrapper, called Annotator-RNAtor, for performing interspecies transcriptomic analysis and studying intragenus evolution. The pipeline uses third-party software to infer homologous genes in various species and highlight differences in the expression of the core-genes. To illustrate the methodology and demonstrate its usefulness, we focus on the emergence of the highly virulent Leptospira subclade known as P1+, which includes the causative agents of leptospirosis. Here, we expand on the genomic study through the comparison of transcriptomes between species from P1+ and their related P1- counterparts (low-virulent pathogens). In doing so, we shed light on differentially expressed pathways and focused on describing a specific example of adaptation based on a differential expression of PerRA-controlled genes. We showed that P1+ species exhibit higher expression of the katE gene, a well-known virulence determinant in pathogenic Leptospira species correlated with greater tolerance to peroxide. Switching PerRA alleles between P1+ and P1- species demonstrated that the lower repression of katE and greater tolerance to peroxide in P1+ species was solely controlled by PerRA and partly caused by a PerRA amino-acid permutation. Overall, these results demonstrate the strategic fit of the methodology and its ability to decipher adaptive transcriptomic changes, not observable by comparative genome analysis, that may have been implicated in the emergence of these pathogens.


Assuntos
Leptospira , Leptospirose , Leptospira/genética , Leptospirose/genética , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Peróxidos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica
10.
Vaccine ; 42(13): 3220-3229, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38641497

RESUMO

Leptospirosis, a globally significant zoonotic disease caused by pathogenic Leptospira, continues to threaten the health and public safety of both humans and animals. Current clinical treatment of leptospirosis mainly relies on antibiotics but their efficacy in severe cases is controversial. Passive immunization has a protective effect in the treatment of infectious diseases. In addition, chicken egg yolk antibody (IgY) has gained increasing attention as a safe passive immunization agent. This study aimed to investigate whether hens produce specific IgY after immunization with inactivated Leptospira and the protective effect of specific IgY against leptospirosis. First, it was demonstrated that specific IgY could be extracted from the eggs of hens vaccinated with inactivated Leptospira and that specific IgY can specifically recognize and bind homotypic Leptospira with a high titre, as shown by MAT and ELISA. Next, we tested the therapeutic effects of IgY in early and late leptospirosis using a hamster model. The results showed that early specific IgY treatment increased the survival rate of hamsters to 100%, alleviated pathological damage to the liver, kidney, and lung, reduced leptospiral burden, and restored haematological indices as well as functional indicators of the liver and kidney. The therapeutic effect of early specific IgY was comparable to that of doxycycline. Late IgY treatment also enhanced the survival rate of hamsters and improved the symptoms of leptospirosis similar to early IgY treatment. However, the therapeutic effect of late IgY treatment was better when combined with doxycycline. Furthermore, no Leptospira colonization was observed in the kidneys, livers, or lungs of the surviving hamsters treated with specific IgY. Mechanistically, IgY was found to inhibit the growth and adhesion to cells of Leptospira. In conclusion, passive immunotherapy with specific IgY can be considered an effective treatment for leptospirosis, and may replace antibiotics regarding its therapeutic effects.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Galinhas , Imunização Passiva , Imunoglobulinas , Leptospira , Leptospirose , Animais , Leptospirose/imunologia , Leptospirose/prevenção & controle , Leptospirose/terapia , Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Imunoglobulinas/administração & dosagem , Leptospira/imunologia , Cricetinae , Galinhas/imunologia , Imunização Passiva/métodos , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Feminino , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Rim/patologia , Rim/imunologia , Rim/microbiologia , Doxiciclina/uso terapêutico , Doxiciclina/administração & dosagem , Doxiciclina/farmacologia , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/administração & dosagem , Mesocricetus , Gema de Ovo/imunologia , Fígado/imunologia , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/microbiologia
12.
Actual. Sida Infectol. (En linea) ; 32(114): 36-45, 20240000. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1552206

RESUMO

Introducción: La leptospirosis es una zoonosis que cons-tituye un problema emergente de salud pública. La insufi-ciencia renal, plaquetopenia y compromiso respiratorio se describen como predictores de mortalidad.Objetivos: Describir características clínicas, radiológicas y de laboratorio de individuos hospitalizados por leptos-pirosis y evaluar los predictores de mala evolución clínica (MEC).Materiales y métodos: Estudio de cohorte de inclusión ambispectiva de pacientes con leptospirosis internados en un hospital de la ciudad de Santa Fe entre 1997 y 2022. Se definió MEC como la admisión a Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI), requerimiento de asistencia respiratoria mecánica (ARM) y/o muerte. Se utilizaron las pruebas de Chi2, test T de Student o la U de Mann-Whitney, según co-rrespondiera. Se construyó una regresión logística binaria con las variables con p<0,05.Resultados: 101 pacientes, 87,1% (n=88) hombres, media-na de edad de 29 (RIC 20-44) años. La fiebre fue el síntoma más frecuente [83,2% (n=84)], seguido del compromiso di-gestivo [62,4% (n=63)]. Las alteraciones de laboratorio más frecuentes fueron: eritrosedimentación elevada [91,9% (n=79)] y leucocitosis [61% (n=61)]. Se observó MEC en el 25,7% (n=26). El 25,7% (n=26) fue admitido en UCI, el 13,9% (n=14) requirió ARM y el 5% (n=5) falleció. La presencia de plaquetopenia (OR=13,3, IC95% 2-80), las alteraciones en la radiografía de tórax (OR=33,5, IC95% 5-225) y la ausencia de cefalea (OR=6,8, IC95% 1-32) fueron predictores inde-pendientes de MEC.Conclusiones: En concordancia con la bibliografía, la afec-tación pulmonar y plaquetopenia son factores de riesgo para la mala evolución clínica. En nuestra serie, la cefalea constituyó un síntoma protector


Introduction: Leptospirosis is an emerging zoonotic di-sease that poses a public health problem. Renal failu-re, thrombocytopenia, and respiratory involvement have been described as predictors of mortality.Objectives: To describe the clinical, radiological, and la-boratory characteristics of hospitalized individuals with leptospirosis and evaluate predictors of poor clinical outcomes (PCO).Materials and methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted including patients with leptospirosis admit-ted to a hospital in the city of Santa Fe between 1997 and 2022. PCO was defined as admission to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), requirement for mechanical respiratory assistance (MRA), and/or death. The chi-square test, Student>s t-test, or Mann-Whitney U test were used as appropriate. A binary logistic regression was performed with variables having p<0.05.Results: Out of the 101 patients included, 87.1% (n=88) were male, with a median age of 29 (IQR 20-44) years. Fever was the most common symptom [83.2% (n=84)], followed by digestive involvement [62.4% (n=63)]. The most frequent laboratory abnormalities were elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate [91.9% (n=79)] and leuko-cytosis [61% (n=61)]. PCO was observed in 25.7% (n=26) of patients, with 25.7% (n=26) admitted to the ICU, 13.9% (n=14) requiring MRA, and 5% (n=5) resulting in death. The presence of thrombocytopenia (OR=13.3, 95% CI 2-80), abnormalities in chest X-rays (OR=33.5, 95% CI 5-225), and absence of headache (OR=6.8, 95% CI 1-32) were predictors of PCO. Conclusions: Consistent with the literature, pulmonary involvement and thrombocytopenia are independent risk factors for poor clinical outcomes. In our series, the pre-sence of headache was a protective symptom


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Hospitalização , Leptospira/patogenicidade , Leptospirose/mortalidade
13.
Can Vet J ; 65(4): 385-388, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38562974

RESUMO

A 6-year-old spayed female American bulldog was brought to a veterinary clinic with a 3-day history of vomiting, lethargy, anorexia, icterus, hemorrhagic diarrhea, and oliguria. The dog's clinical signs, complete blood (cell) count, serum biochemistry, urinalysis, and diagnostic imaging were indicative of acute kidney injury and acute hepatopathy consistent with leptospirosis. Treatment for leptospirosis was initiated but, due to the dog's lack of response and progression of clinical signs, euthanasia was ultimately elected after 3 d of hospitalization. The dog tested negative for Leptospira spp. on ELISA; urine, blood, and tissue PCRs; and immunohistochemistry. This case demonstrates that confirmation of leptospirosis can be challenging, even in an animal with the expected clinical presentation. Therefore, limitations of the diagnostic tests available, as well as the possibility of other, less likely differential diagnoses such as toxicosis, must be considered.


Lésion rénale aiguë et maladie hépatique chez un bouledogue américain avec leptospirose suspectée. Une femelle bouledogue américain stérilisée âgée de 6 ans a été présenté à une clinique vétérinaire avec une histoire d'une durée de 3 jours de vomissement, léthargie, anorexie, ictère, diarrhée hémorragique et oligurie. Les signes cliniques de la chienne, un comptage cellulaire sanguin complet, une biochimie sérique, une analyse d'urine et de l'imagerie diagnostique étaient indicateur de lésion rénale aiguë et d'hépatopathie aiguë compatibles avec la leptospirose. Un traitement pour la leptospirose a été instauré mais, étant donné l'absence de réponse de l'animal et la progression des signes cliniques, l'euthanasie a finalement été décidée après 3 jours d'hospitalisation. L'animal s'est avéré négatif par ELISA pour Leptospira spp.; l'urine, le sang et les tissus étaient également négatifs par PCR; et par immunohistochime. Ce cas illustre le fait que la confirmation de la leptospirose peut représenter un défi, même chez un animal avec la présentation clinique attendue. Ainsi, les limites des tests diagnostiques disponibles, de même que la possibilité d'autres diagnostics différentiels moins probables, tel qu'une toxicose, doivent être considérés.(Traduit par Dr Serge Messier).


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Doenças do Cão , Leptospira , Leptospirose , Hepatopatias , Cães , Feminino , Animais , Eutanásia Animal , Leptospirose/complicações , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Leptospirose/veterinária , Hepatopatias/diagnóstico , Hepatopatias/veterinária , Injúria Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Injúria Renal Aguda/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico
14.
Vet Med Sci ; 10(3): e1430, 2024 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38533755

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease. It is particularly prevalent in tropical countries and has major consequences for human and animal health. In Benin, the disease's epidemiology remains poorly understood, especially in livestock, for which data are lacking. OBJECTIVES: To characterise Leptospira seroprevalence and locally circulating serogroups in livestock from Cotonou and to estimate the prevalence of Leptospira renal carriage in cattle. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in February 2020 during which livestock were sampled at an abattoir and in an impoverished city district. We analysed blood samples from 279 livestock animals (i.e. cattle, sheep, goats and pigs) using the microscopic agglutination test. Additionally, samples of renal tissue from 100 cattle underwent 16s rRNA (rrs) real-time PCR analysis. RESULTS: For the 131 cattle, 85 sheep, and 50 goats tested, seroprevalence was 18% (95% confidence interval [CI] [12%, 26%]), 9% (95% CI [4%, 17%] and 2% (95% CI [0%, 9%]), respectively, and most of the seropositive animals were associated with 1:100 titres. All 13 pigs were seronegative. Leptospira DNA was found in the renal tissue of 10% (95% CI [5%, 18%]) of the cattle tested (n = 100). Leptospira borgpetersenii was the main species present (n = 7), but Leptospira interrogans (n = 2) and Leptospira kirschneri (n = 1) were also detected. Various serogroups (Canicola, Grippotyphosa, Sejroe, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Pomona, Pyrogenes, Australis and Autumnalis) were detected using microscopic agglutination test without a clear predominance of any of them. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that abattoir workers and people living in close contact with livestock in poor urban areas are exposed to the risk of Leptospira infection.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Doenças das Cabras , Leptospira , Leptospirose , Doenças dos Ovinos , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , Bovinos , Humanos , Ovinos , Suínos , Gado/genética , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Estudos Transversais , Benin , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Leptospirose/veterinária , Cabras/genética , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia
15.
Life Sci Alliance ; 7(6)2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38514188

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is caused by pathogenic strains of the genus Leptospira and is considered the most widespread zoonotic bacterial disease. The genus is characterized by the large number of serology variants, which challenges developing effective serotyping methods and vaccines with a broad spectrum. Because knowledge on the genetic basis of the serological diversity among leptospires is still limited, we aimed to explore the genetic structure and patterns of the rfb locus, which is involved in the biosynthesis of lipopolysaccharides, the major surface antigen that defines the serovar in leptospires. Here, we used genomic data of 722 pathogenic samples and compared the gene composition of their rfb locus by hierarchical clustering. Clustering analysis showed that the rfb locus gene composition is species-independent and strongly associated with the serological classification. The samples were grouped into four well-defined classes, which cluster together samples either belonging to the same serogroup or from different serogroups but sharing serological affinity. Our findings can assist in the development of new strategies based on molecular methods, which can lead to better tools for serological identification in this zoonosis.


Assuntos
Leptospira , Leptospirose , Animais , Leptospira/genética , Leptospirose/genética , Leptospirose/microbiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Sorogrupo , Estruturas Genéticas
16.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 108: 102159, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38490118

RESUMO

Whole-cell inactivated vaccines (bacterins) are the only licensed vaccines available for leptospirosis prevention and control, especially in domestic and farm animals. However, despite their widespread use, inconsistencies in their efficacy have been reported. Because immunity induced by bacterins is mainly mediated by antibodies against leptospiral lipopolysaccharides, the involvement of cellular responses is not well-known. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and characterize the humoral and cellular immune responses induced by whole-cell inactivated leptospirosis bacterin formulations containing serovars Bratislava, Canicola, Copenhageni, Grippotyphosa, Hardjoprajitno, and Pomona. For the potency test, hamsters were immunized with one dose of polyvalent bacterins (either commercial or experimental) and then challenged with a virulent Pomona strain. Serological (MAT and IgM and IgG-ELISA) and cellular (cytokine transcription in blood evaluated by RT-qPCR) analyses were performed. The results revealed that vaccination with either bacterin formulation was able to protect 90-100% of the hamsters infected with the Pomona serovar, although most of the surviving animals remained as renal carriers. Specific agglutinating antibodies and significant levels of IgM, IgG, and IgG2 (P < 0.05) that were able to react with the six serovars present in the vaccine formulations were produced, indicating that the vaccines can potentially provide immunity against all strains. The protective immunity of these vaccines was mainly mediated by balanced a Th1/Th2 response, characterized by increased IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-α transcription. These data support the importance of characterizing immunological responses involved in bacterin efficacy and investing in the improvement of these vaccine formulations.


Assuntos
Leptospira , Leptospirose , Doenças dos Roedores , Cricetinae , Animais , Vacinas Combinadas , Citocinas , Leptospirose/veterinária , Vacinas Bacterianas , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Imunoglobulina G , Imunoglobulina M
17.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 108: 102158, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38513385

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is a disease caused by Leptospira spp. responsible for considerable impacts on the public and animal health. In the past two decades, non-domesticated species of pets (unconventional pets) have become popular. However, the role of these unconventional pets on maintaining diseases still unclear. Therefore, the objective of this study was to survey the presence of Leptospira spp. DNA in unconventional pets. Samples of kidney tissues from 29 animals belonging to the Mammalia class (including Orders Carnivora, Lagomorpha and Rodentia) were analyzed for the presence of the gene lipL32. As a result, DNA of pathogenic Leptospira spp. from specie L. interrogans was detected in four (13,80%) of the analyzed samples: three from Oryctolagus cuniculus and one from Mesocricetus auratus. This study highlights the importance of epidemiological surveillance of leptospirosis, as it identified in species of unconventional pets, that may possibly act as reservoirs of Leptospira spp.


Assuntos
Leptospira , Leptospirose , Doenças dos Roedores , Animais , Coelhos , Leptospira/genética , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/veterinária , Roedores , DNA Bacteriano/genética
18.
Vet Med Sci ; 10(2): e1395, 2024 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38459818

RESUMO

The maned wolf, Chrysocyon brachyurus, is the largest South American canid, with a natural distribution that stretches across Peru, Bolivia, Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay. The present study reports the case of a rescued specimen of maned wolf that underwent a rehabilitation process in Paraguay, starting in October 2020 with its rescue, and finalising in May 2021 with the reintroduction. Herein, we document findings regarding the general management, biometrics, feeding and environmental enrichment; chemical immobilisation and monitoring; haematology, blood biochemistry and specific serology-relevant pathogens; skin examination and bone marrow cytology; orthopaedic, ophthalmological and dental evaluation; abdominal and cardiac ultrasonography; radiology and copro-parasitology. Main findings include the feeding habits of the individual and enrichment opportunities. The animal weighed 7 kg on arrival, with an estimated age of 5 months, and 18 kg on reintroduction, with an estimated age of 1 year. The animal tested negative to serologic tests for Brucella canis, Dirofilaria, canine distemper, Toxoplasmosis and canine parvovirus. Leptospira testing showed antibodies against L. grippotyphosa on both samplings, L. wolffi and L. ictero on the first sampling, and L. pomona on the second sampling. Abdominal organs were examined and measured through ultrasound evaluation and kidneys showed no alterations. Echocardiography showed preserved mitral, tricuspid and aortic valve flows, but turbulent pulmonary valve flow. Copro-parasitology reported the presence of Lagochilascaris sp. and Balantidium sp. All the information gathered aided in diagnosing the health status of the individual, and the response to environmental enrichment helped assess the behaviour, which led to the suggestion of reintroducing the animal. These data constitute the first published health check of a maned wolf in Paraguay, which can contribute to the species' conservation in the country. The protocol presented in this study can serve as a basis for developing an action plan for the maned wolf in Paraguay.


Assuntos
Canidae , Cinomose , Doenças do Cão , Leptospira , Animais , Cães , Paraguai , Brasil
19.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0295287, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38489285

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is the most widespread zoonosis in the world. The disease is more prevalent in tropical regions where the majority of developing countries are located. Leptospirosis is considered a protean manifestation zoonosis with severity of the disease ranging from a mild febrile illness to a severe and life-threatening illness. Clinical symptoms of leptospirosis overlap with other tropical febrile illnesses. Early, rapid, and definitive diagnosis is important for effective patient management. Since Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)-based assays are not readily available in most clinical settings, there is a need for an affordable, simple, and rapid diagnostic test. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) and Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA) were implemented at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Kelaniya, and a prospective study to evaluate RPA for diagnosis of acute phase of leptospirosis was conducted. Results indicate that RPA and qPCR were positive in 81% (98/121) of the total positive and acute clinical samples. Of the 81 positive MAT confirmed patients 60 (74%) and 53 (65%) were positive with qPCR and RPA respectively. Retrospective evaluation revealed a high diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity-70% and specificity-87%) of RPA compared to MAT as the reference gold standard. Results further suggest that there is no significant difference between the two assays, qPCR and RPA-SwiftX (P = 0.40). Laboratory procedures for the extraction and detection by qPCR in the laboratory have been optimized to obtain results within 6 hours. However, the RPA-SwiftX method under field conditions took 35 minutes. The RPA-SwiftX method could replace the qPCR which shows similar sensitivity and specificity. Therefore, RPA established under the current study presents a powerful tool for the early and rapid diagnosis of leptospirosis at point-of-care.


Assuntos
Leptospira , Leptospirose , Animais , Humanos , Leptospira/genética , Recombinases , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Prospectivos , Sri Lanka , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Nucleotidiltransferases , Zoonoses , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos
20.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(3): e0012055, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38489377

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Leptospira are a group of bacteria, including pathogenic types that cause leptospirosis. In Uganda, Leptospira exposure has been reported in humans, with domesticated animals being speculated as the source. However, comparable evidence of Leptospira prevalence and circulating serovars/serogroups in animals is only documented for cattle, and dogs. Our study determined Leptospira seroprevalence, associated risk factors and serogroups circulating among slaughtered pigs, goats, and sheep in Uganda. METHODS: During an 11-month cross-sectional survey in selected slaughter facilities in three regions of Uganda, we collected blood from 926 pigs, 347 goats, and 116 sheep. The age, sex, breed, and origin of each sampled animal were noted. The samples were tested for anti-Leptospira antibodies using the microscopic agglutination test, based on a panel of 12 serovars belonging to 12 serogroups. RESULTS: Leptospira seroprevalence was 26.67% (247/926, 95%CI 23.92-29.61) among pigs, and 21.81% (101/463, 95%CI 18.29-25.80) in goats and sheep (small ruminants). L. interrogans Australis and L. kirschneri Grippotyphosa were the commonest serovars among pigs, as was L. borgpetersenii Tarassovi in small ruminants. Pigs sourced from the Eastern (Odds Ratio [OR] = 2.82, 95%CI 1.84-4.30) and Northern (OR = 3.56, 95%CI 2.52-5.02) regions were more likely to be seropositive, compared to those from the Central region. For small ruminants, being female (OR 2.74, 95% CI 1.69-4.57) and adult (OR 4.47, 95% CI 1.57-18.80) was significantly more associated with Leptospira seropositivity. Conclusion/significance: Detection of a moderate seroprevalence, and several Leptospira serogroups among pigs, sheep, and goats from all regions of Uganda, supports existing reports in cattle and dogs, and implies widespread Leptospira exposure in domestic animals in Uganda. These findings may inform future programs for the control of leptospirosis in livestock in Uganda.


Assuntos
Leptospira , Leptospirose , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Animais Domésticos , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Estudos Transversais , Cabras , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/veterinária , Leptospirose/microbiologia , Ruminantes , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos , Suínos , Uganda/epidemiologia
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