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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3541, 2024 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38347060

RESUMO

The importance of solar radiation for the body's ability to synthesize Vitamin D3 is well documented, yet the precise amount of sun exposure required to avoid Vitamin D insufficiency is less clear. To address this knowledge gap, this study sought to utilize the sun in a suitable period at the optimum dose by utilizing numerical simulations to determine the amount of Vitamin D3 synthesis in the skin according to season, time of day, and geographical location in Turkey. The study was carried out in three stages; in the first stage, daily, monthly, and annual values were determined in cases where the solar zenith angle has the active UV-B wavelength. The second stage determined the level of Vitamin D that can be synthesized in all skin types at 25% solar radiation exposure. In the third stage, the sun exposure time required for 1000 International Units (IU) for all skin types was calculated. According to the analysis, the yearly period of active synthesis of D3 on Earth lasts from the beginning of March to the third week of October. During the day, it is between 10:00 and 16:00. For 1000 IU/day, the average annual estimated times (minutes) are 5.05 for Type I, 6.3 for Type II, 7.6 for Type III, 11.35 for Type IV, 15.15 for Type V, and 25.25 for Type VI. The results of this paper will impact awareness for academic-medical users.


Assuntos
Colecalciferol , Raios Ultravioleta , Vitamina D , Luz Solar , Estações do Ano , Vitaminas
2.
Lancet ; 403(10427): 616, 2024 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38368010
3.
J Environ Manage ; 353: 120287, 2024 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38335595

RESUMO

Textile wastewater laden with dyes has emerged as a source of water pollution. This possesses a challenge in its effective treatment using a single functional material. In respond to this technological constraint, this work presents multifunctional cotton fabrics (CFs) within a single, streamlined preparation process. This approach utilizes the adherence of Ag NPs (nanoparticles) using Si binder on the surface of CFs, resulting in Ag-coated CFs through a pad dry method. The prepared samples were characterized using scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive X-ray electroscopy (SEM-EDS), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transformation infrared (FT-IR). It was found that the FT-IR spectra of Ag NPs-coated CFs had peaks appear at 3400, 2900, and 1200 cm-1, implying the stretching vibrations of O-H, C-H, and C-O, respectively. Based on the EDX analysis, the presence of C, O, and Ag related to the coated CFs were detected. After coating the CFs with varying concentrations of Ag NPs (1%, 2% and 3% (w/w)), they were used to remove dyes. Under the same concentration of 10 mg/L and optimized pH 7.5 and 2 h of reaction time, 3% (w/w) Ag-coated CFs exhibited a substantial MB degradation of 98 %, while removing 95% of methyl orange, 85% of rhodamine B, and 96% of Congo red, respectively, following 2 h of Vis exposure. Ag NPs had a strong absorption at 420 nm with 2.51 eV of energy band gap. Under UV irradiation, electrons excited and produced free radicals that promoted dyes photodegradation. The oxidation by-products included p-dihydroxybenzene and succinic acid. Spent Ag-coated CFs attained 98% of regeneration efficiency. The utilization of Ag-coated CFs as a photocatalyst facilitated treated effluents to meet the required discharge standard of lower than 1 mg/L mandated by national legislation. The integration of multifunctional CFs in the treatment system presents a new option for tackling water pollution due to dyes.


Assuntos
Corantes , Raios Ultravioleta , Corantes/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Luz Solar , Água/química
4.
Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed ; 40(2): e12955, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38361492

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A few patients report intense pain and other unpleasant sensations, such as burning, dysesthesia and hyperalgesia, after even brief exposure to the sun and in the absence of any skin lesion. Sometimes they also develop systemic symptoms, such as mild fever, fatigue, faintness and fainting. As a result, these patients carefully avoid even short-term sun exposure with a consequent severe negative impact on their lives. METHODS: We have reviewed the clinical findings and the results of photobiological investigations of 10 patients who presented this clinical picture. Six of these patients were previously described by our group with the diagnosis of sun pain. We have reviewed the similarities with other previously described disorders such as solar dysesthesia and PUVA pain and have evaluated possible pathogenetic mechanisms. RESULTS: During phototesting our patients experienced intense pain in the exposed area and in the surrounding skin, without any visible lesion, even with very low sub-erythemal doses. At follow-up, five patients were diagnosed with fibromyalgia, three with a major depressive disorder, one with bipolar syndrome and one with a conversion disorder. The pathogenesis remains unclear, but the use of a psychopharmacological treatment with antidepressants improved both the neuropsychiatric symptoms and sensitivity to the sun in most subjects. CONCLUSION: For patients with pain and other severe symptoms in the absence of skin lesions and clinical and laboratory manifestations of known photodermatoses, a neuropsychiatric evaluation should be suggested.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Transtornos de Fotossensibilidade , Humanos , Parestesia/diagnóstico , Parestesia/etiologia , Luz Solar/efeitos adversos , Transtornos de Fotossensibilidade/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Fotossensibilidade/etiologia , Dor/etiologia
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38339182

RESUMO

Light and atmospheric pollution are both independently implicated in cancer induction and premature aging. Evidence has been growing more recently on the toxic synergy between light and pollutants. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) originate from the incomplete combustion of organic matter. Some PAHs, such as the Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), absorb ultraviolet A (UVA) wavelengths and can act as exogenous chromophores, leading to synergistic toxicity through DNA damage and cytotoxicity concomitant to ROS formation. In this study, we shed light on the mechanism underlying the toxic synergy between PAHs and UVA. Using dermal fibroblasts co-exposed to UVA and BaP, we have demonstrated that the photosensitization reaction causes mortality, which is most likely caused by ROS accumulation. We have shown that these ROS are concentrated in the lipids, which causes an important induction of lipid peroxidation and malondialdehyde, by-products of lipid peroxidation. We have also shown the accumulation of bulky DNA damage, most likely generated by these by-products of lipid peroxidation. To our knowledge, this study represents the first one depicting the molecular effects of photo-pollution on dermal skin.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Raios Ultravioleta , Luz Solar/efeitos adversos , Benzo(a)pireno , Fibroblastos
6.
Environ Int ; 184: 108471, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38335626

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nowadays artificial light highly increases human exposure to light leading to circadian rhythm and sleep perturbations. Moreover, excessive exposure of ocular structures to photons can induce irreversible retinal damage. Meta-analyses showed that sunlight exposure influences the age of onset and the progression of Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of blindness in people over fifty-year old. Currently, the blue-light hazard (BLH) curve is used in the evaluation of the phototoxicity of a light source for domestic lighting regulations. OBJECTIVES: Here, we analyze the phototoxicity threshold in rats and investigate the role played by the light spectrum, assessing the relevance of the use of the BLH-weighting to define phototoxicity. METHODS: We exposed albino rats to increasing doses of blue and white light, or to lights of different colors to evaluate the impact of each component of the white light spectrum on phototoxicity. Cellular mechanisms of cell death and cellular stress induced by light were analyzed. RESULTS: Our results show that the phototoxicity threshold currently accepted for rats is overestimated by a factor of 50 when considering blue light and by a factor of 550 concerning white light. This is the result of the toxicity induced by green light that increases white light toxicity by promoting an inflammatory response. The content of green in white light induces 8 fold more invasion of macrophages in the retina than the content of blue light. Moreover, the use of BLH-weighting does not evaluate the amount of red radiations contained in white light that mitigates damage by inhibiting the nuclear translocation of L-DNase II and reducing by 33% the number of TUNEL-positive cells. DISCUSSION: These findings question the current methods to determine the phototoxicity of a light source and show the necessity to take into account the entire emission spectrum. As current human phototoxicity thresholds were estimated with the same methods used for rats, our results suggest that they might need to be reconsidered.


Assuntos
Iluminação , Humanos , Ratos , Animais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Iluminação/efeitos adversos , Retina , Luz Solar/efeitos adversos , Ritmo Circadiano
7.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 1097, 2024 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38212604

RESUMO

Outdoor exposure is considered the primary modifiable risk factor in preventing the development of myopia. This effect is thought to be attributed to the light-induced synthesis and release of dopamine in the retina. However, until recent years, there was no objective quantifiable method available to measure the association between time spent outdoors and myopia. It is only recently that the conjunctival ultraviolet autofluorescence (CUVAF) area, serving as a biomarker for sun exposure, has begun to be utilized in numerous studies. To provide a comprehensive summary of the relevant evidence pertaining to the association between the CUVAF area and myopia across different geographic regions and age groups, a systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted. The search encompassed multiple databases, including MEDLINE, SCIENCE DIRECT, GOOGLE SCHOLAR, WEB OF SCIENCE, and SCOPUS, and utilized specific search terms such as "conjunctival ultraviolet autofluorescence", "CUVAF", "UVAF", "objective marker of ocular sun exposure", "myopia", "degenerative myopia", and "high myopia". The bibliographic research included papers published between the years 2006 and 2022. A total of 4051 records were initially identified, and after duplicates were removed, 49 articles underwent full-text review. Nine articles were included in the systematic review. These studies covered myopia and outdoor exposure across different regions (Australia, Europe and India) with a total population of 3615 individuals. They found that myopes generally had smaller CUVAF areas compared to non-myopes. The meta-analysis confirmed this, revealing statistically smaller CUVAF areas in myopic patients, with a mean difference of - 3.30 mm2 (95% CI - 5.53; - 1.06). Additionally, some studies showed a positive correlation between more outdoor exposure and larger CUVAF areas. In terms of outdoor exposure time, myopic patients reported less time outdoors than non-myopic individuals, with a mean difference of - 3.38 h/week (95% CI - 4.66; - 2.09). Overall, these findings highlight the connection between outdoor exposure, CUVAF area and myopia, with regional variations playing a significant role. The results of this meta-analysis validate CUVAF as a quantitative method to objectively measure outdoor exposure in relation with myopia development.


Assuntos
Miopia , Raios Ultravioleta , Humanos , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Luz Solar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Túnica Conjuntiva , Miopia/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores
8.
Environ Sci Technol ; 58(2): 1312-1320, 2024 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38173246

RESUMO

Sunlight irradiation is the predominant process for degrading plastics in the environment, but our current understanding of the degradation of smaller, submicron (<1000 nm) particles is limited due to prior analytical constraints. We used infrared photothermal heterodyne imaging (IR-PHI) to simultaneously analyze the chemical and morphological changes of single polystyrene (PS) particles (∼1000 nm) when exposed to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation (λ = 250-400 nm). Within 6 h of irradiation, infrared bands associated with the backbone of PS decreased, accompanied by a reduction in the particle size. Concurrently, the formation of several spectral features due to photooxidation was attributed to ketones, carboxylic acids, aldehydes, esters, and lactones. Spectral outcomes were used to present an updated reaction scheme for the photodegradation of PS. After 36 h, the average particle size was reduced to 478 ± 158 nm. The rates of size decrease and carbonyl band area increase were -24 ± 3.0 nm h-1 and 2.1 ± 0.6 cm-1 h-1, respectively. Using the size-related rate, we estimated that under peak terrestrial sunlight conditions, it would take less than 500 h for a 1000 nm PS particle to degrade to 1 nm.


Assuntos
Poliestirenos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Fotólise , Plásticos , Raios Ultravioleta , Luz Solar
9.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 162, 2024 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38212727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frequent exposure to ultraviolet light has more detrimental and longer-term effects on the skin in early life than in adulthood. Teenagers with strong sun-seeking behaviors may be more likely to use an indoor tanning bed than those who seek less sun. We aimed to examine associations between sun-seeking behaviors and indoor tanning behavior during high school/college in US females. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we used data from The Nurses' Health Study II, a large prospective cohort of US female nurses. We included a total of 81,746 white females who provided responses on the average annual frequency of indoor tanning during high school/college. Our study exposures were number of times/week spent outdoors in a swimsuit and percentage of time wearing sunscreen at the pool/beach as a teenager, weekly hours spent outdoors in direct sunlight during the daytime during high school/college, and number of severe sunburns that blistered between ages 15-20 years. The main outcome was annual frequency of indoor tanning bed usage during high school/college. RESULTS: In multivariable-adjusted logistic regression, we demonstrated positive associations between sun-seeking behaviors and indoor tanning use. Specifically, teenagers who spent 7 times/week outdoors in a swimsuit (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 95% confidence interval [CI] for daily vs. <1/week: 2.68, 1.76-4.09) were more likely to use indoor tanning beds ≥ 12 times/year. Teenagers with ≥ 10 sunburns (aOR, 95% CI for ≥ 10 vs. never: 2.18, 1.53-3.10) were more likely to use indoor tanning beds ≥ 12 times/year. Also, teenagers/undergraduates who spent ≥ 5 h/week outdoors in direct sunlight (aOR, 95% CI for ≥ 5 h/week vs. <1 h/week: 2.18, 1.39-3.44) were more likely to use indoor tanning ≥ 12 times/year. However, there was not a significant association between average usage of sunscreen at the pool/beach and average usage of indoor tanning beds. Multivariable-adjusted linear regression models also showed similar results. CONCLUSIONS: Teenagers who spent more time outdoors in a swimsuit/direct sunlight or got more sunburns tended to use indoor tanning more frequently. These findings provide evidence that teenagers with stronger sun-seeking behaviors may have more exposure to artificial ultraviolet radiation as well.


Assuntos
Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Banho de Sol , Queimadura Solar , Adolescente , Humanos , Feminino , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Protetores Solares/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Prospectivos , Brancos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/etiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Luz Solar , Instituições Acadêmicas , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde
10.
Water Res ; 251: 121112, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38198975

RESUMO

Mercury (Hg) is among the most concerned contaminants in the world due to its high toxicity, prevalent existence in the environments, and bioaccumulation via food chain. Methylmercury (MeHg) is the major form of Hg that accumulates along the food chain and poses threat to humans and wild life. Photodegradation is the dominant process that MeHg is eliminated from freshwater system and upper ocean. The formation of MeHg-dissolved organic matter (DOM) complexes and a variety of free radicals (FR)/reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been previously proposed to be involved in MeHg photodegradation. However, most of these studies were conducted in freshwater, and the mechanism of MeHg photodegradation in seawater remains unclear. In this study, the main pathways of MeHg photodegradation in the seawater of Yellow Sea (YS) and East China Sea (ECS) were investigated using FR/ ROS scavenger addition and DOM competing-ligand addition techniques. The results showed that direct photodegradation of MeHg-DOM complexes is the major pathway of MeHg photodegradation in the YS and ECS, while indirect photolysis of MeHg by hydroxyl radical (·OH) also plays a certain role at some sites. MeHg photodegradation was found to be mainly induced by ultraviolet (UV) light rather than visible light in YS and ECS seawater, and the contribution of UV-B was higher than UV-A which was opposite to that previously reported in freshwater. The energy for breaking the bond of CHg in MeHg-Cl complexes formed in seawater is higher than that in MeHg-DOM complexes and this may cause the relatively greater contribution of UV-B with higher energy to MeHg photodegradation in seawater. In addition, MeHg photodegradation in various fractions of natural DOM with different molecular weights, hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity and acid-base was tested. MeHg photodegradation rates (kd) varied in these fractions and kd in high molecular weight DOM and hydrophobic Acid (HOA) fractions were faster than that in the other fractions. A significantly positive correlation was observed between kd and thiol concentrations while there was no significant correlation between kd and other measured parameters representing the composition of DOM (specific UV absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA254), spectral slope (SR), chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), humification index (HIX), biological index (BIX) and fluorescent components). These results indicate that thiol may be the key functional group in DOM affecting the photodegradation of MeHg in the YS and ECS.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Compostos de Metilmercúrio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Humanos , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/química , Fotólise , Matéria Orgânica Dissolvida , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Mercúrio/química , Luz Solar , Radicais Livres , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química , China , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
11.
Chemosphere ; 351: 141210, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38244869

RESUMO

Bisphenols (BPs) are a series of widely used endocrine disruptors, which potentially harm the environment and human health. In this work, a novel Z-scheme TiO2-BiVO4-PI heterostructure was synthesized, characterized, and used for the simulated sunlight-driven photoelectrocatalytic degradation of BPs. Due to the existence of surface-surface contacted direct Z-scheme between BiVO4 and PI, holes were concentrated on the valence band of BiVO4 and electrons were concentrated on the conduction band of PI, resulting in a stronger redox activity. All six BPs exhibited appreciable degradation following the order of bisphenol A (BPA, 93.5%) > bisphenol B (BPB, 92.7%) > bisphenol AP (BPAP, 85.6%) > bisphenol F (BPF, 75.9%) > bisphenol AF (BPAF, 69.8%) > bisphenol S (BPS, 39.2%), within 120 min under the optimal condition. In the process of degradation, superoxide radicals (·O2-) and hydroxyl radicals (·OH) played dominant roles, and the intermediates of BPs degradation were mainly formed via the substituent shedding or C-C bond breaking of phenol ring, hydroxylation, and ring opening of phenol ring. The ECOSAR program was used to analyze the changes in the toxicity of the intermediates, and it was proved that the toxicity showed a decrease trend during the degradation process. This study provides a Z-scheme mechanism for TiO2-BiVO4-PI, which can degrade BPs and reduce their toxicity effectively.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos , Fenóis , Humanos , Fenóis/química , Compostos Benzidrílicos/química , Fenol , Luz Solar
12.
Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed ; 40(1): e12942, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38288771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Standardized methods for sun protection factor (SPF) testing are still beset with endpoint and method-driven issues, and can be influenced by multiple factors. The purpose of this analysis is to explore the factors influencing the results of sun protection factor (SPF) testing in human subjects according to the ISO 24444:2019 standard. Intrinsic factors, such as baseline skin color, age and gender, the minimal erythemal dose on an unprotected area (MEDu), as well as environmental factors such as season/weather influences, are considered for analysis. METHODS: Datasets generated for two reference products (P2 and P8) during the conduct of 50 such studies using the ISO standard 24444:2019 for the testing of SPF products, from a single testing center located in Bucharest, Romania between April 2021 and December 2022, were retrieved and compiled. Overall, the data for 334 subjects was available, with 276 observations for the reference P8, and 171 for P2. RESULTS: No effects due to gender or age were detected. Seasonal changes, the individual typology angle (ITA°) and MEDu were found to have an influence on the outcome of the SPF values. CONCLUSIONS: This study adds new original data about the impact of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on SPF variations pertaining to ISO reference sunscreen P8 (SPF 50+). The findings suggest that some factors will inevitably impact the results between two SPF experiments for the same product and SPF testing laboratory. The interconnections between the sources of this variation are discussed. The findings of this research help to identify and characterize factors that contribute to SPF testing variability.


Assuntos
Fator de Proteção Solar , Protetores Solares , Humanos , Luz Solar/efeitos adversos , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Tempo (Meteorologia)
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 31(6): 8689-8702, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38180661

RESUMO

In this work, black TiO2 (BTiO2) loaded on black red mud (BRM) was successfully prepared with the conversion of Fe2O3 into magnetic Fe3O4 in red mud and the reduction of partial Ti4+ to Ti3+ in TiO2 via the facile sol-gel method and H2 reduction treatment. The obtained low-cost BRM/BTiO2 composites exhibit remarkable photocatalytic degradation toward rhodamine B (91.2%) and tetracycline (83.6%) under visible light irradiation, much better than pristine TiO2. This enhancement is attributed to the narrow bandgap with the desired solar-light excitation, the black color with good solar-light absorption, and the heterojunctions with the efficient separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. Moreover, the desired magnetic separation of BRM/BTiO2 composites realizes the recycle and recovery of photocatalysts, favoring practical applications in environment. This work provides a cost-efficiency way to prepare RM-supported TiO2 composites for treating organic pollutants in the wastewater, which is of great significance to the comprehensive utilization of RM waste, the cost saving of the photocatalyst, and the visible-light active enhancement of TiO2.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Fotólise , Luz , Luz Solar , Antibacterianos
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 31(6): 8828-8841, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38182950

RESUMO

Albendazole (ALB) and bithionol (BIT) are two anthelmintic drugs (ADs) with high consumption from benzimidazole group and diphenylsulfide group, respectively. However, information on the transformation of the two anthelmintics under environmental condition is scare. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the natural attenuation of the two ADs in the aquatic environment, including biodegradation, hydrolysis, and direct and indirect photodegradation. The direct photodegradation occupied a vast portion among other degradation pathways of the two ADs in natural water, with near-surface summer half-lives of 0.272-0.387 h and 0.110-0.520 h for ALB and BIT, respectively. Suspended particles in water were found to facilitate the photodegradation of the two ADs. Study on the indirect photodegradation demonstrated the positive roles of singlet oxygen (1O2) and excited triplet dissolved organic matter (3DOM*) in the photolysis of the two ADs, whereas the hydroxyl radical (•OH) affected little on the overall photodegradation procedures of ALB due to the scavenging effect of HCO3-. Dual effects of DO, DOM, HCO3-, NO3-, and NO2- on the photodegradation of ALB and BIT were perceived. Transformation intermediates (TIs) of the two ADs during photodegradation were analyzed by UHPLC-QTOF-MS. Six TIs of ALB were identified, including a broad-spectrum fungicide carbendazim and another common AD ricobendazole. Two TIs of BIT yielded from dechlorination were also detected. Probable transformation mechanism and predicted aquatic ecotoxicity based on the identified TIs were unveiled.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Fotólise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Luz Solar , Água , Cinética , Bitionol
15.
Exp Dermatol ; 33(1): e15008, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38284197

RESUMO

Skin is the ultimate barrier between body and environment and prevents water loss and penetration of pathogens and toxins. Internal and external stressors, such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR), can damage skin integrity and lead to disorders. Therefore, skin health and skin ageing are important concerns and increased research from cosmetic and pharmaceutical sectors aims to improve skin conditions and provide new anti-ageing treatments. Biomolecules, compared to low molecular weight drugs and cosmetic ingredients, can offer high levels of specificity. Topically applied enzymes have been investigated to treat the adverse effects of sunlight, pollution and other external agents. Enzymes, with a diverse range of targets, present potential for dermatological use such as antioxidant enzymes, proteases and repairing enzymes. In this review, we discuss enzymes for dermatological applications and the challenges associated in this growing field.


Assuntos
Cosméticos , Dermatopatias , Humanos , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Pele , Dermatopatias/terapia , Luz Solar/efeitos adversos , Cosméticos/farmacologia
16.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 2455, 2024 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38291079

RESUMO

The development of photocatalytic powders to remove contaminants from air solutions is an important field of research in the field of environmental conservation. CD/ZnO-H400, a heterogeneous photocatalytic production, is utilized to degrade the reactive red dye and the antibiotic ofloxacin found in wastewater. This study explains the synthesis of carbon dots (CDs) derived from coconut air and zinc oxide (ZnO) using a hydrothermal method at a temperature of 180 °C with a duration of 4 h and subsequently calcinated at a 400 °C temperature for 4 h. This shows a significant improvement in photocatalytic performance due to improved delivery efficiency at the interface. The cost-efficient use of solar energy allows the comprehensive elimination of harmful pollutants through detoxification. The removal of the contaminant takes place through the first-order reaction, with RR141 showing the highest constant rate at 0.03 min-1, while ofloxacin has a constant speed at 0.01 min-1. The photocatalytic stability is measured after five cycles. The study also tested the impact of sunlight on degradation, showing a degrading rate of 98% for RR141 and 96% for ofloxacin. This study displays a new catalyst powder synthesized from carbon dots derived from the air, coconut and ZnO, showing remarkable photoactivity to completely remove harmful dyes and antibiotics from the surrounding environment.


Assuntos
Óxido de Zinco , Compostos Azo , Ofloxacino , Antibacterianos , Luz Solar , Catálise
17.
Cells ; 13(2)2024 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38275819

RESUMO

The influence of short-term additional white (WL), red (RL) and far-red (FRL) light and combined RL+FRL on the physiological morphological and molecular characteristics of two-year-old Scots pine plants grown in a greenhouse under sunlight was studied. Additional RL and RL+FRL increased the number of xylem cells, transpiration and the expression of a group of genes responsible for the biosynthesis and signaling of auxins (AUX/IAA, ARF3/4, and ARF16) and brassinosteroids (BR-α-RED and BRZ2), while the expression of genes related to the signaling pathway related to jasmonic acid was reduced. Additionally, WL, RL and RL+FRL increased the content of proanthocyanidins and catechins in young needles; however, an increase in the expression of the chalcone synthase gene (CHS) was found under RL, especially under RL+FRL, which possibly indicates a greater influence of light intensity than observed in the spectrum. Additional WL increased photosynthetic activity, presumably by increasing the proportion and intensity of blue light; at the same time, the highest transpiration index was found under RL. The results obtained indicate that the combined effect of additional RL+FRL can accelerate the development of pine plants by increasing the number of xylem cells and increasing the number of aboveground parts but not the photosynthetic activity or the accumulation of secondary metabolites.


Assuntos
Fotossíntese , Plantas , Hormônios , Luz Solar
18.
J Hazard Mater ; 466: 133513, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38262319

RESUMO

Personal protective masks play critical role in preventing the disease epidemic and resisting pathogenic bacterial infestation. However, large quantities of masks were disposed during COVID-19 epidemic, which caused environmental problem and huge economic burden. Herein, we developed reusable masks with inherent antimicrobial and self-cleaning features under solar irradiation. With spun-bonded nonwoven fabrics (SNF) layer as substrate, copper sulfide@polydopamine nanoparticles are deposited on SNF layer (CuS@PDANPs-SNF), which presents excellent photocatalytic activity. Under solar irradiation, CuS@PDANPs produce abundant of singly linear oxygen (1O2), which inactivates pathogenic bacteria with high efficiency over 99%. Interestingly, CuS@PDANPs-SNF cannot cause high temperature to bring any uncomfortable to the person, which is suitable for human to wear in daily life. Such design effectively protect person from the transmission of viral aerosol. Meanwhile, CuS@PDANPs-SNF masks are reusable and still maintain robust bactericidal ability after washing. The sunlight-mediated self-sterilization at low temperature endows CuS@PDANPs-SNF masks as powerful personal protective equipment for daily protection, which also provides an instructive way for reducing the environmental impact.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Nanopartículas , Humanos , Aerossóis e Gotículas Respiratórios , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Esterilização , Luz Solar
19.
Mar Environ Res ; 195: 106367, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38277815

RESUMO

Microplastics (MPs) aging in natural ecosystems are caused by solar irradiation. Photo-aged MPs in aquatic systems are a major threat to molluscs. In this study, polystyrene (PS) photo-aging was simulated using a sunlight simulator. After exposure of Crassostrea gigas to photo-aged PS, a decreased gonadosomatic index, coupled with histological alterations, suggested an inhibitory effect on the gonadal development of bivalves. As the concentration of aged PS increased, the inhibitory effects on gonadal development became more severe. The sex hormone (testosterone and estradiol) and energy metabolism (glycogen, lipid, and protein content) differences between C. gigas males and females suggested a disruption of sex hormonal homeostasis and a shift in energy allocation strategy, which may have affected reproduction, especially female oysters. In addition, the substantial downregulation of SOX-8, SOX-E, Piwi1, and TGF-ß genes may be contributing factors causing the inhibitory effect of aged PS on the gonadal development of C. gigas. This study provides an essential reference for evaluating the reproductive health risks posed by aged MPs and offers novel insights and perspectives for exploring the impact of MPs under natural conditions.


Assuntos
Crassostrea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Microplásticos , Poliestirenos , Plásticos , Ecossistema , Crassostrea/fisiologia , Luz Solar , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
20.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 251: 112849, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38277960

RESUMO

Anti-ultraviolet (UV) roles of Rad2 and Rad14 depend on nucleotide excision repair (NER) of UV-induced DNA lesions in budding yeast but remain unexplored yet in filamentous fungi. Here, nucleus-specific Rad2 and Rad14 orthologs are shown to recover Beauveria bassiana, a main source of wide-spectrum mycoinsecticides, from solar UV damage through photorepair-depending photoreactivation. As a photorepair index, photoreactivation (germination) rates of lethal UVB dose-irradiated conidia via a 3- or 5-h light plus 9- or 7-h dark incubation at 25 °C were drastically reduced in the Δrad2 and Δrad14 mutants versus a wild-type strain. As an NER index, nighttime-mimicking 12-h dark reactivation rates of low UVB dose-impaired conidia decreased sharply compared to the corresponding photoreactivation rates in the presence or absence of either ortholog, indicating that its extant NER activity was limited to recovering light UVB damage in the field. The high photoreactivation activity of either Rad2 or Rad14 was derived from its tight link to a large protein complex formed by photolyase regulators and other anti-UV proteins through multiple protein-protein interactions revealed by yeast two-hybrid assays. Therefore, Rad2 and Rad14 recover B. bassiana from solar UV damage through photoreactiovation in vivo that depends primarily on photorepair, although they contribute little to the fungal lifecycle-related phenotypes. These findings unveil a novel scenario distinguished from the NER-depending anti-UV roles of Rad2 and Rad14 in the model yeast and broaden a biological basis crucial for rational application of fungal insecticides to improve pest control efficacy via feasible recovery of solar UV damage.


Assuntos
Beauveria , Inseticidas , Reparo do DNA , Beauveria/genética , Raios Ultravioleta , Luz Solar , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo
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