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1.
J Oleo Sci ; 71(8): 1145-1158, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35922929

RESUMO

The frying process, a popular cooking technique, is widely used in the food industry around the world for the production of fried foods. Nevertheless, it is always accompanied by potential challenges including lipid peroxidation of vegetable oils. In this study, the influence of the coriander leaves essential oil (CLEO) on the oxidative stability of sunflower oil under frying conditions and the sensory attributes of fried food (Chinese Mahua) during the sensory evaluation were investigated. The results indicated that compared with the control, CLEO at 0.12 g/kg could obviously suppress the increases for the total polar compounds (TPC), thiobarbituric acid (TBA), color, conjugated dienes (CD), conjugated trienes (CT) and viscosity of sunflower oil, and prominently restrain the oxidization procedure of unsaturated fatty acid (UFA). Meanwhile, the decline in the sensory attributes for the Chinese Mahua was significantly inhibited. Furthermore, the study revealed the antioxidant effect of CLEO was mainly attributed to two compounds, carvacrol and limonene, which were separated by the bioassay-guided fractionation. Consequently, CLEO and the two compounds may be employed as potential natural antioxidants to improve the oxidation stability of sunflower oil under frying conditions.


Assuntos
Coriandrum , Óleos Voláteis , Antioxidantes/análise , Culinária , Cimenos , Temperatura Alta , Limoneno , Folhas de Planta/química , Óleo de Girassol
2.
Molecules ; 27(13)2022 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35807321

RESUMO

Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in the world. Traditionally, medicinal plants have been used to cure various types of diseases and disorders. Based on a literature survey, the current study was undertaken to explore the anticancer potential of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. phytoconstituents against breast cancer target protein (PDB ID: 6CHZ) by the molecular docking technique. Molecular docking was done using Autodock/vina software. Toxicity was predicted by the Protox II server and drug likeness was predicted by Molinspiration. 100 ns MD simulation of the best protein-ligand complexes were done using the Amber 18 tool. The present molecular docking investigation has revealed that among the 40 selected phytoconstituents of F. vulgare, α-pinene and D-limonene showed best binding energy (-6 and -5.9 kcal/mol respectively) with the breast cancer target. α-Pinene and D-limonene followed all the parameters of toxicity, and 100 ns MD simulations of α-pinene and D-limonene complexes with 6CHZ were found to be stable. α-Pinene and D-limonene can be used as new therapeutic agents to cure breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Foeniculum , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Ligantes , Limoneno , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular
3.
Res Vet Sci ; 149: 136-150, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35792419

RESUMO

Design of innovative adjuvant strategies with an appropriate safety profile is relevant to developed subunit or inactivated microorganism vaccines for bovine mastitis. Minthostachys verticillata essential oil (EO) has demonstrated ability to stimulate the innate immune response and adjuvant effect similar to Al(OH)3. Here we evaluated the adjuvant effect of EO and its metabolite, limonene (L) alone and microencapsulated by spray-drying, using an inactivated Enterococcus faecium strain bovine-mastitis inducer. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that microencapsulation process did not alter the EO or L chemistry. Microencapsulated EO (McEO) or L (McL) (2.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/ml) decreased the viability of bovine mammary gland epithelial cells in a dose-dependent way. Balb/c mice (n = 32) were subcutaneously inoculated (day 0) and revaccinated (day 14 and 28) with saline solution, inactivated bacteria alone or combined with Incomplete Freund's Adjuvant; EO or L (2.5 mg/ml); McEO or McL (5.0 mg/ml); or microcapsule wall material (Mc) alone (2.5 mg/ml). EO, L, McEO and McL stimulated E. faecium-specific IgG (IgG1 or IgG2a) with opsonizing capacity and increased the proportion of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells producers of IFN-γ. Microencapsulation was an effective strategy to increase the adjuvant potential of EO or L. These new adjuvants deserve further study to evaluate their incorporation into vaccines for bovine mastitis.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Lamiaceae , Mastite Bovina , Óleos Voláteis , Doenças dos Roedores , Vacinas , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Bovinos , Feminino , Imunoglobulina G , Lamiaceae/química , Limoneno , Mastite Bovina/microbiologia , Mastite Bovina/prevenção & controle , Camundongos , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia
4.
Food Res Int ; 158: 111573, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35840259

RESUMO

Starch-guest inclusion complexes (ICs) are a novel, clean-label flavor encapsulation system with the potential to improve stability of aroma volatiles. While amylase has been shown to modulate guest release in vitro, release by sensory perception has not been evaluated. Here, Temporal Check-All-That-Apply (TCATA) and CATA were used to compare flavor perception of starch-limonene ICs to uncomplexed limonene, and the differences in perception were explored as a function of participant salivary α-amylase activity (sAA) and salivary flow rate (sFR). High sFR levels decreased limonene perception while high sAA increased limonene perception, highlighting the potential influence of these physiological factors on flavor perception of foods. Temporal flavor perception of a chewing gum containing starch-limonene ICs and a second chewing gum containing uncomplexed limonene and corn starch (CTL) was evaluated by 99 untrained consumers who assessed taste, texture, and aroma attributes over 17 min by TCATA and CATA. In addition, participants were segmented into three clusters based on their sAA and sFR, and cluster TCATA curves for each sample and attribute were statistically compared. Overall, participants rated Citrus, Sour and Bitter (p < 0.05) significantly higher for the IC sample and rated Sweet higher for the CTL. For Citrus, Sour, and Bitter, significant differences were observed between the three clusters for the IC chewing gum, while the CTL gum showed no significant differences for these three attributes. We demonstrate that flavor perception of starch-guest ICs varies with participants' salivary α-amylase activity and flow rate. Additionally, TCATA and CATA were found to be well suited to characterize flavor release systems over a long period of time as multiple flavor percepts can be simultaneously tracked.


Assuntos
Goma de Mascar , alfa-Amilases Salivares , Humanos , Limoneno/química , Percepção , alfa-Amilases Salivares/química , alfa-Amilases Salivares/metabolismo , Amido/química
5.
J Oleo Sci ; 71(8): 1221-1228, 2022 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35793977

RESUMO

The antifungal mechanism of plant essential oil has always been a concern in the agriculture and forestry science field. In this investigation, besides the evaluation of inhibitory activities of twenty-three essential oils against Candida albicans in vitro, identification and quantification of the chemical composition of Litsea cubeba essential oil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were investigated. Further development, we assessed the mechanism of L. cubeba essential oil against C. albicans by molecular docking. Litsea cubeba essential oil displayed the strongest inhibitory activity among these oils and the diameter of the circle against C. albicans was more than 50 mm. Maximum three components were identified with trans-citral (33.6%), cis-citral (30.3%), d-limonene (8.2%). Secretory aspartate protease (SAP5) and ß-1,3-glucan synthase (ß-1,3-GS) are two key enzyme proteins that inhibit the growth of C. albicans. Molecular docking studies reveal chemical binding forces of cis-citral, trans-citral and d-limonene to SAP5 are -21.76 kJ/mol, -22.18 kJ/mol and -24.27 kJ/mol, to ß-1,3-GS are -23.01 kJ/mol, -25.52 kJ/mol and -23.85 kJ/mol, respectively. The most preferable binding mechanism was observed against SAP5 and ß-1,3-GS due to hydrophobic interaction, as well as hydrogen bonding between citral molecules. The research results suggest the mechanism of chemical components in L. cubeba essential oil inhibits the growth of C. albicans, which provides a reference to the development and utilization of essential oil.


Assuntos
Litsea , Óleos Voláteis , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida albicans , Limoneno , Litsea/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/química
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(23): 7220-7229, 2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35642795

RESUMO

Terpenes may be converted by electrochemical oxidation to various oxidized products with appealing aroma properties. In this study, (R)-limonene was anodically oxidized in the presence of ethanol, and the resulting mixture exhibited a pleasing fruity, herbal, citrus-like, and resinous odor. The aroma-active compounds were purified by means of preparative high-performance liquid chromatography, and their structures were elucidated by means of gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In addition, the odor of the isolated compounds was determined by means of GC-olfactometry. Seventeen compounds were isolated, and for only four of them, analytical data had been reported previously in the literature. Furthermore, only for two of the compounds, an odor description had been available in the literature.


Assuntos
Citrus , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Citrus/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Limoneno , Odorantes/análise , Olfatometria/métodos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
7.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0263880, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35704960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) affects 9,2% of the global population and places a considerable burden on healthcare systems. Most medications for treating IBS, including spasmolytics, laxatives, and antidiarrheals, have low efficacy. Effective and safe therapeutic treatments have yet to be developed for IBS. PURPOSE: This study assessed the efficacy and safety of a food supplement containing standardized menthol, limonene, and gingerol in human participants with IBS or IBS/functional dyspepsia (FD). DESIGN: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. METHODS: We randomly assigned 56 patients with IBS or IBS/FD to an intervention group (Group 1) or control group (Group 2) that were given supplement or placebo, respectively, in addition to the standard treatment regimen for 30 d. Three outpatient visits were conducted during the study. Symptom severity was measured at each visit using a 7×7 questionnaire. Qualitative and quantitative composition of the intestinal microbiota were assessed at visits 1 and 3 based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. RESULTS: At visit 1 (before treatment), the median total 7×7 questionnaire score was in the moderately ill range for both groups, with no difference between the groups (p = 0.1). At visit 2, the total 7×7 score decreased to mildly ill, with no difference between the groups (p = 0.4). At visit 3, the total score for group 1 indicated borderline illness and for group 2 remained indicated mild illness (p = 0.009). Even though we observed some variations in gut microbiota between the groups, we did not find any statistically significant changes. CONCLUSION: The food supplement with standardized menthol, limonene, and gingerol content increased the efficacy of standard therapy in IBS and FD patients. The use of the supplement did not cause any obvious side effects. REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04484467.


Assuntos
Dispepsia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável , Catecóis , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Álcoois Graxos , Humanos , Limoneno , Mentol/efeitos adversos , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Molecules ; 27(12)2022 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35744956

RESUMO

Several non-canonical, methylated terpenes have been described as products of genetically modified Escherichia coli recently, and the aroma properties of 28 odor-active methylated derivatives of prenol, isoprenol, bornane, camphene, carene, citronellol, fenchol, geraniol, limonene, linalool, terpineol, and farnesol were characterized for the first time in the current study. Twelve methylated monoterpenes exhibited a particularly intense and pleasant odor and were therefore chosen for the determination of their respective odor thresholds (OTs) in comparison to their non-methylated equivalents. In addition to the determination of OTs based on the literature value for the internal standard, (2E)-decenal, the threshold values of the compounds with individually determined OTs of the participants were calculated. This enabled a more precise identification of the OTs. Among the non-canonical terpenes, the lowest OTs in the air were found for 2-methyllinalool (flowery, 1.8 ng L-1), 2-methyl-α-fenchol (moldy, 3.6 ng L-1), 2-methylgeraniol (flowery, 5.4 ng L-1), 2-methylcitronellol (citrus-like, 7.2 ng L-1), and 4-methylgeraniol (citrus-like, 16 ng L-1). The derivatives of geraniol, linalool, and citronellol showed very pleasant odor impressions, which could make them interesting for use as flavoring agents in the flavor and fragrance industry.


Assuntos
Odorantes , Perfumes , Humanos , Limoneno , Monoterpenos , Terpenos
9.
Meat Sci ; 191: 108865, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35660293

RESUMO

Pasture contains a lot of terpenes, able to pass throughout oral assumption and inhalation into meat. The aim of this paper was to verify if limonene accumulates in meat after oral or respiratory exposure and to assess its effects on animal oxidative status and meat quality. Thirty-six goat kids were involved and assigned for 1 week to three treatment groups: control group (CG); an oral group (OG), where limonene was administered directly into the mouth (drenched); and a respiratory group (RG), in which limonene was administered via inhalation. The meat limonene concentration for the OG was the highest (P < 0.01), although RG showed the highest rate of transfer (P < 0.001). Limonene gives the possibility to delay lipid oxidative processes, reducing discoloration and rancidity in meat. However, the respiration route seems to be able to guarantee a greater limonene transfer into meat compared to the oral one.


Assuntos
Cabras , Carne , Animais , Cicloexenos , Limoneno/farmacologia , Carne/análise , Respiração , Terpenos/farmacologia
10.
J Environ Manage ; 317: 115323, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35649337

RESUMO

Pyrolysis is a chemical recycling process of interest as a means to achieve a sustainable circular economy for end-of-life tyres (ELTs). In the pyrolysis process, ELTs are converted into tyre pyrolysis gas (TPG), tyre pyrolysis oil (TPO) and raw recovered carbon black (RRCB). This work investigates for the first time the effect of different temperature profiles by using a single-auger pyrolysis reactor in an industrially relevant scale (TRL-5). Since the development of this process at this representative scale is quite limited and the temperature profile has not been previously studied, the results achieved in this work can provide a useful database for the development of this process at industrial scale. For this purpose, two different sources of ELTs, commercial truck tyres (CTTs) and passenger car tyres (PCTs), were used. Accordingly, the experimental campaign was conducted using two different incremental temperature profiles (425-550-775 °C and 600-700-800 °C) based on those that can be replicated in an industrial-scale auger pyrolysis plant. For the sake of comparison, two isothermal heating conditions (500-500-500 °C and 600-600-600 °C) were also tested. The results confirmed the remarkable influence of temperature profile on both the distribution and properties of products. The 425-550-775 °C temperature profile was found to enhance limonene production, which is associated with the minimisation of secondary reactions in the first heating zone of the reactor. Additionally, there were very low carbonaceous deposits found in the RRCB because of the high severity of devolatilisation conditions in the third heating zone of the reactor. On the other hand, when the temperature profile was raised, the production of single-ring aromatics, particularly benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) significantly increased in the TPO at the expense of limonene. Thus, from this strategy, it is possible to tune the properties of the products depending on the requirements of the application in a single step, getting closer for circular economy in the ELT recycling domain.


Assuntos
Pirólise , Fuligem , Temperatura Alta , Limoneno , Temperatura , Tolueno
11.
J Hazard Mater ; 436: 129220, 2022 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35739742

RESUMO

There is a lack of detailed research on the production of isoprene and D-limonene by solid base-catalysed thermal depolymerization of waste tires (WTs). This work aimed to investigate the thermal decomposition characteristics, reaction kinetics, high value-added products production and potential mechanisms during WT pyrolysis in the presence of calcium oxide (CaO) via Thermogravimetry-Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometer (TG-FTIR) and Pyrolyzer-Gas Chromatography/Mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). The results obtained from TG indicated that CaO accelerated depolymerization in terms of reducing the reaction temperature, which is also reflected in the kinetic parameters. It can be found that the content of D-limonene increased by 13.76% and that of isoprene increased by 37.57%, which were attributed to differences in the depolymerization mechanisms in the presence of CaO. Furthermore, CaO had a profound impact on desulfurization by reducing benzothiazole, sulfoacid, and thiophene. The potential catalytic mechanisms of isoprene and D-limonene production and desulfurization were also proposed. This work deepens the understanding of the catalytic pyrolysis of WT under CaO and unambiguously demonstrates the great potential of CaO in enhancing isoprene and D-limonene production, providing new insight for the cleaner production of high value-added products from WT.


Assuntos
Pirólise , Compostos de Cálcio , Cinética , Limoneno , Óxidos , Termogravimetria
12.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 151: 113151, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35598364

RESUMO

Citrus hystrix DC. peel essential oil (ChEO) has been reported to have many biological activities and is promoted for topical application. However, its effect on skin functioning has not yet been studied. This study aimed to evaluate its safety for normal skin cells as well as its potential activity against human melanoma. In addition, pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory activity was assessed, as well as inhibitory effects on important skin enzymes: tyrosinase and hyaluronidase. To better understand the complexity of the action of ChEO and the role of individual components, the study also included an evaluation of the activity of its main constituents: limonene, ß-pinene, and terpinen-4-ol as well as two mixtures of these compounds, specially designed for this purpose: M1 in equal proportions (1:1:1) and M2 in proportions mimicking those found in the ChEO (2.6:1.7:1). The results showed that the essential oil of the C. hystrix peel, as well as its major components, was not cytotoxic to normal human skin cells representing various skin layers, namely keratinocytes (HaCaT), melanocytes (HEM), and fibroblasts (HDF), even after prolonged exposure of 72 h. The pro-inflammatory effect of ChEO, tested by caspase-1 activation in HaCaT cells, was less pronounced compared to limonene, ß-pinene and terpinen-4-ol, and generally very low. On the other hand, its anti-inflammatory effect was noticeable and was half the potency of diclofenac sodium used as the reference drug. Although the anti-hyaluronidase activity of C. hystrix peel essential oil was lower compared to ß-pinene and terpinen-4-ol, ChEO revealed fairly high anti-tyrosinase activity, with an enzyme inhibition level of over 80% at a concentration of 150-220 µg/ml. Studies on the potential anti-melanoma effect were performed using the LDH assay on three human cell lines of varying degrees of malignancy, namely WM793, A375, and HTB140. ChEO was more active than the tested single compounds or their mixtures. WM793 cells were found to be most susceptible, while HTB140 and A375 cells were slightly more resistant (IC50 59, 88 and 70 µg/ml, respectively). Our data indicate that ChEO is safe for the skin and has a perspective as an anti-melanoma agent.


Assuntos
Citrus , Óleos Voláteis , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Limoneno/farmacologia , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia
13.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 184: 1-13, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35613521

RESUMO

Monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes are the most abundant volatiles in tea plants and have dual functions in aroma quality formation and defense responses in tea plants. Terpene synthases (TPS) are the key enzymes for the synthesis of terpenes in plants; however, the functions of most of them in tea plants are still unknown. In this study, six putative terpene biosynthesis gene clusters were identified from the tea plant genome. Then we cloned three new TPS-b subfamily genes, CsTPS08, CsTPS10 and CsTPS58. In vitro enzyme assays showed that CsTPS08 and CsTPS58 are two multiple-product terpene synthases, with the former synthesizing linalool as the main product, and ß-myrcene, α-phellandrene, α-terpinolene, D-limonene, cis-ß-ocimene, trans-ß-ocimene and (4E,6Z)-allo-ocimene as minor products are also detected, while the latter catalyzing the formation of α-pinene and D-limonene using GPP as the substrate. No product of CsTPS10 was detected in the prokaryotic expression system, but geraniol production was detected when transiently expressed in tobacco leaves. CsTPS08 and CsTPS10 are two functional members of a monoterpene synthase gene cluster, which were significantly induced during both Ectropis oblique feeding and fresh leaf spreading treatments, suggesting that they have dual functions involved in tea plant pest defense and tea aroma quality regulation. In addition, the differences in their expression levels in different tea plant cultivars provide a possibility for the subsequent screening of tea plant resources with a specific aroma flavor. Our results deepen the understanding of terpenoid synthesis in tea plants.


Assuntos
Alquil e Aril Transferases , Camellia sinensis , Alquil e Aril Transferases/genética , Alquil e Aril Transferases/metabolismo , Camellia sinensis/metabolismo , Herbivoria , Liases Intramoleculares , Limoneno/metabolismo , Família Multigênica , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Chá , Terpenos/metabolismo
14.
Molecules ; 27(10)2022 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35630716

RESUMO

Citrus essential oils (CEOs) possess physiological functions due to diverse aroma components. However, evidence for the effects of CEOs on exercise performance and exercise-induced fatigue is limited. The CEOs with discrepancies in components may exert different effects on the amelioration of exercise-induced fatigue. In this study, sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L.) essential oil (SEO), lemon (Citrus limon Osbeck) essential oil (LEO), and bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso and Poit) essential oil (BEO) were chosen to explore the effect on amelioration of exercise-induced fatigue. Our results demonstrated that SEO and LEO increased the swimming time by 276% and 46.5%, while BEO did not. Moreover, the three CEOs exerted varying effects on mitigating exercise-induced fatigue via inhibiting oxidative stress, protecting muscle injury, and promoting glucose-dependent energy supply. Accordingly, BEO showed the best efficiency. Moreover, the GC-MS and Pearson correlation analysis of BEO showed that the contents of the major components, such as (±)-limonene (32.9%), linalyl butyrate (17.8%), and linalool (7.7%), were significantly positively correlated with relieving exercise-induced fatigue.


Assuntos
Citrus , Óleos Voláteis , Fadiga/tratamento farmacológico , Limoneno/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia
15.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7590, 2022 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534607

RESUMO

Dactylopius opuntiae (Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae) or prickly pear cochineal, is the most damaging pest on cactus species with heavy economic losses worldwide. The efficacy of two Moroccan EPN isolates; Steinernema feltiae (Filipjev) (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Poinar) (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) (applied at 25, 50, and 75 IJs cm-2) against D. opuntiae nymphs and young females were evaluated under both laboratory bioassays and field conditions. Results showed that S. feltiae was more effective, causing higher mortality of nymphs and adult females (98.8% and 97.5%, respectively) after 8 days of exposure, resulting in an LT50 value of 5.9 days (nymph) and 6.0 days (young female). While, H. bacteriophora had lower mortalities (83.8% for nymph and 81.3% for adult females). For the cochineal nymphs and adult females, no significant difference was observed among S. feltiae at 25, 50, and 75 IJs cm-2, and the positive control, D-limonene applied at 0.5 g/L which was used due to its high effectiveness against nymphs and females of D. opuntiae. In the field experiment, D-limonene at 0.5 g/L and S. feltiae applied at 75 IJs cm-2 were effective in reducing nymph and adult female populations by 85.3-93.9% at 12 days of post exposure period. To our knowledge, this work is the first report on the use of EPNs to control D. opuntiae. Thus, in addition to D-limonene, both Moroccan EPN isolates S. feltiae, and H. bacteriophora could be used as part of the integrated pest management strategy against D. opuntiae. Many factors such as temperature can affect the establishment and effectiveness of EPNs under field conditions. Therefore, additional studies under field conditions are needed.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Rabditídios , Animais , Carmim , Feminino , Limoneno , Ninfa , Controle Biológico de Vetores
16.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 22(1): 140, 2022 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35590314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria and encephalitis are still the cause of several hundred thousand deaths annually. The excessive use of chemical insecticides for transmission control has led to environmental pollution and widespread resistance in mosquitoes. Botanical insecticides' efficacies improvement has thus received considerable attention recently. METHODS: The larvicidal effects of three essential oils from the Citrus family and limonene (their major ingredient) were first investigated against malaria and filariasis mosquito vectors. An attempt was then made to improve their efficacies by preparing nanoliposomes containing each of them. RESULTS: The larvicidal effect of nanoformulated forms was more effective than non-formulated states. Nanoliposomes containing Citrus aurantium essential oil with a particle size of 52 ± 4 nm showed the best larvicidal activity (LC50 and LC90 values) against Anopheles stephensi (6.63 and 12.29 µg/mL) and Culex quinquefasciatus (4.9 and 16.4 µg/mL). CONCLUSION: Due to the green constituents and high efficacy of nanoliposomes containing C. aurantium essential oil, it could be considered for further investigation against other mosquitoes' populations and field trials.


Assuntos
Aedes , Filariose , Inseticidas , Malária , Óleos Voláteis , Animais , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Larva , Limoneno/farmacologia , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Malária/prevenção & controle , Mosquitos Vetores , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta
17.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 2895, 2022 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35610221

RESUMO

Bottlenecks in metabolic pathways due to insufficient gene expression levels remain a significant problem for industrial bioproduction using microbial cell factories. Increasing gene dosage can overcome these bottlenecks, but current approaches suffer from numerous drawbacks. Here, we describe HapAmp, a method that uses haploinsufficiency as evolutionary force to drive in vivo gene amplification. HapAmp enables efficient, titratable, and stable integration of heterologous gene copies, delivering up to 47 copies onto the yeast genome. The method is exemplified in metabolic engineering to significantly improve production of the sesquiterpene nerolidol, the monoterpene limonene, and the tetraterpene lycopene. Limonene titre is improved by 20-fold in a single engineering step, delivering ∼1 g L-1 in the flask cultivation. We also show a significant increase in heterologous protein production in yeast. HapAmp is an efficient approach to unlock metabolic bottlenecks rapidly for development of microbial cell factories.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Amplificação de Genes , Limoneno/metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo
18.
Molecules ; 27(9)2022 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35566337

RESUMO

Limonene (1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)-cyclohexene) is one of the most widespread monocyclic terpenes, being both a natural and industrial compound. It is widely present in the environment, including in water supplies. Therefore, it may be subjected to aqueous chlorination at water treatment stations during drinking water preparation. Besides, being a component of numerous body care and cosmetic products, it may present at high levels in swimming pool waters and could also be subjected to aqueous chlorination. Laboratory experiments with aqueous chlorination of D-limonene demonstrated the prevalence of the conjugated electrophilic addition of HOCl molecule to the double bonds of the parent molecule as the primary reaction. The reaction obeys the Markovnikov rule, as the levels of the corresponding products were higher than those of the alternative ones. Fragmentation pattern in conditions of electron ionization enabled the assigning of the structures for four primary products. The major products of the chlorination are formed by the addition of two HOCl molecules to limonene. The reactions of electrophilic addition are usually accompanied by the reactions of elimination. Thus, the loss of water molecules from the products of various generations results in the reproduction of the double bond, which immediately reacts further. Thus, a cascade of addition-elimination reactions brings the most various isomeric polychlorinated species. At a ratio of limonene/active chlorine higher than 1:10, the final products of aqueous chlorination (haloforms) start forming, while brominated haloforms represent a notable portion of these products due to the presence of bromine impurities in the used NaOCl. It is worth mentioning that the bulk products of aqueous chlorination are less toxic in the bioluminescence test on V. fischeri than the parent limonene.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Cloro/química , Desinfecção/métodos , Halogenação , Limoneno , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Purificação da Água/métodos
19.
Phytother Res ; 36(7): 2908-2920, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35583855

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease with predominant synovitis that has no complete cure or preventive treatment. Citrus essential oils, used in natural fragrances, contain a variety of functional ingredients that are worthy of investigation for their potential as natural anti-inflammatory drug sources. In this study, essential oils were hydro distilled from the peels of four citrus species: Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (CSEOs), Citrus paradisi Macfad. (CPEOs), Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck (CLEOs) and Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium (CREOs). Altogether, 81 compounds were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), of which d-limonene (17.96%-94.66%) was an abundant component of all four oils. The stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-pyrrole hydrazine (DPPH) free radical test showed that all four essential oils had excellent antioxidant properties (IC50 , 0.76-13.86 µg/mL). Furthermore, the oils remarkably increased the first G1 phase of the cell cycle, which inhibited the pro-inflammatory factor expression. An immunohistochemical analysis indicated that the four essential oils inhibited the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and cyclooxygenase-2 and they exhibited anti-inflammatory activity in a rat model that was similar to that of the common drug, Ibuprofen. These results show that the CSEOs, CPEOs, CLEOs, and CREOs have significant antirheumatic activities and thus have great potential in developing functional food or drugs for treating RA.


Assuntos
Citrus , Óleos Voláteis , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Citrus/química , Limoneno , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos
20.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 24(20): 12363-12373, 2022 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35552571

RESUMO

A polymer made from sulfur and limonene was used to coat silica gel and then evaluated as a mercury sorbent. A kinetic model of mercury uptake was established for a range of pH values and concentrations of sodium chloride. Mercury uptake was generally rapid from pH = 3 to pH = 11. At neutral pH, the sorbent (500 mg with a 10 : 1 ratio of silica to polymer) could remove 90% of mercury within one minute from a 100 mL solution containing 5 ppm HgCl2 and 99% over 5 minutes. It was found that sodium chloride, at concentrations comparable to seawater, dramatically reduced mercury uptake rates and capacity. It was also found that the spent sorbent was stable in acidic and neutral media, but degraded at pH 11 which led to mercury leaching. These results help define the conditions under which the sorbent could be used, which is an important advance for using this material in remediation processes.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Adsorção , Limoneno , Polímeros , Cloreto de Sódio , Sulfetos , Enxofre
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