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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36675053

RESUMO

Asparagus belongs to the Liliaceae family and has important economic and pharmacological value. Lignin plays a crucial role in cell wall structural integrity, stem strength, water transport, mechanical support and plant resistance to pathogens. In this study, various biological methods were used to study the mechanism of shading on the asparagus lignin accumulation pathway. The physiological results showed that shading significantly reduced stem diameter and cell wall lignin content. Microstructure observation showed that shading reduced the number of vascular bundles and xylem area, resulting in decreased lignin content, and thus reducing the lignification of asparagus. Cinnamic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid and sinapyl alcohol are crucial intermediate metabolites in the process of lignin synthesis. Metabolomic profiling showed that shading significantly reduced the contents of cinnamic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid and sinapyl alcohol. Transcriptome profiling identified 37 differentially expressed genes related to lignin, including PAL, C4H, 4CL, CAD, CCR, POD, CCoAOMT, and F5H related enzyme activity regulation genes. The expression levels of POD, CCoAOMT, and CCR genes were significantly decreased under shading treatment, while the expression levels of CAD and F5H genes exhibited no significant difference with increased shading. The downregulation of POD, CCoAOMT genes and the decrease in CCR gene expression levels inhibited the activities of the corresponding enzymes under shading treatment, resulting in decreased downstream content of caffeic acid, ferulic acid, sinaperol, chlorogenic acid and coniferin. A significant decrease in upstream cinnamic acid content was observed with shading, which also led to decreased downstream metabolites and reduced asparagus lignin content. In this study, transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis revealed the key regulatory genes and metabolites of asparagus lignin under shading treatment. This study provides a reference for further understanding the mechanism of lignin biosynthesis and the interaction of related genes.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Asparagus , Lignina , Luz Solar , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lignina/biossíntese , Lignina/genética , Lignina/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Asparagus/genética , Asparagus/metabolismo , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia
2.
Nanotechnology ; 34(14)2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36603211

RESUMO

Solar cell technology is an effective solution for addressing climate change and the energy crisis. Therefore, many researchers have investigated various solar cell absorbers that convert Sunlight into electric energy. Among the different materials researched, heavy pnictogen chalcohalides comprising heavy pnictogen cations, such as Bi3+and Sb3+, and chalcogen-halogen anions have recently been revisited as emerging solar absorbers because of their potential for efficient, stable, and low-toxicity solar cell applications. This review explores the recent progress in the applications of heavy pnictogen chalcohalides, including oxyhalides and mixed chalcohalides, in solar cells. We categorize them into material types based on their common structural characteristics and describe their up-to-date developments in solar cell applications. Finally, we discuss their material imitations, challenges for further development, and possible strategies for overcoming them.


Assuntos
Eletricidade , Luz Solar
3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(2)2023 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36679380

RESUMO

The lack of safe drinking water is one of the main health problems in many regions of the world. In order to face it, Solar water disinfection (SODIS) proposes the use of transparent plastic containers, which are filled with contaminated water, and exposed to direct sunlight until enough UV radiation is received to inactivate the pathogens. However, a reliable method for determining the end of the disinfection process is needed. Although several approaches have been proposed in the literature for this purpose, they do not strictly accomplish two critical constraints that are essential in this type of project, namely, low cost and sustainability. In this paper, we propose an electronic device to determine when the lethal UV dose has been reached in SODIS containers, which accomplishes both constraints mentioned above: on the one hand, its manufacturing cost is around EUR 12, which is much lower than the price of other electronic solutions; on the other hand, the device is sufficiently autonomous to work for months with small low-cost disposable batteries, thereby avoiding the use of rechargeable batteries, which are considered hazardous waste at the end of their useful life. In our approach, we first analyze different low cost UV sensors in order to select the most accurate one by comparing their response with a reference pattern provided by a radiometer. Then, an electronic device is designed using this sensor, which measures the accumulated UV radiation and compares this value with the lethal UV dose to determine the end of the disinfection process. Finally, the device has been manufactured and tested in real conditions to analyze its accuracy, obtaining satisfactory results.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Purificação da Água , Luz Solar , Purificação da Água/métodos , Desinfecção/métodos , Abastecimento de Água , Microbiologia da Água
4.
Chemosphere ; 315: 137732, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36608882

RESUMO

Solar steam generation (SSG) is considered an effective solution to the global shortage of freshwater resources. To solve the practical application challenges of SSG in remote outdoor environments where electricity is scarce, it is of great importance to developing new solar evaporators. In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) biochar solar evaporator based on carbonized grooved straw was prepared from agricultural waste corn straw, which had high solar energy conversion efficiency and excellent salt resistance. The existence of grooves increases the surface area to absorb more sunlight and makes the light multilevel reflection improve the evaporation rate. The excellent light absorption, super hydrophilic, and heat shielding properties of 3D carbonized grooved straw resulted in a good evaporation rate (1.57 kg⋅m-2·h-1) and energy efficiency (85.9%) under 1 sun irradiation. The 3D grooved biochar solar distiller also demonstrated efficient formation evaporation performance and excellent salt resistance in practical applications in seawater desalination and surface water purification. The 3D grooved biochar solar distiller prepared from agricultural waste has the advantages of being economical and environmentally friendly, with good application prospects.


Assuntos
Energia Solar , Vapor , Luz Solar , Cloreto de Sódio
5.
Chemosphere ; 315: 137782, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36623592

RESUMO

A novel slant perforated mesh-plate photoreactor (SPPR) was designed and fabricated. The central assembly of SPPR was an array of slant perforated mesh-plate coated with TiO2 (P25). The performance of SPPR in water detoxification was evaluated with regard to the degradation of phenol as the target pollutant. The effects of slant plate tilt angle (α) and perforated plate opening aperture diameter on SPPR performance were investigated and analyzed. The photocatalytic performance of SPPR increased with decreasing α. The SPPR with an α of 15° and a pore size of 1 mm showed the best performance with 9.17 h required to reach 80% of phenol degradation (4-L, initial concentration: 15 mg/L). The mass transfer was introduced into the kinetic reaction model, and mass transfer coefficients were calculated for SPPRs with different structures. Flow rate and initial pollutant concentration were investigated for their effects on degradation efficiency. In addition, the activity of SPPR under natural sunlight has also been tested to explore its potential to be applied in practice.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Água/química , Titânio/química , Luz Solar , Fenóis , Catálise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
6.
BMC Med Educ ; 23(1): 46, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36670407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High levels of vitamin D deficiency are commonly reported even in regions with abundant sunshine. This necessitates a comprehensive understanding of the determinants that influence sun exposure practices. As the primary source of health-related knowledge for the general public, the attitude of the healthcare professionals towards sunlight and their awareness related to vitamin D deficiency can be critical in this regard. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 2,242 physicians, intern doctors, and senior medical students in Bangladesh from October 2019 to February 2020. A pre-tested structured questionnaire (containing twelve close-ended questions) was used. The perceptions of health risks due to sun exposure, and basic knowledge of the physiological and epidemiological aspects of vitamin D deficiency were tested. RESULTS: An overall negative attitude towards sunlight in the context of Bangladesh was highlighted - 68% participants thought regular sun exposure would be harmful or very harmful; 26% thought the level of UV radiation was very high; 44% recommended using sunscreen always; skin burns, heat stroke, and cancer were selected as potential consequences of regular sun exposure by 45%, 21%, and 30% respondents respectively. Overall knowledge regarding vitamin D deficiency appeared to be biased towards bone health; other symptoms and associated illnesses not having obvious link to Calcium-metabolism were identified much lesser frequently. Furthermore, 'sunrise to 10 am' was identified as the best time to get vitamin D by 69% participants; 60% believed < 30 min of weekly sun exposure would be sufficient for the Bangladeshi population; an only 33% identified that prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in Bangladesh would be 50% or more. Taking vitamin D-rich food was suggested by more respondents over regular sun exposure (43% vs. 33%) as more effective remedial strategy to curb vitamin D deficiency in Bangladesh. CONCLUSION: In addition to highlighting some crucial knowledge gaps, results from this study provides a comprehensive baseline dataset for knowledge and attitude regarding the public health aspects of vitamin D deficiency among the healthcare providers in Bangladesh, which would be generalizable to other countries with similar socio-demographic context, and will facilitate taking more effective policies worldwide.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Vitamina D , Vitamina D , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Luz Solar/efeitos adversos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/prevenção & controle , Pessoal de Saúde , Percepção
7.
J Am Chem Soc ; 145(2): 1367-1377, 2023 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36595559

RESUMO

Strong-field hexadentate ligands were synthesized and coordinated to cobalt metal centers to result in three new low-spin to low-spin Co(III/II) redox couples. The ligand backbone has been modified with dimethyl amine groups to result in redox potential tuning of the Co(III/II) redox couples from -200 to -430 mV versus Fc+/0. The redox couples surprisingly undergo a reversible molecular switch rearrangement from five-coordinate Co(II) to six-coordinate Co(III) despite the ligands being hexadentate. The complexes exhibit modestly faster electron self-exchange rate constants of 2.2-4.2 M-1 s-1 compared to the high-spin to low-spin redox couple [Co(bpy)3]3+/2+ at 0.27 M-1 s-1, which is attributed to the change in spin state being somewhat offset by this coordination switching behavior. The complexes were utilized as redox shuttles in dye-sensitized solar cells with the near-IR AP25 + D35 dye system and exhibited improved photocurrents over the [Co(bpy)3]3+/2+ redox shuttle (19.8 vs 18.0 mA/cm2). Future directions point toward pairing the low-spin to low-spin Co(II/III) tunable series to dyes with significantly more negative highest occupied molecular orbital potentials that absorb into the near-IR where outer sphere redox shuttles have failed to produce efficient dye regeneration.


Assuntos
Cobalto , Luz Solar , Ligantes , Oxirredução , Corantes
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36675031

RESUMO

The diverse application potential of metal-organic framework (MOF) materials are currently limited by their challenging and complicated preparation processes. In this study, we successfully developed a novel strategy for the rapid synthesis of a sustainable MOF composite membrane under neutral conditions with improved physicochemical and antibacterial properties. Our reaction pipeline comprised visible light that induced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from ZIF-8 particles, which facilitated the rapid oxidative polymerization of dopamine to polydopamine. The physicochemical properties of the composite membrane were assessed using imaging methods, including scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectrometry, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption; its antibacterial effects against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were measured using optical densitometry. The bactericidal potency of the synthesized membrane was >99% against all tested strains under the conditions of simulated sunlight. Moreover, the composite membrane retained its structural integrity and antibacterial effect after multiple cycles of use and recovery, showcasing remarkable stability. Overall, this study displays a ROS-mediated method for the rapid preparation of sustainable MOF composite membranes under neutral conditions with optimal physicochemical characteristics, antibacterial properties, and performance. Our study provides insights into the use of membrane materials as design platforms for a range of diverse practical applications.


Assuntos
Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/farmacologia , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Luz , Luz Solar , Antibacterianos/química
9.
Am J Dermatopathol ; 45(2): 90-92, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36669071

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Some have proposed that melanomas in situ may be associated with fields of melanocytic dysplasia, particularly on sun-damaged skin, whereas others maintain that the atypical junctional melanocytic hyperplasia (MH) at the periphery of melanomas is simply background junctional MH of sun-damaged skin. The biological potential of atypical junctional MH at the periphery of melanomas is uncertain. We examined whether atypical junctional MH was intrinsic to the melanoma itself (ie, melanoma-associated field of melanocytic dysplasia) or was simply the predictable junctional MH associated with long-standing sun exposure. We retrospectively compared 106 cutaneous melanoma excisions without residual tumor with 105 nonmelanoma cutaneous tumor excisions (ie, basal cell or squamous cell carcinomas) without residual tumor. MH with atypia occurred significantly more frequently in melanoma than in nonmelanoma cutaneous tumor excisions (55.7% vs. 24.8%, P < 0.001). Solar elastosis occurred significantly less frequently in melanoma than in nonmelanoma cutaneous tumor excisions; 33.0% of melanoma excisions and 8.6% of nonmelanoma excision samples exhibited no solar elastosis, respectively (P < 0.001). After controlling for solar elastosis using multivariable linear regression, the association between MH with atypia and melanoma excisions remained significant (P < 0.001). Our results, therefore, demonstrate that melanomas were associated with atypical junctional MH that could not solely be accounted for by the extent of sun damage as measured by solar elastosis.


Assuntos
Melanoma , Dermatopatias , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Humanos , Melanoma/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Hiperplasia , Neoplasia Residual/complicações , Estudos Retrospectivos , Luz Solar , Dermatopatias/patologia
11.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 15(2): 2996-3005, 2023 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36608283

RESUMO

Natural photosynthesis involves an efficient charge-transfer pathway through exquisitely arranged photosystems and electron transport intermediates, which separate photogenerated carriers to realize high quantum efficiency. It inspires a rational design construction of artificial photosynthesis systems and the architectures of semiconductors are essential to achieve optimal performance. Of note, biomineralization processes could form various mesocrystals with well-ordered superstructures for unique optical applications. Inspired by both natural photosynthesis and biomineralization, we construct a ternary superstructure-based mesocrystal TiO2 (meso-TiO2)/Au/CdS artificial photosynthesis system by a green photo-assisted method. The well-ordered superstructure of meso-TiO2 and efficient charge-transfer pathway among the three components are crucial for retarding charge recombination. As a result, the meso-TiO2/Au/CdS photocatalyst displays enhanced visible light-driven photocatalytic hydrogen evolution (4.60 mmol h-1 g-1), which is 3.2 times higher than that of commercial TiO2 (P25)/Au/CdS with disordered TiO2 nanocrystal aggregates (1.41 mmol h-1 g-1). This work provides a promising bioinspired design strategy for photocatalysts with an improved solar conversion efficiency.


Assuntos
Luz , Fotossíntese , Titânio/química , Luz Solar
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(3): e2216497120, 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36638210

RESUMO

Plants have developed intricate mechanisms to adapt to changing light conditions. Besides phototropism and heliotropism (differential growth toward light and diurnal motion with respect to sunlight, respectively), chloroplast motion acts as a fast mechanism to change the intracellular structure of leaf cells. While chloroplasts move toward the sides of the plant cell to avoid strong light, they accumulate and spread out into a layer on the bottom of the cell at low light to increase the light absorption efficiency. Although the motion of chloroplasts has been studied for over a century, the collective organelle motion leading to light-adapting self-organized structures remains elusive. Here, we study the active motion of chloroplasts under dim-light conditions, leading to an accumulation in a densely packed quasi-2D layer. We observe burst-like rearrangements and show that these dynamics resemble systems close to the glass transition by tracking individual chloroplasts. Furthermore, we provide a minimal mathematical model to uncover relevant system parameters controlling the stability of the dense configuration of chloroplasts. Our study suggests that the meta-stable caging close to the glass transition in the chloroplast monolayer serves a physiological relevance: Chloroplasts remain in a spread-out configuration to increase the light uptake but can easily fluidize when the activity is increased to efficiently rearrange the structure toward an avoidance state. Our research opens questions about the role that dynamical phase transitions could play in self-organized intracellular responses of plant cells toward environmental cues.


Assuntos
Cloroplastos , Células Vegetais , Cloroplastos/fisiologia , Luz Solar , Fototropismo , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Luz
13.
Water Res ; 229: 119450, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36495853

RESUMO

Black carbon (BC) is ubiquitous in sunlit waters and atomosphere. Recent studies revealed that under sunlight irradiation BC is photoactive on producing photochemically produced reactive intermediates (PPRIs), a group of key species in accelerating earth's surface biogeochemical processes and pollutant dynamics. Nevertheless, reported PPRIs productions from BC exhibit large inconsistency and the intrinsic capacities of BC in producing PPRIs remain poorly characterized. This work provided a wavelength-dependent quantum yields (QYs) assessment of four environmentally-relevant PPRIs (excited triplet state BC (3BC*), singlet oxygen (1O2), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radical (·OH)) from various BC. The QYs of all investigated PPRIs exhibit high dependence on incident light wavelength. For instance, the QYs of 1O2 dramatically decreased from 4.4% to 0.4% with light wavelength increasing from 375 to 490 nm and decreased to 0 above 490 nm. Suprisingly, PPRIs QYs only varied by 2.0-2.5-fold among BC prepared from different biomasses (i.e., pine needle, shell, straw, and wood), while the pyrolysis temperature and size of BC demonstrate higher impacts on the PPRIs QYs by up to 30.3- and 7.1-fold variations, respectively. Analyses on the physicochemical properties of BC demonstrate that QYs of 3BC* and 1O2 were linked to the optical properties of BC, while the QYs of H2O2 and ·OH were determined by multiple factors including the surface redox characteristics. Further, PPRIs productions from BC follow similar paths and efficiencies compared to those from natural organic matter. The revealed QYs of BC-derived PPRIs establish a key basis for evaluating PPRIs-mediated element cycles and pollutant transformation in natural waters, which are becoming increasingly important in the context of higher BC input from more frequent wildfires and artificial sources.


Assuntos
Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Luz Solar , Oxigênio Singlete/química , Radical Hidroxila/química , Carbono
14.
Water Res ; 229: 119452, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36502655

RESUMO

Oxidation pretreatments prior to ultrafiltration are hindered by the need for energy input and sludge disposal. Herein, a simulated sunlight-induced natural organic matter (NOM) for peroxymonosulfate (PMS) activation was used as pretreatment to alleviate ultrafiltration membrane fouling caused by NOM itself in the Songhua River water. When light intensity was over 100 mW/cm2, the pretreatment removed NOM effectively, characterized with UV254, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and maximum fluorescent intensity (Fmax), and improved filtration flux. At 200 mW/cm2 light intensity and 0.5 mM PMS, 57.5% of UV254 and 18.5% of DOC were removed, and humic-like fluorescent component was degraded by 84%-94% while ∼60% for protein-like substance. Membrane flux was increased by 94%, and reversible and irreversible fouling resistances were reduced by 62.4% and 51.9%, respectively. Both total fouling index (TFI) and hydraulic irreversible fouling index (HIFI) were moderately correlated with the DOC, whereas they prominently correlated with the UV254 and the Fmaxs of all fluorescence components, which could be served as key indicators to predict and control membrane fouling. Mathematical modeling showed that the pretreatment alleviated the fouling in the membrane pores and cake layer. The simulated sunlight-induced NOM (3NOM* and eaq¯) could activate PMS to form active species, which enabled to oxidize high molecular weight (MW) substances and mineralize low MW compounds in NOM as well as hinder their linking with inorganic cations, thereby reducing organic and inorganic membrane fouling simultaneously. This study may provide a new strategy for decentralized potable water treatment, especially in a single household or community.


Assuntos
Ultrafiltração , Purificação da Água , Luz Solar , Membranas Artificiais , Peróxidos
15.
Chem Rev ; 123(1): 445-490, 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36503233

RESUMO

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been frequently used as photocatalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) using sacrificial agents with UV-vis or visible light irradiation. The aim of the present review is to summarize the use of MOFs as solar-driven photocatalysts targeting to overcome the current efficiency limitations in overall water splitting (OWS). Initially, the fundamentals of the photocatalytic OWS under solar irradiation are presented. Then, the different strategies that can be implemented on MOFs to adapt them for solar photocatalysis for OWS are discussed in detail. Later, the most active MOFs reported until now for the solar-driven HER and/or oxygen evolution reaction (OER) are critically commented. These studies are taken as precedents for the discussion of the existing studies on the use of MOFs as photocatalysts for the OWS under visible or sunlight irradiation. The requirements to be met to use MOFs at large scale for the solar-driven OWS are also discussed. The last section of this review provides a summary of the current state of the field and comments on future prospects that could bring MOFs closer to commercial application.


Assuntos
Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Luz Solar , Água , Processos Fotoquímicos , Luz
16.
Chemosphere ; 314: 137665, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36581118

RESUMO

In this approach, a batch reactor was employed to study the degradation of pollutants under natural sunlight using TiO2 as a photocatalyst. The effects of photocatalyst dosage, reaction time and pH were investigated by evaluating the percentage removal efficiencies of total organic carbon (TOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD) and biodegradability (BOD/COD). Design Expert-Response Surface Methodology Box Behnken Design (BBD) and MATLAB Artificial Neural Network - Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference system (ANN-ANFIS) methods were employed to perform the statistical modelling. The experimental values of maximum percentage removal efficiencies were found to be TOC = 82.4, COD = 85.9, BOD = 30.9% and biodegradability was 0.070. According to RSM-BBD and ANFIS analysis, the maximum percentage removal efficiencies were found to be TOC = 90.3, 82.4; COD = 85.4, 85.9; BOD = 28.9, 30.9% and the biodegradability = 0.074, 0.080 respectively at the pH 7.5, reaction time 300 min and photocatalyst dosage of 4 g L-1. The study reveals both models found to be well predicted as compared with experimental values. The values of R2 for RSM-BBD (0.920) and for ANFIS (0.990) models were almost close to 1. The ANFIS model was found to be marginally better than that of RSM-BBD.


Assuntos
Modelos Estatísticos , Titânio , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Luz Solar , Lógica Fuzzy
17.
Environ Res ; 216(Pt 1): 114450, 2023 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36209788

RESUMO

Carbon dots have emerged as one of the most promising materials with various potential applications derived from their unique photophysical and chemical properties. The present work investigates the electrochemical and photochemical properties of one-pot synthesized carbon dots for environmental sustainability. Facile microwave-assisted pyrolysis of urea and glucose yielded nitrogen doped carbon dots (N-doped carbon dots) with blue fluorescence and a quantum yield of 14.9%. As synthesized N- doped carbon dot had intense fluorescence, stability, water solubility, and biocompatibility. In the sensing studies, N-doped carbon dots appeared as a dual sensor for drug tetracycline with excellent sensitivity and selectivity. Beyond sense, the carbon dots have the potential to act as a photocatalyst for the degradation of tetracycline. Further, N-doped carbon dot could bring exhaustive degradation of tetracycline (>95%) within 10 min in the absence of any additives. This is the first time report on the utilization of raw non-metal doped carbon dots as a photocatalyst for the degradation of tetracycline.


Assuntos
Carbono , Pontos Quânticos , Carbono/química , Pontos Quânticos/química , Luz Solar , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Tetraciclina/química , Nitrogênio , Antibacterianos
18.
Water Res ; 230: 119512, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36580801

RESUMO

Disinfecting reclaimed water for safe reuse can produce toxic disinfection by-products such as adsorbable organic bromine (AOBr). Irradiating stored reclaimed water with sunlight is a "green" and free method for eliminating some toxic disinfection by-products, but the effects of irradiation with sunlight on ozonated reclaimed water containing bromide are not well understood. In this study, AOBr was found at concentrations of 171-180 (µg Br)/L in ozonated reclaimed water containing bromide at a concentration of 2 (mg Br)/L and dissolved organic carbon at a concentration of ∼5 (mg C)/L. Irradiation with sunlight degraded 53-74% of the AOBr in two reclaimed water samples in 8 h, and the pseudo-first-order rate constants (k) were 0.09-0.17 h-1. The concentration of tribromomethane, a typical Br-containing disinfection by-product, was decreased by >96% by irradiation for 8 h (k = 0.42-0.47 h-1). Irradiation with sunlight decreased the toxicity of ozonated reclaimed water to Chinese hamster ovary cells. Irradiation with sunlight decreased the degree of intracellular oxidative stress and oxidative damage caused by ozonated reclaimed water. Irradiation with sunlight for 8 h decreased cytotoxicity of the ozonated reclaimed water samples by 79% and 65%. The change in AOBr concentration correlated with the change in toxicity (R2=0.69, p<0.05). The relationships between sunlight wavelength and decreases in the AOBr concentration and toxicity were assessed, and it was found that UV in sunlight was predominantly responsible for decreasing the AOBr concentration and toxicity by reclaimed water. During irradiation for 8 h, UV was responsible for 65%-66% of the decrease in the AOBr concentration and 65-79% of the decrease in reclaimed water induced cytotoxicity. Irradiation with sunlight is a promising method for degrading AOBr and detoxifying ozonated reclaimed water during storage to allow the water to be reused.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Cricetinae , Animais , Bromo , Água , Luz Solar , Brometos , Células CHO , Cricetulus , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Desinfecção , Purificação da Água/métodos
19.
Environ Sci Technol ; 57(2): 1177-1185, 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36538289

RESUMO

Photochemically generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) play numerous key roles in earth's surface biogeochemical processes and pollutant dynamics. ROS production has historically been linked to the photosensitization of natural organic matter. Here, we report the photochemical ROS production from three naturally abundant iron minerals. All investigated iron minerals are photoactive toward sunlight irradiation, with photogenerated currents linearly correlated with incident light intensity. Hydroxyl radicals (•OH) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are identified as the major ROS species, with apparent quantum yields ranging from 1.4 × 10-8 to 3.9 × 10-8 and 5.8 × 10-8 to 2.5 × 10-6, respectively. Photochemical ROS production exhibits high wavelength dependence, for instance, the •OH quantum yield decreases with the increase of light wavelength from 375 to 425 nm, and above 425 nm it sharply decreases to zero. The temperature shows a positive impact on •OH production, with apparent activation energies ranging from 8.0 to 17.8 kJ/mol. Interestingly, natural iron minerals with impurities exhibit higher ROS production than their pure crystal counterparts. Compared with organic photosensitizers, iron minerals exhibit higher wavelength dependence, higher selectivity, lower efficiency, and long-term stability in photochemical ROS production. Our study highlights natural inorganic iron mineral photochemistry as a ubiquitous yet previously overlooked source of ROS.


Assuntos
Ferro , Luz Solar , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Minerais
20.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 633: 703-711, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36481425

RESUMO

Photocatalytic nitrogen fixation opens new opportunities for sustainable and healthier futures, and developing effective and inexpensive photocatalysts is the key. We use the ligand 3,3',5,5'-azomellitic acid (H4abtc) to connect with Fe clusters and Zr clusters to form stable metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) Fe-abtc and Zr-abtc, both of which are responsive to visible lights for nitrogen fixation. It is worth noting that the presence of NN in the ligand makes it respond to visible lights. The tetracarboxyl group is connected to the metal cluster to form a stable structure. The field-only surface integral method verified that the ligands were successfully applied into the synthesized MOF particles, which expanded the photoresponse range and enhanced the photonic interactions of the synthesized photocatalysts compared with pure MOF particles. The best photocatalytic nitrogen fixation performance of Fe-abtc and Zr-abtc is 49.8 µmol·g(cat.)-1·h-1 and 35.7 µmol·g(cat.)-1·h-1, respectively, the apparent quantum efficiency (AQY) of the sample Fe-abtc is 0.56 %, and the reliability of the source of N element is proved by the isotope 15N2. This work provides a new idea for the design of cheap and effective MOFs for photocatalytic nitrogen fixation.


Assuntos
Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Luz Solar , Ligantes , Fixação de Nitrogênio , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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