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1.
J Clin Immunol ; 44(4): 85, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578354

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT1) gain-of-function (GOF) syndrome accounts for most cases of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis but is characterized by a broader clinical phenotype that may include bacterial, viral, or invasive fungal infections, autoimmunity, autoinflammatory manifestations, vascular complications, or malignancies. The severity of lymphopenia may vary and influence the infectious morbidity. METHODS: In our cohort of seven STAT1-GOF patients, we investigated the mechanisms that may determine T lymphopenia, we characterized the interferon gene signature (IGS) and analyzed the effect of ruxolitinib in reverting the immune dysregulation. RESULTS: STAT1-GOF patients exhibited increased T lymphocyte apoptosis that was significantly augmented in both resting conditions and following stimulation with mitogens and IFNα, as evaluated by flow cytometry by Annexin V/ Propidium iodide assay. The JAK inhibitor ruxolitinib significantly reduced the IFNα-induced hyperphosphorylation of STAT1 and reverted the stimulation-induced T-cell apoptosis, in vitro. In two adult STAT1-GOF patients, the JAKinib treatment ameliorated chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis and lymphopenia. Most STAT1-GOF patients, particularly those who had autoimmunity, presented increased IGS that significantly decreased in the two patients during ruxolitinib treatment. CONCLUSION: In STAT1-GOF patients, T lymphocyte apoptosis is increased, and T lymphopenia may determine higher risk of severe infections. The JAKinib target therapy should be evaluated to treat severe chronic candidiasis and lymphopenia, and to downregulate the IFNs in patients with autoinflammatory or autoimmune manifestations.


Assuntos
Candidíase Mucocutânea Crônica , Inibidores de Janus Quinases , Linfopenia , Nitrilas , Pirazóis , Pirimidinas , Trombocitopenia , Adulto , Humanos , Mutação com Ganho de Função , Inibidores de Janus Quinases/uso terapêutico , Candidíase Mucocutânea Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Candidíase Mucocutânea Crônica/genética , Interferons , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/metabolismo
2.
J Clin Immunol ; 44(4): 93, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578360

RESUMO

Newborn screening (NBS) for severe inborn errors of immunity (IEI), affecting T lymphocytes, and implementing measurements of T cell receptor excision circles (TREC) has been shown to be effective in early diagnosis and improved prognosis of patients with these genetic disorders. Few studies conducted on smaller groups of newborns report results of NBS that also include measurement of kappa-deleting recombination excision circles (KREC) for IEI affecting B lymphocytes. A pilot NBS study utilizing TREC/KREC detection was conducted on 202,908 infants born in 8 regions of Russia over a 14-month period. One hundred thirty-four newborns (0.66‰) were NBS positive after the first test and subsequent retest, 41% of whom were born preterm. After lymphocyte subsets were assessed via flow cytometry, samples of 18 infants (0.09‰) were sent for whole exome sequencing. Confirmed genetic defects were consistent with autosomal recessive agammaglobulinemia in 1/18, severe combined immunodeficiency - in 7/18, 22q11.2DS syndrome - in 4/18, combined immunodeficiency - in 1/18 and trisomy 21 syndrome - in 1/18. Two patients in whom no genetic defect was found met criteria of (severe) combined immunodeficiency with syndromic features. Three patients appeared to have transient lymphopenia. Our findings demonstrate the value of implementing combined TREC/KREC NBS screening and inform the development of policies and guidelines for its integration into routine newborn screening programs.


Assuntos
Linfopenia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Projetos Piloto , Linfopenia/diagnóstico , Linfócitos T , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/diagnóstico , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/genética , DNA , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/genética
3.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1278046, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38572008

RESUMO

Background: COVID-19 is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to explore the early predictors of intensive care unit (ICU) admission among patients with COVID-19. Methods: This was a case-control study of adult patients with confirmed COVID-19. Cases were defined as patients admitted to ICU during the period February 29-May 29, 2020. For each case enrolled, one control was matched by age and gender. Results: A total of 1,560 patients with confirmed COVID-19 were included. Each group included 780 patients with a predominant male gender (89.7%) and a median age of 49 years (interquartile range = 18). Predictors independently associated with ICU admission were cardiovascular disease (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.64, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16-2.32, p = 0.005), diabetes (aOR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.08-2.13, p = 0.016), obesity (aOR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.03-2.08, p = 0.034), lymphopenia (aOR = 2.69, 95% CI: 1.80-4.02, p < 0.001), high AST (aOR = 2.59, 95% CI: 1.53-4.36, p < 0.001), high ferritin (aOR = 1.96, 95% CI: 1.40-2.74, p < 0.001), high CRP (aOR = 4.09, 95% CI: 2.81-5.96, p < 0.001), and dyspnea (aOR = 2.50, 95% CI: 1.77-3.54, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Having cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, lymphopenia, dyspnea, and increased AST, ferritin, and CRP were independent predictors for ICU admission in patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus , Linfopenia , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Catar/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Obesidade , Dispneia , Ferritinas
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 392, 2024 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) is burdened by high mortality. Data are lacking about non-ICU patients. Aims of this study were to: (i) assess the incidence and prevalence of CAPA in a respiratory sub-intensive care unit, (ii) evaluate its risk factors and (iii) impact on in-hospital mortality. Secondary aims were to: (i) assess factors associated to mortality, and (ii) evaluate significant features in hematological patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a single-center, retrospective study of COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory failure. A cohort of CAPA patients was compared to a non-CAPA cohort. Among patients with CAPA, a cohort of hematological patients was further compared to another of non-hematological patients. RESULTS: Three hundred fifty patients were included in the study. Median P/F ratio at the admission to sub-intensive unit was 225 mmHg (IQR 155-314). 55 (15.7%) developed CAPA (incidence of 5.5%). Eighteen had probable CAPA (37.3%), 37 (67.3%) possible CAPA and none proven CAPA. Diagnosis of CAPA occurred at a median of 17 days (IQR 12-31) from SARS-CoV-2 infection. Independent risk factors for CAPA were hematological malignancy [OR 1.74 (95%CI 0.75-4.37), p = 0.0003], lymphocytopenia [OR 2.29 (95%CI 1.12-4.86), p = 0.02], and COPD [OR 2.74 (95%CI 1.19-5.08), p = 0.014]. Mortality rate was higher in CAPA cohort (61.8% vs 22.7%, p < 0.0001). CAPA resulted an independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality [OR 2.92 (95%CI 1.47-5.89), p = 0.0024]. Among CAPA patients, age > 65 years resulted a predictor of mortality [OR 5.09 (95% CI 1.20-26.92), p = 0.035]. No differences were observed in hematological cohort. CONCLUSION: CAPA is a life-threatening condition with high mortality rates. It should be promptly suspected, especially in case of hematological malignancy, COPD and lymphocytopenia.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Neoplasias Hematológicas , Linfopenia , Aspergilose Pulmonar , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório , Insuficiência Respiratória , Humanos , Idoso , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Aspergilose Pulmonar/complicações , Aspergilose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/complicações , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Fatores de Risco , Insuficiência Respiratória/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia
6.
Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J ; 24(1): 44-51, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38434464

RESUMO

Objectives: Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is known to cause lymphopenia when used to treat patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, research on DMF therapy in the Arab world, especially in Oman, is scarce. This study aimed to analyse the prevalence of lymphopenia among Omani patients with MS and their reasons for discontinuing DMF therapy. Methods: In this retrospective study, the medical records of Omani patients with MS who were treated using DMF at two tertiary hospitals in Muscat, Oman, from February 2017 to February 2023 were reviewed. Their demographic, clinical and laboratory data were retrieved and analysed. Absolute lymphocyte count values at baseline and at the last follow-up, as well as the reasons for discontinuing DMF therapy, were collected. Descriptive and inferential statistical techniques were used for data analysis. Binary-logistic regression analysis was used to identify the risk factors for DMF-induced lymphopenia. Results: A total of 64 Omani patients with MS were included in this study. The majority of the study participants (n = 40; 63%) were female. All included patients started DMF therapy at the mean age of 33 ± 7.7 years. After administration of DMF, 14 (21.9%) patients developed grades 1-3 of lymphopenia. The DMF therapy was discontinued for 23 (36.0%) patients, mainly in response to adverse events or confirmed pregnancy. Female gender was the only significant predictor of DMF-induced lymphopenia (P = 0.037). Conclusions: Most Omani patients with MS had mild lymphopenia (grades 1-2). Early adverse events and pregnancy were the main reasons provided for discontinuing DMF therapy.


Assuntos
Linfopenia , Esclerose Múltipla , Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Fumarato de Dimetilo/efeitos adversos , Esclerose Múltipla/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Linfopenia/induzido quimicamente , Linfopenia/epidemiologia , Mundo Árabe
7.
Scand J Immunol ; 99(1): e13335, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38441205

RESUMO

Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) deficiency or bare lymphocyte syndrome (BLS) is a rare, early-onset, autosomal recessive, and life-threatening inborn error of immunity. We aimed to assess the demographic, clinical, laboratory, follow-up, and treatment characteristics of patients with MHC-II deficiency, together with their survival. We retrospectively investigated 21 patients with MHC-II deficiency. Female/male ratio was 1.63. The median age at diagnosis was 16.3 months (5 months-9.7 years). Nineteen patients (90.5%) had parental consanguinity. Pulmonary diseases (pneumonia, chronic lung disease) (81%), diarrhoea (47.6%), and candidiasis (28.6%) were common. Four (19%) had autoimmunity, two developed septic arthritis, and three (14%) developed bronchiectasis in the follow-up. Three patients (14%) had CMV viraemia, one with bilateral CMV retinitis. Eight (38.1%) had lymphocytopenia, and four (19%) had neutropenia. Serum IgM, IgA, and IgG levels were low in 18 (85.7%), 15 (71.4%), and 11 (52.4%) patients, respectively. CD4+ lymphocytopenia, a reversed CD4+/CD8+ ratio, and absent/low HLA-DR expressions were detected in 93.3%, 86.7%, and 100% of the patients, respectively. Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) was performed on nine patients, and four died of septicaemia and ARDS after HSCT. The present median age of patients survived is 14 years (1-31 years). Genetic analysis was performed in 10 patients. RFX5 homozygous gene defect was found in three patients (P1, P4 and P8), and RFXANK (P2 and P14) and RFXAP (P18 and P19) heterozygous gene defects were found in each two patients, respectively. This large cohort showed that BLS patients have severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)-like clinical findings. Flow cytometric MHC-II expression study is crucial for the diagnosis, differential diagnosis with SCID, early haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), and post-HSCT follow-up. Genetic studies are required first for matched family donor evaluation before HSCT and then for genetic counselling.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Linfopenia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Adolescente , Turquia , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
J Immunother Cancer ; 12(3)2024 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38458635

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Programmed death 1 (PD-1) inhibitor demonstrated durable antitumor activity in advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), but the clinical benefit of perioperative immunotherapy in ESCC remains unclear. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) combined with the PD-1 inhibitor toripalimab in patients with resectable ESCC. METHODS: From July 2020 to July 2022, 21 patients with histopathologically confirmed thoracic ESCC and clinical staged as cT1-4aN1-2M0/cT3-4aN0M0 were enrolled. Eligible patients received radiotherapy (23 fractions of 1.8 Gy, 5 fractions a week) with concurrent chemotherapy of paclitaxel/cisplatin (paclitaxel 45 mg/m2 and cisplatin 25 mg/m2) on days 1, 8, 15, 22, 29 and two cycles of toripalimab 240 mg every 3 weeks after nCRT for neoadjuvant therapy before surgery, four cycles of toripalimab 240 mg every 3 weeks for adjuvant therapy after surgery. The primary endpoint was the major pathological response (MPR) rate. The secondary endpoints were safety and survival outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 21 patients were included, of whom 20 patients underwent surgery, 1 patient refused surgery and another patient was confirmed adenocarcinoma after surgery. The MPR and pathological complete response (pCR) rates were 78.9% (15/19) and 47.4% (9/19) for surgery ESCC patients. 21 patients (100.0%) had any-grade treatment-related adverse events, with the most common being lymphopenia (100.0%), leukopenia (85.7%), neutropenia (52.4%). 14 patients (66.7%) had adverse events of grade 3 with the most common being lymphopenia (66.7%). The maximum standardized uptake value and total lesion glycolysis of positron emission tomography/CT after neoadjuvant therapy well predicted the pathological response. The peripheral CD4+%, CD3+HLA-DR+/CD3+%, CD8+HLA-DR+/CD8+%, and IL-6 were significant differences between pCR and non-pCR groups at different times during neoadjuvant therapy. Three patients had tumor relapse and patients with MPR have longer disease-free survival than non-MPR patients. CONCLUSIONS: nCRT combined with perioperative toripalimab is effective and safe for locally advanced resectable ESCC. Long-term survival outcomes remain to be determined. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04437212.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias Esofágicas , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago , Linfopenia , Trombocitopenia , Humanos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/patologia , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Esofágicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Paclitaxel , Antígenos HLA-DR , Células Epiteliais/patologia
9.
Radiat Oncol ; 19(1): 36, 2024 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38481255

RESUMO

PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE(S): Treatment related lymphopenia is a known toxicity for glioblastoma (GBM) patients and several single-institution studies have linked lymphopenia with poor survival outcomes. We performed a systematic review and pooled analysis to evaluate the association between lymphopenia and overall survival (OS) for GBM patients undergoing chemotherapy and radiation therapy (RT). MATERIALS/METHODS: Following PRISMA guidelines, a systematic literature review of the MEDLINE database and abstracts from ASTRO, ASCO, and SNO annual meetings was conducted. A pooled analysis was performed using inverse variance-weighted random effects to generate a pooled estimate of the hazard ratio of association between lymphopenia and OS. RESULTS: Ten of 104 identified studies met inclusion criteria, representing 1,718 patients. The lymphopenia cutoff value varied (400-1100 cells/uL) and as well as the timing of its onset. Studies were grouped as time-point (i.e., lymphopenia at approximately 2-months post-RT) or time-range (any lymphopenia occurrence from treatment-start to approximately 2-months post-RT. The mean overall pooled incidence of lymphopenia for all studies was 31.8%, and 11.8% vs. 39.9% for time-point vs. time-range studies, respectively. Lymphopenia was associated with increased risk of death, with a pooled HR of 1.78 (95% CI 1.46-2.17, P < 0.00001) for the time-point studies, and a pooled HR of 1.38 (95% CI 1.24-1.55, P < 0.00001) for the time-point studies. There was no significant heterogeneity between studies. CONCLUSION: These results strengthen observations from previous individual single-institution studies and better defines the magnitude of the association between lymphopenia with OS in GBM patients, highlighting lymphopenia as a poor prognostic factor.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Glioblastoma , Linfopenia , Humanos , Temozolomida/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Linfopenia/etiologia
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(12): e36975, 2024 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38517998

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Neuroblastoma amplified sequence (NBAS)-associated disease is an autosomal recessive disorder and a broad spectrum of clinical symptoms has been reported. However, autoimmune mediated hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is rarely reported in NBAS disease. PATIENT CONCERNS: A now 21-year-old male harbors heterozygous variants of c.6840G>A and c.335 + 1G>A and was found had retarded growth, hypogammaglobulinemia, B lymphopenia, optic atrophy, horizontal nystagmus, slight splenomegaly and hepatomegaly since childhood. This case had normal hemoglobin level and platelet count in his childhood. He developed AIHA first in his adulthood and then thrombocytopenia during the treatment of AIHA. The mechanism underlying a case with pronounced hypogammaglobulinemia and B lymphopenia is elusive. In addition to biallelic NBAS mutations, a germline mutation in the ANKRD26 (c.2356C>T) gene was also detected. So either autoimmune or ANKRD26 mutation-mediated thrombocytopenia is possible in this case. INTERVENTION AND OUTCOME: He was initially managed with steroid and intermittent intravenous immunoglobulin supplement. After treatment, he responded well with a normalization of hemoglobin and serum bilirubin. But the patient subsequently experienced severe thrombocytopenia in addition to AIHA. He was then given daily avatrombopag in addition to steroid escalation. He responded again to new treatment, with the hemoglobin levels and platelet counts went back to the normal ranges. Now he was on de-escalated weekly avatrombopag and low-dose steroids maintenance. CONCLUSION: The phenotype of this case indicates that c.335 + 1G>A NBAS variant is probably a pathogenic one and c.2356C>T ANKRD26 variant is improbably a pathogenic one. AIHA may respond well to steroid even when happened in patients with NBAS disease.


Assuntos
Agamaglobulinemia , Anemia Hemolítica Autoimune , Linfopenia , Neuroblastoma , Tiazóis , Tiofenos , Trombocitopenia , Masculino , Humanos , Adulto , Criança , Adulto Jovem , Anemia Hemolítica Autoimune/diagnóstico , Anemia Hemolítica Autoimune/tratamento farmacológico , Anemia Hemolítica Autoimune/genética , Agamaglobulinemia/complicações , Trombocitopenia/complicações , Mutação , Linfopenia/complicações , Hemoglobinas , Esteroides , Neuroblastoma/complicações , China
11.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 12(3): e1219, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38501534

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Down syndrome (DS) is associated with multiple comorbid conditions and chronic immune dysfunction. Persons with DS who contract COVID-19 are at high risk for complications and have a poor prognosis. We aimed to study the clinical symptoms, laboratory and biochemical profiles, radiologic findings, treatment, and outcomes of patients with DS and COVID-19. METHOD: We systematically searched PubMed, MEDLINE, Web of Science, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library using the keywords COVID-19 or coronavirus or SARS-CoV-2 and DS or trisomy 21. Seventeen articles were identified: eight case reports and nine case series published from December 2019 through March 2022, with a total of 55 cases. RESULTS: Patients averaged 24.8 years (26 days to 60 years); 29 of the patients were male. The most common symptoms were fever, dyspnea, and cough. Gastrointestinal and upper respiratory tract symptoms were commonly reported for pediatric patients. The most common comorbidities present in patients with DS were obesity (49.0%), hypothyroidism (21.6%) and obstructive sleep apnea (15.6%). The patients were hospitalized for a mean of 14.8 days. When the patients were compared with the general COVID-19 population, the mean number of hospitalized days was higher. Most patients had leukopenia, lymphopenia, and elevated inflammatory markers (d-dimer and C-reactive protein). Bilateral infiltrations and bilateral ground-glass opacifications were frequently seen in chest radiographs and chest computed tomographic imaging. Most of the patients were treated with methylprednisolone, macrolides, and hydroxychloroquine. Of the 55 patients, 22 died. The mean age of the patients who died was 42.8 years. Mortality rate was higher in individuals with DS over 40 years of age. CONCLUSION: More studies are needed to better understand COVID-19 infections among persons with DS. In addition, the study was limited by a lack of statistical analyses and a specific comparison group.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Síndrome de Down , Linfopenia , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tosse/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Down/complicações , Síndrome de Down/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem
12.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 26(1): 65, 2024 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38459582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lymphopenia, autoantibodies and activation of the type I interferon (IFN) system are common features in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We speculate whether lymphocyte subset counts are affected by pregnancy and if they relate to autoantibody profiles and/or IFNα protein in SLE pregnancy. METHODS: Repeated blood samples were collected during pregnancy from 80 women with SLE and 51 healthy controls (HC). Late postpartum samples were obtained from 19 of the women with SLE. Counts of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells, B cells and NK cells were measured by flow cytometry. Positivity for anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) fine specificities (double-stranded DNA [dsDNA], Smith [Sm], ribonucleoprotein [RNP], chromatin, Sjögren's syndrome antigen A [SSA] and B [SSB]) and anti-phospholipid antibodies (cardiolipin [CL] and ß2 glycoprotein I [ß2GPI]) was assessed with multiplexed bead assay. IFNα protein concentration was quantified with Single molecule array (Simoa) immune assay. Clinical data were retrieved from medical records. RESULTS: Women with SLE had lower counts of all lymphocyte subsets compared to HC throughout pregnancy, but counts did not differ during pregnancy compared to postpartum. Principal component analysis revealed that low lymphocyte subset counts differentially related to autoantibody profiles, cluster one (anti-dsDNA/anti-Sm/anti-RNP/anti-Sm/RNP/anti-chromatin), cluster two (anti-SSA/anti-SSB) and cluster three (anti-CL/anti-ß2GPI), IFNα protein levels and disease activity. CD4 + T cell counts were lower in women positive to all ANA fine specificities in cluster one compared to those who were negative, and B cell numbers were lower in women positive for anti-dsDNA and anti-Sm compared to negative women. Moreover, CD4 + T cell and B cell counts were lower in women with moderate/high compared to no/low disease activity, and CD4 + T cell count was lower in IFNα protein positive relative to negative women. Finally, CD4 + T cell count was unrelated to treatment. CONCLUSION: Lymphocyte subset counts are lower in SLE compared to healthy pregnancies, which seems to be a feature of the disease per se and not affected by pregnancy. Our results also indicate that low lymphocyte subset counts relate differentially to autoantibody profiles, IFNα protein levels and disease activity, which could be due to divergent disease pathways.


Assuntos
Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico , Linfopenia , T-Linfocitopenia Idiopática CD4-Positiva , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Anticorpos Antinucleares , Autoanticorpos , DNA , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/complicações , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/patologia , T-Linfocitopenia Idiopática CD4-Positiva/etiologia , T-Linfocitopenia Idiopática CD4-Positiva/imunologia , Interferon-alfa
13.
J Infect ; 88(4): 106131, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38431153

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Lymphopenia at hospital admission occurs in over one-third of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), yet its clinical relevance and pathophysiological implications remain underexplored. We evaluated outcomes and immune features of patients with lymphopenic CAP (L-CAP), a previously described immunophenotype characterized by admission lymphocyte count <0.724 × 109 cells/L. METHODS: Observational study in 149 patients admitted to a general ward for CAP. We measured 34 plasma biomarkers reflective of inflammation, endothelial cell responses, coagulation, and immune checkpoints. We characterized lymphocyte phenotypes in 29 patients using spectral flow cytometry. RESULTS: L-CAP occurred in 45 patients (30.2%) and was associated with prolonged time-to-clinical-stability (median 5 versus 3 days), also when we accounted for competing events for reaching clinical stability and adjusted for baseline covariates (subdistribution hazard ratio 0.63; 95% confidence interval 0.45-0.88). L-CAP patients demonstrated a proportional depletion of CD4 T follicular helper cells, CD4 T effector memory cells, naïve CD8 T cells and IgG+ B cells. Plasma biomarker analyses indicated increased activation of the cytokine network and the vascular endothelium in L-CAP. CONCLUSIONS: L-CAP patients have a protracted clinical recovery course and a more broadly dysregulated host response. These findings highlight the prognostic and pathophysiological relevance of admission lymphopenia in patients with CAP.


Assuntos
Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas , Linfopenia , Pneumonia , Humanos , Inflamação , Hospitalização
14.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1356638, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38550590

RESUMO

Lymphocyte telomere length (TL) is highly variable and shortens with age. Short telomeres may impede TL-dependent T-cell clonal expansion with viral infection. As SARS-CoV-2 infection can induce prolonged and severe T-cell lymphopenia, infected adults, and particularly older adults with short telomeres, may display severe T-cell lymphopenia. To examine the relationship between T-cell TL parameters and T-cell counts, we studied 40 patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19. T-cells were isolated from lymphocytes, counted using flow cytometry, and their TL parameters were measured using the Telomere Shortest Length Assay. The cohort (median age = 62 years, 27% female) was racially and ethnically diverse (33% White, 35% Black, and 33% Other). On intensive care unit study day 1, T-cell count (mean=1.03 x109/L) was inversely related to age (p=0.007) and higher in females than males (p=0.025). Mean TL was 3.88 kilobases (kb), and 45.3% of telomeres were shorter than 3 kb. Using multiple regression analysis and adjusting for age and sex, T-cell count decreased with increased proportion of T-cell telomeres shorter than 3 kb (p=0.033) and increased with mean TL (p=0.052). Our findings suggest an association between the buildup of short telomeres within T-cells and explain in part reduced peripheral blood T-cell counts in patients with severe COVID-19. Shortened T-cell telomeres may be a risk factor for COVID-19-associated T-cell lymphopenia.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Linfopenia , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linfócitos T , SARS-CoV-2 , Contagem de Linfócitos , Telômero
15.
J Egypt Natl Canc Inst ; 36(1): 4, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38311646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Esophageal cancer has a poor survival outcome with 5-year OS at 16.7% despite treatment. Some inflammation-based prognostic indicators like the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) have been previously studied as potential biomarker for predicting outcome in esophageal cancer. Recently, platelet-to-albumin ratio (PAR) has been reported as a promising prognostic factor in gastrointestinal malignancies. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of prospectively treated patients of carcinoma esophagus to evaluate the prognostic significance of inflammation-based prognostic indicators-neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and a composite inflammation-nutrition index: platelet-to-albumin ratio (PAR) in esophageal cancer. Based on previous studies, the optimal cut-off value of PAR was kept at 5.7 × 10^9, and 2.62 for NLR. RESULTS: A total of 71 patients of locally advanced esophageal cancer treated between 2019 and 2022, with either neoadjuvant or definitive chemoradiotherapy, were included. Median follow-up time was 19 months [range: 7-44 months]. Median OS and PFS in our study cohort were 11.3 months [range: 7-23 months] and 7.8 months [range: 3-17 months], respectively. In univariate analysis, lower PAR was found to be significantly correlated with shorter survival time (HR = 2.41; 1.3-4.76; p = 0.047). There was no association found between the OS and the NLR [HR = 1.09; 0.95-1.26; p = 0.222]. Univariate and multivariate linear and logistic regressions found no association between V15, V10, V5, or V2 of spleen and nadir lymphocyte count or between Dmax or Dmean and nadir lymphocyte counts. CONCLUSION: Present analysis found a trend toward an inverse association between PAR and OS. PAR, in the not-so-distant future, may evolve as a novel, convenient, and inexpensive prognostic indicator in esophageal cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas , Linfopenia , Humanos , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Linfócitos/patologia , Biomarcadores , Linfopenia/diagnóstico , Linfopenia/etiologia , Linfopenia/patologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Esofágicas/radioterapia , Inflamação/patologia
16.
Transpl Int ; 37: 12192, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38328616

RESUMO

Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP) remains life-threatening in kidney transplant recipients (KTR). Our study investigated risk factors one-year before PcP. We conducted a monocentric, case-control study including all KTR at the Dijon University Hospital (France) with a diagnosis of PcP between 2005 and 2022 (cases), and matched control KTR with no history of PcP (3 controls/case). Among all 1,135 KTR, 57 cases (5%) and 169 matched-controls were included. PcP was associated with 18% mortality. Compared to controls, cases were older, with a higher immunological risk, and CMV infection was more frequent in the year preceding the occurrence of PcP (23% vs. 4%; p < 0.001). As early as 1 year before PcP, lymphocyte counts were lower and serum creatinine levels were higher in cases, but immunosuppressive regimens were not significantly different. Multivariable analysis identified lymphocyte count, serum creatinine level, being treated by immunosuppressive therapy other than anti-rejection drugs, and CMV infection in the year preceding the time PcP as independently associated with the occurrence of PcP. PcP was associated with an increased risk of subsequent chronic rejection (27% vs. 3%; p = 0.001) and return to dialysis (20% vs. 3%; p = 0.002). The occurrence of CMV infection and a low lymphocyte count could redefine the indications for continuation or reinitiation of anti-Pneumocystis prophylaxis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Transplante de Rim , Linfopenia , Pneumocystis carinii , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis , Trombocitopenia , Humanos , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/diagnóstico , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/complicações , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Creatinina , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/complicações , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Linfopenia/complicações , Trombocitopenia/complicações , Transplantados , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 104(7): 507-513, 2024 Feb 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317362

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the characteristics of cytopenia and its impact on prognosis in patients with relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) after B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) immunotherapy therapy. Methods: Clinical data of 36 RRMM patients received BCMA CAR-T therapy at the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University from April 2017 to March 2023 were retrospectively collected. Among them, there were 17 males and 19 females, with an age [M (Q1, Q3)] of 62 (53, 67) years. The follow-up deadline was August 31, 2023, and the follow-up time [M (Q1, Q3)] was 33 (10, 30) months. The characteristics of cytopenia at different time points before lymphodepleting chemotherapy and after CAR-T cell infusion in all patients were analyzed. Kaplan-Meier method was used to compare the differences in progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with different clinical characteristics. Single-cell sequencing analysis was used to analyze the changes in hematopoietic stem cells in three patients after CAR-T cell therapy. Results: The incidence of cytopenia after BCMA CAR-T cell therapy in 36 RRMM patients reached 100%. The incidence of neutropenia peaked on the 7th and 28th day after cell infusion with a biphasic pattern of change.Patients with all grade neutropenia reached 61.1% (22/36) and grade 3 or higher reached 33.3% (12/36) on the 7th day, while patients with all grade neutropenia reached 67.9% (19/28) and grade 3 or higher reached 28.6% (8/28) on the 28th day (P<0.001),respectively. The occurrence rate of lymphopenia reached a peak on the day of CAR-T cell infusion [97.2% (35/36) patients showed lymphopenia, while 80.6% (29/36) patients showed grade 3 or higher lymphopenia] (P<0.001).The incidence of all grade of thrombocytopenia and severe thrombocytopenia (grade 3 or higher) peaked on the 14th day after cell infusion, with the rates of 69.4% (25/36) and 30.6% (11/36) respectively, which had a prolonged duration(P<0.001). Even after 12 months, 40% (8/20) of patients still experienced thrombocytopenia.The incidence of anemia peaked on the 7th and 14th day after cell infusion, with a rate of 100% (36/36) (P<0.001). 50% (10/20) of patients still had anemia even 12 months after cell infusion. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that patients with thrombocytopenia < grade 3 had undefined OS, while patients with thrombocytopenia ≥grade 3 had shorter OS [17 (95%CI: 2-32) months, χ2=4.154, P=0.042], indicating a poorer prognosis. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the relationship between other cytopenia and survival (all P>0.05). Single-cell sequencing analysis of bone marrow cells revealed decreased proliferation, increased apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest of hematopoietic stem cells after CAR-T cell infusion. Conclusions: All patients experienced varying degrees of cytopenia after receiving BCMA CAR-T cell infusion, and patients with thrombocytopenia ≥grade 3 had shorter OS and poorer prognosis.


Assuntos
Linfopenia , Mieloma Múltiplo , Neutropenia , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos , Trombocitopenia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Anemia , Anticorpos/uso terapêutico , Antígeno de Maturação de Linfócitos B/uso terapêutico , Mieloma Múltiplo/terapia , Prognóstico , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso
18.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1326757, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38390330

RESUMO

Despite significant advances in our knowledge regarding the genetics and molecular biology of gliomas over the past two decades and hundreds of clinical trials, no effective therapeutic approach has been identified for adult patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma, and overall survival remains dismal. Great hopes are now placed on combination immunotherapy. In clinical trials, immunotherapeutics are generally tested after standard therapy (radiation, temozolomide, and steroid dexamethasone) or concurrently with temozolomide and/or steroids. Only a minor subset of patients with progressive/recurrent glioblastoma have benefited from immunotherapies. In this review, we comprehensively discuss standard therapy-related systemic immunosuppression and lymphopenia, their prognostic significance, and the implications for immunotherapy/oncolytic virotherapy. The effectiveness of immunotherapy and oncolytic virotherapy (viro-immunotherapy) critically depends on the activity of the host immune cells. The absolute counts, ratios, and functional states of different circulating and tumor-infiltrating immune cell subsets determine the net immune fitness of patients with cancer and may have various effects on tumor progression, therapeutic response, and survival outcomes. Although different immunosuppressive mechanisms operate in patients with glioblastoma/gliomas at presentation, the immunological competence of patients may be significantly compromised by standard therapy, exacerbating tumor-related systemic immunosuppression. Standard therapy affects diverse immune cell subsets, including dendritic, CD4+, CD8+, natural killer (NK), NKT, macrophage, neutrophil, and myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC). Systemic immunosuppression and lymphopenia limit the immune system's ability to target glioblastoma. Changes in the standard therapy are required to increase the success of immunotherapies. Steroid use, high neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and low post-treatment total lymphocyte count (TLC) are significant prognostic factors for shorter survival in patients with glioblastoma in retrospective studies; however, these clinically relevant variables are rarely reported and correlated with response and survival in immunotherapy studies (e.g., immune checkpoint inhibitors, vaccines, and oncolytic viruses). Our analysis should help in the development of a more rational clinical trial design and decision-making regarding the treatment to potentially improve the efficacy of immunotherapy or oncolytic virotherapy.


Assuntos
Glioblastoma , Glioma , Linfopenia , Terapia Viral Oncolítica , Adulto , Humanos , Terapia Viral Oncolítica/efeitos adversos , Glioblastoma/patologia , Prognóstico , Temozolomida/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Terapia de Imunossupressão , Glioma/terapia , Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Linfopenia/terapia
19.
J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle ; 15(2): 562-574, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38302863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer-associated cachexia (CAC) is a debilitating syndrome associated with poor quality of life and reduced life expectancy of cancer patients. CAC is characterized by unintended body weight reduction due to muscle and adipose tissue loss. A major hallmark of CAC is systemic inflammation. Several non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been suggested for CAC treatment, yet no single medication has proven reliable. R-ketorolac (RK) is the R-enantiomer of a commonly used NSAID. The effect of RK on CAC has not yet been evaluated. METHODS: Ten- to 11-week-old mice were inoculated with C26 or CHX207 cancer cells or vehicle control (phosphate-buffered saline [PBS]). After cachexia onset, 2 mg/kg RK or PBS was administered daily by oral gavage. Body weight, food intake and tumour size were continuously measured. At study endpoints, blood was drawn, mice were sacrificed and tissues were excised. Immune cell abundance was analysed using a Cytek® Aurora spectral flow cytometer. Cyclooxygenase (COX) activity was determined in lung homogenates using a fluorometric kit. Muscle tissues were analysed for mRNA and protein expression by quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting analysis, respectively. Muscle fibre size was determined on histological slides after haematoxylin/eosin staining. RESULTS: Ten-day survival rate of C26-bearing animals was 10% while RK treatment resulted in a 100% survival rate (P = 0.0009). Chemotherapy resulted in a 10% survival rate 14 days after treatment initiation, but all mice survived upon co-medication with RK and cyclophosphamide (P = 0.0001). Increased survival was associated with a protection from body weight loss in C26 (-0.61 ± 1.82 vs. -4.48 ± 2.0 g, P = 0.0004) and CHX207 (-0.49 ± 0.33 vs. -2.49 ± 0.93 g, P = 0.0003) tumour-bearing mice treated with RK, compared with untreated mice. RK ameliorated musculus quadriceps (-1.7 ± 7.1% vs. -27.8 ± 8.3%, P = 0.0007) and gonadal white adipose tissue (-18.8 ± 49% vs. -69 ± 15.6%, P = 0.094) loss in tumour-bearing mice, compared with untreated mice. Mechanistically, RK reduced circulating interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations from 334 ± 151 to 164 ± 123 pg/mL (P = 0.047) in C26 and from 93 ± 39 to 35 ± 6 pg/mL (P = 0.0053) in CHX207 tumour-bearing mice. Moreover, RK protected mice from cancer-induced T-lymphopenia (+1.8 ± 42% vs. -49.2 ± 12.1% in treated vs. untreated mice, respectively). RK was ineffective in ameliorating CAC in thymus-deficient nude mice, indicating that the beneficial effect of RK depends on T-cells. CONCLUSIONS: RK improved T-lymphopenia and decreased systemic IL-6 concentrations, resulting in alleviation of cachexia and increased survival of cachexigenic tumour-bearing mice, even under chemotherapy and independent of COX inhibition. Considering its potential, we propose that the use of RK should be investigated in patients suffering from CAC.


Assuntos
Linfopenia , Neoplasias , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Caquexia/tratamento farmacológico , Caquexia/etiologia , Caquexia/metabolismo , Cetorolaco/metabolismo , Cetorolaco/farmacologia , Cetorolaco/uso terapêutico , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Camundongos Nus , Qualidade de Vida , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Peso Corporal , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Linfopenia/complicações , Linfopenia/tratamento farmacológico , Linfopenia/patologia
20.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1329610, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38361950

RESUMO

Mutations in STK4 (MST1) are implicated in a form of autosomal recessive combined immunodeficiency, resulting in recurrent infections (especially Epstein-Barr virus viremia), autoimmunity, and cardiac malformations. Here we report a patient with an atypically mild presentation of this disease, initially presenting with severe T cell lymphopenia (< 500 per mm3) and intermittent neutropenia, but now surviving well on immunoglobulins and prophylactic antibacterial treatment. She harbors a unique STK4 mutation that lies further downstream than all others reported to date. Unlike other published cases, her mRNA transcript is not vulnerable to nonsense mediated decay (NMD) and yields a truncated protein that is expected to lose only the C-terminal SARAH domain. This domain is critical for autodimerization and autophosphorylation. While exhibiting significant differences from controls, this patient's T cell proliferation defects and susceptibility to apoptosis are not as severe as reported elsewhere. Expression of PD-1 is in line with healthy controls. Similarly, the dysregulation seen in immunophenotyping is not as pronounced as in other published cases. The nature of this mutation, enabling its evasion from NMD, provides a rare glimpse into the clinical and cellular features associated with the absence of a "null" phenotype of this protein.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr , Linfopenia , Humanos , Feminino , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/genética , Herpesvirus Humano 4 , Mutação , Linfopenia/genética , Linfócitos T , Fenótipo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética
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