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3.
J Hist Dent ; 69(1): 3-28, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383633

RESUMO

In 1563, the Italian anatomist Bartolomeo Eustachio published Libellus de Dentibus, the first book on dental anatomy. Subsequently, the surgeon Urbain Hemard authored Recherche de la Vraye Anathomie des Dents in 1582, the first book on dentistry in the French language. Hemard and Eustachio, two names integral in the biblio-historical development of dentistry, have been intertwined in a philological controversy ever since, with historians debating charges of plagiarism. Hemard's commentary on dental anatomy bears striking resemblance to Eustachio's, with the bulk of the text being an exact French translation. This essay will introduce a newly discovered copy of Eustachio's Libellus that bears the signature of Hemard, thus, reinforcing the plagiarism charges. However, the historiographical debate has been buttressed simply on the contents of the two books, with little attention paid to the socio-political influences that could have directed Hemard towards textual annexation. In sixteenth-century Europe, cultural animosity was percolating within political and social spheres, and seeping into the publishing industry. French translations of foreign texts were viewed as a defense against Italian cultural intrusion. This essay will argue that given the prestige of Italian anatomical knowledge, Hemard may have felt justified in annexing the work of his foreign contemporary as a defense of French national identity, and ultimately, since Eustachio was mired in obscurity in his time, he could have seized the opportunity to elevate his status as a great anatomist.


Assuntos
Anatomistas , Plágio , Livros , Assistência Odontológica , Humanos , Traduções
4.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(14): 3478-3486, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402269

RESUMO

Elaphurus davidianus( Milu),a rare animal unique to China,has been used as medicine for more than a thousand years,but the extinction of Milu in modern times resulted in the unavailability of related medical products. Today,the reintroduction of Milu population makes it possible to restore its medicinal usage. The resource reserves of Cervi Cornu,the natural shedding product from Milu,are increasing with the expansion of the population,allowing it to be fully utilized in the medical field. Mijiao Pills,first recorded in Important Prescriptions Worth a Thousand Gold for Emergency( Bei Ji Qian Jin Yao Fang) by Sun Simiao in the Tang Dynasty,is the first Chinese medicinal prescription with Cervi Cornu as the sovereign medicinal,which is effective in tonifying. Its composition,preparation,efficacy and indications,and administration are described in detail in the Important Prescriptions Worth a Thousand Gold for Emergency,which however,have changed significantly over the thousands of years,seriously affecting the clinical application of this classical prescription and related product development. Therefore,the key information of this prescription should be systematically collated and summarized. According to the principles of textual research on key information in ancient classical prescriptions promulgated by relevant authorities,this paper reviewed ancient Chinese medical books of the past dynasties,modern literature,as well as the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China( 2020 Version) to figure out such key information as the source,historical evolution,original plants and animals and their processing,dosage,preparation,and usage of Mijiao Pills. This paper aimed to provide a basis for the clinical application of Mijiao Pills and subsequent product development,thus facilitating the development and utilization of this precious medicinal animal resource.


Assuntos
Cornus , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Livros , China , Humanos , Prescrições
5.
Nurse Educ Today ; 105: 104883, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nursing essentially involves working closely with patients both physically and psychologically. Nurses, particularly inexperienced nursing students, are often at great risk of sexual harassment. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of a clinical-based sexual harassment prevention e-book on nursing students' knowledge, prevention strategies, coping behaviors, and learning motivation. DESIGN: A randomized, controlled, experimental study. SETTING: Nursing Department at a private university in Taiwan. PARTICIPANTS: Senior nursing students who had finished the required professional internship or were undergoing community nursing or psychiatric nursing internship. METHODS: Participants were randomly allocated to intervention (e-book, n = 33) and control (video and brochure, n = 33) groups. They were asked to complete a structured questionnaire before, after, and 2 weeks after the intervention to evaluate their sexual harassment knowledge, prevention strategies, coping behaviors, and learning motivation. RESULTS: In the posttest, the e-book group scored significantly higher in the sexual harassment prevention knowledge (p < .05), sexual harassment prevention strategy (p < .01), and ARCS motivation (p < .001) subscales than the control group, but not in the coping behavior subscale. In terms of group and time effects, knowledge, coping behavior, prevention strategy, and motivation scores were all significantly different in the first posttest (p < .001). In the second posttest, coping behavior and ARCS motivation scores remained significantly different (p < .01). CONCLUSION: The interactive multimedia e-book effectively improved the sexual harassment prevention knowledge and competence of nursing students. This method can be employed as a supplementary material in nursing education, internship guidance, and nursing on-the-job education.


Assuntos
Assédio Sexual , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Adaptação Psicológica , Livros , Humanos , Multimídia
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208785

RESUMO

Young children's use of digital devices is increasing as we progress through the 21st century and handheld and mobile devices, such as smartphones and tablets, have become increasingly available. While older children using tablets to read has been more broadly investigated, less is known about the impacts of digital reading on children at the stage of literacy acquisition. An analytical review was conducted on the effects of interactive e-book interventions for young children's literacy development when compared to (a) listening to print books, (b) regular school programs, and (c) reading non-enhanced and non-interactive e-books. A significant additional beneficial effect of e-book interventions was found for phonological awareness and vocabulary learning based on data from 1138 children in 14 randomized controlled trial (RCT) studies. When e-books are properly selected and used, children develop literacy skills equally well and sometimes better than with print books. Additionally, e-book interventions outperformed the regular school program in the development of literacy skills. Similarly, enhanced e-book conditions revealed benefits over the non-enhanced e-book interventions in literacy skill acquisition. The impact of these findings related to health issues, e-book design, disadvantaged populations, and adult-led e-book sharing is discussed.


Assuntos
Alfabetização , Leitura , Adolescente , Adulto , Livros , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Relações Pais-Filho , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Vocabulário
7.
FEMS Microbiol Lett ; 368(12)2021 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34113987

RESUMO

During Bad Bugs Bookclub meetings, scientists and non-scientists discuss novels in which infectious disease forms part of the plot in order to encourage public understanding of, and engagement with, microbiology. The website presents meeting reports and reading guides for over 70 novels. The aim of this work was to raise awareness of the bookclub and increase website engagement. In 2019, events designed to reach new audiences maintained an increase in page views from the end of 2018 (around 200 per month). In 2020, the coronavirus pandemic forced bookclub meetings online (Zoom). These, with podcasts and some Twitter discussion, increased page views with a peak of 400 per month. Membership increased, and global 'attendance' was facilitated. Feelings and observations related to each book and the pandemic were noted in meeting reports. A survey of current and previous bookclub members carried out early in lockdown with the aim of determining the future direction of the bookclub revealed the continuing value of both literary and scientific experiences to members. The bookclub has engaged scientists and non-scientists in meaningful discussion about infectious disease. Reach is modest, but the resource is significant, with potential impact in education and engagement.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/patologia , Medicina na Literatura , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Livros , COVID-19/patologia , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Zhonghua Yi Shi Za Zhi ; 51(2): 85-91, 2021 Mar 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098700

RESUMO

A total of 223 pictures were included in Yangyi Daquan(,Complete Collection of Skin Diseases) , a surgical masterpiece work with the most abundant image classification extant before the Republic of China. They can be divided into seven categories: the philosophical basis of Chinese medicine and the theory of five evolutive phases and six climatic factors, the figures of visceral manifestation, the figures of acupuncture and acupoint, the figures of diagnosis, the figures of disease, the figures of needle and instrument, and the figures of symbol, from basic to clinical, covering today's otolaryngology, stomatology, gynecology, andrology, pediatrics, dermatology, anorectal, infection, oncology, emergency, which originally belong to the scope of Chinese medicine surgery. The book is extremely rich in images, it has high clinical and academic value.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Acupuntura , Pontos de Acupuntura , Livros , Criança , China , Humanos , Taiwan
9.
Zhonghua Yi Shi Za Zhi ; 51(2): 126-128, 2021 Mar 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098707

RESUMO

Wenre Jingwei(,Warp and Weft of Warm and Hot Disorders) is believed the masterpiece written by Wang Mengying, who was a famous physician in the Qing Dynasty. It represents the essence of Wang's theory in terms of Epidemic Febrile Diseases. It has been interpreted and analyzed by seven critics. However, these seven critics have not been widely known up to now. This paper introduces the life history of the critics and their medical achievements, in order to clarify their contributions to this book and enrich the content of medical history.


Assuntos
Epidemias , Médicos , Livros , China , Humanos , Redação
10.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 282: 183-198, 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085968

RESUMO

Providing access to high quality books for all types of readers is a premise for cultural democracy. Many people, however, have challenges reading mainstream books. There might be diverse reasons why people find reading challenging. Some examples are reading impairments, reduced vision, cognitive impairments, learning a new language, or due to stress, fatigue or illness. To ensure everyone access to literature, it is therefore vital to produce books that can (and will) be read by a wide range of users. This case study addresses the following research questions: Do adapted books represent accessible or universal design? Can adapted books be perceived as motivating to read for all types of readers? Are "special books" necessary to ensure that all users have access to high quality literature? In Norway, the association Books for Everyone develops adapted, printed fictional books to accommodate various types of reading challenges. This paper examines the production of these books and uses this collection to investigate the research questions. The main finding is that most of the books by Books for Everyone can be considered examples of universal design, rather than "special books" directed at a very narrow user group. Moreover, there seems to be a limited need for "special books", except for books targeting readers with severe cognitive or sensory impairments. By applying the universal design approach, fictional literature can potentially make books more accessible for all types of readers.


Assuntos
Dislexia , Design Universal , Livros , Humanos , Noruega , Leitura
11.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 46(6): 533-40, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34190461

RESUMO

The meridian-collateral theory introduced in the classic book Huangdi Neijing (The Yellow Emperor's Canon of Internal Medicine,) has been being guiding the clinical diagnosis and treatment of diseases and health preservation by using traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for thousands of years. However, despite of being the core theory of TCM, the meridian-colla-terals and their structural basis have not been scientifically clarified, which has become the "bottleneck" of the inheritance and innovation of TCM. It was reported in 2020 that the micro-channels formed by collagen fiber bundles in the skin and their contained components and the newly found interstitial cell, Telocyte, may be considered to be the ultra-micromorphological basis including their connection with the internal organs. In the present paper, we employed the Telocyte network and its relationships with other structures and cells to interpret, at the cellular level, various meridian hypotheses including 1) neurotheory, 2) humoral circulation theory, 3) biological field hypothesis, 4) fascia theory, 5) immune theory, 6) mast cell theory, 7) meridian-qi, and 8) elusive phenomenon of meridian. The absence of meridian-collaterals in morphology may be related to the difficulty of laboratory sample preparations of Telocyte processes in the continuity and completeness. We also proposed that the future research strategies should be aimed at revealing the morphological structure (including in vitro studies of the isolated and cultured Telocytes), establishment of relevant disease model, and clarification of the interrelation between the Telocyte network and the systems of nerve, blood circulation, immune, endocrine, and connective tissue.


Assuntos
Meridianos , Livros , Mastócitos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Pele
12.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1137, 2021 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake is low among East African adolescents in the US. Adolescents' preferences influence HPV vaccine decisions, yet few interventions exist that address East African adolescents' beliefs about HPV vaccines. We describe a multi-step process on how to create a theory-based comic book by integrating empirical findings, theory and focus group data from East African parents in the US. METHODS: Our multi-methods process included conducting focus groups with Somali, Ethiopian, and Eritrean mothers (n = 30) to understand mothers and adolescents socio-cultural beliefs and information needs about the HPV vaccine, creating comic book messages integrating the focus group findings, and assessing the acceptability of the finalized comic book among Somali, Ethiopian, and Eritrean adolescents (n = 134). RESULTS: We identified categories around socio-cultural beliefs (such ethnic representation and concerns about pork gelatin in vaccines), HPV vaccine information needs, and diffusion of information. We then mapped the categories to theoretical constructs and operationalized them into the comic book. Finally, we describe the overall acceptability of the comic book and specifics on comic book structure, appeal of characters, and message relevance. CONCLUSIONS: A rigorous multi-step process that integrates theory and focus group data can help create culturally appropriate health messages that can educate and appeal to the community.


Assuntos
Infecções por Papillomavirus , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus , Adolescente , Livros , Eritreia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Pais , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Somália , Vacinação
13.
High Alt Med Biol ; 22(2): 241, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34166102
17.
Adv Virus Res ; 109: 1-29, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934824

RESUMO

The host cell proteome undergoes a variety of dynamic changes during viral infection, elicited by the virus itself or host cell defense mechanisms. Studying these changes on a global scale by integrating functional and physical interactions within protein networks during infection is an important tool to understand pathology. Indeed, proteomics studies dissecting protein signaling cascades and interaction networks upon infection showed how global information can significantly improve understanding of disease mechanisms of diverse viral infections. Here, we summarize and give examples of different experimental designs, proteomics approaches and bioinformatics analyses that allow profiling proteome changes and host-pathogen interactions to gain a molecular systems view of viral infection.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Proteômica/métodos , Viroses , Vírus/patogenicidade , Livros , Humanos , Proteoma/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Biologia de Sistemas
18.
Adv Virus Res ; 109: 135-161, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934826

RESUMO

Proteases precisely and irreversibly catalyze the hydrolysis of peptide bonds, regulating the fate, localization, and activity of many proteins. Consequently, proteolytic activity plays an important role in fundamental cellular processes such as differentiation and migration, immunological and inflammatory reactions, apoptosis and survival. During virus infection, host proteases are involved in several processes, from cell entry to initiation, progression and resolution of inflammation. On the other hand, many viruses encode their own highly specific proteases, responsible for the proteolytic processing of viral proteins, but, at the same time, to cleave host proteins to corrupt antiviral host responses and adjust protein activity to favor viral replication. Traditionally, protease substrate identification has been addressed by means of hypothesis-driven approaches, but recent advances in proteomics have made a toolkit available to uncover the extensive repertoire of host proteins cleaved during infection, either by viral or host proteases. Here, we review the currently available proteomics-based methods that can and have contributed to the systematic and unbiased identification of new protease substrates in the context of virus-host interactions. The role of specific proteases during the course of virus infections will also be highlighted.


Assuntos
Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Viroses/fisiopatologia , Animais , Livros , Humanos , Camundongos , Proteólise , Replicação Viral
19.
Adv Virus Res ; 109: 31-62, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934829

RESUMO

Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a label-free molecular imaging technique allowing an untargeted detection of a broad range of biomolecules and xenobiotics. MSI enables imaging of the spatial distribution of proteins, peptides, lipids and metabolites from a wide range of samples. To date, this technique is commonly applied to tissue sections in cancer diagnostics and biomarker development, but also molecular histology in general. Advances in the methodology and bioinformatics improved the resolution of MS images below the single cell level and increased the flexibility of the workflow. However, MSI-based research in virology is just starting to gain momentum and its full potential has not been exploited yet. In this review, we discuss the main applications of MSI in virology. We review important aspects of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) MSI, the most widely used MSI technique in virology. In addition, we summarize relevant literature on MSI studies that aim to unravel virus-host interactions and virus pathogenesis, to elucidate antiviral drug kinetics and to improve current viral disease diagnostics. Collectively, these studies strongly improve our general understanding of virus-induced changes in the proteome, metabolome and metabolite distribution in host tissues of humans, animals and plants upon infection. Furthermore, latest MSI research provided important insights into the drug distribution and distribution kinetics, especially in antiretroviral research. Finally, MSI-based investigations of oncogenic viruses greatly increased our knowledge on tumor mass signatures and facilitated the identification of cancer biomarkers.


Assuntos
Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Imagem Molecular/métodos , Pesquisa , Vírus/química , Animais , Livros , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas/instrumentação , Metabolômica , Imagem Molecular/instrumentação , Vírus Oncogênicos/patogenicidade , Vírus de Plantas/patogenicidade , Plantas/virologia , Proteoma/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos , Vírus/genética
20.
Adv Virus Res ; 109: 163-199, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934827

RESUMO

The vertebrate innate immune system confers host cells with mechanisms to protect against both evolutionarily ancient pathogens and newly emerging pathogenic strains. Innate immunity relies on the host cell's ability to distinguish between self and pathogen-derived molecules. To achieve this, the innate immune system uses germline encoded receptors called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which recognize various molecular signatures, including nucleic acids, proteins, lipids, glycans and glycolipids. Among these molecules, the recognition of pathogenic, mislocalized, or damaged DNA by cellular protein receptors, commonly called DNA sensors, represents a major surveillance pathway for initiating immune signaling. The ability of cells to temporally regulate DNA sensor activation and subsequent signal termination is critical for effective immune signaling. These same mechanisms are also co-opted by pathogens to promote their replication. Therefore, there is significant interest in understanding DNA sensor regulatory networks during microbial infections and autoimmune disease. One emerging aspect of DNA sensor regulation is through post-translational modifications (PTMs), including phosphorylation, acetylation, ubiquitination, ADP-ribosylation, SUMOylation, methylation, deamidation, glutamylation. In this chapter, we discuss how PTMs have been shown to positively or negatively impact DNA sensor functions via diverse mechanisms, including direct regulation of enzymatic activity, protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions, protein translocations and protein turnover. In addition, we highlight the ability of virus-induced PTMs to promote immune evasion. We also discuss the recent evidence linking PTMs on DNA sensors with human diseases and more broadly, highlight promising directions for future research on PTM-mediated regulation of DNA sensor-dependent immune signaling.


Assuntos
DNA Viral/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Livros , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Fosforilação , Receptores de Reconhecimento de Padrão/genética , Receptores de Reconhecimento de Padrão/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Vírus/imunologia , Vírus/patogenicidade
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