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1.
J R Soc Med ; 117(1): 46-47, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38335052
2.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 982024 Feb 16.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38362821

RESUMO

This article reviews and comments on the epidemiological book written by the Spanish physician Benigno Risueño de Amador (1802-1849), initially published in French (1829), and its subsequent translation into Spanish (1831). This retrospective documentary case study of a scientific-medical manual reviews the contents of the book, highlighting its most important aspects. This almost 200-year-old book can be considered a valuable, early contribution to epidemiology, and a sign of the great concern in early 19th Europe about the subject of epidemics. It represents a valuable contribution that shows the enormous efforts made to advance in this medical discipline towards a more scientific position at an incipient microbial time.


En este artículo se revisa y comenta el libro de epidemiología escrito por el médico español Benigno Risueño de Amador (1802-1849), publicado inicialmente en francés (1829) y posteriormente traducido al español (1831). Este estudio documental retrospectivo de un manual científico-médico glosa el contenido del libro, destacando sus aspectos más importantes. El libro de casi doscientos años de antigüedad puede considerarse una valiosa y temprana contribución a la epidemiología, así como una muestra de la gran preocupación existente en la Europa de principios del siglo XIX por el tema de las epidemias. Representa además una valiosa contribución española, que muestra los esfuerzos realizados para avanzar en esta disciplina médica hacia una posición más científica en una época incipientemente microbiana.


Assuntos
Livros , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha , Europa (Continente)
3.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0293196, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38394097

RESUMO

In this research, we extract time-related expressions from a rabbinic text in a semi-automatic manner. These expressions usually appear next to rabbinic references (name / nickname / acronym / book-name). The first step toward our goal is to find all the expressions near references in the corpus. However, not all of the phrases around the references are time-related expressions. Therefore, these phrases are initially considered to be potential time-related expressions. To extract the time-related expressions, we formulate two new statistical functions, and we use screening and heuristic methods. We tested these statistical functions, grammatical screenings, and heuristic methods on a corpus containing responsa documents. In this corpus, many rabbinic citations are known and marked. The statistical functions and the screening methods filtered the potential time-related expressions and reduced 99.88% of the initial expressions (from 484,681 to 575).


Assuntos
Mineração de Dados , Heurística , Livros
5.
J Am Coll Surg ; 238(2): 166-171, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38230999

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic gastrectomy is widely used as a curative treatment for gastric cancer. Although delta-shaped anastomosis is commonly used for Billroth I anastomosis after totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy (TLDG), it has some drawbacks. The book-binding technique (BBT) was developed as an alternative, and this study aimed to examine its short-term results in 188 consecutive cases. STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective study included patients who underwent BBT reconstruction after TLDG for gastric malignancy between 2011 and 2020. BBT is a technique for intracorporeal gastroduodenostomy, which is a triangular anastomosis with a linear stapler that does not require additional dissection or rotation of the duodenum. The short-term outcomes of BBT reconstruction and postoperative endoscopic findings were analyzed. RESULTS: This study evaluated 188 patients who underwent TLDG and BBT reconstruction. Anastomotic stenosis and leakage occurred in 1.1% and 0.5% of the patients, respectively. The median time to the first diet was 3.1 days, and the median postoperative hospital stay was 11.9 days. BBT anastomoses were performed by 19 surgeons and took an average of 32.8 minutes to complete, with completion times decreasing as the surgical team became more proficient. On endoscopy performed 1 year postoperatively, 5.2% had reflux esophagitis (grade A or higher), 67.8% had gastritis (grade 1 or higher), 37.4% had residual food (grade 1 or higher), and 37.4% had bile reflux (grade 1). CONCLUSIONS: BBT is a safe and feasible method for intracorporeal gastroduodenostomy in TLDG for patients with gastric malignancy and demonstrates good surgical outcomes.


Assuntos
Laparoscopia , Neoplasias Gástricas , Humanos , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Livros , Gastrectomia , Gastroenterostomia
6.
PLoS One ; 19(1): e0292562, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38180996

RESUMO

Tinnitus is a common health condition, affecting approximately 15% of the UK population. The tinnitus treatment with the strongest evidence base is Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT), with standard tinnitus therapy typically augmented with education, relaxation and other techniques. Availability of CBT and conventional tinnitus therapy more broadly is limited for tinnitus sufferers. The DEFINE trial aims to assess whether smartphone-delivered tinnitus therapy, the Oto app, is as effective as current standard care, one-to-one therapist-delivered tinnitus treatment for the treatment of tinnitus in adults. The trial is registered in the ISRCTN Registry: ISRCTN99577932. DEFINE is an open-label, non-inferiority, prospective, parallel design, randomised-controlled trial. Recruitment, interventions and assessments will be remote, enabling UK-wide participant involvement. 198 participants aged 18 years or more will be recruited via social media advertisement or via primary care physicians. A screening process will identify those with tinnitus that impacts health-related quality of life, and following consent smartphone-based audiometry will be performed. Randomisation 1:1 to the Oto app or one-to-one therapist-led tinnitus therapy will be performed centrally by computer, matching groups for age, sex and hearing level. Following participant allocation, the Oto app will be provided for immediate use, or a one-to-one remote therapy appointment booked to occur within approximately 1 week, with up to 6 sessions delivered. Participant outcomes will be collected at 4,12, 26 and 52 weeks via questionnaire and phone call. The primary outcome is the change in Tinnitus Functional Index (TFI) total score measured at 26 weeks following allocation. Adverse events will be recorded. A health economic evaluation in the form of a cost-utility analysis will be performed using data from participant submitted EuroQol 5D-5L and Health Utilities Index Mark 3 scores and resource use data. Trial results will be made publicly available, including a plain English summary.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Zumbido , Adulto , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Zumbido/terapia , Pessoal Técnico de Saúde , Livros , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
7.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 24(1): 137, 2024 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38267935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neurosurgical clinic assesses presence and extent of pathologies of central and peripheral nervous system or disorders affecting the spine, to identify most effective treatment and possible recourse to surgery. The aim of the study is to evaluate the appropriateness of request for a neurosurgical consult both in private and in public outpatient clinics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We collected and analyzed all the reports of outpatient visits of public and private clinic over a period between January and December 2018. RESULTS: There were 0.62% real urgent visits in the public sector and 1.19% in the private sector (p = 0.05). Peripheral pathologies represented 12.53% and 6.21% of pathologies evaluated in public and private sector respectively (p < 0.00001). In addition, 15.76% of visits in public lead to surgery, while they represented 11.45% in private (p = 0.0003). CONCLUSIONS: No study is available comparing accesses of patients in neurosurgical outpatient clinics. In public clinic, visits are booked as urgent on the prescription of the general practitioner: in reality, only 5% of these visits were really confirmed as urgent by the specialist. Peripheral pathologies are more frequent in public clinic, while cranial pathologies are more frequent in private one. Patients with cranial pathologies prefer to choose their surgeon by accessing private clinic.


Assuntos
Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Clínicos Gerais , Humanos , Livros , Prescrições , Setor Privado
8.
PLoS One ; 19(1): e0297357, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38277367

RESUMO

Library data contains many students' reading records that reflect their general knowledge acquisition. The purpose of this study is to deeply mine the library book-borrowing data, with concerns on different book catalogues and properties to predict the students' extracurricular interests. An intelligent computing framework is proposed by the fusion of a neural network architecture and a partial differential equations (PDE) function module. In model designs, the architecture is constructed as an adaptive learning backpropagation neural network (BPNN), with automatic tuning of its hyperparameters. The PDE module is embedded into the network structure to enhance the loss functions of each neural perceptron. For model evaluation, a novel comprehensive index is designed using the calculus of information entropy. Empirical experiments are conducted on a diverse and multimodal time-series dataset of library book borrowing records to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. Results validate that the proposed framework is capable of revealing the students' extracurricular reading interests by processing related book borrowing records, and expected to be applied to "big data" analysis for a wide range of various libraries.


Assuntos
Leitura , Estudantes , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Livros , Análise de Dados
9.
10.
JMIR Med Educ ; 10: e50842, 2024 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38236632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ChatGPT and language learning models have gained attention recently for their ability to answer questions on various examinations across various disciplines. The question of whether ChatGPT could be used to aid in medical education is yet to be answered, particularly in the field of ophthalmology. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to assess the ability of ChatGPT-3.5 (GPT-3.5) and ChatGPT-4.0 (GPT-4.0) to answer ophthalmology-related questions across different levels of ophthalmology training. METHODS: Questions from the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) steps 1 (n=44), 2 (n=60), and 3 (n=28) were extracted from AMBOSS, and 248 questions (64 easy, 122 medium, and 62 difficult questions) were extracted from the book, Ophthalmology Board Review Q&A, for the Ophthalmic Knowledge Assessment Program and the Board of Ophthalmology (OB) Written Qualifying Examination (WQE). Questions were prompted identically and inputted to GPT-3.5 and GPT-4.0. RESULTS: GPT-3.5 achieved a total of 55% (n=210) of correct answers, while GPT-4.0 achieved a total of 70% (n=270) of correct answers. GPT-3.5 answered 75% (n=33) of questions correctly in USMLE step 1, 73.33% (n=44) in USMLE step 2, 60.71% (n=17) in USMLE step 3, and 46.77% (n=116) in the OB-WQE. GPT-4.0 answered 70.45% (n=31) of questions correctly in USMLE step 1, 90.32% (n=56) in USMLE step 2, 96.43% (n=27) in USMLE step 3, and 62.90% (n=156) in the OB-WQE. GPT-3.5 performed poorer as examination levels advanced (P<.001), while GPT-4.0 performed better on USMLE steps 2 and 3 and worse on USMLE step 1 and the OB-WQE (P<.001). The coefficient of correlation (r) between ChatGPT answering correctly and human users answering correctly was 0.21 (P=.01) for GPT-3.5 as compared to -0.31 (P<.001) for GPT-4.0. GPT-3.5 performed similarly across difficulty levels, while GPT-4.0 performed more poorly with an increase in the difficulty level. Both GPT models performed significantly better on certain topics than on others. CONCLUSIONS: ChatGPT is far from being considered a part of mainstream medical education. Future models with higher accuracy are needed for the platform to be effective in medical education.


Assuntos
Educação Médica , Oftalmologia , Humanos , Livros , Olho , Face
11.
Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen ; 39: 15333175241228383, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38262932

RESUMO

Institutionalized persons with dementia often lack access to meaningful activity, which can lead to agitation, loneliness, and depression. Engagement in activity may improve negative symptoms but is difficult in most settings. In this study, we investigated the degree to which the Reading Buddies Program, in which occupational therapy graduate students read books with residents with dementia, engaged residents. We further assessed whether the level of engagement was affected by various parameters, including those related to interaction, environment, attention, attitude, and activity. The primary outcome measure was engagement percentage-duration of time the book was read divided by duration of time the person with dementia engaged with the book. As expected, increased attention, attitude, and activity parameters were associated with increased engagement. None of the environmental parameters significantly affected engagement. Overall, we found that reading with persons with dementia led to a very high level of engagement and appeared to reduce negative symptoms.


Assuntos
Livros , Demência , Humanos , Solidão
12.
Compr Psychiatry ; 128: 152436, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37944255

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Evidence shows that dialogic book-sharing improves language development in young children in low-middle income countries (LMICs), particularly receptive and expressive language. It is unclear whether this intervention also boosts development of other neurocognitive and socio-emotional domains in children. Using a randomized controlled trial (RCT) nested in the Drakenstein Child Health Study (DCHS), a book-sharing intervention was implemented in caregivers of 3.5-year-old preschool children living in low-income South African communities. METHODS: 122 Caregivers and their children (mean age 3.5 years) were randomly assigned to an intervention group (n = 61) or waitlist control group (n = 61). A neurocognitive battery determined baseline receptive and expressive language, executive function, theory of mind, and behavior scores. RESULTS: No differences were observed between intervention and control groups on receptive and expressive language, or any of the neurocognitive or socio-emotional measures from baseline (3.5 years) to 4 months post-intervention administration (4 years). CONCLUSION: The benefits noted in prior literature of book-sharing in infants did not appear to be demonstrated at 4 months post-intervention, in children from 3.5 to 4 years of age. This suggests the importance of early intervention and emphasizes the need for further research on adaptation of book-sharing for older participants in a South African context. TRIAL REGISTRATION: retrospectively registered on 03/04/2022 PACTR202204697674974.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Função Executiva , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Livros , Idioma , África do Sul
14.
Acta Paediatr ; 113(1): 84-90, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37861073

RESUMO

AIM: We compared mothers reading books to six-month-old infants or playing with toys and measured whether the maternal language input influenced the children's spoken vocabulary at 18 months of age. METHOD: This Taiwanese study recruited 46 dyads and video recorded them while the mothers read books to their infants and played with them with toys at 6 months of age. The mothers' lexical diversity, which is the ratio of different unique words to the total number of words, was measured. We then assessed the children's spoken vocabulary at 18 months. RESULTS: The mother used more diverse vocabulary and a higher number of words when they were reading books than playing with toys with their children (p = 0.001). Maternal lexical diversity at 6 months of age accounted for 14.4% of the unique variance in the number of different words used by the child at 18 months. We believe that this is a novel finding. CONCLUSION: Mothers used wider vocabulary and talked to their infants more during book reading than when they played with toys. Diverse maternal vocabulary at 6 months of age positively influenced the number of different words their children used at 18 months of age.


Assuntos
Mães , Vocabulário , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Livros , Idioma , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Leitura
15.
Br J Gen Pract ; 74(738): 33-34, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38154931
17.
Nurse Educ ; 49(1): E20-E25, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37647544

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interactive e-books offer multimedia and interactive features that make them particularly suitable for learning nursing skills and also allow for easy content updating, ensuring that students learn the most current skills based on the latest clinical guidelines. PURPOSE: To examine the effectiveness of an interactive e-book in increasing nursing students' knowledge, confidence, and learning self-efficacy of performing nasogastric tube feeding. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 62 nursing students, with the experimental group using an interactive e-book for learning whereas the comparison group using a printed textbook. RESULTS: The experimental group demonstrated significantly greater knowledge and confidence improvements than the comparison group, but no significant difference was found in learning self-efficacy. The experimental group was significantly more satisfied with the learning materials than the comparison group. CONCLUSIONS: Interactive e-books are more effective in enhancing nursing students' knowledge and confidence in performing nursing skills than printed textbooks.


Assuntos
Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Humanos , Autoeficácia , Pesquisa em Educação de Enfermagem , Aprendizagem , Livros , Competência Clínica
18.
J Hist Dent ; 71(3): 158-171, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38039104

RESUMO

John Greenwood (1760-1819) was George Washington's preferred dentist. He practiced in New York and made at least one of eight sets of dentures Washington wore (currently in the collection of the New York Academy of Medicine (NYAM). We know very little about John Greenwood's (JG) formal education, except that he came from a famous family of dentists. He inherited from his father, Isaac Greenwood, one important book of the time, John Hunter's 1778 treatise, A Natural History of the Human Teeth. That copy was donated to the New York Academy of Medicine by descendants of John Greenwood. Recently, we became aware of extensive marginalia that John Greenwood wrote in this book. The present article describes John Greenwood's opinion on a variety of dental subjects such as the causes and mechanisms of tooth destruction and gum disease and the presence of microscopic annamalcula that were thought to be connected to poor oral hygiene. Although John Greenwood was self-educated, his observations are surprisingly insightful and at least 37 years ahead of what was described in the contemporary literature.


Assuntos
Medicina , Masculino , Humanos , New York , Washington , Livros , Diagnóstico Bucal
19.
Adv Life Course Res ; 56: 100545, 2023 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38054889

RESUMO

Building upon Bourdieusian sociology of education and Randall Collins' theory of, interaction ritual chains, this paper contributes to the literature on the biographical life course by analyzing the biographies of upwardly mobile academics, i.e. those who, escaped the "collective fate of their class." Based on the collection of 25 unstructured, narrative interviews (life story narratives) and additional individual in-depth interviews, (repeated interviews, interviews with families, and friends), a total of 75 qualitative, interviews, I trace the main biographical metamorphoses of upwardly mobile, academics. The meticulous analysis of the narrations brings about an answer to the, question "What was the role of a social class in their biographical metamorphoses?", The analysis of the turning points in the under-researched context of the postcommunist, semi-peripheral, and yet neoliberal academic system enables the paper to, discuss social circumstances which play a crucial role in this kind of upward mobility, e.g. early discovered talent, presence of books at home, choice of high school, early contact with the legitimized culture, opportunity structure of the higher education system under transition and transnational experience.


Assuntos
Livros , Docentes , Humanos , Comportamento Compulsivo , Escolaridade , Amigos
20.
PLoS One ; 18(12): e0295914, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38100433

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this scoping review is to map the available evidence on strategies that nurses can use to facilitate genomics-informed healthcare to address health disparities. INTRODUCTION: Advancements in genomics over the last two decades have led to an increase in the delivery of genomics-informed health care. Although the integration of genomics into health care services continues to enhance patient outcomes, access to genomic technologies is not equitable, exacerbating existing health disparities amongst certain populations. As the largest portion of the health workforce, nurses play a critical role in the delivery of equitable genomics-informed care. However, little is known about how nurses can help address health disparities within the context of genomics-informed health care. A review of the literature will provide the necessary foundation to identify promising practices, policy, and knowledge gaps for further areas of inquiry. INCLUSION CRITERIA: We will include papers that explore strategies that nurses can undertake to facilitate genomics-informed care to address health disparities. METHODS: This review will be conducted using JBI methodology for scoping reviews. We will search electronic databases including MEDLINE (OVID), EMBASE, Cochrane Library, PsychInfo, and CINAHL for quantitative and qualitative studies, systematic reviews and grey literature. Theses, books, and unavailable full-text papers will be excluded. The search will be limited to papers from 2013 and beyond. Two reviewers will screen titles and abstracts followed by full-text and disagreements will be resolved by a third reviewer. We will use a data extraction tool using Microsoft Excel and analyse data using descriptive statistics and conventional content analysis. Findings will be presented in the form of evidence tables and a narrative summary. We will report findings using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR). DISCUSSION: Genomics will continue to transform all aspects of health care across the wellness continuum from prevention, assessment, diagnosis, management, treatment, and palliative care. The identification of nursing strategies to address health disparities will build the foundation for policy and practice to ensure that the integration of genomic technologies benefits everyone.


Assuntos
Equidade em Saúde , Humanos , Genômica , Livros , Bases de Dados Factuais , Dissidências e Disputas , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
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