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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 753: 141953, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896737

RESUMO

Biodegradable plastics made from biopolymers (made in nature) or from bio-based polymers (made in a factory) are becoming increasingly important in replacing the massive amounts of conventional, non-degradable fossil-based plastics that have been produced and disposed over the past decades. In this review we compare the biodegradation rates and mechanisms of the bioplastics thermoplastic starch, cellulose acetate and lignin based bioplastics with the biodegradation rates and mechanisms of starch, cellulose and lignin, which are the unmodified biopolymers from which these bioplastics are produced. With this comparison we aim to determine to what extent the extensive knowledge on unmodified biopolymer biodegradation can be applied to the biodegradation of bioplastics (modified biopolymers) in the terrestrial environment. This knowledge is important, since it can be of great help in giving direction to the future research and development of bioplastics and for the development of bioplastic waste assessments and policies. We found that the similarities and differences in biodegradation are dependent on the structural changes imposed on a biopolymer during the bioplastic production process. A change in higher level structure, as found in thermoplastic starch, only resulted in a limited number of differences in the biodegradation process. However, when the chemical structure of a polymer is changed, as for cellulose acetate, different microorganisms and enzymes are involved in the biodegradation. Based on the cellulose acetate biodegradation process, a conceptual model was proposed that can be used as a starting point in predicting biodegradation rates of other chemically modified biopolymers used as bioplastics. Future bioplastic biodegradation research should focus on conducting long-term field experiments, since most studies are conducted in a laboratory setting and do not capture all processes occurring in the field situation. This applies even more to lignin based bioplastics, since very little experimental data were available on modified lignin biopolymer biodegradation.


Assuntos
Plásticos Biodegradáveis , Plásticos , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biopolímeros , Lignina , Polímeros , Amido
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 752: 141929, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896792

RESUMO

A lignocellulosic residue, rice straw, was hydrothermally pretreated for the whole slurry anaerobic digestion. In contrast to the unpretreated rice straw, 110-120 °C pretreatment promoted biogas yield by 35%-38%, while only 14% promotion happened on the pretreatment at 180 °C. To understand why this improvement happened at lower severities, the pretreated rice straw at 90 °C, 120 °C, and 180 °C were selected for the further investigation, in which the liquor and solid fraction were separated for digestion, and compared with the whole slurry digestion. Results indicated more methane was released from the derived liquor of 180 °C than that of 90 °C and 120 °C, however, solid fraction did not exhibit significantly different methane yields (187.77-193.91 mL/g TS). These results suggested that the released soluble fraction from pretreatment could facilitate the methanogenesis. Furthermore, the released inherent soluble fraction in rice straw was mainly responsible for higher biogas yield at lower temperatures. Pretreatment at higher temperatures disintegrated the rice straw recalcitrance more, and intensified the release of soluble fraction accordingly. Consequently, the methanogenesis of whole slurry could be promoted at the initial digestion; the hydrolysis/acidification of the solid fraction in whole slurry was weakened greatly, which resulted in a lower biogas yield. This can also be proved by the evolution of dominant bacteria and archaea in the anaerobic digestion of whole slurry, separated solid and liquor fraction.


Assuntos
Lignina , Oryza , Anaerobiose , Biocombustíveis , Lignina/metabolismo , Metano , Oryza/metabolismo
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 751: 141491, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861946

RESUMO

Dissolved black carbon (DBC) is becoming increasingly concerned by researchers due to its unique environmental behavior. However, understanding of the influence mechanism of biopolymer compositions of cellulose (CEL), hemicellulose (HEM) and lignin (LIG) on the formation and physiochemical characteristics of DBC from lignocellulose-based biochar is limited. This study therefore examined the formation of DBCs derived from the biopolymer compositions, corn straw (CS), corncob (CC), bamboo sawdust (BS) and pinewood sawdust (PS) under the heat treatment temperatures (HTTs) of 300-500 °C. Zeta potential and hydrodynamic diameters (Dh) of DBCs produced under 300 °C were further investigated. DBC formation may be closely associated with the HTT-dependent heterogeneities of biopolymer compositions, in which significant effects of CEL and HEM charring on physiochemical properties of DBCs were identified under the HTT of 300 and 400 °C, while the formation of DBCs was closely related to LIG and its proportions in biomass under high HTT (>500 °C). On the rise of the HTT, the carbonaceous structures of biopolymer compositions were reorganized and converted to graphitic structures in biochar accompanied by the large decomposition or carbonization of CEL and HEM, leading to the reduced carbon content, surface functional groups, aromaticity and molecular weight of DBCs, as well as the decrease of protein-like and relative increase of fulvic-like fluorescent substances in most DBCs. LIG in biomass may facilitate the migration of DBCs due to abundant surface negative charges and the formation of low Dh. This study offered new insights into our understanding of influencing mechanisms of biopolymer compositions on the characteristic of DBCs under different HTTs.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Lignina , Carbono
4.
Food Chem ; 336: 127636, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805513

RESUMO

Deposition of both lignin and cellulose accompanied by juice sac granulation is widespread in harvested citrus fruit. Hence, measures to suppress postharvest granulation of 'Majiayou' pummelo is of great importance. The fruit was treated with 1.5% chitosan and then stored at room temperature (20 ± 2 °C) for 150 d. As compared to the control fruits, chitosan coating significantly suppressed granulation index and maintained good quality. Chitosan coating inhibited lignification by suppressing the activities and expression levels of lignin synthesis-related enzymes (PAL, CAD and POD). By contrast, chitosan treatment enhanced the activities and expression levels of cell wall degrading enzymes, including PME, PG, Cx, XTH and ß-Gal, which might contribute to the decrease in cellulose. In a nutshell, chitosan coating can effectively suppress juice sac granulation and fruit senescence of pummelo fruits, and play a crucial role in maintaining the cell wall modification.


Assuntos
Parede Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Quitosana/farmacologia , Citrus/efeitos dos fármacos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Parede Celular/química , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Celulose/metabolismo , Citrus/metabolismo , Enzimas/genética , Enzimas/metabolismo , Conservantes de Alimentos/farmacologia , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Lignina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal , Temperatura
5.
Bioresour Technol ; 319: 124060, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949829

RESUMO

Thermogravimetric analysis of two invasive weeds Prosopis juliflora (PJ) and Lantana camara (LC) are carried out by pyrolysis under dynamic conditions (20 to 900 °C) at different heating rates 5, 10, 20 and 40 °C/min. Gross calorific values of PJ and LC are estimated to 18.2 and 18.92 MJ/kg respectively. Activation energy obtained by FRM, M-FRM, KAS, OFW, STR, NL-INT, NL-DIF methods are 157.56, 151.24, 140.86, 143.39, 140.74, 141.19, 157.59 kJ/mol for PJ and 169.98, 167.67, 149.39, 151.51, 149.23, 149.70, 169.98 kJ/mol for LC respectively. Kinetic compensation effects were well fitted with the experimental data, which provided the value of the pre-exponential factor. To identify the appropriate reaction mechanism, the Popescu and Master-plot methods are employed. Thermodynamic parameters (ΔG, ΔH, and ΔS) are also determined by NL-INT, NL-DIF, and M-FRM methods. Results of kinetic and thermodynamic parameters confirm the suitability of PJ and LC invasive weeds as potential biomasses for pyrolysis process.


Assuntos
Lantana , Prosopis , Biomassa , Cinética , Lignina , Pirólise , Termogravimetria
6.
Bioresour Technol ; 319: 124136, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966968

RESUMO

Vermitransformation of coir pith (CP) into enriched vermifertilizer has been achieved by amending a green-manure plant, Sesbania sesban (SS) for the first time, and cow dung (CD) in five different combinations: T1(1:0:1), T2(4:3:3), T3(5:3:2), T4(5:4:1) and T5(1:1:0). The substrates were 28 days precomposted with Pleurotus sajor-caju followed by 50 days vermicomposting with Eisenia fetida and Eudrilus eugeniae. Results showed a significant reduction in cellulose, lignin, organic carbon, C/N ratio, C/P ratio and an increase in plant nutrients compared to control. The fertilization index and efficiency of nutrient recovery rate were higher in SS and CD amended CP vermicompost, with a maximum in T2(4:3:3) for E. fetida and T3(5:3:2) for E. eugeniae. The activity of dehydrogenase, urease and cellulase, and phytotoxicity assays further revealed vermicompost stability. The study concludes that T2(4:3:3) and T3(5:3:2) combinations respectively for E. fetida and E. eugeniae is suitable for vermitransformation of CP into enriched vermicompost.


Assuntos
Esterco , Oligoquetos , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Resíduos Perigosos , Resíduos Industriais , Lignina/análogos & derivados , Solo
7.
Bioresour Technol ; 319: 124111, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971335

RESUMO

Thermophilic microorganisms play vital roles in the composting process. To elucidate how raw materials affect thermophilic microbial community composition and their interactions, the succession of thermophilic bacterial and fungal communities were monitored in reed straw co-composting with four common nitrogen-rich substrates. The results of high-throughput sequencing showed that raw materials and composting process significantly changed bacterial and fungal community composition. Firmicutes and Actinobacteria drove the assembly of bacterial communities, while Ascomycetes drove the assembly of fungal communities. Network analysis indicated that during the composting process, the addition of nitrogen-rich sources abundant in easily degradable substances promoted the complexity of thermophilic microbial network. Moreover, microorganisms mainly exhibited synergistic effects, and inter-kingdom competition was more intense than intra-kingdom competition. Notably, rare species play essential roles in maintaining the network construction. Our findings provided novel insights into thermophilic microbial community assembly and their co-occurrence networks during the composting process.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Lignina , Esterco , Nitrogênio , Solo
8.
Bioresour Technol ; 319: 124149, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979596

RESUMO

This study investigated the effect of thermal pretreatment (TP) on the lignocellulose degradation and humification during dairy manure composting and the underlying microbial mechanism. The results showed that TP accelerated temperature rise and elevated composting temperature by increasing 26% initial content of simple organics. The degradation of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin was 78, 10 and 109% higher in thermal pretreatment composting (TPC) than traditional composting (TC), respectively. Moreover, TP significantly improved the humification degree of composts, as indicated by 14 and 38% higher humus content and humification indexes in TPC, respectively. 16S rRNA sequencing showed that TP increased the relative abundance of thermophilic bacteria in TPC, of which Thermobifida, Planifilum, Truepera and Thermomonospora were potentially involved in lignocellulose biodegradation and humification. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that TP changed the main factor determining the bacterial community evolution from dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in TC to temperature in TPC.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Lignina , Esterco , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Solo
9.
Bioresour Technol ; 319: 124145, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979598

RESUMO

To explore the catalytic effect of potassium on pyrolysis characteristics of biomass, the rubberwood is pyrolyzed by a thermogravimetric analyzer. The samples are impregnated by three concentrations of potassium carbonate (0.004 M, 0.008 M, and 0.012 M). The pyrolysis kinetics is analyzed by an independent parallel reaction (IPR) model to describe the catalytic effect on the four-pseudo components model in the rubberwood. The particle swarm optimization (PSO) is adopted to optimize the fit quality between the established kinetic models and experimental data. It is found that the pyrolysis of rubberwood impregnated with 0.012 M concentration of K2CO3 can reduce the activation energy of cellulose from 223.86 to 204.14 kJ mol-1, whereas there is no obvious effect on the activation energies of hemicelluloses and lignin. The starting temperature and ending temperature of cellulose thermodegradation also move toward lower temperatures, indicating that the addition of potassium enhances the degradation of cellulose.


Assuntos
Lignina , Pirólise , Biomassa , Cinética , Potássio , Termogravimetria
10.
Bioresour Technol ; 319: 124162, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32992273

RESUMO

Napier grass is a promising energy source on account of its strong adaptability and high productivity. Herein, an O2-aided alkaline pretreatment with mild operating conditions was developed to modify Napier grass stem structure for improving its fractionated efficiency and enzymatic digestibility. Compared with the conventional alkaline pretreatment, it could be proceeded at lower temperature (80 °C) and dilute NaOH solution (1%) to remove over 80% lignin and retain 92% cellulose. The recovered lignin possessed typical structures of native lignin and well-preserved molecular weight, anticipating feasible potential in preparation of biomaterials or aromatic chemicals. Coupled with the enzymatic hydrolysis managements of solid remain and hydrolysate after the pretreatment, the recovery yields of glucose and xylose based on the raw material feeds reached 89.7% and 90.2%, respectively. This contribution demonstrates a highly-reliable strategy to fractionate Napier grass stem for maximizing fermentation sugar production and valorizing lignin toward sustainable biorefinery processes.


Assuntos
Lignina , Pennisetum , Celulose , Hidrólise , Xilose
11.
Bioresour Technol ; 319: 124152, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32992274

RESUMO

The effect of combined quinone reductase (QR) and lignin peroxidase (LiP) on the depolymerization of technical lignins isolated from soda-anthraquinone (SAQ), steam explosion (S-E), and two sulfite processes (NaE and NaPE) was investigated. While LiP is best known for its ability to degrade lignins, it may also cause lignin re-polymerization due to the random coupling of phenoxy radicals and quinoid intermediates. This study evidenced that the addition of the bioreactor produced QR can to some extent limit the lignin re-polymerization by LiP. The synergistic application of QR and LiP lowered the molecular weights (Mw) of SAQ, NaE, S-E, and NaPE lignins by 31%, 34%, 41%, and 52%, respectively. The thermogravimetric analysis also showed that the thermal stability of the four lignins was reduced, whereas gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that the degradation products included monomeric phenols. Therefore, the combined QR and LiP system is a promising approach for lignin valorization.


Assuntos
Lignina , NAD(P)H Desidrogenase (Quinona) , Peso Molecular , Peroxidases , Polimerização
12.
Bioresour Technol ; 319: 124159, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010717

RESUMO

The intrinsic recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass makes it resistant to enzymatic hydrolysis. The electron-rich surface of the lignin and cellulose-alike structure of hemicellulose competitively absorb the cellulase. Thus, modifying the surface charge on biomass components to alter cellulase affinity is an urgent requisite. Developing charge tunable cellulase will alter substrate affinity. Also, charge-based immobilization generates controllable substrate affinity. Within immobilized cellulase involved in situ biomass saccharification, charge effects made a crucial contribution. In addition to affecting the interaction between immobilized cellulase and biomass, charge exerts an impact on cellulase to immobilize the materials, further investigation is essential. This study aims to review the charge effects on the cellulase affinity in biomass saccharification, strategies of charge tunable cellulase, and immobilized cellulase, thereby explaining the role of electrostatic interaction. In terms of electrostatic behavior, the pathways and plans to improve in situ biomass saccharification seem to be promising.


Assuntos
Celulase , Biomassa , Celulose , Hidrólise , Lignina
13.
Bioresour Technol ; 319: 124154, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011629

RESUMO

The enzymatic digestibility of softwood is hindered for its highly recalcitrant nature to enzymatic attack. In this study, the effects of dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment (DSAP), acidic sodium chlorite pretreatment (SCP), and their combined pretreatments (DSA-SCP and SC-DSAP) on Chinese fir sawdust were investigated, respectively. Results demonstrated that lignin was the most important obstacle, and digestibility increased linearly with lignin removal yield. Furthermore, the results revealed that the order of sequential pretreatment significantly affected the delignification, and hemicellulose should be removed first. Compared to SC-DSAP, DSA-SCP involving the hemicellulose-removal-first strategy exhibited higher delignification efficiency. DSA-SCP caused lignin removal of 92.3% and the enzymatic hydrolysis was high of 97.9%. Finally, a regression model with high reliability was established to quickly evaluate pretreatment process. In summary, this study highlighted the importance of delignification for saccharification of softwood and unveiled the effect of hemicellulose on delignification.


Assuntos
Cunninghamia , Hidrólise , Lignina , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Madeira
14.
Bioresour Technol ; 319: 124194, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039844

RESUMO

Biomass-based sulfonated carbon catalyst (SCC) was prepared from corncob via direct sulfuric acid carbonization-sulfonation treatment. Central composite design was used to evaluate temperature and time for optimizing SCC yield and sulfonic acid (SO3H) density. The SO3H groups were successfully introduced to the SCC as evidenced by FTIR and sulfur analysis. Numerical optimization results showed that 100 °C and 5.78 h are the optimal conditions for maximizing yield (61.24%) and SO3H density (1.1408 mmol/g). The highest ethanol organosolv lignin (EOL) yield of 63.56% with a substrate yield of 39.08% was achieved at 20% SCC loading in the ethanol organosolv delignification of lignocellulosic biomass. The FTIR spectra of the isolated lignin revealed typical features of G-lignin, indicating that no drastic changes took place in the lignin structure during the process. This study developed a simple one-step preparation method of SCC, which was successfully used as a catalyst in an organosolv delignification of biomass.


Assuntos
Carbono , Lignina , Biomassa , Catálise , Etanol
15.
Bioresour Technol ; 319: 124209, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045547

RESUMO

Choline chloride based deep eutectic solvents have showed great potential in lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment. In this study, for DES pretreatment with different hydrogen bond donners of different raw materials under different reaction conditions, multivariate analysis methods including principal component analysis and partial least squares analysis were used for reveal the pretreatment mechanism by evaluating the inner relationships among 42 key process factors. Furthermore, based on molecular simulation, the detailed relationships between key variables were further analyzed. Meanwhile, four-dimensional color graphs were used to intuitively reveal the synergistic influence of multivariate conditions variables on pretreatment effect to obtain better economic benefits and energy consumption indicators for DES pretreatment. The results showed that HBD hydrophilic ability, HBD polarity, HBD acidity, HBD ability to form hydrogen bonds, molar ratio of HBD to choline chloride and pretreatment severity had great influence on the Choline chloride based deep eutectic solvents pretreatment effect.


Assuntos
Colina , Lignina , Biomassa , Solventes
16.
Bioresour Technol ; 319: 124211, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045548

RESUMO

The effects of the redox environment on acidic hydrothermal pretreatment were investigated in experiments with sugarcane bagasse (190 °C, 14 min) and Norway spruce (205 °C, 5 min). To modulate the redox environment, pretreatment was performed without gas addition, with N2, or with O2. Analyses covered pretreated solids, pretreatment liquids, condensates, enzymatic digestibility, and inhibitory effects of pretreatment liquids on yeast. Addition of gas, especially O2, resulted in increased severity, as reflected by up to 18 percent units lower recoveries of pretreated solids, up to 31 percent units lower glucan recoveries, improved hemicellulose removal, formation of pseudo-lignin, improved overall glucan conversion, and increased concentrations of several microbial inhibitors. Some inhibitors, such as formaldehyde and coniferyl aldehyde, did not, however, follow that pattern. TAC (Total Aromatic Content) values reflected inhibitory effects of pretreatment liquids. This study demonstrates how gas addition can be used to modulate the severity of acidic hydrothermal pretreatment.


Assuntos
Lignina , Biomassa , Hidrólise , Lignina/metabolismo , Noruega , Oxirredução
17.
Chemosphere ; 262: 128416, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182118

RESUMO

In this study, papermaking sludge-based flocculant (PSBF) and commercial lignin-based flocculant (LBF) have been synthesized by the same graft copolymerization procedures. The structures of alkaline lignin (AL), commercial lignin and the two flocculants were characterized by the modern analytical methods, also, the molecular weights and charge properties were analyzed. The effects of coagulant/flocculant dosages, pH conditions and coexistent dye auxiliaries on flocculation efficiencies were studied in the treatment of reactive turquoise blue (RTB) and disperse red (DR) dye wastewater. The flocculation experiments indicated that PSBF and LBF performed better in the removals of RTB and DR than commercial PAC and PAM. PSBF and LBF were insensitive to pH variation due to their strong charge neutralizing abilities and bridging effects even with the pH changing. In the existence of dye auxiliaries, PSBF and LBF could also exhibit superior decolorization efficiencies by slightly enlarging their dosages. Furthermore, PSBF and LBF had similar flocculation behaviors under all measured experimental conditions, suggesting that PSBF also had excellent flocculation performances even if it was prepared from papermaking sludge.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Floculação , Lignina/química , Peso Molecular , Esgotos/química , Águas Residuárias , Purificação da Água/métodos
18.
Chimia (Aarau) ; 74(10): 784-790, 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115561

RESUMO

Embion Technologies SA is a hard-tech spin-off of the EPFL, with a disruptive and novel platform technology that aims to enable the global transition to zero waste via the circular bioeconomy. Embion's initial focus is on transforming low-value food and agricultural industry byproduct streams to affordable next-generation prebiotics - nutrition for human and animal microbiome. We demonstrate here that the company's proprietary technology is simple and flexible and can be applied to a wide variety of feedstocks to extract tailored products with specific fingerprints. Embion's technology unlocks the natural hidden value of fibers, fats, proteins, minerals, and polyphenols within these byproduct streams to bring different functional food ingredients to the food, feed, and beverage market.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Prebióticos , Animais , Biomassa , Humanos , Lignina
19.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5020, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33024118

RESUMO

Lignin causes lignocellulosic biomass recalcitrance to enzymatic hydrolysis. Engineered low-lignin plants have reduced recalcitrance but often exhibit yield penalties, offsetting their gains in fermentable sugar yield. Here, CRISPR/Cas9-generated CCR2(-/*) line 12 poplars have one knockout CCR2 allele while the other contains a 3-bp deletion, resulting in a 114I115A-to-114T conversion in the corresponding protein. Despite having 10% less lignin, CCR2(-/*) line 12 grows normally. On a plant basis, the saccharification efficiency of CCR2(-/*) line 12 is increased by 25-41%, depending on the pretreatment. Analysis of monoallelic CCR2 knockout lines shows that the reduced lignin amount in CCR2(-/*) line 12 is due to the combination of a null and the specific haploinsufficient CCR2 allele. Analysis of another CCR2(-/*) line shows that depending on the specific CCR2 amino-acid change, lignin amount and growth can be affected to different extents. Our findings open up new possibilities for stably fine-tuning residual gene function in planta.


Assuntos
Aldeído Oxirredutases/genética , Lignina/metabolismo , Populus/genética , Populus/metabolismo , Aldeído Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Alelos , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Haploinsuficiência , Lignina/genética , Mutação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Populus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Xilema/metabolismo , Xilema/ultraestrutura
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