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1.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 238, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The fruity aromatic bouquet of coffee has attracted recent interest to differentiate high value market produce as specialty coffee. Although the volatile compounds present in green and roasted coffee beans have been extensively described, no study has yet linked varietal molecular differences to the greater abundance of specific substances and support the aroma specificity of specialty coffees. RESULTS: This study compared four Arabica genotypes including one, Geisha Especial, suggested to generate specialty coffee. Formal sensory evaluations of coffee beverages stressed the importance of coffee genotype in aroma perception and that Geisha Especial-made coffee stood out by having fine fruity, and floral, aromas and a more balanced acidity. Comparative SPME-GC-MS analyses of green and roasted bean volatile compounds indicated that those of Geisha Especial differed by having greater amounts of limonene and 3-methylbutanoic acid in agreement with the coffee cup aroma perception. A search for gene ontology differences of ripening beans transcriptomes of the four varieties revealed that they differed by metabolic processes linked to terpene biosynthesis due to the greater gene expression of prenyl-pyrophosphate biosynthetic genes and terpene synthases. Only one terpene synthase (CaTPS10-like) had an expression pattern that paralleled limonene loss during the final stage of berry ripening and limonene content in the studied four varieties beans. Its functional expression in tobacco leaves confirmed its functioning as a limonene synthase. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these data indicate that coffee variety genotypic specificities may influence ripe berry chemotype and final coffee aroma unicity. For the specialty coffee variety Geisha Especial, greater expression of terpene biosynthetic genes including CaTPS10-like, a limonene synthase, resulted in the greater abundance of limonene in green beans, roasted beans and a unique citrus note of the coffee drink.


Assuntos
Alquil e Aril Transferases , Coffea , Liases Intramoleculares , Odorantes , Coffea/genética , Limoneno , Terpenos , Sementes , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica
2.
Acta Trop ; 253: 107168, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38432404

RESUMO

The present article aims to evaluate the antifungal and antivirulence effect of the phytoconstituent Limonene against Candida spp. Antifungal assays were performed, where the concentration capable of inhibiting 50 % of fungal growth, the growth inhibition curve, the minimum fungicidal concentration, the evaluation of the modifying effect with fluconazole, the inhibitory effect of the substances on the morphological transition of Candida spp. and the statistical analysis of the results were determined. With this study, it was seen that limonene demonstrated growth inhibition for the strains tested and when associated the natural compound with Fluconazole, there was potentiation of the effect of the drug, since the inhibition of growth by the combination occurred at lower concentrations against all strains tested, when compared to the drug alone, which inhibited growth at the highest concentration. In the test to determine the Minimum Fungicidal Concentration of the products tested alone and in combination, it was found that in the case of Candida strains, growth inhibition by limonene occurred at a concentration of 1024 µg/mL. For Fluconazole, growth impairment ranged from > 1024 µg/mL to 256 µg/mL for the strains. And when combined, limonene potentiated the action of FCZ, making fungal colonization unfeasible at concentrations below 1024 µg/mL. Regarding the morphological transition from yeast to hyphae, limonene was used at concentrations of 1024 µg/mL and 512 µg/mL, and it was found that, for CA and CK, the filaments were reduced in number and size at the highest concentration and against CT, the morphological transition from yeast to hyphae/pseudohyphae was totally inhibited, and if compared to the growth control, limonene was able to reduce fungal growth at concentrations greater than 512 µg/mL. This compound has antimicrobial activity described, due to its ability to interfere in the gene expression of the fungus, the limited therapeutic options and the recent emergence of multidrug-resistant Candida species represent a significant challenge for human medicine and highlight the need for new therapeutic approaches, and in this study a great potential of limonene was revealed in relation to the perspective of increasing the efficiency of commercial drug. This work can bring an important contribution to the scientific database, while emphasizing that in-depth studies and tests on the subject, in order to better investigate its effectiveness and mechanisms by which they exert their effects, are still necessary.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Candida , Humanos , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Fluconazol/farmacologia , Limoneno/farmacologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Virulência , Fungos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
3.
Biomolecules ; 14(3)2024 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38540754

RESUMO

The human gastrointestinal system is a complex ecosystem crucial for well-being. During sepsis-induced gut injury, the integrity of the intestinal barrier can be compromised. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an endotoxin from Gram-negative bacteria, disrupts the intestinal barrier, contributing to inflammation and various dysfunctions. The current study explores the protective effects of limonene, a natural compound with diverse biological properties, against LPS-induced jejunal injury in mice. Oral administration of limonene at dosages of 100 and 200 mg/kg was used in the LPS mouse model. The Murine Sepsis Score (MSS) was utilized to evaluate the severity of sepsis, while serum levels of urea and creatinine served as indicators of renal function. Our results indicated that LPS injection induced renal function deterioration, evidenced by elevated serum urea and creatinine levels compared to control mice. However, pretreatment with limonene at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg mitigated this decline in renal function, evidenced from the reduced levels of serum urea and creatinine. Limonene demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects by reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1ß, COX-2), suppressing the TLR4/NF-κB/AP-1 but not IRF3 signaling pathways, and modulating oxidative stress through Nrf2 activation. The results suggest that limonene holds promise as a potential therapeutic agent for mitigating intestinal inflammation and preserving gastrointestinal health.


Assuntos
NF-kappa B , Sepse , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Limoneno/farmacologia , Fator de Transcrição AP-1 , Creatinina , Ecossistema , Inflamação/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Ureia/efeitos adversos
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(12): 6723-6734, 2024 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38478988

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of chewing rate and food composition on in vivo aroma release and perception of composite foods. Bread or sponge cake paired with varying sugar content and viscosity strawberry jams, spiked with citral and limonene, were examined. In-nose release was characterized using Proton-Transfer-Reaction-Time-of-Flight-Mass-Spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS). Simultaneously, Time-Intensity (TI) profiling assessed citrus aroma perception (n = 8, triplicate) while fast and slow chewing protocols were applied (fast: 1.33 chews/s; slow 0.66 chews/s; each for 25 s). Chewing rate did not significantly impact the area under the curve and maximum intensity of in vivo citral and limonene release and citrus aroma perception. Faster chewing rates significantly decreased the time to reach maximum intensity of aroma release (p < 0.05) and citrus aroma perception (p < 0.001). Faster chewing rates probably accelerated structural breakdown, inducing an earlier aroma release and perception without affecting aroma intensity. Adding carriers to jams significantly (p < 0.05) increased aroma release, while perceived citrus aroma intensity significantly (p < 0.05) decreased regardless of chewing rate. In conclusion, chewing rate affects the temporality of in vivo aroma release and perception without affecting its intensity, and carrier addition increases in vivo aroma release while diminishing aroma perception.


Assuntos
Monoterpenos Acíclicos , Mastigação , Odorantes , Odorantes/análise , Limoneno , Percepção
7.
Int J Pharm ; 653: 123914, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38373597

RESUMO

Drug-in-cyclodextrin-in-liposome (DCL) combines advantages of cyclodextrin and liposome. Here, DCL formulation was successfully prepared to encapsulate limonene (Lim), whose characterization revealed that particle size was 147.5 ± 1.3 nm and zeta potential was -48.7 ± 0.8 mV. And the complexation mechanism of Lim/HP-ß-CD inclusion complex (the intermediate of DCL) was analyzed by molecular dynamics simulation, showing that Lim was entrapped into the cavity of HP-ß-CD through electrostatic and hydrophobic interaction with a molar ratio of 1:1. Notably, DCL formulation not only reduced Lim volatilization in 25℃, but also enhanced the free radical (DPPH· and ABTS·+) scavenging ability of Lim. In summary, Lim-DCL formulation improved the stability and enhanced the antioxidant activity of Lim. DCL nanocarrier system is suitable to preserve volatile and hydrophobic compounds, enlarging their application in pharmaceutics industries.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Ciclodextrinas , Antioxidantes/química , Lipossomos/química , Ciclodextrinas/química , 2-Hidroxipropil-beta-Ciclodextrina/química , Limoneno , Solubilidade
8.
Viruses ; 16(2)2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38400075

RESUMO

Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is an important invasive pest transmitting plant viruses that are maintained through a plant-insect-plant cycle. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) can be transmitted in a persistent manner by B. tabaci, which causes great losses to global agricultural production. From an environmentally friendly, sustainable, and efficient point of view, in this study, we explored the function of d-limonene in reducing the acquisition and transmission of TYLCV by B. tabaci as a repellent volatile. D-limonene increased the duration of non-feeding waves and reduced the duration of phloem feeding in non-viruliferous and viruliferous whiteflies by the Electrical Penetration Graph technique (EPG). Additionally, after treatment with d-limonene, the acquisition and transmission rate of TYLCV was reduced. Furthermore, BtabOBP3 was determined as the molecular target for recognizing d-limonene by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), fluorescence competitive binding assays, and molecular docking. These results confirmed that d-limonene is an important functional volatile which showed a potential contribution against viral infections with potential implications for developing effective TYLCV control strategies.


Assuntos
Begomovirus , Hemípteros , Solanum lycopersicum , Animais , Limoneno , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Insetos Vetores , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Comportamento Alimentar
9.
Food Chem ; 443: 138616, 2024 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38306907

RESUMO

Guangchenpi (GCP), which is the peel of Citrus reticulata 'Chachiensis', is widely used as an herbal medicine, tea and food ingredient in southeast Asia. Prolonging its aging process results in a more pleasant flavor and increases its profitability. Through the integration of sensory evaluation with flavoromic analysis approaches, we evaluated the correlation between the flavor attributes and the profiles of the volatiles and flavonoids of GCP with various aging years. Notably, d-limonene, γ-terpinene, dimethyl anthranilate and α-phellandrene were the characteristic aroma compounds of GCP. Besides, α-phellandrene and nonanal were decisive for consumers' perception of GCP aging time due to changes of their odor activity values (OAVs). The flavor attributes of GCP tea liquid enhanced with the extension of aging time, and limonene-1,2-diol was identified as an important flavor enhancer. Combined with machine learning models, key flavor-related metabolites could be developed as efficient biomarkers for aging years to prevent GCP adulteration.


Assuntos
Citrus , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos , Limoneno , Chá
10.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 129: 111571, 2024 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38309095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic bronchitis (CB), a type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), poses a significant global health burden owing to its high morbidity and mortality rates. Eucalyptol, limonene and pinene enteric capsules (ELPs) are clinically used as expectorants to treat various respiratory diseases, including CB, but their acting mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the anti-CB effects of ELP in a rat model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced CB. The molecular mechanisms underlying its inhibitory effects on airway inflammation were further explored in LPS-stimulated Beas-2B cells. METHODS: ELP was characterized using gas chromatography. The production of inflammatory mediators in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression of MUC5AC, MUC5B, and p-p65 in the lung tissue was measured using immunohistochemical staining. The gene expression of inflammatory mediators was determined using qRT-PCR. The expression levels of the target proteins were detected by western blotting. Nuclear localization of p65 was determined using an immunofluorescence assay. RESULTS: Compared to the CB model rats, ELP-treated rats showed reduced airway resistance, inflammation, and goblet cell hyperplasia. In BALF, ELP decreased the levels of inflammatory mediators, including TNF-α, IL-6, MIP-1α, and CCL5. ELP also suppressed LPS-induced elevation of MUC5AC, MUC5B, and p-p65 in the lung tissue. The metabolic pathway changes caused by LPS challenge were improved by ELP treatment. In LPS-exposed Beas-2B cells, ELP treatment inhibited the expression of TNFA, IL6, CCL5, MCP1, and MIP2A and decreased the phospho-levels of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling-related proteins, including p-p38, p-JNK, p-ERK, p-TBK1, p-IKKα/ß, p-IκB, p-p65, and p-c-Jun. ELP also hindered the nuclear translocation of p65, c-Jun, and IRF3. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that ELP has a potential therapeutic effect in LPS-induced CB rat model, possibly by suppressing TLR4 signaling. These results justify the clinical use of ELP for the treatment of pulmonary inflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
Bronquite Crônica , Animais , Ratos , Lipopolissacarídeos , Eucaliptol/uso terapêutico , Limoneno/uso terapêutico , Receptor 4 Toll-Like , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Mediadores da Inflamação
11.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3823, 2024 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38360784

RESUMO

Zebrafish have been utilized for many years as a model animal for pharmacological studies on diabetes and obesity. High-fat diet (HFD), streptozotocin and alloxan injection, and glucose immersion have all been used to induce diabetes and obesity in zebrafish. Currently, studies commonly used both male and female zebrafish, which may influence the outcomes since male and female zebrafish are biologically different. This study was designed to investigate the difference between the metabolites of male and female diabetic zebrafish, using limonene - a natural product which has shown several promising results in vitro and in vivo in treating diabetes and obesity-and provide new insights into how endogenous metabolites change following limonene treatment. Using HFD-fed male and female zebrafish, we were able to develop an animal model of T2D and identify several endogenous metabolites that might be used as diagnostic biomarkers for diabetes. The endogenous metabolites in males and females were different, even though both genders had high blood glucose levels and a high BMI. Treatment with limonene prevented high blood glucose levels and improved in diabesity zebrafish by limonene, through reversal of the metabolic changes caused by HFD in both genders. In addition, limonene was able to reverse the elevated expression of AKT during HFD.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Hiperglicemia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Limoneno , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Glicemia/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Hiperglicemia/complicações
12.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 263(Pt 2): 130338, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38387626

RESUMO

Thymol (Th) and d-limonene (L) exhibit low stability and are prone to oxidation when exposed to air, light, humidity, and high temperatures. This study examined the coencapsulation of Th and L into Ferula assafoetida gum (AFG) microparticles. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) were done to characterize the obtained complexes. Furthermore, the encapsulation efficiency, antibacterial properties, cytotoxicity, and anticancer properties of both the free and encapsulated forms of L and Th were measured. For all samples, by increasing the percentage of bioactive compound (L, Th, and L-Th) from 2.5 to 5 % w/w, the EE was increased. FTIR and XRD analysis results demonstrated that Th and L were successfully incorporated into the AFG. Additionally, thermogravimetric analysis showed that in the thermal graphs of all samples, the first weight loss occurred between 30 °C and 160 °C, which was due to the evaporation of water. In the free L and Th graph, a sharp reduction peak was observed in which 80 % of compounds were lost. These reduction peaks disappeared in the thermal graphs of L: AFG and Th: AFG revealing that the thermal stability of Th and L was significantly increased upon their incorporation into the AFG. The inclusion of Th into the AFG also led to an increase in its antibacterial activity, while L exhibited acceptable antibacterial activity, albeit not as high as Th. Additionally, according to the MIC results, Th: AFG had the best antibacterial activity among all compounds, especially on gram-positive bacteria. According to the result of the MTT assay, there was a significant difference between the IC50 of free Th (123.4 µg/ml) and Th: AFG (2312 µg/ml), and free L (1762 µg/ml) and L: AFG (2480 µg/ml) showing that encapsulated Th and L into the AFG has decreased the cytotoxicity of free compounds against L929 cell line. Also, Th: AFG had the best anticancer activity against Hella and CT26 cell lines among all compounds. Finally, the flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that the encapsulated particles effectively eliminated cancer cells. The outcomes imply that AFG can be employed as a suitable delivery system to enhance the use of Th and L into the food and pharmaceutical industries.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Ferula , Timol/farmacologia , Limoneno , Ferula/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia
13.
J Nat Prod ; 87(2): 167-175, 2024 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38355400

RESUMO

(-)-trans-Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (trans-(-)-Δ9-THC) has shown neuroprotective potential, but its medicinal benefits are not fully exploited due to the limitations of psychoactive properties. The lower homologues are non-psychoactive in nature but lack comprehensive scientific validation regarding neuroprotective potential. The present study describes the synthesis of non-psychoactive lower homologues of THC-type compounds and their neuroprotective potential. Both natural tetrahydro-cannabiorcol (trans-(-)-Δ9-THCO) and unnatural Δ9-tetrahydrocannabiorcol (trans-(+)-Δ9-THCO) were successfully synthesized starting from R-limonene and S-limonene, respectively, and investigated for neuroprotective potential in cellular models. The structures of both enantiomers were confirmed by NMR, HMBC, HQSC, NOESY, and COSY experiments. Results indicated that both enantiomers were nontoxic to the cells treated up to 50 µM. Neuroprotective properties of the enantiomers showed that treatments could significantly reverse the corticosterone-induced toxicity in SH-SY5Y cells and simultaneously cause elevated expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). It was also observed that unnatural trans-(+)-Δ9-THCO displayed better activity than the natural enantiomer and can be further explored for its potential use in neuropathological ailments.


Assuntos
Canabinoides , Neuroblastoma , Humanos , Dronabinol/farmacologia , Limoneno , Neuroblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Canabinoides/química , Canabinoides/farmacologia
14.
Inflammopharmacology ; 32(2): 1077-1089, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38308792

RESUMO

The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of D-limonene on decreasing post-operative adhesion in rats and to understand the mechanisms involved. Peritoneal adhesions were induced by creating different incisions and excising a 1 × 1 cm section of the peritoneum. The experimental groups included a sham group, a control group in which peritoneal adhesions were induced without any treatment, and two treatment groups in which animals received D-limonene with dosages of 25 and 50 mg/kg after inducing peritoneal adhesions. Macroscopic examination of adhesions showed that both treatment groups had reduced adhesion bands in comparison to the control group. Immunohistochemical assessment of TGF-ß1, TNF-α, and VEGF on day 14 revealed a significant increment in the level of immunopositive cells for the mentioned markers in the control group, whereas administration of limonene in both doses significantly reduced levels of TGF-ß1, TNF-α, and VEGF (P < 0.05). Induction of peritoneal adhesions in the control group significantly increased TGF-ß1, TNF-α, and VEGF on days 3 and 14 in western blot evaluation, while treatment with limonene significantly reduced TNF-α level on day 14 (P < 0.05). Moreover, VEGF levels in both treatment groups significantly reduced on days 3 and 14. In the control group, a significant increment in the levels of MDA and NO and a notable decline in the levels of GPX, CAT was observed (P < 0.05). Limonene 50 group significantly reduced MDA level and increased GPx and CAT levels on day 14 (P < 0.05). In summary, D-limonene reduced adhesion bands, inflammatory cytokines, angiogenesis, and oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1 , Ratos , Animais , Limoneno/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia
15.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0298448, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38394306

RESUMO

Monoterpenes are a large class of naturally occurring fragrant molecules. These chemicals are commonly used in olfactory studies to survey neural activity and probe the behavioral limits of odor discrimination. Monoterpenes (typically in the form of essential oils) have been used for centuries for therapeutic purposes and have pivotal roles in various biological and medical applications. Despite their importance for multiple lines of research using rodent models and the role of the olfactory system in detecting these volatile chemicals, the murine sensitivity to monoterpenes remains mostly unexplored. We assayed the ability of C57BL/6J mice to detect nine different monoterpenes (the acyclic monoterpenes: geraniol, citral, and linalool; the monocyclic monoterpenes: r-limonene, s-limonene, and γ-terpinene; and the bicyclic monoterpenes: eucalyptol, α-pinene, and ß-pinene) using a head-fixed Go / No-Go operant conditioning assay. We found that mice can reliably detect monoterpene concentrations in the low parts per billion (ppb) range. Specifically, mice were most sensitive to geraniol (threshold: 0.7 ppb) and least sensitive to γ-terpinene (threshold: 18.1 ppb). These estimations of sensitivity serve to set the lower limit of relevant monoterpene concentrations for functional experiments in mice. To define an upper limit, we estimated the maximum concentrations that a mouse may experience in nature by collating published headspace analyses of monoterpene concentrations emitted from natural sources. We found that natural monoterpenes concentrations typically ranged from ~1 to 1000 ppb. It is our hope that this dataset will help researchers use appropriate monoterpene concentrations for functional studies and provide context for the vapor-phase delivery of these chemicals in studies investigating their biological activity in mice.


Assuntos
Monoterpenos Acíclicos , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos , Monoterpenos , Camundongos , Animais , Limoneno , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos
16.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0294126, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38330006

RESUMO

The aims of this study were to (1) establish the intrapopulation and seasonal variation of Juniperus excelsа essential oil (EO); (2) compare the J. excelsa concrete and resinoid composition with its EO composition; and (3) investigate the potential herbicidal activity of J. excelsa EO against seeds of Papaver rhoeas L., Consolida orientalis (J.Gay) Schrödinger, Anthemis arvensis L., Avena fatua L., and Agrostemma githago L. Four independent studies were performed to meet these objectives. Twenty-eight individual trees were analyzed from two populations to establish intrapopulation and interpopulation variability of EOs yield and composition. In the seasonal dynamic study of leaf EO, samples from the same three trees and in the same population were collected in January, March, May, July, October, and December and their EO yield and composition determined. The EOs (intrapopulation and seasonal) were extracted by hydrodistillation, while the EO for the herbicidal test was obtained by steam distillation in a semi-commercial (SCom) apparatus. Overall, the EO yield varied significantly from 0.93% to 2.57%. α-Pinene (8.85-35.94%), limonene (11.81-50.08%), and cedrol (3.41-34.29%) were the predominant EO compounds in all samples (intrapopulation variability); however, trans-2,4-decadienol and ß-caryophyllene were predominant in some individual trees. Four chemical groups were identified in the samples collected from two natural populations (intrapopulation). This is the first report on the compositions of J. excelsa concrete and resinoid. Cedrol (15.39%), 7-hydroxy-4-methyl-coumarin (17.63%), 1-octacosanol (36.85%), tritriacontane (16.08%), and tiacontanoic acid were the main compounds in the concrete and resinoid. Juniperus excelsa EO suppressed seed germination and seedling growth of P. rhoeas, C. orientalis, A. arvensis, A. fatua, and A. githago, demonstrating its potential to be used for the development of new biopesticides. The highest EO yield with high content of limonene and cedrol was obtained from samples harvested during the winter months (December, January, and March).


Assuntos
Juniperus , Óleos Voláteis , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos , Óleos Voláteis/química , Limoneno , Árvores , Sementes
18.
J Sci Food Agric ; 104(7): 3982-3991, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38252712

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many diseases may be caused by pathogens and oxidative stress resulting from carcinogens. Earlier studies have highlighted the antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of plant essential oils (EO). It is crucial to effectively utilize agricultural waste to achieve a sustainable agricultural economy and protect the environment. The present study aimed to evaluate the potential benefits of EO extracted from the discarded peels of Citrus depressa Hayata (CD) and Citrus microcarpa Bunge (CM), synonyms of Citrus deliciosa Ten and Citrus japonica Thunb, respectively. RESULTS: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the main compounds in CD-EO were (R)-(+)-limonene (38.97%), γ-terpinene (24.39%) and linalool (6.22%), whereas, in CM-EO, the main compounds were (R)-(+)-limonene (48.00%), ß-pinene (13.60%) and γ-terpinene (12.07%). CD-EO exhibited inhibitory effects on the growth of common microorganisms, including Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. However, CM-EO showed only inhibitory effects on E. coli. Furthermore, CD-EO exhibited superior antioxidant potential, as demonstrated by its ability to eliminate 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate free radicals. Furthermore, CD-EO at a concentration of 100 µg mL-1 significantly inhibited 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced cancer transformation in mouse epidermal JB6 P+ cells (P < 0.05), possibly by up-regulating protein expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 and its downstream antioxidant enzymes, such as NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1, heme oxygenase-1 and UGT1A. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that CD-EO exhibits inhibitory effects on pathogenic microorganisms, possesses antioxidant properties and has cancer chemopreventive potential. © 2024 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Citrus , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos , Neoplasias , Óleos Voláteis , Animais , Camundongos , Óleos Voláteis/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Limoneno/farmacologia , Citrus/química , Escherichia coli , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Óleos de Plantas/química
19.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 34(3): 562-569, 2024 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38247219

RESUMO

Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) causes a devastating bacterial leaf blight in rice. Here, the antimicrobial effects of D-limonene, L-limonene, and its oxidative derivative carveol against Xoo were investigated. We revealed that carveol treatment at ≥ 0.1 mM in liquid culture resulted in significant decrease in Xoo growth rate (> 40%) in a concentration-dependent manner, and over 1 mM, no growth was observed. The treatment with D-limonene and L-limonene also inhibited the Xoo growth but to a lesser extent compared to carveol. These results were further elaborated with the assays of motility, biofilm formation and xanthomonadin production. The carveol treatment over 1 mM caused no motilities, basal level of biofilm formation (< 10%), and significantly reduced xanthomonadin production. The biofilm formation after the treatment with two limonene isomers was decreased in a concentration-dependent manner, but the degree of the effect was not comparable to carveol. In addition, there was negligible effect on the xanthomonadin production mediated by the treatment of two limonene isomers. Field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) unveiled that all three compounds used in this study cause severe ultrastructural morphological changes in Xoo cells, showing shrinking, shriveling, and holes on their surface. Moreover, quantitative real-time PCR revealed that carveol and D-limonene treatment significantly down-regulated the expression levels of genes involved in virulence and biofilm formation of Xoo, but not with L-limonene. Together, we suggest that limonenes and carveol will be the candidates of interest in the development of biological pesticides.


Assuntos
Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos , Oryza , Xanthomonas , Limoneno/farmacologia , Limoneno/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Oryza/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
20.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 260(Pt 1): 129482, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38232875

RESUMO

In this study, antioxidant, and antimicrobial starch-based biocomposite films reinforced with coffee husks (S/CH) were developed by incorporating either limonene (LM) (S/CH/LM) or its oligomer derivative, poly(limonene) (PLM) (S/CH/PLM), at different concentrations (5-10 % w/w of starch). Through a comprehensive assessment of film properties, morphology, and structure, a comparative analysis between the two additives was proposed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed some defects throughout the polymer matrix after additive incorporation. The tensile strength (TS) and modulus of elasticity (ME) showed a decrease upon the inclusion of both LM and PLM, while the elongation at break (E) increased. Notably, PLM exhibited outstanding antioxidant capacity, enhancing the films by 108 % over control samples. Additionally, at just 5 % concentration, PLM effectively inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli ATCC 11775 (35.33 ± 2.52 mm) and demonstrated an impressive UV-Vis barrier, comparable to the highest amount of LM incorporated. Therefore, this research highlights the potential of coffee husk-reinforced starch biocomposites with limonene-derived additives as a promising solution for food packaging applications. The comparative analysis sheds light on the advantages of using the PLM in terms of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, contributing to the advancement of active packaging technologies.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Coffea , Limoneno , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Embalagem de Alimentos , Amido/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Escherichia coli
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